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Multinational Corporation Expansion; Wal-Mart- to Australia
Expanding into an international market is not an easy process, but a rewarding one. As a business executive of Wal-Mart Stores, a U.S.-based multinational company needs to consider expanding to Australia to seek new opportunities. In this case, Wal-Mart will have to begin a new store in the Australian market. The success of the business in this market depends on the market positioning, and other factors in the market. The success of expanding the Wal-Mart to Australia demands that certain factors be observed in order to establish the prospects of success in the market (Campbell, 2007).
Wal-Mart stores as a multinational retailer already runs a number of warehouses, and departmental stores in a number of countries. In the recent past, the company has grown to be one of the largest corporations in the world. Its expansion to the Australian market will play a critical…
Bennett, B (2002). International marketing: strategy planning, market entry & implementation. New York: Kogan Page Publishers.
Campbell, (2007). Legal Aspects of Doing Business in Asia and the Pacific 2007. Lulu.com
Doole, L (2008). International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementation. London: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Frank, T. (2006) "A Brief History of Wal-Mart." The Washington Monthly. Retrieved July 24, 2006.
Colombia contributed an infantry battalion consisting of 265 personnel." (Multinational Force and Observers: Wikipedia Encyclopedia)
Fiji sent an infantry battalion of 329 personnel. France provided 15 personnel to be stationed a Force Headquarters and with fixed wing unit. Hungary provided a Military Police Unit consisting of 41 personnel. Italy contributed the Coastal patrol unit consisting of 75 personnel and 3 ships. New Zealand contributed 27 personnel divided between support battalion and Training and Advisory Team. Norway sent 3 personnel to be based at Force Headquarters. Uruguay took the responsibility of 87 personnel with Transport and Engineering Unit. Finally, the United States is assigned with the responsibility of maintaining three contingents: 27 personnel in the Force Headquarters, 235 personnel in the support battalion and 425 personnel in the Infantry battalion. (Multinational Force and Observers: Wikipedia Encyclopedia)
The letter from President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter wrote in March…
Brom, Shlomo. (February 2003) "International Forces in an Israeli-Palestinian Agreement"
Vol: 5, No. 4. Retrieved at http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/sa/v5n4p4Bro.html . Accessed 16 August, 2005
Forster, Larry. M. "A Half Century of U. S Peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East"
Retrieved at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/0498/ijpe/pj28fors.htm. Accessed 16 August, 2005
One recent change that has characterized the nature of the relationship between MNCs and the host government is that the MNCs have begun to view the relationship as more cooperative in nature. Central to this shift is economic development outside of the est -- emerging economies today have their own knowledge and experience to contribute to the MNC. The shift towards a two-flow flow of benefits increases the bargaining power of the host nation because it makes its market more attractive. As emerging economies begin to take on more characteristics of fully-developed estern economies, the bargaining power between the MNC and the host government becomes more balanced. Such improvements typically come as the result of economic liberalization, so the propensity of the host government to use its increased bargaining power to extract higher transaction costs is reduced.
Conclusions. The relationship between the MNC and the host government is a key…
Sanyal, R. & Guvenli, T. (2000). Relations between multinational firms and host governments: The experience of American-owned firms in China. International Business Review. Vol. 9 (1) 119-134.
Fagre, N. & Wells, L. (1982). Bargaining power of multinationals and host governments. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 13 (2) 9-23.
Poynter, T. (1982). Government intervention in less developed countries: The experience of multinational companies. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 13 (1) 9-25.
Negandhi, A. (1980). Multinational corporations and host governments' relationships: Comparative study of conflict and conflicting issues. Human Relations. Vol. 33 (8). 517-541.
Multinational corporation can basically be defined as a corporation that has its operations in more than one country or is registered in more than a single country. However, the accurate definition of a multinational corporation is usually difficult to determine. In most cases, such corporations are large in size and involved in the production and sale of products and/or services in several countries. As a result of their operations or registered in more than a single country, multinational corporations can also be described as an international corporation. These corporations usually play a significant role in globalization because of the nature or extent of their operations. An example of a multinational corporation is McDonalds Corporation, which is the leading food service retailer across the globe with over 34,000 restaurants. The company serves more than 68 million customers on a daily basis in more than 115 countries worldwide. McDonalds is regarded as…
Ganapathy, S. (2009, April 20). McDonald's International Strategy: Squander Brand Equity?
Retrieved January 31, 2014, from http://www.sundarganapathy.com/blog/2009/04/20/mcdonalds-international-strategy-squander-brand-equity/
Kulkarni et. al. (2009, January 31). McDonald's Ongoing Marketing Challenge: Social
Perception in India. Online Journal of International Case Analysis, 1(2), 1-19. Retrieved from http://ojica.fiu.edu/index.php/ojica_journal/article/viewFile/19/18
Multinational Global Operations
McDonald Corporation is a multinational company that operates in the fast food sector in 119 countries. The company has 32,737 restaurants and operates 19,276 franchises. McDonald runs its business in the six geographical regions such as the United States, Europe and Pacific, Middle East and Africa (APMEA). In the U.S. segment, McDonald could boast of 34% from its total revenue. The company also records 40% of the total revenue in the European segment. In the APMEA, the company records 21% from its total revenue. McDonald continues to focus on restaurant business to achieve long-term growth, and "McDonald's customer-focused Plan to Win-which concentrates on being better." (McDonald Annual eport, 2010 P10). The performances of McDonald are attributed to the core menu that the company serves to its customers. The core menu such as Chicken McNuggets and burgers, McCafe beverage, and Mcib sandwich. At the end of…
Baertlein, L. (2010). Analysis: Euro exposure could bite some U.S. consumer names. Thomson Reuters.
Bank for International Settlements, (2010). Long-term issues in international banking. CGFS Papers No 41.
Bertero, E. (2011). The Banking System, Financial Markets, and Capital Structure: Some new Evidence from Finance. Oxford Journals.10(4):68-78.
Chowdhry, B. & Howe, J.B. (1999). Multination Corporation Corporate Risk Management: Financial and Operational Hedging Policies. European Finance Review. 2: 229 -- 246.
Multinational Enterprises (MNEs)
Exploiting Opportunities in Emerging Markets: The Problems and Successes of MNEs
To begin with, legal and economic hurdles are some of the most significant problems MNEs seeking to further enhance their global presence encounter. Each and every country conducts its political, legal, and economic undertakings in a unique way. For this reason, MNEs seeking to exploit opportunities in emerging markets have to contend with various taxation, institutional, as well as legal challenges that effectively make their forays into the said markets even more complicated. MNEs also encounter problems in regard to language differences. This is more so the case given the relevance of effective communication in business transactions. Cultural differences could also make internationalization much more challenging. Some of the largest multinational corporations with operations across the globe include but they are not limited to Gillette, Pampers, and Coca-Cola. These three companies according to Gitman and McDaniel…
Gitman, L.J. And McDaniel, C.D. 2008. The Future of Business: The Essentials. 3rd ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Sim, A.B. And Pandian, J.R. 2003. Emerging Asian MNEs and Their Internationalization Strategies -- Case Study Evidence on Taiwanese and Singaporean Firms. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 20, pp.27-50.
The Economist. 2008. The Challengers: A New Breed of Multinational Company Has Emerged, The Economist, [online] Available at: < http://www.economist.com/node/10496684 > [Accessed 10 April 2013].
This is the truest measure of a highly effective project manager as well, the ability to be transformational and manage the potentially divergent, even divergent and disruptive force of stakeholders on project performance (Keegan, Hartog, 2004). The skills necessary for orchestrating traditional constraints of projects including cost and time considerations, the ability to keep focused on the overarching strategic objectives, while also keeping stakeholders vested and taking ownership of the project is a true test of project leadership (Khang, Moe, 2008). This level of performance is one that can also emerge as a competitive advantage for Coca-Cola over time, as the triad of these three skills in the context of global projects is rare yet highly valued (Barczak, McDonough, Athanassiou, 2006) (Khang, Moe, 2008). Paradoxically taking this approach to creating project leadership as a core competency may force the internal training and development, project management, and related departments to go…
Barczak, G., McDonough, E.F., & Athanassiou, N. (2006). So you want to be a global project leader? Research Technology Management, 49(3), 28-35.
Clarke, N. (2010). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to transformational leadership and key project manager competences. Project Management Journal,
Cowan-Sahadath, K. (2010). Business transformation: Leadership, integration and innovation - a case study. International Journal of Project Management, 28(4), 395.
(Crawford, Nahmias, 2010)
Multinational Acquisition Due Week 8 worth 240 points Use Internet research a publically traded U.S. multinational corporation recently acquired multinational corporation. Write a (6-8) page paper: Briefly describe acquisition selected.
The case of Google's acquisition of Motorola Mobility
Google Inc. was established in 1998 in California, United States, and has made its presence felt within the IT community through the development of the most popular research engine. Since then however, the company has come to develop several other services, as well as hardware products.
The Google company has implemented a business model based on innovation and centered on the creativity and the important role of people. Still, aside from this, the success of Google is also due to its aggressive growth strategy, through the acquisition of more than one hundred companies in an estimated decade.
Through these acquisitions, Google has gained new talent, access and expertise in numerous…
2011, U.S. GAAP vs. IFRS, Ernst and Young, http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/US_GAAP_v_IFRS:_The_Basics/$FILE/U.S.%20GAAP%20v%20IFRS%20Dec%202011.pdflast accessed on August 31, 2012
2012, Facts about Google's acquisition of Motorola, Google Website, http://www.google.com/press/motorola / last accessed on August 30, 2012
Acquisition accounting, QFinance, http://www.qfinance.com/mergers-and-acquisitions-checklists/acquisition-accounting last accessed on August 31, 2012
Google Inc. 2011 annual report, http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1288776/000119312512025336/d260164d10k.htm last accessed on August 30, 2012
The shareowners are yet another tremendous component of the stakeholders' group. Ford's issues with the stockholders are more complex than those with the employees. For once, new owners have to be attracted in order to increase the company's capital. This implies a necessity for effective management techniques and strong financial results. Then, there is the problem posed by the shareholders in terms of their ability to influence the decision making process. An example in this instance is given by the hypothetical situation in which the Ford executives decide to not pay up dividends, but use the annual profits to cover for previous loses; the shareholders could object to this, and as such not sustain the financial revival of the automobile manufacturer. A final issue with the shareholders is the fact that the sums which are paid to them in the form of dividends is legally perceived as income, rather than…
Acquiring ownership of a foreign company exposes the MNC to a wide range of factors and risks, including political risk, operational risk and more. Each of these risks carries costs or potential costs that will impact the profitability of the project.
Another risk that the finance department must consider when expanding internationally is foreign currency risk (BNet, 2010). There are two sides to foreign currency risk -- transactional and translational. Transactional risk is the risk that currency fluctuation will impact the profitability of a transaction. In other words, suppose the MNC has the bulk of its costs in U.S. dollars but has some of its revenues in Japanese yen as a result of its new operations. As the yen fluctuates, the value of those revenues in U.S. dollar terms will fluctuate.
Thus, there is a need to develop adequate hedging strategies. It is difficult to hedge against translational risk --…
No author. (2010). Assessing exchange rate risk. BNet. Retrieved February 11, 2010 from http://www.bnet.com/2410-13239_23-68748.html
Doukas, J. & Travlos, N. (1988). The effects of corporate multinationalism on shareholder wealth: Evidence from international acquisitions. The Journal of Finance. Vol. 43, 5, 1161-1175.
Once this unanimous strategy is reached, a united troop effort will go out.
While unconventional, this approach is necessary to ensure the full cooperation and trust of all three forces involved in the operation. There are many constraints placed on the United States in this operation. The primary constraint is the requirement of the other countries that TACON authority be utilized. Second, there has not been an order passed by any authority for force to be used. That means that the entire operation must await to go ahead of the United States.
The advantages to my proposed solution are immense. It enables the countries to work together in creating every portion of the strategy. History has shown that such an approach aids in ensuring full engagement by all the countries. Secondly, the commanders can be free to coordinate the measures while awaiting the final approval of the United States,…
multinational command structure with command relationships for a coalition to assist Azerbaijan in defeating the South Azeri People's Army (SAPA) and defending Azerbaijan from attack by Ahurastan from the Independent Province of Ahurastan (IPA). The United States, Turkey and Great Britain have offered to form the nucleus of a coalition in support of major combat operations for EUOOM JTF East.
In response to the increased SAPA activity sponsored by the Government of Ahurastan, the Government of Azerbaijan has asked for help from a coalition of the willing in order to defeat the SAPA and deter conventional aggression by Ahurastan. The United Nations, which currently has a mission ongoing in Nagorno-Karabakh, has not yet passed a resolution authorizing the use of force in Azerbaijan. The order of battle for forces provided by the U.S. need to be determined yet in detail. However, U.S. And Allied contributions will be approximately as…
Constraints-U.S. And CJTF EUCOM EAST forces will need to keep a low profile on Azeri bases. CJTF nations on base should wear UN blue berets and blue helmets when and if the UN security council approves the deployment of MNF forces. Obviously, they will not do this in the field in tactical situations. Readers of this proposal will remember the removal of the U.S. flag from U.S. forces uniforms during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1991 to mollify the Saudis. Also, MNF forces must not mingle with the UN forces in Nagorno-Karabakh due to objections of the Russians. MNF planning meeting at all levels are to include Azeri force representatives and take their needs and considerations into account in mission planning unless to do so jeopardizes mission viability or MNF personnel safety.
Advantages-Politico-military considerations are most benefited by the parallel command structure. The MNF best ensures the approval of the UN Security Council on its operations by maintaining national control by Azerbaijan over its military forces.
Disadvantages-C2 is easier in a situation where there is direct command and control over coalition forces in a
multinational organization list review online H mission statement information career-related web pages. Write a 700- 1,050-word paper explain organization addressed items a global perspective: The goals strategy organization mission statement, values, goals The goals strategy H career-related web pages eview pertinent information company site informational websites How organization aligned H strategy organization's strategy alignment important Select list organizations: Coca-Cola® LG® Nestle® IBM®: http://www.
Human esources Goals and Strategy
Companies are trying to develop successful strategies that help them improve their position on the market. In order to reach this objective it is important to also focus on the human resources strategy. This means that companies must develop the mission statement, values, and objectives in accordance with this strategy.
Organizational Objectives and Strategy
Nestle is one of the most well-known companies on international level. The company's success can be attributed to several factors. The business development strategy of Nestle is based…
1. Annual Report (2011). Nestle. Retrieved October 27, 2012 from http://www.nestle.com/Common/NestleDocuments/Documents/Library/Documents/Annual_Reports/2011-Annual-Report-EN.pdf .
2. Wright, P. (2008). Human resource Strategy: Adapting to the Age of Globalization. SHRM. Retrieved October 27, 2012 from http://www.shrm.org/about/foundation/products/Documents/HR%20Strategy%20EPG-%20Final%20Online.pdf .
Globalisation has presented business organisations with an opportunity to do business internationally. Today, multinational corporations (MNCs) are prevalent, with many commanding immense power in the global marketplace. Nonetheless, operating in the global scene is usually not a straightforward undertaking. The global business environment presents numerous complexities, which MNCs must effectively deal with if they are to be successful (Noorderhaven and Harzing, 2003).
One of the major complexities MNCs face relate to human resource management (HRM). Indeed, managing human resources in the international context can be a daunting task. This is particularly because of considerable cultural, institutional, economic, and political differences across countries (Thite, Wilkinson and Shah, 2012). National (country-of-origin) characteristics tend to influence how MNCs behave in the host country. They influence not only corporate strategy, but also the kind of HRM practices MNCs adopt in the host country (Sethi and Elango, 1999; Yu, Park and Cho, 2007; Cox, 2014;…
Often knowledge transfer faces the most significant threats in globally distributed MNCs, as the core part of their international property is included in the knowledge they are sharing across networks (Caelli, 2002). Knowledge transfer however is critical for being able to compete effectively on a global basis, as customers increasing a re buying expertise, not just products. This requirement is often exacerbated by local governments in foreign nations who often require disclosure of the data being transmitted in and out of their countries, with China being one of the most aggressive on this issue (Cohen, 2000).
The development of effective security strategies for MNCs needs to be predicated on the legacy, 3rd party and enterprise systems' integration requirements of companies as they grow quickly through mergers, acquisitions and global expansion strategies. Being able to unify the entire complex of systems in an MNC and making sure the integration points…
Caelli, W.J. (2002). Trusted...or...trustworthy: The search for a new paradigm for computer and network security. Computers & Security, 21(5), 413-420.
Cohen, E.A. (2000). International relations and security network. Foreign Affairs, 79(3), 167-167.
Doddrell, G.R. (1995). Security environment reviews. Information Management & Computer Security, 3(4), 3-14.
Fyffe, G. (2008). Managing multinational compliance efforts while addressing corporate security needs. Network Security, 2008(4), 16-18.
Acquisition that I am studying is the Google acquisition of Motorola's mobile business, Motorola Mobility, for $40 per share, or a total of $12.4 billion (Google, 2012). Both companies are active in the mobile communication space, Motorola Mobile in the handset space and Google with its operating system. By acquiring the technology and patents of Motorola Mobile, the latter of which Google valued at $5.5 billion (Reisinger, 2012). The acquisition was made entirely with cash, of which Google has no shortage. There were also significant tax benefits associated with the deal, including the ability to reduce taxes as the result of the ongoing losses at the Motorola Mobility division, which will continue to be run independently. This paper will outline a number of issues pertaining to the accounting elements of this deal. Although both firms are American, they are multinational companies and there will be some theoretical explanation of how…
Dignan, L. (2013). Google's Motorola purchase: Was it worth it? ZDNet. Retrieved March 2, 2013 from http://www.zdnet.com/googles-motorola-purchase-was-it-worth-it-7000009356/
Google. (2012). Fact's about Google's acquisition of Motorola. Google.com. Retrieved March 2, 2013 from
Nearly every large, well-known corporation transacts business in multiple countries and states. The relationship between corporations and the countries and states they transact business in has traditionally resembled a double-edged sword. On the one hand, countries and states need businesses in order to generate tax revenues and stimulate economic growth by creating new jobs. However, countries and states often have varying cultural, legal, political, and social norms and desire that businesses conform to such norms. In order for corporations to succeed and maintain a balanced relationship with the various countries and states business is conducted in, there must be respect, understanding, and willingness to adapt.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to Sony Corporation conducting business in Germany. Part II gives an overview of Sony Corporation, including the cultural, legal, and political environment both in the United States and Germany. In Part III, issues…
Marx, Thomas. "Doing Business in Germany, Part 1 of 2." Retrieved at http://www.legamedia.net/legapractice/marx_thomas/2001/01-08/0108_marx_thomas_business-germany_01.phpon December 14, 2002.
Marx, Thomas. "Doing Business in Germany, Part 2 of 2." Retrieved at http://www.legamedia.net/legapractice/marx_thomas/2001/01-08/0108_marx_thomas_business-germany_02.phpon December 14, 2002.
Sony.com- Sony Corporation of America." Retrieved at http://www.sony.com/hitbox/goto-footer-sca.shtml . On December 14, 2002.
Sony.com- Sony Corporation of America- Corporate Profile." Retrieved at http://www.sony.com/SCA/corporate.shtml on December 14, 2002.
Multinational Command Structures
According to the DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms command and control is the "exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission -- Also called C2" Staff officers and enlisted personnel assist commanding officers with the bi-directional flow of information with their subordinate military units. This information categorically represents the basis for command decisions, which are further characterized by effective management of the resources of units.
What is missing in this comprehensive definition of C2 is an explanation of the impact substantive change has this ordered, sustainable system. What, out of all these moving parts, is most disturbed…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Expatriate Remuneration in a Multinational Organization
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the regime that is adopted for the process of remunerating expatriates in Coca Cola Company is effective. Coca Cola is a very large multinational company and therefore the study is going to focus on how its expatriate enumeration policy is effective in the process of remunerating its expatriates who span all parts of the globe while having different positions. The study is going to concentrate on the general effectiveness of the different foreign remuneration regimes on the company's turnover and the corresponding effect of the remuneration policing in maintaining a perfect professional image of the company. The effectiveness of the expatriate remuneration is gauged using a variety of methods that are all geared towards the succinct and exact determination of the extent to which the policies of remunerating the expatriates is the…
Sources of Data Used
The main data types to be acquired in this study are the monthly income, benefits and allowances that the Coca Cola expatriates receive while on their duties abroad. The data sources in this case would be Coca Cola monthly enumeration reports that can be requested from the head office and the internet.
3.5. Data Collection Methods
Various data collection methods are to be employed. They include interviews, use of questionnaires, use of abstracts and articles from various sources, information from Coca Cola head office in Atlanta and use of internet to search and collect the necessary data.
3.6 .Data Analysis Methods
Select multinational organizations describe main line business organizations. Examine ways companies utilizes internet part marketing strategies. Identify current potential problems recommendations improvement.
Multinational enterprises (MNE)s: Nike and Kellogg
Multinational enterprises (MNE)s: Nike and Kellogg
A multinational enterprise (MNE) is defined as a firm that is based in two or more nations. Although they began as iconic American companies, Nike and the Kellogg Corporation have operations all over the globe and have customers in almost all of the developed and much of the developing world. But because of the different types of products they sell, the ways in which they reach their customer base -- particularly online -- are quite distinct.
The multinational company Nike uses the Internet to both advertise its products as well as to sell its products. Nike markets fashion-forward sportswear that is supposed to fill a functional purpose, but also is noteworthy because of its style.…
Holmes, Stanley. (2004, September 20) The new Nike. Businessweek. Retrieved March 3, 2011
Kellogg: Promotions. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved March 3, 2011 at http://www2.kelloggs.com/PromotionSearch.aspx?search=
Nike. (2011). Homepage. Retrieved March 3, 2011 at http://www.nike.com/nikeos/p/nike/en_US/?sitesrc=uslp
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…
Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."
Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:
Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm
O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
Multinational Corporations (MNC's)
There is some debate on whether Multinational Corporations (MNC's) increase risk when borrowing foreign currencies. Those in favor of borrowing state that lower costs of financing can be achieved and it improves their ability to compete. Those against state that when an MNC borrows a foreign currency, they are essentially speculating on future exchange rate movements.
Multinational Corporations (MNC's) have a variety of options in regard to financing new ventures. Some believe that borrowing money in foreign currencies increase exposure to risk while others believe that it can be a beneficial position that lowers the cost of financing. It is reasonable to suspect that both positions have some truth to them and the individual factors that are relevant could be best determined on a case by case basis. A foreign investor entering an unfamiliar environment always faces risks, but there are some countries in which these…
Browning, J., & Hu, F. (2014, October 16). China State Sales Favor Home Team as Foreigners Jilted. Retrieved from Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-10-10/china-favors-home-team-as-kkr-to-ontario-jilted-in-sale.html
Casson, M., & Lopes, T. (2013). Foreign direct investment in high-risk environments: an historical. Business History, 375-404.
In managing a multinational company in the food products industry, it is essential to implement a solid knowledge management system to ensure that as much relevant information as possible is handled in the most effective manner. Issues that must be addressed to ensure the safety of the product and that optimum delivery to consumers is possible include: sanitation, where workers may eat and drink, conflict resolution, how in-house teams will conduct business, how online teams will facilitate the organization, security, and emergency evacuation procedures. This paper will discuss the key benefits of creating a best practice policy on each of these described issues and will speculate on the major ramifications if such policies are not created. This paper will also predict the significant ways in which the best practices policy created here will contribute towards the long-term sustainability of the company. Finally this paper will determine whether or not the…
TNT is a multinational company specializing in the express service delivery. The company delivers parcel, document, and mail to its customers domestically and globally. Following the global recession, competitions, and recent development in the electronic message delivery, the company has recorded a decline in the profits delivered to the shareholders in the last few years. This document develops a marketing plan to improve the company sales and boost the revenue. The marketing plan will target Netherlands, the UK, and North America. The marketing plan will also target the emerging countries such as China, India and South America. The brand positioning will be used as promotion strategy where company will use its strong brand to differentiate itself from the competitors. Moreover, TNT will employ 7Ps (Product, Price, Promotion, People, Place, Process and Physical Evidence) as the marketing mix. TNT will use brand technique to differentiate its products in the market and…
Clarity Marketing Ltd., (2005). The marketing mix 7 Ps of the marketing mix…a framework for complete marketing. Clarity Communication.USA.
Douglas, S.P Craig, S.C. & Nijssen, E.J. (1999). International Brand Architecture Development, Drivers and Design. Stern School of Business New York University.
Linda, L.S.P. Wilson, C.C.S. Hee, Y.E.(2008). An in-depth Research on Macro and Micro Factors that may influence TNT Express Marketing Strategy Today.
Onkvisit, S. & Shaw, J.J (2004). International marketing: analysis and strategy.USA. Routledge.
e define a plant to have died if it is in the LRD in year t but absent from the Census in year t _ 5 and beyond" the authors state, in explaining the parameters of their research (Bernard & Jensen 2007, p.196). The authors of the study did not include plants with fewer than ten workers, and any industry whose products are categorized as not elsewhere classified leaving 236,000+plants to be studied. The plant's heterogeneity, balance of capital between foreign and domestic assets, skill level of workers, industry and geography were all classified and examined as variables in the research (Bernard & Jensen 2007, p.197). They found that, ownership by a U.S. multinational, or a recent ownership change, were associated with survival. The authors believed they could not conclude that multinational ownership alone conveys benefits to a plant in the form of increased survival and their results…
Bernard, Andrew & J. Bradford Jensen "Firm Structure, Multinationals, and Manufacturing Plant Deaths." The Review of Economics and Statistics. 89 (2). 2007. 193-204. Available for download 19 Jun 2007 at http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1162/rest.89.2.193
McConnell, Brue, & McPherson. Contemporary Labor Economics. Seventh Edition.
Unilever is a consumer products multinational is listed in London and the Netherlands simultaneously. The company has a highly diversified product base such that it is not dependent on any one business or market for its success. The consumer products industry in the est is a mature business, and it is a growing business in the growing economies of the world like the BRIC economies and many Asian countries.
Being a diversified multinational, Unilever faces a number of conditions in its different markets around the world. The company is mainly affected by general trends. These include global incomes -- the company's products are not necessarily discretionary but demand will still be affected by the business cycle.
Globalization is another trend that will have a high level of impact on the company. One of the main impacts of globalization is that companies have access to more markets. The trend has in…
Bennett, A. (2011). Euro declines after Italian debt auction; Dollar, Brazilian real advance. Reuters. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-11-25/euro-weakens-as-french-confidence-drops-amid-debt-crisis-krone-declines.html
FDA. (2010). Inspections, compliance, enforcement and criminal investigations. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/EnforcementActions/WarningLetters/ucm224509.htm
Form 20-F 2010 Unilever. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.unilever.com/images/Unilever_20-F_AR10_tcm13-259486.pdf
Henisz, W. & Zelner, B. (no date). Political risk management: A strategic perspective. The Wharton School. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www-management.wharton.upenn.edu/henisz/papers/hz_prm.pdf
Human esource Management in Multinational Enterprises
Similarities and Differences between domestic and international HM
HM assumes a strategic role in almost all business organizations. It is the core of an organization's corporate strategy because it helps enhance their performance, create a sustainable competitive advantage and guides through enterprise management. This leads to the two similarities between domestic and international HM. Basic functions such as allocation, procurement, motivation, and utilization are similar whether in the home or foreign country. Both international and domestic HM serve same functions and activities in H recruitment, planning, training and development, performance management, industrial relations and compensation. Another aspect is linked to environmental forces, which drive the function of HM. These external drivers include economical, political, and cultural and legal have a significant impact on H activities in both domestic and international environment (McDonnell, 2011). In addition, they have similar fundamental human resource goals. First, they…
Dowling, P., Festing, M., & Engle, A.D. (2008). International human resource management: Managing people in a multinational context. South Melbourne, Vic: Thomson.
McDonnell, A. (2011). A profile human resource management in multinational enterprises operating in Australia. Melbourne: Victoria University.
Tempel, A. (2011). The cross-national transfer of human resource management practices in German and British multinational companies. Mu-nchen: Hampp.
Tayeb, M. (2010). International human resource management: A multinational companies perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Aside the attraction of customers, the money invested in marketing have created the desired outcome of a strong and reputable brand. Another pivotal element in the financial strategies has been that of maximizing the efficiency of managing inventories. This was necessary in order to continually strengthen the brand as well as achieve the profitability goals. Alongside with operating principles, supply-chain renovation and inventory management, financial management represents the pillar of the Nike business model (Filbeck, Krueger and Preece, 2007).
It is extremely difficult to generalize the approaches of multinational organizations to financial management as each individual entity will employ those courses of action which best suit its needs as well as its characteristics. Whilst Ford continued to invest its resources in the manufacturing of large and luxurious vehicles in an attempt to drive the market, McDonald's has recognized the necessity in satisfying customer needs and has as such…
Adams, B., 2007, McDonald's Strange Menu Around the World, Trifter, http://www.economywatch.com/finance/financial-management.html last accessed on July 13, 2009
Filbeck, G., Krueger, T., Preece, D., 2007, CFO Magazine's "Working Capital Survey": Do Selected Firms Work for Shareholders? Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics, Vol. 46
Nizamuddin, A.M., 2007, Multinational Corporations and Economic Development: The Lessons of Singapore, International Social Science Review, Vol. 82
Schindehutte, M., Morris, M.H., Kocak, A., 2008, Understanding market-Driving Behavior: The Role of Entrepreneurship, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 46
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Strategic Management in Large Multinational Corporations
Bahel, J. (2010). "IT Departments Can Be Profit Centers." The National Law Journal. 4 May 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2011 from http://www.law.com/jsp/lawtechnologynews/PubArticleLTN.jsp?id=1202457604490&slreturn=1&hbxlogin=1 .
Kaplan, R. (2006). "The Demise of Cost and Profit Centers." 07-30. Retrieved 12 June 2011 from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:urZNESBdX_wJ:www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/07-030.pdf+cost+center+profit+center&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiH4jXNTLZFAWYz3Mhg9ZiUngFDGhN67WG3nVag2lsUBympBGXHxj_zkTJJLxcCQmQ3C2x3h8G6geB2yK5wZozGeItCBO9bUjQ-EmUYpaJCnQr_q-QTqMvRjb27342hLqU2sPdK&sig=AHIEtbRCnKhuOaTjlOCIqSJvk1lc89O2Ow
Portz, K. & Lere, J. (2010) "Cost Center Practices in Germany and the United States: Impact of Country." Differences on Managerial Accounting Practices. 25 (1).
Leonard, S. (2006). "Turning your CRA program from a cost center into a profit center." Community Banker. Retrieved 1 February 2006 from http://business.highbeam.com/61548/article-1G1-142874095/turning-your-cra-program-cost-center-into-profit-center
Ganga Pharmaceuticals is a multinational Indian corporation that competes in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and related research and development with annual revenues of about $285 million. The company features one of the largest biotechnology parks in India and currently employs around 7,000 employees globally. In recent years, Ganga has acquired a number of companies in Europe and the United States, including C-Pharma, which was acquired in 2003 for approximately $17.2 million. As part of this acquisition, the human resources division at Ganga sought to align the newly acquired C-Pharma with the parent company, but met with mixed success due to some missteps in its administration of the transition. To determine where the company went wrong and what steps could have been taken to avoid these adverse outcomes, this study provides a review of the relevant literature in two parts. The first part provides an overview of Ganga, its operations strategy,…
Brewster, C. & Harris, H. (1999). International HRM: Contemporary issues in Europe. New York: Routledge.
Budhwar, P.S., Varma, A., Katou, A.A. & Narayan, D. (2009). The role of HR in cross-border mergers and acquisitions: the case of Indian pharmaceutical firms. Multinational Business Review, 17(2), 89-91.
Ncube, L.B. & Wasburn, M.H. (2008). Strategic analysis: Approaching continuous improvement proactively. Review of Business, 29(1), 15-17.
Wall, S.J. & Wall, S.R. (2000). The morning after: Making corporate mergers work after the deal is sealed. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Some of the problems that this type of approach offered were:
Reliability issues -- many of these marketing directors had their own host perspective (local responsiveness) and the headquarter perspective (global integration), but none of the overarching overview that someone coordinating all the activities in other countries might have.
7. Research findings, Analysis and Evaluation
The results of the primary research are fully supported by the findings of the secondary research and backed by the general theory in the area of global marketing strategy. The marketing directors of both companies in all different regions (Asia, Latin America, Europe) have admitted to adapting their marketing strategies as much as possible to local specificities, but also recognized the important role that the headquarters and central marketing department played in the way they made their decisions, especially since the central departments were also coordinating the marketing budgets and were working towards creating economies…
1. Aswathappa, A. 2006. International Business. Tata McGraw Hill.
2. Kotler, P. 2006. Marketing Management. Academic Internet Publishers Incorporated.
3. Wasilewski, Nikolai. 2001. Transnational Marketing Strategies: Performance and Limitations. Global Competitiveness
4. Egan, J. 2007. Marketing Communications. Cengage Learning Business Press
Balfour Beatty UK
The multinational infrastructure PPP firm
The rise of the public-private partnership (PPP) during the onset of the global financial crisis in 2008 is most representative of market activities in the infrastructure investment sector. Appropriations linked to economic and fiscal policy in the UK since this period has had influence on the steering of PPP projects and the strategies designed by participatory entities. Conversely, the PPP relationship to infrastructure in urban planning has been nothing short of formative in the articulation of new terms to the future tax and economic foci of Britain' fiscal and monetary policies.
At the forefront of this recent history, is the UK construction and investment company, Balfour Beatty. A leader in the PPP sector, the firm offers exemplary case study to assessment of how government policy has affected one of Britain's previously cash flush business climate. Infrastructural projects are now met with unique…
Balfour Beatty, 2011. Available at: http://www.balfourbeatty.com/
Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) United Kingdom, 2010. Available at: http://www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/
HC 451: Budget 2010: Securing the recovery Economic and Fiscal Strategy Report and Financial Statement and Budget Report March 2010. Copy of Economic and Fiscal Strategy Report and Financial Statement and Budget Report -- March 2010 as laid before the House of Commons by the Chancellor of the Exchequer when opening the Budget, Stephen Timms, Her Majesty's Treasury 24 March 2010. Available at:
Although the issue of women's liberation is a topic many nations, including estern nations, has faced, the topic, according to AbuKahlil, is even more controversial and sensitive in the Arab world. The two most problematic aspects of the subject revolve around the interpretations of Islam and the legacy of what
Leila Ahmed calls "colonial feminism."Colonial feminism, according to Ahmed, refers to the tendency of colonial officials in the region to raise the banner of women's liberation in the Arab/Muslim world while these same officials take misogynist stances in their own countries. It refers to the exploitation of the women's question by colonial administrators for purely political purposes. This exploitation left the region with a legacy that allowed misogynist thinkers and clerics to discredit feminism by associating women's liberation with colonialism, Zionism, and even Freemasonry.
Meir offered a combination of threats to this cultural norm, being both a woman and Jewish.…
Axelrod-Contrada, J. "Golda Meir Israeli Pioneer and Prime Minister." Women Who Led Nations (1999): 14-31. Print.
"Golda Meir." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. .
Martin, Patricia. "Golda Meir." Golda Meir (2005): 1-3. Print.
Medzini, Meron. "Israel's Midwife: Golda Meir in the Closing Years of the British Mandate." Israel Affairs 14.3 (2008): 374-397. Print.
In the region of India there are two colors in particular that should be avoided in international product packaging. These are orange and black. In this country orange represents death and rebellion, while black represents laziness, anger and intolerance (De Bortoli & Maroto, 2001).
Another area in which companies must be cautious in India in making sure that product packaging is not offensive to generally accepted standards of public decency (Advertising Standards Council of India and the Code for Self-egulation of Advertising in India, 2012). Developing & conservative countries like India are still in a dilemma as to what would constitute over exposure of sexuality and thus would violate the moral norms of the society and be regarded as obscene. Sometimes manufacturers try to showcase their products in an innovative way which many sections of the audience might just accept it. Some sections of the viewers are creative and might…
Advertising Standards Council of India and the Code for Self-Regulation of Advertising in India. (2012). Retreived from De Bortoli, M. & Maroto, J. (2001). Retreived from http://www.globalpropaganda.com/articles/TranslatingColours.pdf
Mullick, V. (2011). Obscenity in the Media: Books, Films, Advertisements. Retrieved from http://www.legalindia.in/obscenity-in-the-media
Preparing Your Product for Export. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/c7.html
Mart is an American multinational retail and discount store chain having more than 1,100 stores across all the states of the country. Established in 2009, Max-Mart is one of the fastest growing retailers in the United States after Wal-Mart, Target Corporation, and K-Mart. In addition to the home country, Max-Mart also operates a number of independent retail and discount stores in Australia, United Kingdom, Japan, Thailand, and New Zealand. Other international locations of the company include Canada, Europe, and Mexico. Max-Mart is headquartered in Hoffman Estates, Illinois, United States. It has done a number of acquisitions and mergers during the last couple of decades. Max-Mart serves more than 3 million customers every day.
Max-Mart offers a wide array of consumer products and grocery items; including beauty and health care products, food items, toys, clothing, shoes, home and electronic appliances, bedding and furniture, books, medicines, magazines, jewelry, movies, music, games, sports…
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2012). Strategic Management Theory, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2011). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 9th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. (2010). Contemporary Marketing, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education.
Lamb, C., Hair, J., & McDaniel, C. (2012). Essentials of Marketing, 7th Edition. Ohio: South-Western.
Coca Cola's Localization Strategy
When most multinational corporations like Coca Cola enter foreign markets and implement localization strategy, they do it with reasons. As presented in the case, Coca Cola seeks to set up a corporate image. When it penetrates a local market, it replaces consumers' and government's collision. Implementation of corporate culture, personnel, marketing, and materials localization is useful in establishing the company's public image. The second reason is to dominate the local market rapidly. When multinational corporations enter foreign markets, they tend to lack understanding of the domestic market (Banutu-Gomez, 2012). This makes it challenging to keep up with development and changes of the target market resulting in the loss of vibrant market opportunities.
By implementing a localization strategy, Coca Cola could also choose local human resources to attain research and development, materials and marketing through observing the market via a local subsidiary. The company could be based…
Banutu-Gomez, M. (2012). COCA-COLA: International Business Strategy for Globalization. The Business & Management Review, Vol.3 Number 1, November 2012 pp 155-167.
Yunker, J. (2012). Beyond borders: Web globalization strategies. Indianapolis, Ind: New Riders.
Globalization has a considerable effect on the way businesses are being carried out. With the tremendous growth spurred by technology and development of new business models, we see an increasing instance of corporate outsourcing. This shift is observed in the manufacturing sector also as many multinational corporations are relocating their production centers to offshore locations that offer cheap labor and material costs. The result is the loss of thousands of jobs to foreign countries. The NAFTA agreement has furthered this trend towards offshore manufacturing. The manufacturing sector which employed more than 19 million in 1979 now employs only 14 million, indicating a huge fall.[Clyde Weiss].While increased productivity due to technology may be ascribed to part of this decline, there are also significant concerns about the impact of closure of local manufacturing plants and their relocation overseas. Let us have a brief overview of this emerging practice and the…
1) Walt Shepperd, "Making it: Local Manufacturing isn't Dead Just Different," Available at, http://newtimes.rway.com/2003/111903/cover.shtml
Accessed on Nov 12th 2005,
2) Ben Vickery, 'Manufacturing Drives China's Economic growth', The Competitive edge, 1112003, Available Online at, http://www.scmep.org/edge/edge_Manufacturing_Drives_Chinas_Economic_Growth.asp, Accessed on Nov 12th 2005
3) Clyde Weiss, "Vanishing Act," AFSCME Public Employee, Oct 2005,
In many powerful nations with whom U.S. corporations would like to do business (such as Mexico, India, and China) the price of bribery is factored into the everyday costs of doing business. There are profound cultural differences regarding perceptions of the ethics of bribery and in some government officials' views, receiving a bribe is an expected part of their informal salary. However, legally, the hands of U.S. companies are tied, no matter how widely embraced bribery may be abroad. "The United States' 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits payments made to foreign government officials with the aim of gaining or maintaining business" although gifts "to officers working for foreign corporations are legal" which allows some organizations to disregard the spirit of the law; regardless, to do so is unwise and illegal (Allen 2000).
Topic 1: Ethics culture
Q1.How would you describe the ethics culture of the organization?
Multinational Corporation (MNC) and Ethical Standards
Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have usually faced several challenges with regards to developing standards that deal with issues associated with corporate social responsibility. These corporations are forced to embrace more specific ethical codes in their corporate strategy because of the materialization and growth of a global economy. In the recent past, multinational corporations have started rethinking strategies that may be regarded unethical based on international standards (Manakkalathil & udolf, 1995). As a result, some people have argued that the corporations should lessen their ethical standards to compete globally. In contrast, others have stated that a multinational corporation to should retain its ethical standards to develop more credibility throughout the world.
Proponents of this statement argue that an MNC should lessen its ethical standards because it may encounter some business laws that are not permitted in some countries. For instance, a company operating in the United…
Manakkalathil, J. & Rudolf, E. (1995). Corporate Social Responsibility in a Globalizing Market.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 60(1).
Roache, S. (2013, October). Brazil -- Selected Issues. Retrieved September 18, 2014, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2013/cr13313.pdf
United Airline Multinational Ventures
United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.
The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…
Organizations with administrative offices in the United States of America, China, Japan, and other regions of the world have set up operation bases in foreign nations. These organizations have various interest in oversees countries. Some of these interests include provision of security services, infrastructure development and provision of aid. The functions of these organizations are to satisfy foreign policies of nations. With emphasis on the United States of America, the U.S. Department of State's mandate is to implement and formulate the president's policy on foreign countries. The organization has a task documented in the constitution on foreign policy (Taylor, 2000). The organization representation includes the secretary of state who acts as the president's advisor. The objective of the organization is to promote a free, prosperous, and secure world through implementing the president's foreign policy.
Foreign affairs responsibilities in the U.S. are representing the United States of America government abroad. These…
Taylor, C.T. (2000). The impact of host country government policy on U.S. multinational investment decisions. The World Economy, 23(5), 635-647.
Dowling, P.J., Festing, M., & Engle Sr., A.D. (2008). International human resource
management: Managing people in a multinational context. London: Thomson learning
Ferner, A., Almond, P., & Colling, T. (2004). Institutional theory and the cross-national transfer of employment policy: The case of 'workforce diversity'in U.S. multinationals. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(3), 304-321.
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
This method is a descendant of a Rand Corporation study methodology changed from war planning and now applied to changing university curricula. t will produce changing and dynamic profiles as the needs arise for a study.
t is a research technique with flexibility that has been used in a program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts of the information systems body of knowledge in business. The Delphi method is a process to collect and distill the anonymous judgments of experts while using a set of data collection/analysis techniques that are interspersed with feedback. The method is suited as a research tool when there is incomplete data about a problem or phenomenon. This method works well when the goal is to improve the understanding of problems solutions, or to make forecasts. t is advantageous from a quantitative standpoint. t is very useful for helping to develop profiles of…
In Academy of Management, 8,633 incumbent managers from 52 managerial occupations were polled and the results showed that behavioral competencies are the very competencies that are least represented in the required MBA curricula. The findings further indicate that the institutional factors such as the media rankings and the mission orientation have almost no effect on the realignment of curricula with critical competencies. The advantage of this study is that shows how far most business schools have to go to reform their programs. Again, the downside are conservative faculty who drag their feet (Rubin & E.C., 2009, 208).
Waller, A.D. (2008). Perceptions of emotional intelligence preparation and industry expectations for utah state university mba graduates. (pp. 1-148). Salt Lake City Utah: Utah State University.
Finally, graduate business students themselves seem to feel they are being short changed, according to a dissertation by Arthur D. Waller of the Utah State University. According to the students in this study, a great skill lacking in graduate business school curricula, are training in the area of teamwork and leadership development. These students felt that the most important elements of a company are its people and that the technocratic nature of present programs overlook this. Unfortunately, this approach does ask companies what they want (Waller, 2008, iii-iv).
Human esource Management in Multinational Banks in Tanzania
ealization of effective management of operations and resources in the financial institutions is a dream for most organizations globally. Providing services that aim at meeting consumer needs becomes a key determinant that influences the realization of the stated objectives. In specific, providing services that empower the employees ensure the realization of the planned objectives as it creates the desired organizational culture of excellent performance. Analysis of different companies shows that the variance in the performance arises from the manner in which operations are managed (Wilkinson, 2009). Therefore, the following analysis compares and diagnoses the management of human resources of two multinational banks in Tanzania. The analysis illuminates the light into the different factors that influence effective management of operations in an organization.
Major issues that work against the concept of performance management
Analysis of the case study reveals different issues in the…
Beamish, P.W. & Newenham-Kahindi, A. (2007). Human Resource Management in Multinational Banks in Tanzania. Ivey Publishing. 18 pages. Publication Date: Oct 29, 2007. Prod. #: 907C40-PDF-ENG
Brugere, C.D. (2010). Aquaculture planning: policy formulation and implementation for sustainable development. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
McNett, J.M. (2005). The Blackwell encyclopedia of management. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub
Newenham-Kahindi, A. (2011). Human resource strategies for managing back-office employees in subsidiary operations: The case of two investment multinational banks in Tanzania. Journal of World Business, 46(1), 13 -- 21. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2010.05.013
Translation, eporting, And Prices
Briefly describe the corporation you researched.
The organization researched is a multinational called Walmart. The chain store is a retailer organization whose home office is located in America. The company operates by providing products to its customer through a chain of retail outlets. The public owned organization is the largest in the global market. The company has grown over the years through implementing policies that allow it to sell at a lower price that its competition. The company is the largest retailer is the globe with majority of its shares held by the public. The founding family still has a controlling share of the business with the family controlling over 48% of the shares. The company founded in 1962 and incorporated in 1969 is among the most successful companies in the globe. Its headquarters is located in Arkansas and is currently the largest grocery retailer in…
Akta?, R., & Kar?
n, M. (2011). Timeliness of Reporting and the Quality of Financial Information. International Research Journal Of Finance & Economics, (63), 71-77.
Albuquerque, R., De Francisco, E., & Marques, L.B. (2008). Marketwide Private Information in Stocks: Forecasting Currency Returns. Journal Of Finance, 63(5), 2297-2343.
Bartov, E. (1997). Foreign Currency Exposure of Multinational Firms: Accounting Measures and Market Valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 14(4), 623-652.
It also makes note of the fact that the census of 2000 marked the first time that it was possible for a respondent to choose more than one race. This article is particularly interesting as it speculates on a future when it is no longer possible to separate people into minorities on the basis of race, simply because of cross culturalism.
an Juan, E. "Asian-American melting pot" Asia Times. June 14, 2005. This short article states there is an automatic prejudice against Asians within the United tates, laughing at the idea of any kind of homogeneity of the Asian-Americans and referring to both near and far history in which Asians have been discriminated against in the United tates. The author deals with the stereotype of Asians as the "model minority" and decries the change of something once considered to be exotic into a "plain American pie" the author is strong…
Shinjo, Iwao. "Learning multiculturalism from yesterday, today and tomorrow." Multicultural Education Summer 2003. This teacher's journal gives an interesting look into how multiculturalism may be taught in our schools, specifically to a group of fourth graders. Some of the insights gained on essentially a report on the implementation of a project give a bird's eye view into how multiculturalism is being deployed, and is it effective in its goal.
Okin, Susan Moller. "Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?" Princeton New Jersey, University Press. 1999. A controversial paper on the feminist view of multiculturalism, somewhat extreme in its ideas. Okin compares the place of women in the multicultural society to that of puppets subjected to the whims of men. She has particularly strong feelings about the place of religion in multiculturalism, stating it is all in essence patriarchal and as such demeaning to women.
Zayd, Nasr Hamid. "Modernity, democracy are only for the privileged." Qantara Feb. 21, 2003. This Egyptian scholar reviews the idea of multiculturalism from a worldwide perspective, describing the pros and cons, as well as its impact on business and Third World Countries alike. He makes the interesting observation that it would seem the dominant world culture is one based on capitalism, wondering if this is inevitable or inherent. It describes the cultural reversion of Muslim nationalists as a response to the fear of losing ethnic identity, but then admits that much of the reversion in Islamic republics has not been based on a reasonable form of government but rather reactivity. It poses the idea that human rights and democracy are not rights, but only available for the privileged.
Transaction exposure risk may be defined as "cash flow risk" and is associated with the impact of FX rate moves on exposure due to transactional accounts, regarding exports, import or dividend repatriation: and FX "rate change in the currency of denomination of any such contract will result in a direct transaction exchange rate risk" (Papaioannou, 2006, p. 4), thus impacting the multinational corporation in terms of affecting the inflow and outflow of cash over a given period.
Translation risk may be defined as the FX rate risk associated with the balance sheet of a company's holdings. The notion is that exchange rates affect the value of a subsidiary in a foreign country and in instances where the subsidiary is consolidated to the parent balance sheet, the risk becomes translational. The way to measure this risk for a company is by assessing the net asset exposure and measuring it against…
Bodnar, G. (2015). Techniques for managing exchange rate exposure. Wharton/UPenn.
Retrieved from http://finance.wharton.upenn.edu/~bodnarg/courses/readings/hedging.pdf
Dohring, B. (2008). Hedging and invoicing strategies to reduce exchange rate exposure:
a euro-area perspective. Economic Papers 299, European Commission.
Managing Exchange ate isk
For a number of multinational corporations, currency fluctuations can pose an extreme risk for them. This is because of sudden changes and dramatic amounts of volatility inside the marketplace can have a negative effect on their bottom line results. When this happens, there is a realistic possibility that these challenges could negatively impact their financial position and ability to compete inside many different markets. (Berger, 2011)
In the case of Fed Ex, the company has operations around the globe and is one the larger overnight package delivery services. This means that sudden shifts in the currency could negatively impact their earnings. To fully understand the overall scope and the way they are able to deal with these challenges requires focusing on how this impacts their operations, options financial managers can use to manage it and the benefits / drawbacks of these strategies. Together, these elements will…
Fed Ex. (2013). Yahoo Finance. Retrieved from: http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=FDX+Profile
Fed Ex First Quarter Results. (2012). IPC. Retrieved from: http://www.ipc.be/en/Newsroom/General%20news/FedEx%20reports%20first-quarter%20results
Berger, A. (2011).Case Study Fed Ex Corporation. Nordstadt: Verlag.
Grady, G. (2010). Foreign Exchange Risk Management Methods. E Zine Articles. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Foreign-Exchange-Risk-Management-Methods&id=3047383
These claims are virtually all based on the concept that corporations - particularly multinationals -- should be held accountable for their actions within their sphere of operations. "Corporations, for their part, have responded in numerous ways, from denying any duties in the area of human rights to accepting voluntary codes that could constrain their behavior" (atner, 2001, p. 436). In fact, this very point is echoed throughout the literature; for example, "At the turn of the 20th century, corporations tended to disregard the public interest willy-nilly. And even as recently as one-half century ago, corporations had so much power over the marketplace and so little responsibility to society" (Sriramesh & Vercic, 2003, p. 450). Despite these trends, things are changing, though, as atner points out: "The last decade has witnessed a striking new phenomenon in strategies to protect human rights: a shift by global actors concerned about human rights from…
Blackburn, V.L., Doran, M., & Shrader, C.B. (1994). Investigating the dimensions of social responsibility and the consequences for corporate financial performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 6(2), 195.
Cable, V. (1995). The diminished nation-state: A study in the loss of economic power. Daedalus, 124(2), 23.
Casmir, F.L. (1997). Ethics in intercultural and international communication. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dalton, D.R., & Metzger, M.B. (1996). Seeing the elephant: An organizational perspective on corporate moral agency. American Business Law Journal, 33(4), 489-576.
international business expansion process.
International recruitment and selection brings a number of challenges for business organizations. They not only face difficulties in hiring the desired skillful staff from the host country, but may also have to deal with severe financial and cultural diversity issues. Through this research study, an effort has been made to highlight the major challenges and issues which make the international recruitment and selection process more complex and challenging for multinational organization.
The research report starts with an ample introduction to the esearch question and proceeds by highlighting the core objectives of the research study. The research question clearly states the major objective of this research study in a quite precise and succinct manner. The most important section of the research report is Literature review which has been written after a comprehensive research from a number of academic and industry journal articles and books; most of which…
Ashamalla, M.H. 1998, International Human Resource Management Practices: the Challenge of Expatriation. CR, 8 (2): 54-63.
Andeason, A.W. 2003, Expatriate Adjustment to Foreign Assignments. The International 6 tyJournal of Commerce and Management, 13 (1): 42-60.
Andersen, T.M., & Svarer, M. 2006, Flexicurity -- the Danish Labor Market Model. Available from [Accessed July 26th, 2012]
Baudler, C.R. 2011, Employee Engagement: Through Effective Performance Management by Edward M. Mone and Manuel London, Personnel Psychology, 64 (3): 813 -- 816.
Global corporations are often difficult to control because they operate in various countries throughout the world. As such actions that may be illegal in some countries are perfectly legal in others. Furthermore law enforcement officials and governments do not have the power to enforce laws that are outside of their jurisdictions. These issues call into question the effectiveness mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct. The purpose of this discussion is to Assess the effectiveness of various mechanisms that exist to control global corporate conduct and recommend a mechanism that I believe is the most effective.
Survey of Mechanisms and their Advantages/Disadvantages
Private regulations employ civil regulations to compel transnational corporations to operate according to a certain set of standards. According to the "defining feature of civil regulation is that its legitimacy, governance and implementation is not rooted in public authority. Operating beside or around…
Fritsch, S.(2008) The UN Global Compact and the Global Governance
of Corporate Social Responsibility: ComplexMultilateralism for a More Human Globalisation? Global Society, Vol. 22, No. 1, pg. 2-26
Haufler, V. 2003 "Globalization and Industry Self-Regulation," in Governance in A Global Economy: Political Authority in Transition, Miles Kahler and David Lake, eds. Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 226
Haufler, V. 2002 The Public Role for the Private Sector, and The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance Rodney Hall and Thomas Biersteker, eds. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Companies such as XYZ Widget Corporation are well situated to take advantage of burgeoning markets in developing nations, particularly in Asia and Africa.
2. XYZ can grow its business by expanding its operations to certain developing nations in ways that profit the company as well as the impoverished regions that are involved, particularly when marketing efforts are coordinated with nongovernmental organizations operating in the region.
3. Several constraints and challenges must be overcome in order to succeed in selling to impoverished regions of the world.
4. Time is of the essence. First movers will enjoy distinct competitive advantages over their counterparts who adopt a "wait-and-see" approach to targeting the poor in developing nations as potential markets.
The world's population has never been larger, and there are more poor people today than ever before in history. Current trends provide some mixed messages concerning the direction that poverty is taking in…
Alserhan, B.A. & Brannick, T. (2002). Information technology in Ireland: the myth and the reality? Irish Journal of Management, 23(1), 1-2.
Black, R. & White, H. (2003). Targeting development: Critical perspectives on the millennium development goals. New York: Routledge.
Blair, A. & Hitchcock, D. (2001). Environment and business. London: Routledge.
Blank, S. (2007). A corporate solution to global poverty: How multinationals can help the poor and invigorate their own legitimacy. Journal of Economic Issues, 41(4), 1186-1187.
International Human Resources
Culture, Political, Economic and ocial Contexts of Nigeria Under the ubject of International Human Resource Management.
This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor of Nigeria for making higher profits over there.
International HRM growth and significance
After attaining global scale, any company may be bound to utilize numerous resources and opportunities like global scale, scope, local differences adaptation and tap into best resources and locations associated with global presence in Nigeria and other countries. These are important opportunities in Nigeria because after exploiting such opportunities, the global image can be transformed into top global image (Hollinshead 2010, pp.233-262).
The opportunities can…
Schuler, R., Dowling, P., & De Cieri, H. 1993, 'An integrative framework of strategic international human resource management', deciding An IHRM Approach 449 International Journal of Human Resourc Management, Vol.1, pp.717 -- 764.
Taylor, S., Beechler, S., & Napier, N. 1996, 'Toward an integrative model of strategic international human resource management', Academy of Management Review,, vol21, pp. 959 -- 985.
Tomkins, R. Battered 1997, PepsiCo licks its wounds. The Financial Times, vol.26.
long-term success in your specific area of interest. How have your previous experiences prepared you for this professional career? What areas of specialization within the Carroll School of Management do you believe will be most valuable in achieving your goals? What specific short-term career objectives have you set to assist you in achieving your long-term career plans?
I will never feel successful if success means putting up my feet and feeling satisfied. I don't work that way. I will only feel successful for small moments, like when I solve a huge problem in my company or when we avert trouble: when we can turn around a failing operation or stay afloat in spite of falling stock prices. Personally, I could be working in a behind-the-scenes managerial position in a company that I cared about and even if my salary was not great I would be successful because every day I…
isks of Trading and Investing:
Involving a Developing Country with a Developed Country's Business
Description of XYZ Corporation
It will be the assumption within this paper that the multinational corporation depicted resides within the United States, a developed country, while it is trying to generate business with Ecuador, a developing country. A multinational corporation is a corporation that operates by supervising or transports products or services to more than one country. XYZ Corporation is a competitive multinational corporation deeply interested in expanding its business to countries in which they have not already established business in. The company currently focuses on the manufacturing and the wholesale of products in the oil and petroleum industries. Most of XYZ Corporation's foreign entities are located in the Middle East. ecently, a member of the XYZ team has given vital information to corporate executives explaining that Ecuador has enormous oil and petroleum potential that could…
Carroll, A.B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: towards the moral management of organizational stakeholders-balancing economic, legal, and social responsibilities. Retrieved January 14, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n4_v34/ai_11000639/pg_2/
Ecuador.us. (2009, December 21). Ecuador economy, Ecuador exports, Ecuador business.
Retrieved January 15, 2010 from http://www.ecuador.us/business.htm
EconomyPoint.org. (2006). Rate of exchange regime. Retrieved January 13, 2011 from http://www.economypoint.org/r/rate-of-exchange-regime.html
S. billion in 1998. eported as the dominant source of inward FDI in China is that of Hong Kong, followed by Japan, the U.S. And Taiwan.
Summary and Conclusion
This study set out to examine Foreign Direct Investment in China by the multinational enterprise. At present China is a primary source for foreign direct investment due to the favorable laws and regulations governing Foreign Direct Investment in China and the attempt to make location siting of the organization equitable and fair. China has been attempting to pull the company in line with their own expectations as have the multinational enterprises who desire to directly invest foreign funds into China.
Investment (2008) Multinational Corporations. Cush & Wakefield. etrieved from: http://www.cushwake.com/cwglobal/jsp/audienceDetail.jsp?audienceId=18&Country=900095&Language=EN&groupBy=audience
Kroll, CA and Bardhan, a. (2007) Globalization and the eal Estate Industry: Issues, Implications, Opportunities Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, Paper Prepared for the Sloan Industry Studies Annual Conference.…
Investment (2008) Multinational Corporations. Cush & Wakefield. Retrieved from: http://www.cushwake.com/cwglobal/jsp/audienceDetail.jsp?audienceId=18&Country=900095&Language=EN&groupBy=audience
Kroll, CA and Bardhan, a. (2007) Globalization and the Real Estate Industry: Issues, Implications, Opportunities Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, Paper Prepared for the Sloan Industry Studies Annual Conference. Cambridge, April 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.mit.edu/sis07/www/kroll.pdf
MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS (nd) Cush and Wakefield. Retrieved from:
Globalization is expected to have a few impacts on leadership. There are two different perspectives on this, however. The first of these is that some of the basic principles of leadership are timeless, and they cut across geography (Campbell, 2005). Thus, leadership is something that does not have to change much in principle, in terms of leaders having the ability to communicate, to formulate a vision, to marshal resources and to inspire and motivate their followers. Campbell is right in that leaders anywhere in the world need to have these skills, but the way in which a leader to exercise his or her leadership is going to be affected, in some cases strongly, by globalization.
Jokinen (2004) notes that complexity and diversity are much higher in the globalized business environment and that this should have significant impacts on the role of leadership. Leaders need to be able to translate message…
Campbell, D. (2005). Globalization: The principles of leadership are universal and timeless. Volume Advances in Global Leadership. Vol. 4, 143-158.
Jokinen, T. (2004). Global leadership competencies: A review and discussion. Journal of European Industrial Training. Vol. 29 (3) 199-216
Pucik, V. (1996). Human resources in the future: An obstacle or a champion of globalization? Cornell University ILR School Working Paper. Retrieved May 10, 2014 from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1180&context=cahrswp