Multinational Force and Its Mandate Term Paper

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Colombia contributed an infantry battalion consisting of 265 personnel." (Multinational Force and Observers: Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

Fiji sent an infantry battalion of 329 personnel. France provided 15 personnel to be stationed a Force Headquarters and with fixed wing unit. Hungary provided a Military Police Unit consisting of 41 personnel. Italy contributed the Coastal patrol unit consisting of 75 personnel and 3 ships. New Zealand contributed 27 personnel divided between support battalion and Training and Advisory Team. Norway sent 3 personnel to be based at Force Headquarters. Uruguay took the responsibility of 87 personnel with Transport and Engineering Unit. Finally, the United States is assigned with the responsibility of maintaining three contingents: 27 personnel in the Force Headquarters, 235 personnel in the support battalion and 425 personnel in the Infantry battalion. (Multinational Force and Observers: Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

The letter from President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin to President Carter wrote in March 26, 1979 clearly spelled out the agreement of Israel and Egypt in this regard. The letter recalled the conclusion of Camp David accord, signed at White House on September 17, 1978, the documents, 'A Framework for Peace in the Middle East agreed at Camp David' and 'Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt.' With a view to attaining an effective peace settlement in consonance with such Frameworks the Israel and Egypt strived to go ahead with the implementation of those provisions in relation to the West Bank and the Gaza strip. They consented to start negotiations within a month after the exchange of the instruments of ratification of Peace Treaty. In consonance with the 'Framework for Peace in the Middle East' the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was also invited to participate in the negotiations. The Delegations of Egypt and Jordan was also to involve the Palestinians as mutually agreed upon. The motive of the negotiations was to agree before the elections on the modalities for establishment of elected self-governing authority, clearly spelling out its powers and responsibilities, and also to agree upon the related concerns. (Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt -Attached Letters)

It has also been agreed upon that in case Jordan decides not to participate in the negotiations, the negotiations would be made by Israel and Egypt. The two governments unanimously agreed to persistently negotiate and in good faith to conclude such negotiations as soon as possible. The agreement was also made that the goal of the negotiations are the establishment of the self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza so as to promote complete autonomy or power to the inhabitants. The Israel and Egypt had fixed the goal of completion of the negotiations within a period of one year so as to make possible the conducing of elections as expeditiously as possible after the agreement between the parties. The self-governing authority was to be established within one month after conducting of elections that will initiate the transitional period of five years. It was agreed upon for a withdrawal of Israeli armed forces and there would be redeployment of the balance Israeli forces into particularly specified security locations. (Peace Treaty between Israel and Egypt -Attached Letters)

Recently, United States invited the representatives of the government of Israel and Egypt and with the involvement of the director general of the MFO to arrange trilateral consultations with regard to the organization, compositions and responsibility of the MFO. The delegations were led by Undersecretary to Defense Douglas J. Feith, Maj. Gen. Abou Bakr of Egypt and retired Maj. Gen. Amos Yaron of Israel. In the tripartite discussions the three sides unanimously agreed upon the historic and crucial role played by the MFO ever since the establishment of peace between Egypt and Israel and articulated appreciation for the contributions made by all participants in the MFO, particularly the U.S. Army. (Joint Statement on Multinational Force and Observers)

The United States assured, which has been recognized by Egypt and Israel, of its commitments to persistent support for Egyptian-Israeli peace and for the MFO as a force contributing to the wide goals of increasing the sustaining regional security and stability. All sides unanimously agreed upon the necessity of assuring the MFO to continue its mission in the most possible effective way. In this connection the parties consented to further make possible for expert level discussions to indicate as to how best to maintain the effectiveness of the MFO at the same time ensuring the involvement of the United States forces. Both the parties, Egypt and Israel revealed their comprehension about the competing requirements confronted by United States forces around the globe particularly in view of the war on terror. The governments of Egypt and Israel also agreed upon their appreciations to the Untied States for facilitating performance of such highly constructive consultations. (Joint Statement on Multinational Force and Observers)

3. What are the benefits that are being enjoyed by Egypt and Israel because of the MFO. Why has the MFO worked?

During 1981 MFO was created by Egypt and Israel with the support of United States as an independent, international organization with a view to supervising the security provisions of their 1979 peace treaty and eliminate violations. Both of them were quite aware of the magnitude of their mutual bitterness and hostility. They required a dependable mechanism to assist maintenance of peace and they realized that they could not attain the objective by themselves. The authorities of the director general instituted by the MFO protocol entailed legal protection to the MFO members. A robust mandate has been accorded to MFO by Egypt and Israel since they understood that a strong and independent third party was required to verify, clarify and more significantly to generate confidence between them. About 1700 soldiers from 11 nations presently supervise the checkpoints and regulate centers in Sinai and verify the treaty's demilitarization and regulated armaments regime. (Bring in the peacekeepers, post-pullout)

It envisages that a 15 member Civilian Observer Unit performing intrusive verification monitoring in Sinai and Israel along the border. It also envisaged a Coastal Patrol Unit consisting of three vessels in order to provide freedom of navigation via the Strait of Tiran. A special liason system assisted in eliminating crises that could stem out from the errors or misrepresentations. Both the parties could benefit from the key element that the MFO model ensured independence of its Director General who alone is empowered to indicate about the violations. He is deployed by the parties but is a non-aligned civilian American citizen recommended by United States. The Director General also ensures all implementation concerns, along with any violations and are handled by Israel and Egypt- never by a third party and never publicly. This concentrates on facts and analysis and eliminates public wrangling and posturing under pressure. (Bring in the peacekeepers, post-pullout)

The MFO has become a dynamic partner with Egypt and Israel in implementation of the treaty and related matters. The role of MFO in confirming the implementation of treaty is visualized to be effective. The confidence that it generated between the two nations sets illustration for implementation in other such international concerns. The MFO has also emphasized the ways that an effective peacekeeping operation can be a beneficial policy tool for the United States. The United States is also quite beneficial of the geopolitical advantages from the Egypt-Israel treaty. It has proved that there would have been no treaty in absence of credible peacekeeping operation and also confirms that there can be no peace keeping operations in absence of U.S. sponsorship and encouragement. (Bring in the peacekeepers, post-pullout)

Thus MFO originated in 1981, is functioning as a non-UN multinational peacekeeping force that has been quite detrimental in maintaining stability and peace between the two neighboring nations Egypt and Israel. Both the parties are benefiting from gaining the subsidies from United States in view of the concessions made by the parties during the negotiation. (A Half Century of U. S Peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East) The GAO report of 1995 revealed that the parties to the treaty and the U.S. government visualized the MFO as a comprehensive policy in assisting maintain peace and in reducing certain costs. However, it is seen that the State is essentially required to entail greater oversight as a result of lack of assurance in respect of sufficiency of internal controls. The report indicated that the MFO, unlike other international organizations does not have a formal board of directors or independent audit committee to supervise the audits. (GAO report number GAO-04-883 -entitled Peacekeeper: Multinational Force and Observers Maintaining)

The recommendations in 1995 involved the state to take steps to enhance its oversight by analyzing the annual financial statements for discrepancies and from the periodical performance of a separate audit of MFO internal regulations that State was to review. The States have been visualized to follow the recommendations however, except the analysis of the MFO's financial statements for discrepancies. State however, alleged to have been developed but not completely…

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