, America's Muslims were put "at risk of becoming the nation's focus of anger" (Dilley, 2001, par. 1)
One common misconception about Muslims is that we are violent terrorists when in fact Islam does not allow the murder of innocent people. The Koran even mentions, "Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. God does not love transgressors." Yes indeed it may be true that jihad or holy wars were practiced during Islam's revelation as it is sometimes used for religion's expansion and defense purposes. But we should know that most of the time, Islam spread because of negotiations, exposure, and preaching (Hossain, 2004).
Another misconception is that all Arabs are Muslims. Muslims, in fact, are composed of various ethnicities, of which on 18% are Arabs. There are Muslims from Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, Indian subcontinent to name a few (ibid).…… [Read More]
In this setting, it is perhaps difficult or even impossible for many Westerners to conceptualize the various factors that might contribute to the decision of an individual Muslim to pursue suicide as a terrorism tactic, but game theory provides a useful framework in which this can be accomplished, and these issues are discussed further below.
Game Theory Overview.
Game theory was invented in order to satisfy a mathematical curiosity; from the outset, though, the problem was to identify a theoretical solution to the problems posed by uncertainty in games of chance (Schmidt 2002). In his chapter, "luff and reputation," Sorin (2002) reports that game theory is basically concerned with strategic behavioral interactions as opposed to individual maximization, typically found in decision theory: "Thus each participant attempts to maximize a function (his above-mentioned "result") of which he does not control all variables. This is certainly no maximum problem, but a peculiar…… [Read More]
are some of the cultural barriers, which have been erected by the Germans.
There are a number of problems, which the Muslim immigrants face in German. One of the biggest problems is that these Muslim immigrants do not get the government jobs in German. Besides this, the signboards, advertisement and other guiding rules are written in German language and as it is mentioned above that many of the Muslims do not know how to speak the German language, they face problems in their day-to-day activities. Not only is this, but many of the Muslims have a feeling that they are discriminated from the local citizens of German in several ways.
Additionally, it has been commonly observed that the younger generations of Muslims are more towards their religion as compared with their adults and parents. The reason behind it is that the young scholars of Muslims are paying more attention towards…… [Read More]
The purpose of research is to gather new information that adds to a body of understanding about a particular topic or theory. Educational research often examines the beliefs of educators; results can inform teaching practice (Panjares, 1992, p. 307). This paper examines the paradigms, ethics, research approaches, methodology and methods used by authors of two studies about the perceptions of Muslim women who veil. When perceptions of non-Muslims are recognized and understood, only then can people acknowledge any biases they may have and address them. Conducting research on biases is challenging since there are no objective measures and researchers often rely on subjects' self-reported data. esearchers can have their own biases, which they must be careful to recognize and then discard to the extent possible. People come to their ideas in certain ways, which are bound by cultural and social norms and parameters. For this reason, we need…… [Read More]
American women have faced many hurdles and problems in the society and on their way to equality and freedom, but still they have managed to perform better than they were expected to and thus they have managed to become an important part of the American society and especially its workforce. (Harris, 2001)
US Newswire (2002) publishes a report that presented the precise negative and positive changes in the status of women during the past one decade. It states, "The proportion of women state legislators grew only slightly, from 20.8% to 22.6%, between 1996 and 2002. In a third of the states, women's political representation dropped. The increase in the ratio between women's and men's earnings in 25 states between 1989 and 1999 was due, in part, to the drop in men's earnings, rather than pure salary increases for women. Women's poverty increased in eight states between 1995 and 1999 and…… [Read More]
Muslim Slaves Used as Soldiers
Slavery is based on dominance and submission of one over another for labor and services. It dates back beyond recorded history. Reference to slavery can be found in the ancient Babylonian code of Hammurabi. Slavery was common in Tigris-Euphrates civilizations and in ancient Persia. The ancient Egyptians used slave labor to build temples and pyramids. It was also a familiar custom to the ancient Hebrews (Slavery 2002).
It has been found among groups of low material culture such as the Malay Peninsula and even among Native Americans, to more highly developed societies, such as the United States. Most people believe that slavery became popular with the development of an agricultural economy, domestic and concubine slavery appeared among the nomadic Arabs, Native Americans devoted to hunting, and seafaring Vikings (Slavery 2002). Some say slavery originated as a result of wars, and the conquest of one group…… [Read More]
Muslim and Hispanic omen in Literature
omen have been stereotyped and marginalized across the globe and throughout history. Although there have been strides and improvements in the ways women are treated in certain countries, such as the United States, there is still a very wide berth between the way women are perceived and the way men are recognized. As exhibited in the essays "Identity Reduced to a Burka" and "The Myth of the Latin omen," the marginalization of women transcends nations as well as cultures. Each culture, though sharing a trademark for subjugation of women, has a unique format in terms of women are specifically minimized and marginalized in the culture in which they belong.
The modern world has been connected through technologies. Nations and cultures which were once inaccessible are now open to anyone for an attempt at understanding. In the past, stereotyping of cultures was often the result…… [Read More]
Muslim and Buddhists. There are four references used for this paper.
There are a number of religions throughout the world. It is important to examine the Muslim and Buddhists to determine the variety of human needs that religious practices and doctrines try achieve.
Theravada and Mahayana Buddhists
Buddhism is divided "into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Monogolia, Korea, and Japan." Mahayana Buddhist considered themselves the greater than the Theravada.
The main "philosophical tenet of the Mahayana is that all things are empty, or devoid of self-nature. Its chief religious ideal is the bodhisattva, which supplanted the earlier ideal of the arahant, and is distinguished from it by the vow to postpone entry into nirvana (although meriting it) until all other living beings are similarly enlightened and saved."
The Theravada beliefs are "generally accepted as representative of the…… [Read More]
Ibn Battuta 14th Century Muslim Traveler
The Muslim Culture and the land of Islam have a great significance to the development and realities of the history of Western Civilization. It is through much of the regions of Islam that westerners have gained some major impacting foundations. One simple example of such occurrence would be the famed Nicean fathers who boast an origin well within the borders of Islam but who are foundational members of the Christian faith, setting the standard for cannon in some cases. The borders of Israel as we know them today fall within the boundaries of a region once at the heart of Islamic culture, and still arguably so.
Yet, because of dangerous and old prejudices words and histories have been lost that would cause a shadow to engulf some western scholars of the same traditions. Ibn Battuta the 14th century Muslim traveler has been compared to…… [Read More]
Muslim societies over the centuries, as well as those issues which have brought them together.
Muslims: Divisions and Common Issues
Despite their common religion, all Muslims in the world are not united. In fact, many Muslim communities experience divisions that have made them enemies with each other. The reasons for these divisions are many and complicated: differing sectarian beliefs, differing cultures, differing customs, and differing interpretations of their holy book, The Koran. These divisions have caused strife and turmoil within the Muslim world for centuries. Yet, despite the many divisions within the worldwide Muslim community, there are also those issues which draw them together and make them more aware of their common bond of religion, even uniting them behind it. Particularly strong in uniting Muslim communities has been their common perception of persecution from other religions and other cultures. This paper examines some of the main divisions within the Muslim…… [Read More]
Hence, Islam was able to penetrate other areas and build an empire by using two methods: by force or war against other believers and by the appeal of a new religion (http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm,2006).
The invasion of Muslims in estern Europe has brought tremendous impact to the people in the said area. Science and learning, in particular, were greatly influenced when Arabs of the Muslims came over. This is also the very reason why Islam, as a religion, is considered to have had a profound impact on the creation of the world civilization where cultural diversity was viewed positively. Moreover, with the invasion of Muslims, was the one responsible in the creation of a diverse and upgraded scientific, intellectual and cultural life (http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006).
Muslims' Allah," (2006) [online] http://religion-cults.com/allah.htm
Tenets of Islam," (2006) [online] http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/islam.htm
The Spread of Islam," (2006) [online] (http://www.barkati.net/english/#25,2006).… [Read More]
This suggests that while slow, progress is being made by Muslim women throughout the world, and supported by the UN.
Al Faruqi, L.L. (2005). Islamic traditions and the feminist movement. Islam101.com.
etrieved October 15, 2007: http://www.islam101.com/women/feminism.html
Cooke, M. (2000). Women claim Islam: Creating Islamic feminism through literature.
New York: outledge.
Fattah, a.A. (2006). Status of Muslim women. etrieved:
Statham, P. (2004). esilient Islam: Muslim controversies in Europe. Harvard International eview, 26(3): 54.
Wyche, K.F. (2004). African-American Muslim women: An invisible group. Sex oles:
Journal of esearch, 51(1): 319.
efers to 1975 launch of "Decade for Women" program lasting 10 years in response to women's activities and networking; focus included drawing attention to injustices against women and to help women realize their power.
Cooke, M. p. vii Women Claim Islam: Creating Islamic feminism through literature.
Op cit Ibid.
Op cit Ibid, viii.
Op cit Ibid. 152
Statham, Paul. P.…… [Read More]
Muslims in America
The status of Muslims in America changed radically in the wake of 9/11 (Sheridan, 2006). A small population by percentage (American-Muslims are only 1% of the U.S. population) (Besheer, 2016), Muslims nonetheless received the vast bulk of negative attention and backlash following the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. As an ethnic group, Muslims were well-connected both domestically and internationally -- and many Muslims reached out to the U.S. government post-9/11 in an effort to work with federal agencies to help address the issues arising from the climate of terror (Mantri, 2011). Haddad (2001) writing prior to the 9/11 attacks stated that Muslims in the U.S. "have mostly lived on the margins" of the nation's "political life," have a high degree of "ethnic diversity" within their own groups, and lack the political experience needed for "political integration" in America (p. 91). At the same time,…… [Read More]
Immigration and the Muslim Population
9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…… [Read More]
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…… [Read More]
The Representation of Muslim Women in Eastern and Western Literature: A Comparison
Representations of women in Middle Eastern literature represent a means by which the appreciation, perspective and overall role of women and how they are viewed by society can be determined. While some argue that literature and actually lived daily life are separate, literature serves as a measuring stick by which one can ascertain a definitive viewpoint on what the experience of being a Muslim woman is, and how such women are viewed. Literature can tell one volumes about how societies work and underscore the role that women play or don’t play and how others see them. While both eastern and western literature is incredibly vast, it is possible to get a definitive sense of how Muslim women are viewed; however, it is possible to get an overall sense of certain trends that arise over and over. This paper…… [Read More]
According to Esposito (1999), there is often a "bitter debate" over the role of women in Muslim society (p. 688). The different role of women in different Muslim countries reflects this debate. On the one extreme, the Taliban in Afghanistan have closed women's schools because it is believed that women should not be educated and should instead serve in their "primary roles as wives and mothers," (Esposito, 1999, p. 688). Similarly fundamentalist interpretations, or misinterpretations, of Islamic law are evident in Iran, Sudan, and Algeria, as well as a few other places as well (Esposito, 1999). On the other hand, some Muslim women in Turkey and other countries eschew the veil and other hallmarks of female Muslim identity. Gender roles and norms remain one of the most contentious issues in Islam today, and this issue is also one of the reasons why Islam is both misunderstood and maligned by…… [Read More]
Islam and Science
Islam and its Scientific Legacy
Many people are surprised when they learn of the tremendous debt modern science holds to Islam and the Arab world. Indeed, although most imagine the origins of science to be a Western phenomenon, arguably the greatest influences upon modern science today actually stem from the Islamic World.
During the height of the Middle Ages, the Islamic world was enjoying a tremendous high point of scientific, social, and academic learning. Great cities including Damascus, aghdad, Cairo and Moorish Cordoba were the epicenters of "civilization" as we now know it. Take, for example the great academic center that was Cordoba, the capital of then, Muslim Spain. Not only was it one of the first of the world's "universities," drawing students from around the globe, but it also was the home of the largest library in all of Europe. Moreover, the fact that the Cordoba…… [Read More]
Culture and Discrimination: Muslim Women and Hijabs
Were the actions of the bank appropriate or inappropriate?
The bank denied Magda their services because she refused to remove her headgear. Although this may seem like simple a scenario to judge, the reasons for the actions of both Magda and the bank are justified. As a Muslim woman, Magda believes her burqa is a representation of her modesty and dignity and she feels she should not be denied services just because of the way she dresses. Neusner (2009) explains that to majority of Muslims, Islam is a way of life and they strive to express their faith in their private as well as their public lives. However, banks have off late adopted policies where headgears, scarves and sometimes even sunglasses are not allowed in their banking halls. In light of numerous robberies carried out by people disguised in burqas and hijabs, these…… [Read More]
Muslims are a family oriented people with religious centered traditions and government. They follow the law of Sharia based the Koran or Qur'an. The women experience a range of individual rights from dressing more liberally with colors and headscarves, to being unable to drive or dance in public. Although Westerners often paint a negative picture of Muslim culture, there are many wonderful and beautiful things to be learned of the Muslim faith and Muslim culture.
In recent times, many Muslims have adopted new ways of living, providing outsiders' access to their pursuits. From female racecar drivers to singing competitions, Muslims have grown and expanded their culture to embrace modernity and variety. The best example of this is Dubai. Dubai houses ultramodern skyscrapers and the latest in cars and fashions. Although separation of genders remains prevalent even in a more modern city like Dubai, that does not keep Muslims from enjoying…… [Read More]
The Muslim communities in North America and Europe have long experienced the test of adapting the practices and teachings of their religions to the particular problems and circumstances that they experience as citizens of the western societies, even as they maintain a robust foothold in the Islamic culture. Staying in silos is the best means of creating disagreements amidst any two groups. So as to evade such a circumstance, non-Muslims ought to make serious attempts to communicate and relate with Muslims.
elations shall assist in the eradication of misunderstandings as well as stereotypes. It shall also assist to establish a suitable relationship founded on numerous shared beliefs and values. It will also demonstrate that in their daily lives, both Muslims and non-Muslims encounter similar issues and challenges. Interfaith exchanges and conferences should also be promoted. Paying visits to the Muslim homes and mosques shall eradicate several misunderstandings and…… [Read More]
September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of American Muslims
For a long time, American Muslims have been part and parcel of the American society. It is however important to note that after the September 11 terror attacks, the status of American Muslims in the wider American society seems to have undergone a major review. Unlike was the case a couple of years ago, most American non-Muslims seem to have developed negative stereotypes of American Muslims.
The September 11 Attacks
One of the darkest moments in American history, September 11, 2001 is a day that will remain engraved in the minds of most Americans for many years to come. This is the day that 19 Muslim men executed a plan that left thousands of Americans dead and others badly injured. In a well planned (and executed) undertaking, the terrorists involved in this atrocity chose to used several planes as deadly weapons…… [Read More]
Beliefs and Practices of Muslims
Muslims - terrorism; Muslims - Arabs; Muslims - mosque; Muslims - extremists: "Like watercolors on a child's easel," Akram notes: words and images related to Muslims run together, making a messy picture, the opposite of the "beautiful mosaic" Carter portrays about different people and beliefs, such as Islam, in the introductory quote. (Akram)
Islam, in Arabic, reportedly means submission and peace. As followers of Islam, cited to be an Abrahamic faith, Muslims' beliefs are based on Islamic teachings of.".. The oneness and uniqueness of God (Allah) and the accountability of man." (Uddin 32) Islam teaches that a person's earthly deeds will determine his/her rewards and punishments after he/she dies. In regard to guidance of Muslims while living on earth, Islam teaches that Allah selected Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus to be prophets and that the Prophet Muhammad completed the prophet lineage. A Muslim's faith…… [Read More]
eptember 11 on the Muslim population in Greater Toronto area
This is a paper that analyzes the effects of eptember 11 on the Muslim population of Toronto. It has sources.
The following is a study that reveals the effects of the terrorist attacks of eptember 11 on the Muslim population in Greater Toronto area. As there has been severe impact on western societies ever since the disaster, it is worth exploring the how Muslims are being treated in places like Toronto Canada. First of all, this area is an interesting one because it is an immediate neighbor of the United tates. econdly, Canadian society is based on democratic principles. Both these factors are strong influences on the manner in which citizens of Canada are treated in relation to the religious beliefs. It may be assumed through reports and accounts that come through the media that there are some individuals who…… [Read More]
Holy books contain the prophets' teachings" (Douglass). Islam has the Qur'an and Christians have the Bible. Douglass points out that both texts teach about "Adam, and that Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and others" (Douglass). Christians also believe in prayer, fasting, and alms - just not in the same way that Muslims do. Christians pray whenever they like and while the Bible teaches that believers should tithe 10% of their earnings, it is not a strict recommendation. Christians can also fast but it not required of them to do so at any particular time of year. Both religions warn against false prophets and worshipping the creation as opposed to the creator. Both religions believe in angelic beings and both religions believe in some type of day of judgment. Furthermore, both religions adopt a version of hell and heaven in the afterlife.
Christianity and Islam share many difference as well. hile Muslims…… [Read More]
Finally some sects command their followers to perform ziyara, or what they consider to be minor pilgrimages, to the tombs of Imams in addition to the pilgramage to Mecca ("Shiism," 2005).
hile recognizing the two Islamic holidays Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha, Shi'ites incorporated additional festivals into their system, some of which will be described here. The first major festival is the Festival of Muharram and Ashura, in which Shi'ites observe the martyrdom of Husayn, the son of Ali. This festival is supposed to fall upon the 10th of the Islamic month Muharram. Sunnis observe fasting on this day for reasons completely different from the Shi'ites.
The second major festival is known as Milad-un-Nabi, which is supposed to commemorate the birthday of Prophet Muhammad. Shi'ites consider the 17th of the month Rabi al-Awwal as being the prophet's birthday. Sunnis place the day to be 12th of Rabi al-Awwal; they do not place…… [Read More]
Even with the fact that the tribesman was not acquainted with the religion, it is very possible that Africans in general felt that Christianity contained a series of concepts that were also present in their cultures." Though the peoples of this vast area spoke many languages and had different customs, through Christianity they were linked together in the confession of the creed of Nicaea" (ilken).
Islam had nonetheless experienced a rapid spread over the Arab Peninsula, but this can be attributed to the fact that most people in the territory had been Arab and because they saw the opportunity of adopting a religion that also had the function of uniting all the Arab people. Moreover, one can understand how Christianity had more success in converting individuals because it had mainly been directed at getting the people it came across to think spiritually and to appreciate God as a spiritual concept.…… [Read More]
A recent artifact that came as a product of this intercultural relationship is an article concerning an American woman's imprisonment -- which included beatings from the police and forcing her to sign false confessions -- simply for being seen eating in public with her male business partner. Even though the woman (who allowed her name to be printed only as "Yara," fearing retribution for telling her story) was wearing the traditional full-length gown and headscarf required of women when in public or in the company of men in Saudi Arabia,
she was approached by several men "with very long beards and white dresses" and told that what she was doing was "a great sin," a statement that reflects the disparity between the two cultures (Dhimmi Watch 2008). Ironically, the event took place at a Starbuck's, a place that has come to be a symbol of America's capitalism, freedom, and to…… [Read More]
In contrast to Islam as religion, Islamism attempts to manifest itself via the violent power of Jihad.
oderate uslims, on the other hand, personalizes their religion towards an individual adherence to a set of rules and regulations particularly appropriate for their faith. In such a case, the concept of Jihad takes a more personal meaning: it is the personal struggle against wrongdoing and diverting from the path of Islam. oderate Islam is often referred to as a "peaceful" religion, and many moderate uslims are against the concept of Jihad as interpreted by Islamism.
oderate uslims are close in ideology to other religions: they make an attempt to follow the tenets of their faith without attempting to impose this upon others or indeed to eradicate the other religions of the world.
Pipes, Daniel. Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 30, 1998. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/954… [Read More]
From his authority in Cairo, Saladin worked hard to preserve unity between many of the Muslim kingdoms that comprised the Middle East region. Accordingly, Lane-Poole reports that as dynasties rolled over into new families of leadership in places such as Syria and Mesopotamia, "to these transactions Saladin offered no opposition. He was bound by his treaty to respect his ally of Mosul, and he never broke a treaty in his life." (Lane-Poole, Ch. XI) hile Saladin postured as a warrior-ruler, he also remained loyal to the legal terms of regional agreements and in an important regard would parlay this good-will into a unity in repelling the English crusaders who sought to eliminate religious divergence from the Christian faith.
Not only can we begin to see the picture of a balanced and fair leader, we can also begin to view the origins of the Islamic faith as a cultural other in…… [Read More]
These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.
A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…… [Read More]
estern and Muslim Educational Philosophies
The Foundations of Function: Educational Philosophy and Psychology
Meet the Social Realities of ESL Instruction
Education into English as a Second Language (ESL) has become very important in this country, as many people are coming in from non-English speaking countries because they feel that America has much more to offer them. These children are eager to learn, but they often struggle because they do not understand the English language well. Even those that can speak English reasonable well sometimes have difficulties because there are many subtleties in the English language that these ESL students do not understand or even realize. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ESL education that goes on in the estern world, as well as the ESL education that Muslims deal with.
The similarities and differences will be discussed, and Muslims who come to America will also be discussed.…… [Read More]
oman and Islam
Islamic religion has its established guiding teachings and principles that ensure its followers submit totally to the will of Allah for all the adherents. In effect, Islamic religion recognizes the fact that people and things around them affect their survival irrespective of their age, community, families, and the nation. The quality of life of the Muslims invariably affects the existence of the Islamic nations and religion as a whole. Muslim women are highly vulnerable to various health problems due to the strict religious ideation of most of the conditions that affect them. Islamic women as most of the women from other contemporary communities face numerous health challenges, including reproductive health problems such as increased cases of maternal death, destitution, poor access to maternal health services, and social violation of their human rights. As such, the health challenges make it necessary for the adoption of policies that recognize…… [Read More]
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…… [Read More]
Asian Indian Muslims in America
The current Muslim population in the United States is made of people from extraordinary social, economic, ethnic, linguistic, racial, and ideological groups. While the exact size of the Muslim-American population is relatively difficult to determine and estimate, Asian Indian Muslims account for a significant portion of this population. Actually, Indian-Americans are reportedly the second-largest single-race group from Asian ancestry in the United States. The huge size of Asian Indian Muslims in America is partly attributed to the fact that India is the most populous country in South Asia with a population of 900 million people of diverse language, ethnicity, and religion. It is estimated that 12% of India's population are Muslims since the country's Islamic presence took place around 8th Century AD.
Asian Indian Muslims in the United States originated from India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. While this group migrated to America with higher academic levels…… [Read More]
Post World War One, Germany boasted a booming economy and there was a need for healthy male workers to fill the demand. Germany was in need of men who could act as laborers for both factories and mines in the period after World War Two. This period bestowed Germany with much economic blossoming and swift expansion. Turkey and Germany had a recruitment treaty, which established terms for the guest workers; after Turkey, subsequent Islamic nations formed recruitment treaties with Turkey, such as Morocco and Tunisia. For many of these workers from Islamic nations, finding employment in Germany was a wise decision as it meant that they could receive good pay and send that money home to their families. Furthermore, it also meant they could increase their skillset, making them a more competitive worker when and if they returned to their native countries. However, even though this was a win-win situation…… [Read More]
Teaching Gospel to a Muslim
There are a number of practical steps that are necessary to implement to build a relationship with a follower of Islam who might be a neighbor or a co-worker. One of the first steps that one should take to establish a relationship with such a person is to establish an air of affability and respect for that person. Virtually all things of merit in this world are better achieved if there is a benign sincerity that exists between people. Once this first rudimentary step of establishing respect and a degree of friendship with a follower of Islam has been achieved, it would be necessary to display some sort of curiosity regarding the professed faith of such a Muslim. Typically, this curiosity should be displayed from an innocent perspective, which may involve asking a person of Islamic faith about particular habits related to their religion, manners,…… [Read More]
The doom tree is presented as a mythical eagle, an ancient idol, the river -- "a sacred snake, one of the ancient Gods of the Egyptians"(Salih).
People in this remote and stuck in time village have dreams about the past, some prophetic dreams and some other dreams that are yet to be interpreted. The efforts to reconcile modern life, represented by the city and tradition, represented by the village are seen through the lenses of religion. The villagers did not need the teachings of another preacher, and it seemed that every time when the government sent someone to bring something new in there, it was doomed to fail. On the other hand, the villagers thought they new and had everything already and this appears to be a mistake as well.
The water pump, the stopping place for the steamer, the new agricultural scheme and other symbols of the evolution of…… [Read More]
Schneider argues that secular fundamentalism is a religion that adheres to a strict set of beliefs, mainly that "God should be strictly excluded from civil affairs" (para. 4). This view of secular fundamentalism shares little difference with the traditional fundamentalism, with the exception of two traits. Secular fundamentalists are not patriarchal, as they accept modern gender standards, and they desire the modern age of science rather than wanting to overturn it ("10 Traits of Fundamentalist Movements").
2. Adam Otto argues that every religion is an interpretation of the sacred, a "numinous phenomenon" that is at the heart of all spirituality. Otto's interpretation would accept that all religious are valid because they are all simply different interpretations of the same thing. Otto argues that the sacred is a mystery, overwhelming if one were to be in its presence, and is fascinating ("Theorists of Religion: Otto"). In the Christian religion, this is…… [Read More]
Globalization and Cultural Conflict
The authors (Gardner, et al., 2008, Author House, 82-83) explain that several IT and business professionals have been hired to transfer a business from an existing system to a completely automated system. This project was launched prior to the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The key question comes down to a leadership scenario: hat leadership approach should be taken when two out of a dozen talented contractors that have been hired happen to be Islamic, and those two individuals ask for an hour off every Friday for religious purposes? This paper delves into that subject using narrative from the available literature, and from two books: Corporate Leadership Selection: Impact on American Business, Employees, and Society; and Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success.
Gardner, et al., on Leadership
As an introduction to what Reginald J. Gardner writes about leadership in…… [Read More]
The most egregious sins that can be committed by a Muslim include to deny the unity of God by ascribing divine status to any person or object. This sin is called shirk. Emphasizing the importance of shirk to Muslim morality, all iconography is strictly forbidden in Islam. Iconography in a mosque, the Muslim place of worship, would be akin to idol worship. The second major sin of Islam is kufr, or atheism.
The religious beliefs of Islam are based around a core set of tenets known as the Five Pillars. The first pillar is the Shahadah: there is only one God, and the prophet Mohammed is God's messenger. At the same time, Islam encourages respect of and unity with "all prophets" of God and "all revealed scriptures," (p. 381).
The Second Pillar is prayer, five times a day. Ritual washing is also integral to Muslim prayer. When praying, the…… [Read More]
SPSS was used to analyze the data collected from the participants. A Pearson correlation coefficient evaluated the relationship between the ordinal variables (such as gender and tendency to give zakat maal or zakat fitah) and evaluated whether significance in the relationship existed. Chi-square was employed to evaluate whether ordinal and categorical relationships are significant or not and if so the level of their significance.
Lessy's (2010) discovered that most participants (54) gave their zakat fitrah to mosques, whilst 490 gave it directly to the poor, and only 20 gave their zakat fitrah to foundations. On the other hand, the reverse was evidenced with zakat maal where 45 participants gave directly to the poor, followed by only 25 who gave to mosques. 10 participants, on the other hand gave to orphanages and educational institutions, whilst a mere 8 individuals gave to relief organizations.
As to why they give the way they…… [Read More]
Many religions have different denominations and Islam is not an exception in this regard. The two primary denominations of Islam are Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. The majority of Muslims across the globe are Sunni, estimated to be roughly 85% to 90% of the Muslim population. The remaining smaller number of Muslims, say about 15%, are Shia. Further demarcations indicate that most Shias belong to the tradition known as Twelver with the rest of the Shia identifying with other traditions.
Twelver refers to the number of descendants of Muhammad that this sect of the Shia recognize. Another group is referred to as the Seveners, since they recognize only seven descendants who were official caliphs of Islam. This is further complicated by the concept of Occultation, which refers to a messianic figure, or Mahdi, who is born but goes into hiding (referred to as disappearing) in order to be…… [Read More]
home, my family consisted of a Palestinian-Muslim father and a Polish-Christian mother, and I grew up speaking their respective native languages to them individually and English, my parents' mutual language, when we were all together. Meanwhile, living in Jerusalem also made it essential to learn Hebrew too. Finally, in that regard, I began learning conversational French at the age of three when I started my primary education at the Lycee Francais de Jerusalem.
However, foreign-language fluency represented only the tip of the proverbial iceberg for Palestinian child growing up in Jerusalem. It is a region of intense political factionalism and conflict where one could very easily become indoctrinated with negative beliefs and expectations of others. My family promoted the opposite approach by teaching me to recognize the common humanity and potential for good in all people. I believe that I can say without exaggeration that few formative social environments are…… [Read More]
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…… [Read More]
Muslim battles with European countries in the 13th to 18th centuries. Specifically, it will discuss the conflict between Islam and the West, including the Battle of Lepanto against Spain, the Siege of Vienna against Austria and Poland, and the Battle of Constantinople in 1483. These three battles were significant in world history for a number of reasons, and had their outcomes been different, the face of the world could have been very different today.
Battles Between Muslims and European Countries
The Muslim nation has always been made up of warriors, unafraid to do battle with those outside their faith. Writer John L. Esposito says their culture combines "a warrior culture with an Islamic tradition that believed in Islam's universal mission and sacred struggle (jihad), to establish themselves as worldwide propagators and defenders of Islam" (Espisito 61). Because of this long tradition, Muslims have fought in numerous battles throughout their extensive…… [Read More]
Apparently, Islamic terrorists are the media marketing executives.
Once more, the tendency is to project American viewpoints and values on to supposed Islamist enemies. The same individuals and groups that are utterly alien to America's most cherished beliefs are also masters of manipulating Americans' views of themselves and of using the media to their own advantage. The idea that Islamist groups might possess some sort of legitimate grievance, or might be railing against actual conditions is dismissed in favor of complex marketing ploys. Terrorism is a product, just like everything else that is promoted on American television and in American newspapers and magazines. The only difference is that the Islamist product is a bad product. Other estern media too have taken up the general theme of Islamic terrorism as but the ultimate expression of Islamic failure to grasp the potentialities of the modern world. As presented in the French Canadian…… [Read More]
It is through interviews and analysis; we will see how these individuals feel about the new cultures and regulations around them. Living in a new place, these individuals can very easily let go of the limitations they were under before. Therefore, their answers will give a sound idea of what sort of struggle they are experiencing with the new culture and how to retain their self and identity.
This study was only carried out on eight students and that is the major limitation of this research project. As stated before, half of the sample size is directly from Saudi Arabia and the other half has lived in countries such as well. Despite these differences, there are other factors such as economic class, religious sect, education and family structure that make each of these individuals different one from another. Due to these differences, the generalization created from this sample set…… [Read More]
estern world thinks of Muslim women, it is often in terms of Muslim women as an oppressed stereotypes. This includes images of women in hijabs, Turkish women in chadors and women who must be veiled in public at all times. Distorted beliefs about Islamic beliefs regarding polygamy and the subservient role of women further contribute to the stereotype that Muslim women are more oppressed than their Christian counterparts.
However, while strict laws do present limits to the public lives of many Arab and Muslim women, these stereotypes do not present a complete picture of their lives. As ethnographer Susan Schafer Davis observed, Muslim women have and continue to exert considerable influence in the private sphere of family and women's associations. This gave them much more autonomy and power than Christian women of the same era.
This paper examines the scope of a Muslim woman's authority and power within the private…… [Read More]
The article explains that many evangelicals believe that fasting in the same fashion as Muslims, undermines Christianity. They assert that such associations actually blur the lines between the faiths.
However, leaders of the Christian movement towards having such relationships with other faiths disagree with the aforementioned assertion. According to Brian McLaren, one of the Christian leaders of the interfaith movement, explains that the reason for fasting is not to become Muslim. Instead he asserts that "we are deeply committed Christians. But as Christians, we want to come close to our Muslim neighbors and to share this important part of life with them." The goal is to join Muslims in the observance as "a God-honoring expression of peace, fellowship and neighborliness (Gorski, 2009)."
McLaren started the movement because he believed that many Americans began to develop an anti-muslim ideology as a result of the terrorist attacks of 2001. He believed that…… [Read More]
Ibn Khaldun conceptualized history in terms of transformations of social and political power, leading to cultural changes. This was especially true for the expanding Muslim world, of which Ibn Khaldun was a part. During the Middle Islamic periods, scholarship and learning became entrenched throughout the Muslim world and would have a tremendous impact on the evolution of human consciousness and society. Art, architecture, science, medicine, math, and engineering all flourished during the Middle Islamic period. Although these were the primary external features of the Middle Islamic period, also referred to as a golden age, there were underlying political, socio-religious, and economic developments that caused and characterized changes taking place throughout the Mamluk, Mongol, and Timurid periods.
Abbasid rule had a major impact on political, socio-religious, and economic developments. The Abbasid caliphates stressed schools of learning and formal modes of education that were rooted in Islam but which also transcended…… [Read More]
Islam in the Age of Globalization
The three major religions in the 21st century are all Abrahamic in historical basis. These religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity remain at the edge of political, social, and cultural issues, particularly now in that globalism has become so predominant. These religions are noted as Abrahamic because each uses the basic teachings of the Prophet Abraham in their general world view. All three faiths are monotheistic and together account for over half the world's population, or combined in excess of 4 billion people. Within these three religions, despite much public disagreement, there are many areas of commonality (The Top 10 Organized eligions in the World, 1998). From a non-religious perspective, however, globalism has brought about some change in the perception of these religions based not necessarily on religion, but on marketing and consumerism.
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability…… [Read More]
There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…… [Read More]
pre-World War II anti-Semitic depiction of European Jews to the depiction of Muslims in Western media today
Part of the depiction of European Jews prior to World War Two can be viewed as a subtle manifestation of anti-Semitism, ultimately foreshadowing the blatant discrimination and persecution that would come to unfold its wrath upon the world. A certain amount of this depiction can be seen in a never before published article that Churchill wrote, where he asserted that the reason that Jews were persecuted for so long, was not simply because of the wickedness of the persecutors (euters, 2007). In this article, Churchill essentially blames the Jews in part for their own persecution, a notion which highlights the very alive anti-Semitism of even educated people in the pre-Holocaust world. Churchill refers to Jews as "…sober, industrious and law-abiding and praised their readiness to fight and die for the country they lived…… [Read More]
Indian nationalism as a response to the British presence in India as of 1945, from the standpoint of your role in the game (i.e. from Maharaj)
"Outlining the reasons why democracy should not prevail in Kashmir" (quoted from your role sheet) 3. As Maharaja of Kashmir, you wish your territory to be left intact. You do not want a united and democratic India under the rule of the INC. Your paper needs to provide a principled defense of that objective.
Who Am I?
There are many, many reasons why I do not want democracy for Kashmir, but the logical way to approach this would be first to tell you something about myself and then to detail my reasons against democracy:
I was born on September 23, 1895 and am the great grandson of Maharaja Gulab Singh. I pride myself on possessing many of his values but at the same time…… [Read More]
Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict in the Middle East small piece of land, at points only 2-3 miles wide in a barely habitable part of the world has been theater on which the pivotal events of all world history have been played. The nation of Israel clutches it's historical rights to desert real estate in opposition to the overwhelming arabs and Muslims which surround them. While there is periodic talk of peace, the culturally is that Israel has no intention of giving up what it sees as its divine inheritance, and the Muslim and Palestinian peoples have no intention of allowing Israel to become a prosperous nation. Each countries' perspective is shaped by what it sees as it's divine heritage. Each country has descended from a single ancestor, and therefore perceives it's inherited rights to the land as legal, social, familial, and a matter of divine right.
Entering into this…… [Read More]
Standardization of "Ban the Burqa"
The wearing of burqas should be prohibited in Australia.
The liberal perspective on burqas is invalid.
The liberal perspective on burqas is that they merely represent a cultural difference or represent a repression of women that Australians should "gently" discourage.
Australia is a good country because of its freedom, which should be exercised to terminate the freedom of muslims from wearing burqas.
Burqas are synonymous with criminality.
Burqas conceal identities to allow criminality.
One shop owner was robbed by a burqa-wearing criminal whom it is impossible to catch because of his clothes, so the clothes are insidious.
Burqas represent female oppression.
There is equality for women in Australia, so burqas must be prohibited to maintain that equality.
The argument that wearing burqas is simply an aspect of cultural diversity is wrong.
Australian immigrants should embrace Australia's culture.
Wearing burqas (and engaging in native cultural practices)…… [Read More]
Chrislam is not an official religion, but the beginning stages of what some people characterize as a synthesis between two of the major world religions, Christianity and Islam. As an official movement, Chrislam is relatively new, however as both religions are Abrahamic and non-fundamentalists of either religion have long conceded the possibilities of observing both religions simultaneously. However, within the last decade there has been a push for the observation of Chrislam as an actual religion, not simply an expression of tolerance in either religion.
hile Chrislam may be becoming more widely acknowledged in the world, Islam and Christianity have interacted together for thousands of years. Christians and Muslims may have a history of tension, but they also have a history of coexistence. Perhaps, then, it comes as no surprise that Chrislam has really developed in Africa, where Islam and Christianity are the two predominant religions, both having a tremendous…… [Read More]
Bloodlines and Race
Moslem communities and Moslem slave-holders in particular, have often been conceived as color-blind. Lewis claims this is not so, why? hat evidence can he bring to bear?
Bernard Lewis is a renowned historian scholar, with many great, detailed researches on his record. As a born Jew, Lewis's obvious interest was towards the Middle East civilization and its history, thus he did his PhD in the history of Islam and has a series of highly acclaimed academic works upon the Ottoman Empire. Amongst his several other books, there is Race and Slavery in the Middle East: a Historical Enquiry, which was written in 1990. In this book, Lewis provided a detailed research upon the concept and practice of slavery in Islam, since its innovation till its abolition. He has noted several facts which were never mentioned before, and used Islamic writings and pictorial representations as basis. He quoted…… [Read More]
Women and Islam
Do Muslim women eally need saving?
Stengths and weaknesses
Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.
Stengths and weaknesses
Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.
Topic oveview and famewok
The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…… [Read More]