160 results for “Naturalism”.
You may be more hospitable to a Christian-Marxian possibility.
The reason that this is the way that things stand in Marxian discussions of such issues, and that there is little argument for naturalism in Marxianism, is that Marxians, like George Santayana, who, politically speaking, was very conservative, just take it as obvious that physicalism and atheism are true (Nielsen, 1971). I think this is so too, but I realize that a good number of knowledgeable people do not, so I have in my writing about religion, my Marxianism notwithstanding, argued for naturalism. If one does not, one just side-steps argument and discussion with theists or Wittgensteinian fideists. That, for good or for ill, is where it is at in "the philosophy of religion game." I wish the philosophy of religion game would wither away (Allen, 1993). It seems to me to pose no intellectually challenging problems, but that notwithstanding, I…
Allen, Barry. Truth in Philosophy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Nielsen, Kai. Contemporary Critiques of Religion. London: Macmillan Press, 1971;
Nielsen, Kai. Reason and Practice. New York: Harper and Row, 1971, 138-257,
Rorty, Consequences of Pragmatism, xiv. He, in this famous remark, is quoting, with acknowledgment, Wilfrid Sellars, Science, Perception and Realty. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1976, 19.
" shall come back as soon as I can; I shall find you here."
One more time, she gives into her biological role. During Adele's labor pains, Edna recalls her own childbirth, an event that offered very different kinds of memories of an awakening than she has now. "Edna began to feel uneasy. She was seized with a vague dread. Her own like experiences seemed far away, unreal, and only half remembered. She recalled faintly an ecstasy of pain, the heavy odor of chloroform, a stupor which had deadened sensation, and an awakening to find a little new life to which she had given being, added to the great unnumbered multitude of souls that come and go." As a result,
Edna "began to wish she had not come; her presence was not necessary. She might have invented a pretext for staying away; she might even invent a pretext now for…
The trouble is,' sighed the Doctor, grasping her meaning intuitively, "that youth is given up to illusions. It seems to be a provision of Nature; a decoy to secure mothers for the race. And Nature takes no account of moral consequences, of arbitrary conditions which we create, and which we feel obliged to maintain at any cost.' (110).
Thus, despite Edna's awakening and need to break free, she cannot rectify her two different sides. She cannot go back to her life as just a wife and mother, nor can she completely run away from her present life and forget her children. She remains torn between the responsibility to natural laws and to her personal needs. The only way to escape this dilemma, she believes, is in death. As she swims further and further into the Gulf, "she thought of Leonce and the children. They were a part of her life. But they need not have thought that they could possess her, body and soul" (114). She has not been able to overcome the hold which the biology of motherhood and the social codes of marriage have had both on her emotions as well as on the beliefs and actions of others within the life in which she functions. Ironically, it is the sea, a true part of nature, which carries Edna away for the very last time and allows her to disappear forever from her internal conflicts. In the end, according to Chopin, nature wins.
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. New York W.W. Norton, 1976.
Naturalism in Literature
Naturalism and realism was a literary movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s which focused on trying to recreate the real world in works of fiction. Many works from the period tried to reflect the attitudes and the psychology of their society through fictional characters. During this period, women were treated very poorly by male domination and were not allowed to have power outside of their homes. The cult of domesticity was the predominant idea of the day, forcing women to stay in the home and out of the public sphere. They were not allowed to hold positions of power or to attend higher education and if they chose to do so were considered unladylike and avoided by higher society. In both Ernest Hemingway's "Hills like hite Elephants" and Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour" show how repressed women of the Victorian period were by…
Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour." Ed. Frank Madden. Exploring Literature. Pearson: New
York, NY. 2008. Print. 35-37.
Hemingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants Complete Story" Gummyprint Web. 15 Dec.
" (Honestly, what more needs to be said?)
Now that it has been established that both Call of the ild and "A New England Nun" have elements of both realism and local order, it's time to present them in terms of their most powerful literary attribute, categorically speaking (of the three aforementioned literary categories): naturalism. As mentioned, naturalism in literature is the notion that social conditions, heredity, and environment unalterably impact and shape human character. Both Buck and Louisa are limited and forged by the social conditions that surround them, their heredity and environment.
Buck's transformation from a semi-slothful house pet to a high-octane sled dog is prompted not by his own free-will - Buck never really decides to become the leader of the pack - but by his subjugation. hen Buck is taken in by his new owners and they force him to pull a sled, he has very…
London, Jack. Call of the Wild. Norwood Mass: Norwood Press, 1903. Print.
Wilkins, Mary. A New England Nun. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1891. Web.
This is another example of how truthfulness and realism are not always synonymous. The naturalness of the bathers is shown by making the lines of their bodies similar to the lines of the natural landscape.
Henri Matisse's "The Joy of Life" is not even an arrangement of posed figures like Cezanne and Picasso's works of art, rather it is a cacophony of color and the rounded, nude sensual female figures engage in various activities all over the canvas. The truth of the joy of life is not represented in a singular principle of beauty, or a clear, narrative scene or pose, but in an almost confetti-like fashion of figures. Over Matisse's canvas different women, some with faces, some without faces, engage in traditional activities of joy, like dancing in a circle or playing the pan pipes. These activities might be also found in Renaissance paintings, but the level of enthusiasm…
Stokstad, Marilyn. (2005). Art History. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
Idealism refers to the people who claim to be idealists in the popular sense are often convinced that the world is beautiful, everybody is good and you can adopt high ideas and adhere to them. It is also a theory that asserts that reality is ideas, though, mind or selves rather than material forces. There may be a single or absolute Mind or a plurality of minds. It also stresses the mental or spiritual aspects of experience. Naturalism on the other hand is the view of reality that nature alone is real. There is no supernatural source of nature. It implies that man's values and ideas are the product of evolution and therefore, only an expression of the needs of the human species in the world of here and now.
The contrast between naturalism and idealism and also the meaning of this words cause many a misunderstanding and only through…
Cross, Troy. "Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003.07.14." World Without
Design: The Ontological Consequences of Naturalism. 2003. Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. 9 Feb. 2005 .
Honer, Stanley, and Thomas Hunt. Invitation to Philosophy. Belmont, California: Wadsworth
Publishing Company, Inc., 1968
Analyze how the term "absurdism" is depicted in the play, Proof, by David Auburn and provide 3 specific examples from the play
However, the subject of the play is also fundamentally absurdist as well as naturalistic, as "Proof" is also a debate revolving around the ownership of ideas. The idea of owning an idea is a kind of fiction, as ideas come from previous ideas, just like parents give birth to children. The level of debate and concern over issues that have little significance to anyone's real life, outside of mathematicians, also seems absurd, especially given the gravity of the situation for Robert's family about the loss of his mind, a dilemma as pressing as any issues over mathematical ownership, proof and speculation.
The non-mathematical viewer is forced to ask, surely his life, his daughter's life, and the relationship between the family members should be more important than the mathematical…
Her means of survival becomes how she responds to the violence and abuse she encounters on a daily basis.
Maggie's choices are made as the result of something that happens to her. She never makes a decision without being forced to make it either by some act of violence or other negative experience. hile she attempts to turn her life around with Pete, we see that she can only get so far because she allows herself to become dependent upon him. hile things look positive for a while, hope vanishes when Pete ends the relationship and Maggie is once again forced to do something as a reaction to a bad experience rather than make a choice in response to the good things that are happening in her life. Maggie's life ends with a dark message about life and how some individuals will never escape their harsh environment and they will…
Crane, Stephen. Maggie, A Girl of the Streets. New York: Signet Classics. 1991.
Richard Wright's novel "Native Son" is one of the best descriptions of black people's life back in 1930 ies. The author has made an outstanding literature work revealing to the reader the racist persecutions of blacks with the help of naturalism. Naturalism in this book is seen through showing the reality just as it is, without any "embellishments." The reader sees the truth of the character's life "nude," without any covers on it, he can smell the dirt and feel the hopeless poverty. From the very beginning the influence of naturalism on this book can be easily observed. The author does not give the reader even a tiny hope that he will get an "illusion" of happiness he so much had used to. The novel consists of three parts: "Fear," "Fight," and "Fate." This structure, used by Wright, is very suitable for the use of naturalism in his novel.…
Wright, Richard "Native Son" Perennial 1987
Flaubert / Dostoevsky
Examples of Naturalism and Symbolism in Madame Bovary
In Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary, the narratorial voice carefully avoids direct comment upon the story. Flaubert maintains a tension between Naturalism and Symbolism by leaving it up to the reader to determine if certain episodes are intended to be read symbolically. Flaubert's contemporary readers, however, found the book scandalous -- in some sense, Flaubert's determination to present certain aspects of reality directly was understood as almost obscene. This certainly links him with the goals of the literary movement of Naturalism, which presented human life as being socially determined and a product of heredity and environment, and did not flinch in presenting disgusting details. But Flaubert's goals as an artist are bigger than those of mere Naturalism: the episode in which the adulterous title character experiences a sudden interest in religion demonstrates this.
We may observe that Flaubert seems to…
John Rawls / Mencius
John Rawls's A Theory of Justice is concerned with distributive rather than retributive justice: there is precious little discussion of crime and punishment in Rawls's magnum opus, but plenty of discussion about equality and fairness. Rawls seems to be embarked on a Kantian ethical project of establishing universal principles, but his chief concern is to establish his principles without requiring, as Kant does, an appeal to God as the ultimate guarantor of the moral necessity of his conclusions. In place of God, Rawls offers a thought experiment, which he calls the "Original Position." The reader is asked to imagine himself or herself before birth, being offered a comprehensive survey of the different types of lives into which he or she could potentially be born. Rawls wants the reader to consider whether the available permissible options in a given society are, in themselves, an existing critique of…
ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.
The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…
Friedman, M. (1997). "Philosophical Naturalism." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Accessed online, October 15, 2011, from:
Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Publishing: New York.
egionalism, Naturalism, ealism, and Modernism --
egionalism, Naturalism, ealism and Modernism
eview of "Cat in the ain" by Ernest Hemingway and "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin
Cat in the ain by Ernest Hemingway and the Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin
Cat in the ain and The Story of an Hour are short and straightforward pieces of literary work. The titles apparently leave little to imagination behind the concept of the stories, but in reality there is something important going on within these stories.
Hashemi and Ahmadi (2010) comment that Cat in the ain is the story of an American couple who are on holiday in Italy. It is centered on a young female fixating on a cat trapped in the drizzle. Her husband, in contrast, is not in the least inclined to accede to her wish. The title has been mysterious; we are led to…
Hashemi, M. R., & Ahmadi, H. S. (2010). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of Hemingway's Cat In The Rain For The Iranian EFL Context. Journal of Lingusitic Intercultural Education, Vol 3, 101. Retrieved from www.ebscohost.com
Eident, M. (2014, February 27). Character Analysis of "The Story of an Hour." Retrieved March 14, 2016, from Academia: https://www.academia.edu
Higham, J., & Guarneri, C. (2001). The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890s . In J. H. Guarneri, Hanging Together: Unity and Diversity in American Culture. Connecticut: Yale University Press.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is perhaps the best example of Realism in literature because of how Twain presents it to us. Morality becomes something that Huck must be consider and think out as opposed to something forced down his throat. He knows the moral thing to do would be to report Jim, noting, " "People would call me a low down abolitionist and despise me for keeping mum -- but that don't make no difference. I ain't agoing to tell" (Twain 269). Furthermore, he cannot send Miss atson his letter he because his friendship with Jim trumps the morality he knows. Similarly, Jim wrestles with issues of good vs. bad. This is evident because of they way he decides to escape. He even begins to understand what Huck is going through when Huck does not turn him in. His revelation forces him to realize that Huck is "de bes'…
Crane, Stephen. Maggie, a Girl of the Streets. New York: Random House. 2001.
The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Aerie Books Ltd. 1986.
Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men and Cannery Row. New York: Penguin Books. 1986.
Clemens, Samuel. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lauter, Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
The naturalist position is further "bolstered" by a fundamental faith in the veracity of sensory inputs and human cognitive processes, a faith that is woefully misplaced. In fact, the naturalist belief in random evolution undermines any belief in the ability of human senses to derive truth about the workings of the universe (Plantinga 2). Those who believe in a supernatural deity often believe that said deity imbued human beings with the ability to acquire and understand knowledge. If this is the case, it is possible for human beings to use their minds to discern the nature of reality. But if instead humans are simply the product of randomly accrued changes through natural selection, then there can be no such guarantee. Our physical senses and cognitive processes wouldn't have developed with reliability in mind, but rather with survivability. The mind or the senses are only important, in the naturalist context,…
Dubray, C.A. "Naturalism." Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. X. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1991. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10713a.htm .
Johnson, Phillip E. "Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism." Access Research Network. 1990. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/pjdogma1.htm.
Plantinga, Alvin. "Naturalism Defeated." Calvin College. 1994. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.calvin.edu/academic/philosophy/virtual_library/articles/plantinga_alvin/naturalism_defeated.pdf.
Popper, Karl. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge, 2002.
film Sarah and James by Nikowa Namate offers an opportunity to reflect on the deeper themes in light of several film theories including Freudian theory, Queer theory, and an understanding of realism, naturalism, and kitchen sink drama. This essay will offer a nuanced and thorough analysis of my role in the filmmaking experience. In Sarah and James, I played the role of James, one of the title characters. As the title of the film suggests, though, James is not the only protagonist. The interplay between James and his sister Sarah is the foundation of the film, which addresses the way mental illness impacts intimate relationships. Moreover, I was in charge of lighting during the production of Sarah and James and will discuss elements related to lighting during the production of the film. This essay will hinge on the application of realism, naturalism, Freudian theory, and queer theory to my experience…
Brians, Paul. "Realism and Naturalism." 13 March, 1998. Retrieved online: http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/hum_303/naturalism.html
Cash, Justin. "Kitchen Sink Drama." The Drama Teacher. Retrieved online: http://www.thedramateacher.com/kitchen-sink-drama/
Dietrich, Richard Farr. British and Irish Drama 1890 to 1950: A Critical History. Retrieved online: http://chuma.cas.usf.edu/~dietrich/britishdrama1.htm#Realism
Hanson, Ellis. "Introduction: Out Takes." Out Takes. Duke University Press, 1999.
Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.
Fast forward to 2012. n ristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of ristotle's plot formula.
s to the irony in proposed ristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In…
As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy (who is fascinated with these enormous birds with the longest wingspan of any bird in North America) investigate -- at the urging of his son -- the reasons some recently released California Condors are seriously ill and dying.
It turns out the father is a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), a group that refuses to accept the empirical science that shows Condors are poisoned when eating the carcasses of deer and other critters that have been shot with lead bullets. The father's investigation ironically points to his own organization as helping to kill Condors and he can't bear to tell his son, who is already heartbroken that some Condors are dying. This Oedipus-like irony could be considered Aristotelian. it's a father-son plot drenched in angst, descriptively genuine, written with the literary weapons of the future of hope colliding with history.
In conclusion, this not about a "Free Willy" plot. It is about a battlefield between the emerging conservation-minded generation now in middle school and those who are in benign denial as they kill natural world species. The details involve a restless adolescent revolution; thoughtlessness, greed, and adult resistance to good conservation are crushing the natural world. The brilliant, creative genius of a young boy -- who figures out a way to entertain the public (against the will of his parents) with a video that depicts not the toxic resistance of NRA members but the joy of a youthful future -- fits like a glove into the rough draft of a screenwriter searching for fresh themes in a world chocking on old themes.
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
The children do not see a template of moral fiber in the structure of the family, are certainly not learning it at school, and therefore have no basis for any type of ethic or morals other than the secular humanist -- "it depends" and "if you don't hurt anyone" viewpoint. The secular humanist, though, espouses that there are moral values that can be ascribed without God:
. . . The moral consequences of believing the universe not to be guided by a personal god to whom petitionary prayer can be addressed are huge. That is why it is so inadequate to call oneself solely an atheist; one needs some sort of description for what motivates one's behavior afterwards (Cooke in Kurtz, 2010).
And, reading this, one might forgive Al and Peg if they at least had a moral view; but that is the issue, they do not, which causes the…
Clark, T. (2008). "Center for Naturalism." The Center for Naturalism.
Kurtz, P. (2010). "Beyond Atheism -- Beyond Agnosticism -- Secular Humanism."
Council for Secular Humanism. Cited in:
Temporary Employment: Economic Naturalism in Action
From the point-of-view of an employer, hiring temporary employees to fill entry-level positions is highly beneficial to the company's bottom line. Temporary employees can be easily hired and fired if they don't 'work out.' That is, if the temporarily hired employees are not competent, the employers can easily discontinue their worker's residency within the company without making a costly investiture in training the new employees. Also, temporary employees are often obtained through temporary agencies, which may charge a fee but will also initially 'vet' the employees for basic skills such as proficiency at job applications like Microsoft Word, Windows, Excel, etc.
Although a company may have a human resources staff in place that could also strive to ensure a basic level of competency in its entry level staff, the human resources department may be more efficiently deployed and may prefer to channel its energies…
Aristotle began as the student of Plato, but a reader is hard pressed to find any particular similarities between the worldviews of the two. In fact, if we have studied Platonic Dualism and Plato's accompanying Theory of Forms, it starts to look like Aristotle's philosophy is based upon the attempt to be as un-Platonic as possible. Plato believed in a double nature of reality -- the real physical world that we can perceive, and a separate (but overlapping) world of "ideas" or "forms" which somehow comprise the eternal essence of those things in the real physical world. But Plato's conception of those forms is in itself vaguely defined, despite the central role they play in his philosophical world system. If Aristotle learned from his old teacher, it was a lesson in how not to approach the practice of philosophy.
In the place of Platonic Dualism, Aristotle propounds a worldview which…
Monotheism means the worship of one god.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic religions: God demands an exclusive relationship with His followers and an acknowledgement of His unique power.
All major monotheistic faiths have a concept of the 'end of days' or final judgment
God as the divine watchmaker.
God sent into motion the universe with His power but we are now able to use our own reason to govern our lives.
Enlightened reason and science is the best way to understand the future.
The natural world is the source of meaning.
Ethics can be found 'in nature.'
ather than formal religion, we must look to nature for guidance.
Life has no inherent meaning.
There is no system of morality inherent to the human condition beyond that which we construct.
We are adrift and not heading to a purposeful future.
Exodus. (2012). Bible Gateway. Retrieved at:
Zunjic, Bob. (2012). Jean Paul Sartre. Phil 358. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved at:
Ray also believed that Hollywood presented a world that was completely foreign and at odds with the reality of life in India. hy, then, had so many previous Indian filmmakers attempted to copy the Hollywood style? The result could only be failure. It was for this reason that Ray decided to turn his back on the Hollywood aesthetic altogether - and the result was Pather Panchali. Rather than the stylistic gloss that Hollywood coats its product with, Ray allowed a significant degree of "dirt" in to his film as a way of arguing with the dominant aesthetic.
In doing so, Ray purposefully chose a "rambling" novel to adapt for his first film. "The script," he later explained, "had to retain some of the rambling quality of the novel because that in itself contained a clue to the feel of authenticity: life in a poor Bengali village does ramble" (Ray 33).…
Ray, Satyajit Ray. 1976. Our Films, Their Films. Calcutta: Orient Longman Limited.
Cottingham and Adams on Faith as a Virtue
Faith as a Virtue
There is presently much controversy regarding the difference between theists and atheists, as the masses have a limited understanding of each of these groups. Naturalists are particularly important in this situation, as they concentrate on performing an in-depth analysis of things before being able to express an opinion regarding these respective things. The scientific community is generally inclined to refute concepts related to a supernatural force controlling the universe and it emphasizing the importance of evidence when considering things that ideas should accept as being valid. In contrast, religious people believe that faith is actually the result of sufficient evidence that has been gathered through the years and that materialized in emotions felt by believers and in traditions that they uphold.
Theists are typically inclined to believe that atheists are unable to appreciate life to its full potential…
Cottingham, John, "What Difference Does it Make? The Nature and Significance of Theistic Belief"
Merrihew Adams, Robert, "The Virtue of Faith"
Wood, "W. K. Clifford and the Ethics of Belief"
Naturalists and Materialists
Philosophy is credited to the Ancient Greeks. Historians, sociologists, and modern philosophers have traced the origins of philosophy to this period in history. The philosopher's position was as the community thinker, the people of the community who would sit around and think. Their jobs were to think about the best ways to improve society and to understand through thinking and concentration the principles of humanity. Philosophers attempted to use certain thoughts and concepts of understanding to come to some larger conclusion about the human condition as a whole. Socrates is argued to be the greatest of the philosophers and his way of thinking is believed to have shaped the ideas of centuries of philosophers to come. Before him, there were other great thinkers who, although they might not have had the same overreaching and lasting importance as Socrates, nonetheless contributed monumentally to the development of philosophical thought…
Allen, Reginald E. Greek Philosophy: Thales to Aristotle. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1991.
painting "St. Jerome in his Study by Albrecht Durer. Specifically, it will discuss the historical context and aesthetic effect of the painting, while deciding what makes the painting cool. The work is a detailed engraving on paper created meticulously in black and white, created in 1514, and measuring 24.8 x 18.8 cm. It is located in the Ball State Museum of Art in Indiana, and the Clark Art Institute of Massachusetts. This engraving is magnificent in its detail and its subject matter. At the center of the work is an old man, St. Jerome, bent low over his work on a low table bathed in light from the windows that line the room on the old man's right. His study is roomy enough to include window seats under the oversized windows, items hanging from the ceiling and on the wall behind St. Jerome, and a pair of animals curled up…
Socrates, "The unexamined life is not worth living (rdg.uk)." It is for this reason that a critical examination of our most fundamental beliefs about truth and reality whether right or wrong becomes an important undertaking (rdg.uk). The examination of major life perspectives challenges as well as helps us to better establish many of our own assumptions about life (rdg.uk). We should all be concerned with how different views of the world clash or fit together, and with how the different perspectives (moral, scientific, religious, metaphysical, and personal) may be reconciled (rdg.uk). It is with these ideas in mind that this paper undertakes an examination of three major life perspectives, those of: naturalism, humanism, and theism (rdg.uk).
According to naturalism, heredity and environment influence and determine human motivation and behavior (naturalism.html). Thus, if an artist wishes to depict life as it really is, he or she must be rigorously deterministic in…
Humanism is an approach to life emphasizing ethics, rationality, and intelligent compassion (etla.net). Humanism asserts that reason and science are the soundest means for investigating claims of truth (etla.net). This philosophy asserts that ideas, values, myths, and social systems are based on human experience (etla.net). Free thought thrive best in free, democratic societies (etla.net). This is a doctrine centered on human interests or values (asmilan.org). Albert Camus was an example of a humanist thinker. According to Camus, accepting the absurdity (life as a hopeless, meaningless, eternal up-hill struggle) is the first necessary step; it arouses a revolt, the analysis of, which can help us discover ideas capable of restoring relative meaning to existence (asmilan.org). After 1945, he was concerned with the study of the problems of action and of the service of humanity (asmilan.org). He believed that natural suffering increases not because men are wicked but because they are not sufficiently enlightened (asmilan.org). He believed man alone and without the help of God, could create his own values (asmilan.org).
Theism is a philosophy that affirms that the source and basis of all things is in God (exist1.html). Its primary focus is belief in gods, however, belief in gods is distinct from religion (atheism.com).
Belief in God does not logically require a religion and religions do not logically require a belief in god(s) to be religions (atheism.com). Thus, we see people who do believe in
The second structural element used by Gaudi as a source of inspiration was the skeleton, the structure on which the entire construction relied. It is a fact that Gaudi studied both shells and animals' skeletons before proceeding to build his own structure for the construction. The Casa Milla, for example, shows previous studies of shells and a significant resemblance with them.
Perhaps one of the best examples of how Gaudi used biological elements around him as sources of inspiration comes from one his own stories, the way he created the donkey, from the "Flight into Egypt" ensemble, "carved in stone at the entrance of the big portal." Everything, including Joseph and Mary, had been inspired from people that Gaudi had met in the streets of arcelona. The donkey itself was a problem, so that the architect made an announcement seeking a donkey from which a plaster cast could be made…
1. Ragon, Michel. Histoire de l'architecture et de l'urbanisme modernes. Volume I - Ideologies et pionniers 1800-1910. Casterman. 1986
2. Bonells, Jordi. Catalogne. Barcelone. Points Planete Seuil. 1992
3. Halker Maria Anna and Fischer Thomas. Spagna. Gremese Editore. 1994
4. Permanyer, Luis. Gaudi of Barcelona. Rizzoli International Publications Inc. 1996
Vandover and the Brute is a book written by Frank Norris who was an admirable writer who used his characters in a way to show how they were influenced and affected by outside sources. The novel, which was written between 1894 and 1895, was first published in 1914 and has become an exceptional text in modern literature. The novel is about the main character, Vandover, who slowly leads his life into inevitable destruction. Actually, this book is regarded as a rich and entertaining novel regarding Vandover, an artist who graduates from Harvard University but ends up in poverty because of bad habits and ill-luck. Similar to his main character in McTeague, Norris paints Vandover as a very brutish individual. In the novel, the main character is not only shaped by the environment but also the author. Frank Norris does not seemingly give room for Vandover to progress, which helps in…
ENotes. "Frank Norris Long Fiction Analysis." Enotes.com. Enotes.com, n.d. Web. 17 May 2017. .
Fusco, Katherine. "Brute Time: Anti-Modernism in "Vandover and the Brute."" Studies in American Naturalism 4.1 (2009): 22-40. Print.
Mitchell, Lee C. "'Little Pictures on the Lacquered Surface': The Determining Vocabularies of Norris's Vandover and the Brute." Papers on Language & Literature 22.4 (2010): 386-405. Print.
Norris, Frank. Vandover and the Brute. Dortmund, Germany: Readbox Publishing, 2012. Print.
On the other hand, in Pisano's work, marble lends back to the figures on the pulpit some of its characteristics. This is probably most obvious in some of the virtue figures on the middle level, notably on the figure of Charity. The marble also gives out some of its majesty and monumentality, as can be seen in the case of the figure of Hercules, on the same level.
An important difference between the two works is given by the overall structure. Pisano's pulpit is supported by four slender Corinthian columns, which gives both an architectural perspective to the sculpture, as previously mentioned, as well as a certain slenderness, because the five columns support the structure above it (there is also a central supporting column, but similarly thin). There is, however, an interesting geometric communion between the two parts of the sculpture (columns and pulpit), with each of the points of…
1. Kren, Emil; Marx, Daniel. Pulpit. On the Internet at http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/p/pisano/nicola/1pisa.html . Last retrieved on February 10, 2010
2. On the Internet at http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/italy/pisa/baptistrypulpit/pulpit.html . Last retrieved on February 10, 2010
3. The Well of Moses. 2006. On the Internet at http://www.antiquespectacles.com/topics/discoveries/well/well.htm . Last retrieved on February 10, 2010
4. Frish, Teresa G. Gothic Art 1140c-1450: Sources and Documents. University of Toronto Press, 1987
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
1) Su-Houn Liu, Yu-Hsieh Sung & Hsiu-Li Liao (2006), 'Developing Sustainable Digital Opportunity: The Case of Lalashan DOWEB Model', Issues in Information Systems,
Volume VII, No. 1, 2006, retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.iacis.org/iis/2006_iis/PDFs/Liu_Sung_Liao.pdf
2) BIO, (Nov 2009) 'Agricultural Biotechnology Benefits Farmers and the environment', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from, http://www.bio.org/foodag/positions/Benbrook_Report_PUBLIC_111709.pdf
3) John Vidal, (2009), 'Rich Nations to Offset Emissions with Birth Control', retrieved Dec 30th 2009, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/03/carbon-offset-projects-climate-change
Matisse and O'Keeffe: Modern Artists with Talent and Connections
hat Paul Johnson calls fashion art in the 20th century grew out of the experimental and impressionistic work of the late 19th century. It may be said to have originated with Picasso and Braque and Cubism, which helped launch a number of techniques and movements, such as Abstractionism and Surrealism. Like Picasso and Braque, Henri Matisse had connections with the rich American art patron in Paris, Gertrude Stein. (She purchased Matisse's La Femme au chapeau (oman with a Hat) and sat for Picasso) (Johnson 657). The American painter Georgia O'Keeffe was not connected to Stein, but she did study fashion art and transpose it (after a series of skyscraper works) onto the natural world. Matisse and O'Keeffe, though disconnected by the Atlantic, both found support from the art establishment (Matisse through Stein, O'Keeffe through her husband Alfred Stieglitz, "the owner of…
Chave, Anna C. "O'Keeffe and the Masculine Gaze." Art in America (Jan 1990), pp.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Wolfe, Tom. The Painted Word. NY: Picador, 1975. Print.
Believe About God
Looking at the atheist worldview on believe about God as a myth that people have invented to make them feel better we tend to find out whether it is impossible to have a high moral character without belief in God.
As I was getting settled into my set for a very long plane ride home a was I got to know that the person next to me was a devoted atheist who believed that God is a myth that people have invented to make them feel better, he asked me what I believed about God. Since iam a Christian I believe that God is real, the creation the origin of life and the universe gives me a concrete reason to believe in God instead of seeking real answers. Another thing is the idea of loving God is sweet and the idea that there is eternal life.…
Blaise Pascal (2010) philosophy of Religion.
Phillips, W.G., Brown, W.E. & Stone Street, J. (2008). Making sense of your world: A biblical worldview.
(2nd Ed.). Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company
Robert merrihew Adams (2009) moral argument for 'theistic belief
emification Of Worldviews
Mortimer j.Alder an American philosopher an intellect and a person of remarkable wisdom did not believe that education should be determined by social engineering but unchanging standards of truth.
What Alder was trying to say?
Mortimer Alder in his statement "more consequences for thought and action follow affirmation of denial of God than from answering any other basic question" was trying to point out an argument about existence of God, he tries to point out that it is important to understand the issues that surrounds the seriousness of the truth that are made and the amount of evidence required to make conclusions. Since belief in atheism could possibly result in irreparable consequences, therefore the theist should be given chance to produce concrete evidence to support their position. He tried to say that atheism simply evades the test of evidence with their fingers crossed and they hope…
Blaise Pascal (2010) philosophy of Religion.
Phillips, W.G., Brown, W.E. & Stone Street, J. (2008). Making sense of your world: A biblical worldview.
(2nd Ed.). Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company
Michelangelo and the RenaissanceMichelangelo was one of the greatest artists of the High Renaissance. He began his career with the chisel and ended it with the paint brush. He was a master in sculpture, engineering, and painting. Had he excelled in poetry, politics and arms he would have been considered a true Renaissance Manbut his focus was always on art. He spent 20 years of his life on the Sistine Chapel at a time when Europe was undergoing an internal religious and political strife that would tear it apart. His painting of the Last Judgment, which depicts Christs return to Earth to judge the living and the dead, is one of awe, dread and hope. Completed in 1541, just as the enormously important Council of Trent (1544-1563) was set to get underway, the Last Judgment represents a world in need of reminding of the promise of Christ that He would…
From these examples there is a varied sense of the realism of Eliot in both her prose and her poems. The realism of Eliot demonstrates a reflection of the era. The naturalist and realism movements were ingrained in the Victorian 19th century and yet the descriptive nature of Eliot's works make them in many ways timeless. The characters are enveloped with the reader into the surroundings of events of human social drama.
Eliot, George. The Best-Known Novels of George Eliot: Adam Bede, the Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola. New York: Modern Library, 1940.
Eliot, George, Brother and Sister
Eliot, George, Two Lovers
Eliot, George in a London Drawingroom
Eliot, George, Mid my Gold-brown Curls
Eliot, George, Two Lovers, in Stevenson, Burton Egbert. The Home Book of Verse. At http://www.famouspoetsandpoems.com/poets/george_eliot/poems/3456
Pizer, Donald. Realism and Naturalism in Nineteenth-Century American Literature. Revised ed. Carbondale, IL:…
Eliot, George. The Best-Known Novels of George Eliot: Adam Bede, the Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola. New York: Modern Library, 1940.
Eliot, George, Brother and Sister
Eliot, George, Two Lovers
Hemingway is classified as a modernist in fiction. Modernism rejected traditions that existed in the nineteenth century and sought to stretch the boundaries, striking out in new directions and with new techniques. More was demanded of the reader of literature or the viewer of art. Answers were not presented directly to issues raised, but instead the artist demanded the participation of the audience more directly in finding meaning and in seeing the relationship between technique and meaning. In literature, writers developed new structures as a way of casting a new light on such accepted elements as character, setting, and plot. Much of modernist fiction shows this increased demand on the reader. Ernest Hemingway gives the illusion of moving in the other direction by simplifying language to the point where it seems ascetic, but in truth his language is complex in its way, building meaning into every word and the placement…
Aldridge, John W. "The Sun Also Rises?
Sixty Years Later." The Sewanee Review XCIV (2)(Spring 1986), 337?45.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: A Life Story. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1969.
Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: The Writer as Artist. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.
Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) is one of the most prolific, most highly recognized American playwrights of the 20th century who sadly had not real American contemporaries or precursors. O has been the only American dramatist to win the coveted Nobel Prize and while his work is for American audience and is certainly American in most respects, we notice that he has been greatly influenced by European writers and thinkers who shaped his literary interests and had a serious impact on his early plays.
When we discuss Eugene O'Neill, we must understand that his work can be divided into two broad phases. One phase of early fame was 1920s when the playwright, under the influence of writers like Strindberg and Ibsen, wrote some important expressionist plays including Dynamo and The Emperor ones. Expressionism can be defined as "The attempt to create the essence rather than the appearance of reality through the use…
John Henry Raleigh: The Plays of Eugene O'Neill. Southern Illinois University Press. Carbondale, IL. 1965.
Haiping Liu - editor, Lowell Swortzell - editor. Eugene O'Neill in China: An International Centenary Celebration. Greenwood Press. New York. 1992.
Raymond Williams, Drama from Ibsen to Brecht Raymond Williams. Oxford University Press, 1968, Reprinted in Harold Bloom edition. Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night: Chelsea House. Philadelphia. 1987.
American Landscape and Social Attitudes and Values
The relationship between American society and its natural environment has not only been one of rapid social change, it has also been subjected to radical and complex changes in attitudes towards nature. The extent of the this evolutionary change emanates from an earlier view of nature as a Garden of Eden to the contemporary view of nature as a servant of human technological growth
In the comparatively short span of our civilization the cycle of primitivism to industrialism has been compressed and laid bare for study. Less than a century divides the era when America was looked upon as a Garden of Eden or savage wilderness and the time when it took first place as the world's industrial giant. Probably no people have ever so quickly subdued their natural environment. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77844365" (Ekirch 6)
American attitudes towards nature have undergone a complex change in…
Angus, Ian. "Free Nature." Alternatives Journal Summer 1997: 18+.
A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000498362" "American Literature." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Ekirch, Arthur A. Man and Nature in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
Martin Luther King believed intelligence strengthened character. My life experiences have added to my intelligence and my intelligence has strengthened my ability to handle situations more effectively by applying critical thinking into my objectives. To begin, I will say where I am from. I was born in Kuwait, situated in the Middle East. Moving to the United States was a difficult time because I had to readjust to a new culture, a new people, and a different way of life. While it took some time to adapt to my new surroundings, I managed to learn several things along the way.
The first was my deep appreciation of nature. Kuwait exists within one of the least hospitable and driest deserts on earth. While the Kuwait Bay has a deep harbor located on the Persian Gulf, other parts have extended views of the sands. Coming to the United States the shift of…
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…
In brief, this painting is essentially a representation of the court of Philip IV and the focal point of the work is the Infanta Margarita who is surrounded by various figures, including her maids of honor, dwarfs and a dog. Las Meninas depicts a large room in the palace of King Philip IV of Spain and most of the figures can be identified as members of the Spanish Court. The figure of the painter is also prominent .There is also a mirror at the back of the figures that depicts the King and Queen.
This complex and mysterious work of art has been the subject of much debate, especially with regard to the theme of illusion and reality in art. It has therefore become one of most widely discussed and analyzed paintings in the Western art discourse. The following commentary provides some ideas of the contemporary interest in this painting.…
GOYA, Francisco. Retrieved November 10, 2009, from http://www.artchive.com/artchive/G/goya/may_3rd.jpg.html
Greco, El. Retrieved November 9, 2009, from http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/greco/
Goya (y Lucientes), Francisco (Jose) de. Prado Museum (Museo del Prado).
Retrieved November 9, 2009, from http://www.worldtravelguide.net/attraction/359/attraction_guide/Europe/Prado-Museum-Museo-del-Prado.html
A deep and horrifying malaise hangs over
the images described here. To be sure, it seems that there is something
more than just the changing of the seasons which affects the speaker and
which afflicts his perspective so dramatically. He tells that "Then one
hot day when fields were rank / ith cowdung in the grass the angry frogs /
Invaded the flax-dam; I ducked through hedges / To a coarse croaking that I
had not heard / Before." (Heaney, 1)
This is a moment of ominous dread. The optimistic cycle where death
had given way to life in the first stanza-a decidedly naturalist embrace of
the wonder that is life-is now described as a threatening and mysterious
force somewhat beyond the comprehension or experience of the young speaker.
The language becomes decidedly more aggressive and far bleaker, describing
'gross-bellied frogs,' with a 'slap and plop' like 'obscene threats.' He…
Forbes, C. (2005). Seamus Heaney. Poetry Archive. Online at
Heaney, S. (1991). Death of a Naturalist. Faber and Faber.
Ireland, C. (2008). Heaney 'catches the heart off guard.' Harvard
Though this effect is illusive as there is no parallelism in the curtains or the rest of the painting, and therefore no real vanishing point, it is perhaps enough reminiscent of one to suggest to the eye and brain of the viewer that such a point does exist, and that this painting has a very definite and defined space from which the scene is being viewed. Various shadows and other elements of scale are used to suggest distance, as well, but main perspective is a linear one.
Perhaps the most prominent singles aspect of the Toilet of Venus painting is Boucher's use of color. There is nothing truly vibrant in the painting, and yet there is nothing dull, either. Even the greys used for the stone underneath the bed and the pillar visible between the curtains has a richness and texture to it. Even more textured are the blue curtains…
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.
In the last fifteen or so years the concerns about vaccinations, and particularly the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccination (MMR) have come to the forefront of societies debates from a limited connection to autism that is most likely associated to the correlation between onset of symptoms of autism and autism spectrum disorders and standard immunization practices. The fear created a general public that was afraid to allow their children to get the life saving MMR and in turn many parents have denied their children vaccinations at all. Parents' fears of some connection between the vaccination and/or its ingredient makeup cause or trigger autism and an accompanying serious bowel disease is related to a single, very limited research study conducted in the UK (n 12). There has been a substantial increase in incidents of autism over the last 20 or so years and the extreme social, physical, emotional, financial and…
Matson Ronald R. PhD, Scientific Laws and Theories May 1, 2008 http://science.kennesaw.edu/~rmatson/Biol%203380/3380theory.html.
Purcell, Edward a. The Crisis of Democratic Theory: Scientific Naturalism & the Problem of Value. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1973.
Sawin, Enoch I. "The Scientific Method and Other Bases for Evaluation Procedures." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 62.4 (2005): 386.
Steuernagel, T. Increases in Identified Cases of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Policy Implications. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 16(3), 2005, 138.
hat is needed, then, is a concept of free will that can effectively counter the claims of naturalists that there is no physical basis for free will. It requires a different kind of free will that permits moral responsibility to be leveled squarely at the individual without ignoring the reality that sometimes there are external causes to internal decisions. In fact, some philosophers have even used the conceptual tools of the naturalists to make the argument that free will can exist in a deterministic world. Daniel Dennet argues that the deterministic universe provides the reliable framework of reality by which informed, individual choices can be made (Bailey par. 14-17). ithout some determinism in the universe, it would be impossible for free will to functionally exist, because no one would ever be able to make a rational choice in a purely chaotic world. So free will requires some level of determinism.…
Bailey, Ronald. "Pulling Our Own Strings." Reason May 2003. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.reason.com/news/show/28782.html .
Clark, Tom. "Is Free Will a Necessary Fiction?" Naturalism.org. Nov. 2005. 3 Mar. 2007 http://www.naturalism.org/fiction.html.
D'Holbach, Baron. "We Are Completely Determined." In Philosophy: The Quest for Truth. 6th ed. Ed. Louis P. Pojman. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006: 333-338.
Frost, S.E. Basic Teachings of the Great Philosophers. New York: Anchor Books, 1989.
Bellows uses a very vigorous slashing brushwork throughout this painting, this technique creates very dynamic lines which add to the surreal yet energetic nature of this painting. For Eakins, his painting used much softer lines and this is evident in the detail of the painting. By using softer lines he accomplishes his purpose of creating a very happy and uplifting picture that seems to calm and soothe rather than cause stark attention as in Bellows' painting.
A b) Both the subject within these two paintings is nude boys, for George Bellow, the painting of these kids represented a depiction of the natural body but also of the commonplace. His purpose is to show the stimulation he has received from his new environment in New York City, where he moved from Ohio. It also reveals the excitement of a new century, and the piece is meant to a celebration of energy,…
On the contrary, if I had been able to be a clergyman or an art dealer, then perhaps I should not have been fit for drawing and painting, and I should neither have resigned nor accepted my dismissal as such. I cannot stop drawing because I really have a draughtsman's fist, and I ask you, have I ever doubted or hesitated or wavered since the day I began to draw? (Van Gogh, Letter to Theo, April 1882).
That he was a talented artist was undeniable. Yet, art was no substitute for religion, and, further still, art was no direct avenue to sanctifying grace. Van Gogh's increasing sense of alienation and feeling of despair would continue unabated -- evidenced by he and his brother Theo's inability to live together for long; the inability of his dream of an artists' collective (the artistic equivalent of a kind of monastic community) to come…
Fritillaries. (2006). Musee d'Orsay. Retrieved from http://www.musee-
Garrigou-Lagrange, R. (1938). The Three Ways of the Spiritual Life. London: Burns
evil" paradigm. However, unlike in earlier gothic works, there is no allusion to priests or monks as players on the side of "evil." In fact, the absence of religion and religious restraints appears to be an element of Stevenson's theme: Jekyll, acting on the doctrine of Rousseau, which is to follow one's "nature," unmoors himself from the restraints traditionally made available by religious conviction. Jekyll, being a man of science, rather than of theology, puts to test the doctrine that divorced the old world from the new, and what he finds is that the doctrine is not good. hile the earlier works of gothic horror (like The Monk) pointed out corruption within the clergy, Stevenson's gothic work appears to do the opposite: it points out the corruption in Naturalism: "I not only recognised my natural body from the mere aura and effulgence of certain of the powers that made up…
Stevenson, R.L. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. NY: Barnes and Noble
relied upon within the world of communications. This discussion will focus on the theory of narrative paradigm. We will discuss when and why the theory developed and how the theory of narrative paradigm has been researched. Then we will discuss the theory in detail including the views of rational world paradigm. In addition we will summarize what scholars believe to be true about the paradigm theory. We will also discuss suggestions for future research in this area.
When and Why the Theory was developed
The Narrative Paradigm theory was created in the 1970's by Walter Fisher. (Narrative Paradigm Theory, n.d) Fisher created the theory because he felt that the rational world paradigm did not take into consideration the need for the narrative form of communication. Fisher asserts that the rational world paradigm only took into consideration the argumentative nature of communication a theory that was made famous by philosophers such…
Aiex, Nola Kortner.(1988) Storytelling: Its Wide-Ranging Impact in the Classroom. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills. (ERIC Digest Identifier: ED299574) Retrieved on December 1, 2002 at http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed299574.html
Note from Walter Fisher.(n.d.). Retrieved on December 1, 2002 at http://www.engl.niu.edu/wac/fisher.html
Fisher, Walter R. (1984). "Narration as Human Communication Paradigm: The Case of Public Moral Argument," Communication Monographs, Vol. 51, pp. 1-22.
Fournier, Stephen. (2002). "Walter Fisher's Narrative Paradigm." Retrieved on December 1, 2002 at http://stevefournier01.tripod.com/hist/hist-4.html
Victorian Prose and Poetry, by Lionel Trilling and Harold Bloom. Specifically, it will discuss ealism and compromise in Victorian Literature. How do Victorian writers search for realistic compromises with the world around them?
In Victorian literature, ealism followed the age of omanticism, and ealism quickly evolved into Naturalism, practiced by many authors of the time, including Jack London, Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, and Sinclair Lewis. "There was a time when the intellectual and spiritual life of Europe as a whole was dominated by neo-classicism; it was dominated in the next era by omanticism; and then it was dominated by ealism, which developed into Naturalism" (Baker 58). ealism in literature attempted to portray things as they really were, scientifically and without emotion, placing man in balance with nature.
The task of realism, Howells felt, was to defend "the people" against its adversaries. The realist, he wrote, "feels…
Baker, Joseph E., ed. The Reinterpretation of Victorian Literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1950. Borus, Daniel H. Writing Realism: Howells, James, and Norris in the Mass Market. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
Decker, Clarence R. The Victorian Conscience. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1952.
Stedman, Edmund Clarence, ed. A Victorian Anthology, 1837-1895; Selections Illustrating the Editor's Critical Review of British Poetry in the Reign of Victoria. Boston; New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1895.
Trilling, Lionel and Bloom, Harold, eds. Victorian Prose and Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.
Emile Zola and the Movies
The translation of any work of literature into another medium, even one apparently so closely aligned with the written word as film, is always a chancy proposition. While literature and film focus themselves on the same targets within the minds of their audiences; that of completing an organic connection between the conception and the reception of an idea, the very natures of the two disciplines demand different things of the person who is reading or watching the material. As exciting and enveloping as the best film experience may be, it is still, in its essence a passive experience; every action is already determined, "painted," and set in celluloid by the filmmaker. On the other hand, literature demands much more of its audience. Even when a writer devotes paragraphs to descriptions of various characters or activities, the reader still plays an integral part in the final…
Connors M. & Craddock, J. VIDEOHOUND'S GOLDEN MOVIE RETRIEVER.
Visible Ink Publishing, Detroit, 1998.
Horton, A. & Magretta, J. MODERN EUROPEAN FILMMAKERS AND THE ART OF ADAPTATION. New York, Frederick Unger Publishing Company, 1981.
Katz, Ephraim. THE FI LM ENCYCLOPEDIA. A Perigee Book, New York, New
Foot: Moral Beliefs
Philippa Foot's Moral Beliefs
The concept of moral relativism is extremely troubling for many. Indeed, the human animal is desperately in need of a certain "moral order," or an intense longing to have life's issues, events and decisions neatly classified into realms of "good" and "bad," "right" and wrong. However, as most individuals blessed with a life that stretches into adulthood know all too well, other's conceptions of good and bad actions often differ greatly from one's own -- and, even more puzzling, those "others" seem to genuinely believe in their own conception of reality just as much an individual how holds the completly opposite view. In her work Moral Beliefs, Philippa Foot gives her take on this issue; namely in her response to the viability of systems of belief that allow moral eccentrism (the foundation on which moral relativism is built), and her belief…
Big Bang vs. Six-Day Creation Theory
Man knows that the universe exists; however, his curiosity has not allowed him to dwell on this knowledge alone. Throughout his brief history on this planet, man has struggled to understand his "place in this universe, and furthermore, the place of the universe itself" (Laocco & othstein, n.d.). For ages, he has attempted to find answers on the age of the universe, as well as on the origins of matter and the greater universe. In his quest, man has moved from the mystical beginnings of earth's origin to the development of scientific theories, some of which have only made the subject more complex and intriguing. Man's continued interest in the subject has led to the emergence of two cadres of creationists - the young earth creationists, who posit that earth was created by a supernatural being, over a span of six days, thousands of…
Dean, D. (2003). Is the Truth Out There: A Journey through Critical Thinking that Spans Man's History, Origin, and Place in the Universe. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Landgraf, K. (2011). No Bones about It: The Truth about Fossils and Other Science Myths. Mustang, Oklahoma: Tate Publishing
LaRocco, C. & Rothstein, B. (n.d.). The Big Bang: It Sure was Big. University of Michigan. Retrieved 23 June 2014 from http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/bigbang.htm
Taylor, B. (2008). The Late Great Ape Debate. Santa Rosa, CA: Standard Publishing.
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
As Cline points out, Buffet resembles Bill Gates who when asked about Christianity said that he is not a believer and does not attend church regularly, but finds the moral teachers of Christianity useful and inspiring (Cline 2006). Is this so bad? Both of them can teach most people about the need to work, save money and then give back to the society that nurtured them.
This seeming dispute between faith and reason is hardly new and is an illusion that is easily dispelled. After all, Christianity did not come out of a box with Luther's theses in 1517. The seeds had already been planted in the High Middle Ages/Early Renaissance as learning revived in the wake of the Crusades. This cultural awakening of the High Middle Ages raised issues that scholars such as the great Thomas Aquinas wrestled with in his classical Summa Contra Gentiles and Summa Theologica. He…
' ut I am not simply rejecting this: I am demanding an explanation of how it could be so. How could this intuitive process justify something unless the process is empirical? The a priori is mysterious because we do not have even a hint of a satisfactory answer. It seems like magic that a process in someone-s [SIC] mind can justify her belief in an external worldly fact without that justification arising from some sort of experiential link to that fact."
Although onJour unarguably demonstrates admirably the inadequacies of empiricism as a means of explaining a priori knowledge, it is not clear, at least not within onJour's paradigm, that rationalism is more successful. In fact, many would argue that onjour's account of rationalism is precisely the one that has led so many to be wary of the a priori in the first place.
Laurence onJour's Epistemic Justification: Internal-ism vs. Externalism,…
BonJour, Laurence. "The Dialectic of Foundationalism and Coherentism." A Companion to Epistemology. Eds. E. Sosa and J. Dancy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.
BonJour, Laurence. Epistemic Justification: Internalism vs. Externalism, Foundations vs. Virtues. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.
BonJour, Laurence. Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
BonJour, Laurence. In Defense of Pure Reason. London: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
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As Cline points out, Buffet resembles Bill Gates who when asked about Christianity said that he is not a believer and does not attend church regularly, but finds the…Read Full Paper ❯
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' ut I am not simply rejecting this: I am demanding an explanation of how it could be so. How could this intuitive process justify something unless the process…Read Full Paper ❯