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THE CASE OF MARY SMITH
Records say that Mary Smith, in her first three weeks of employment as administrative assistant, failed to show fitness for the job. Instead of accurately and effectively performing all the transactional duties of her position, she misfiled documents and was late in completing her first tasks. And instead of exhibiting interpersonal skills with all the employees, she preferred to frequently associate only with certain employees. She is supposed to provide support assistance to her boss so that the office will run smoothly. Those seeking to transact business with him must first pass through her, the administrative assistant. Other employees were not pleased to learn that Mary Smith would be working with them. Unfortunately, her case will not be too easy to handle because she is the daughter of one of the firm's founders.
An administrative assistant performs all the transactional duties for…
Brookins, M. (2012). Consequences of nepotism. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved
on July 20, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_12115748_consequences-nepotism.htm
HRH (2012). Nepotism and its dangers in the workplace. HR Hero Line: Business and Legal Resources. Retrieved on July 20, 2012 from http://www.hrhero.com/hl/articles/2008/10/10/nepotism-and-its-dangers-in-the-workplace
Henderson, K.J. (2012). Administrative Assistant job description. eHow: Demand Media,
Nepotism in Business
Nepotism is referred to the favors and benefits provided to the relatives. These favors are provided on the basis of their relationship with the person having powers to provide them benefits. The notable concern in nepotism is that the favors are not provided on the basis of merit rather the person is obliged to extend undue favors due to their family or friendship relations. The study conductd by Arasli, Bavik, and Ekiz (2006) investigates the relationship of nepotism in promoting dissatisfaction among employees of an organization. It further investigates various job satisfaction and job retention aspects related to the human resources management in business. The judgmental sampling approach is adopted to conclude the study. The employee's hotels in northern Cyprus are selected as sample and questioner results are analyzed to understand the relevance of the hypothesis. The issues related to nepotism in business are also investigated in…
Arasli, H., Bavik, A., & Ekiz, E.H. (2006). The effects of nepotism on human resource management: The case of three, four and five star hotels in Northern Cyprus. International journal of sociology and social policy, 26(7/8), 295-308.
The Problems and a Potential esolution in a Case of Nepotism
Problems Caused by Mary
Mary Smith, the daughter of a founder of the firm has been hired despite a lack of skills needed to perform the basic duties for her position. This is a case of nepotism and has lead to some problems in the company. The problem may be seen as both practical and in terms of the psychological impact on employee relations.
At the practical level Mary has not been performing tasks which are likely to increase work loads for others, create delays and general increase levels of inefficiency. The delays in delivering initial assignments may delay other tasks and misfiled documents may be lost, so the problem requires the firm to invest more resources in rectifying the mistakes. These types of issue can be associated not only with inefficiency, but increasing costs that will negatively…
Aguinis, Herman; Pierce, Charles A, (2008), Enhancing the relevance of organizational behavior by embracing performance management research, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 139 -- 145
Arasli, Huseyin; Tumer, Mustafa, (2008), Nepotism, favoritism and cronyism: A study of their effects on job stress and job satisfaction in the banking industry of North Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personality, 16(9), 1237-1250.
Kele?, Hatice Necla; Ozkan, Tu-ba K-ral; Bezirci, Muhammet, (2011, Sept), A Study On The Effects Of Nepotism, Favoritism And Cronyism On Organizational Trust In The Auditing Process In Family Businesses In Turkey, International Business & Economics Research Journal 10(9), 9-15
Laker, D.; Williams, M, (2003, November), Nepotism's effect on employee satisfaction and organizational commitment: An empirical analysis, International Journal of Human Resources, 3(3), 191-202.
Political Scandals in Canada
A Political Scandal Involving Fraud
During the federal election in Canada in 2011 there was an electoral fraud issue that became known as the "Robocalls Scandal." This fraudulent activity took place in Ontario, in a town called Guelph.
Robocalls are previously recorded and automated phone calls to people from a computer that is programmed to call all phone numbers in a given area; usually robocalls carry a political message asking voters to behave a certain way.
In this case in Canada, the fraud took place because the robocalls were not from the organization they claimed to be from. People receiving the phone calls believed the calls were from the official group, "Elections Canada" but they were not from Elections Canada. The robocalls told voters their polling location had changed, and urged them to go to another place to vote that turned out to be a fraud.…
Daly, Brian. (2012). Bribery scandal rocks Canada Revenue. News Canada. Retrieve August
12, 2012, from http://www.saultstar.com .
MPR News. (2009). Why should the public care about a politician's private life? Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from http://minnesota.publicradio.org .
Relationships in the workplace are often positive in nature and allow for employees to enjoy their work experience. It is not uncommon for life-long friendships, romances, or even marriages to be born out of the relationships of coworkers. However, these same relationships can also create a very uncomfortable work environment.
Perhaps the most controversial workplace relationship is the office romance. Detrimental effects of these types of relationships range from sexual harassment suits to retaliatory actions after the breakup to jealousy from coworkers who believe that a person has climbed the corporate ladder by "sleeping his or her way to the top." (Nations usiness, Pg 1)
The Society of Human Resource Management surveyed six hundred human resource professionals in 1998. This poll concluded that thirteen percent of employers had a written policy on workplace romance. Fourteen percent claimed that they had a "clear understanding" of expected behaviors even though there was…
Nation's Business. (1998). Retrieved February 26, 2003, from findarticles.com Website: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1154/n7_v86/20797623/print.jhtml
Olian, Judy. (2001). On the Job: Workplace Romances are Managements Business. Retrieved February 26, 2003, from Post-Gazette. Website: http://www.post-gazette.com/businessnews/20011120olian1120bnp6.asp
Mann, Lisa. (1994). Resolving Gender Conflict in the Workplace, Consensual and Nonconsensual Conduct. Retrieved February 26, 2003, from Modrall Sperling. Website: http://www.modrall.com/articles/article_44.html
McIntyre, Kelly S. (1998). The Office -- the Place to Look for Love. Retrieved February 26, 2003 from Vantage 2000. Website: http://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/tipjan99/tipjan98/hartel.html
activity I completed was an internship at Public School 180. During the course of this internship I was able to engage in several prolonged activities with my mentor, Mr. Gary Williams, who was the principal of the school. The form of interaction I had with Mr. Williams involved a formal interview session with him, as well as a meeting near the end of the internship in which he helped to clarify a number of ideas for me related to one of the focuses of my activity, the exploration of the value of personal/professional relationships as related to promotions. Mr. Williams was instrumental in enabling me to revise my viewpoint on this issue, as were a pair of articles I read related to this subject including oof and Presswood's (2004) valuation of charisma as a key characteristic of leadership (p.3). Additionally, from Adamek's article (2007) I learned the importance of fostering…
Adamek, M.S. (2007, July 1). Elements of leadership development: What contributes to effective leadership? Music Therapy Perspectives, 25(2), 121-125.
Roof, J. & Presswood, K. (2004, Spring). Is it leadership or management? College and University, 79(4), 3-9.
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…
formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of
textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir,
envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve
major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately
produce 26% of Israel's
Metal Workers Employment Law Case eview
One of the primary functions of the judiciary is to clearly define the parameters of legislative intent, as the passage of any law necessarily creates parties with a vested interest in bypassing or overturning the statute, and in the case of Local 28, Sheet Metal Workers v. EEOC 478 U.S. 421 (1986) the Supreme Court was again tasked with assessing the validity of a law via its method of application. This case of Sheet Metal Workers v. EEOC presented the high court with an opportunity to decisively delineate the remedies afforded to correct violations of Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964, which prohibited employers from discriminating on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. When the New York State Commission for Human ights identified New York City's Local 28 Joint Apprenticeship Committee (JAC) as a gross violator of…
142 U.S.C. § 2000e-2000e-17 (1982)
Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424, 429 (1971).
Moreno, P.D. (1999). From direct action to affirmative action: Fair employment law and policy in america 1933-1972. (3rd ed.). Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.
Napolitano, S. (1987). Interpreting the legislative history of section 706(g) of title vii. Boston College Third World Law Journal, 7(2), 263-276. Retrieved from http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1378&context=twlj
External to the small family business, all of the above practices are not appropriate, not ethical and sometimes grounds for workplace discrimination. Hence it is considered unethical using one's position of power to benefit friends and family at the cost of the customer and is considered corrupt practice and contemptible behavior. ("Nepotism: Adverse Effects on Employee Morale- Favoritism of Close Friends and elatives in Workplace," 2007)
There is a myth that equity in employment has to do everything about quotas. But on the other hand, equality with regard to employment is not always related to 'quotas' while it is regarding objectives which are flexible, targets which are rational which the employers are able to use, similar to every business goals as planning and evaluation tools. On the other hand quotas as rigid and random thresholds that must be reached on case one is desirous of avoiding 'penalty'. Based…
Iowa Civil Rights Commission. (n. d) "Iowa Civil Rights Commission Disclaimer"
Retrieved 25 April, 2009 from http://www.iowa.gov/government/crc/docs/Affirmative%20Action%201.1.ppt
N.A. (2004) "Employment Equity- Myths and Realities" Retrieved 25 April, 2009 from http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/lp/lo/lswe/we/publications/mr/myths_realities.shtml
N.A. (2007) "Nepotism: Adverse Effects on Employee Morale- Favoritism of Close Friends
This would play a role in helping to bring the Czech Republic into the EU in 2004. The effect that this would have on the Prague Stock Exchange is that it would cause it to rise to 1,940. At which point, it would have a severe down trend economy during 2008 and into 2009. The only difference is: that the various reforms and economic policies that the government was using at the time, helped to contribute to mitigating the effects of the slowdown (as the economy would experience a less severe economic contraction of 3.4%). ("Czech Republic")
The price movements of the Slovak equity market in the last 10-15 years
The ratislava Stock Exchange was founded in 1991 and has been in operation since 1993. ("asic Information") Like what occurred in the Czech Republic the Slovak stock market went through two bear markets that would last until 1998 -- 1999.…
"Basic Information." Bratislava Stock Exchange. 2010. Web. 24 Apr. 2010
"Czech Republic." State Department. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2010
"History of the Exchange." Prague Stock Exchange. 2009. Web. 24 Apr. 2010
leadership pitfalls observed in the Value of Valuing Employees.
Comaford described common means by which organizational managers end up communicating the exact opposite of the message to its workforce that it genuinely and consistently showing that it matters to the organization. Pursuing the matter further, she presented ways by which they can avoid these pitfalls, which give the wrong impression to employees, to the effect that their management has absolutely no regard for them. Comaford's six pitfalls include: not responding to workers' emails, not providing either negative or positive feedback, not celebrating victories, burning out workers, acknowledging employees only when they commit a mistake, and showing favoritism (The Value of Valuing Employees).
Considerable focus on employees' feelings is, for a large number of leaders, a foreign concept. However, when Comaford's strategy is adopted and significant positive results ensue, managers are highly willing to transform their leadership approach.
Homework Market -- Your Homework Helper. (n.d.). The Value of Valuing Employees. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from http://www.homeworkmarket.com/sites/default/files/q4/09/07/value_of_valuing
Lutz, A. (2012). Business Insider. Marissa Mayer Tip On Preventing Employee Burn Out - Business Insider. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/marissa-mayer-tip-on-preventing-employee-burn-out-2012-9
Tugend, A. (2013). The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia. How to Give Effective Feedback, Both Positive and Negative - The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/06/your-money/how-to-give-effective-feedback-both-positive-and-negative.html
Vaynerchuk, G. (n.d.). GaryVaynerchuk.com. When You Don't Celebrate Your Wins, You Hold Your Company Back. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from http://www.garyvaynerchuk.com/when-you-dont-celebrate-your-wins-you-hold-your-company-back/
The business cultue of the United Kingdom is chaacteized by the value of fee economy and pivate popety (Rendtoff, 2009). At anothe level, it is maked by a desie to manage wok and life issues. The employees in Bitish oganizations have long been maked out fo thei elatively leisuely pace of wok and thei pioity fo elationship issues ove wok elated issues. Compaed with thei Ameican countepats, employees in UK companies demonstate a less aggessive wok ethic and seek to maintain a low pofile. Display of wealth and pesonality taits is geneally discouaged in Bitish society because a highe emphasis is placed on undestatement and social modesty. Business manages typically demonstate a patenalistic elationship which is also appeciated by thei subodinates. Bypassing one's supeio is disappoved in Bitish oganizational cultue (Giffin & Moohead, 2011). At the same time, employees in UK companies enjoy geate autonomy than employees in India o…
references with Regard to Compensation Criteria in the State-Owned Sector in China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22 (9), p.1986-2010.
Yu, T. (2011) Bureaucratic Hierarchy vs. Feudal hierarchy: A Study on the Organizational Culture of China's SOEs. International Journal of Business and Management, 6 (2), p.139-146.
Zhang, H. (2003) Advances of Psychological Science in China. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (5), p.328.
Zhang, Z. & Jia, M. (2010). Using Social Exchange Theory to Predict the Effects of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Corporate Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China. Human Resource Management, 49 (4), p.743-765.
In fact many identify as European as opposed to Latin American. In addition, although Spanish is spoken in Argentina and it is the official language of the country, it is also a quite different type of Spanish than the Spanish spoken in other Latin American countries ("Argentina cultural guide").
In addition to the aforementioned differences, there are also differences associated with Business Etiquette. In Argentina the culture is driven by relationships and as such when people are conducting businesses they tend to be more comfortable conducting business with people that they know and they are already familiar with. However, in London it will often be the case that the person that business is conducted with is not someone that is familiar to the individual. Because this is the case it will be important to prepare the Argentineans who will work in London by educating them concerning the norms of business…
Argentina cultural guide. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from;
Business Etiquette. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from; http://www.london-
An examination of the four basic steps of policymaking reveals this quite clearly.
The first step in the policymaking process is the agenda setting that must come before policies are even considered. Bringing problems to the attention of policy makers and thus setting the policy agenda is accomplished by many different players with different aims, from citizen groups to businesses to media organizations and many others. All of these groups r individual representatives (and sometimes simple individuals) can use a variety of methods for setting the agenda, form private meetings with policy makers to speaking at town hall meetings or city councils to engaging in media or public awareness campaigns. In larger governments, lobbying is a major source of agenda-setting activity, as the interests of groups that engage lobbying services are brought to the direct and immediate attention of government representatives in what amounts to a pay-for-play system. The political…
Gerston, L. (2010). Public Policymaking: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Texas Constitution and Statutes. (2011). Government Code Chapter 573. Accessed 14
October 2011. http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…
Diem, Ngo Diem' Retrieved at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/bios/29.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Ngo Dinh Diem - Encarta: An Encyclopedia Article' Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576219/Ngo_Dinh_Diem.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Colby's Vietnam: History Misrepresented' Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/099.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Letter to John F. Kennedy' Retrieved at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/lettdiem.htm Accessed on April 5, 2004
Organizational Development for a Family Owned Business
Organization: Hightowers Petroleum Company
Hightowers Petroleum Company is a private company owned by Stephen Hightower. The company is an offspring of a string of family businesses originally started by Yudell Hightower, who relocated to Middletown Ohio in the 1940's, from the cotton fields in Mississippi. Yudell would eventually sell his janitorial business and invest the proceeds in his son, Stephen Hightower's business. Today the company employs three generations of Hightower's and continues to distribute gasoline, diesel, biofuels and related products and services throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Africa.
The company's mission statement reads "Fueling America's Needs one Customer at a Time" and this is born from the fact that the owner started with one contract and one client. He knew that if he really concentrated all his efforts of delivering excellent service to that one client, who happens to…
Andrews, J. (2010). Managing Growth: Best Practices of Family-Owned Businesses. Honors Projects in Management. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.bryant.edu/honors_management/6
Caspar, C., Dias, A., & Elstrodt, H. (2010). The five attributes of enduring family businesses. Retrieved August 1, 2015, from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/organization/the_five_attributes_of_enduring_familybusinesses
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Dyer, W.G. (1988). Culture and continuity in family firms. Family Business Review, 1(1), 37-50.
Where, he would portray himself as a staunch anti-communist that supported the ideas of liberty. Yet, when he had taken control of the country he immediately began to rule with an iron fist. This authoritarian rule and the way that Diem was able to single-handedly throw elections, would set the tone as to what kind of President he would be. Then, when you combine this with the fact that just 10% of the country was Catholic; and that the Catholics held a position of privilege in the country. Meant that the actions by Diem; would be seen as even more illegitimate by the people. This is especially troubling when the French had raised concerns about a rising uddhist threat, as 70% of the population was uddhist. These two elements allowed for the overall actions against the Diem government to increase during his reign as President. Where, both the North and…
South Vietnam -- DCI Briefing. GWU. 1963. 21 Feb. 2010
Carter, James. Inventing Vietnam: The United States and State Building 1954 -1968. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Jacobs, Seth. America's Miracle Man in Vietnam: Ngo Dinh Diem, Religion,
and U.S. Intervention in Southeast Asia. Durham, Duke University Press, 2005.
If Nigerian local content law is not complied with equires licensee to submit a detailed programme for recruitment and training of Nigerians
(Nigerian Local Content Policy)
2.3. History of the LCL
The Local Content Law was signed into law in April 2010 by acting President Goodluck Jonathan. In brief, the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry Local Content Development Bill 2010 places "…obligations on upstream oil companies in the areas of finance, community and local workforce" (Examining Nigeria's Local Content Act). The process that led to this Bill began in 2007. The initiator of the Bill, Senator Lee Maeba, provides some interesting insight into the originating impetus that led to the final acceptance of the Act. He states,
I saw that there is no law guiding the activities of Nigerian companies in the oil and gas industry and because of that, there has been a capital drift...and that is the reason…
Adefulu a. Nigeria: National Treatment & Nigeria's New Local Content Legislation.
Retrieved from http://www.mondaq.com/article.asp?articleid=102400
Adefulu O. ( 2010) Does the Nigerian Oil and Gas Industry Content Development Act
Conflict with the Country's International Treaty Obligations? Retrieved from http://odujinrinadefulu.com/documents/Does%20Nigeria%27s%20local%20content%20legislation%20breach%20its%20international%20obligations.pdf
wikipedia.org/wiki/Manager, last accessed on September 28, 2007
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Scott Love, October 13, 2004, Chaos Management for the Resilient Leader, Asheville, http://www.expertclick.com/NewsReleaseWire/default.cfm?Action=ReleaseDetail&ID=7315,last accessed on September 28, 2007
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Daniel Goleman, October 20, 2006, Cram 101 Textbook Outline for Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead With Emotional Intelligence, First edition, AIPI Publishing
Management Styles, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute…
Daniel Goleman, October 20, 2006, Cram 101 Textbook Outline for Primal Leadership: Learning to Lead With Emotional Intelligence, First edition, AIPI Publishing
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Christie announced on 22 February 2011 an additional $250 million bill in funding for education programs. The announcement was part of Christie's budget rollout of the same day, when he detailed how the state's spending will be dolled out and taxes collected in 2012. As of February 2011, Christie also announced to also make a $500 million contribution to New Jersey's ailing pension system after skipping a $3 billion payment in 2010. A law the governor signed in 2010 calls for paying at least one-seventh what actuaries say is needed, which would be in the $500 million range. Christie has promised to revamp how New Jersey funds its public schools. In the past several years, the state has spent about $10 billion annually on education, though Christie cut funding to local districts in the current fiscal year after federal stimulus money expired. are pushing Christie to send more money to…
Works Cited List
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New Jersey Politics > Budget>
Oakley Pub and Gill
As John R. Walke (2008) descibes in The Restauant: Fom Concept to Opeation, "chain estauants have some advantages and some disadvantages ove independent estauants" (p. 8). What the chain offes in its favo is public ecognition of a name customes can tust, moe extensive advetising, and geate ability to discount. Independent estauants, on the othe hand, also have some advantages -- they ae not bound by any copoate model, they ae significantly easie to stat up, and they can even boom into thei "chains." This pape will look at one independent estauant, called Oakley Pub and Gill, and identify its stengths and weaknesses, fom cost-contolling to sanitation, food poduction, leadeship, and staffing.
One cost-contol challenge fo Oakley would have to be the fact that its food and beveage costs outinely hove aound 35%. Cost, accoding to Randy White (2005), should not be something so high,…
references checked -- all before the hiring process is completed (Staffing Best Practices).
In this way, Oakley could easily eliminate some of the problems it has been having lately through the kind of nepotism that never translates into success. A better plan of action would serve the restaurant well when it comes to recruiting and staffing its outfit. In fact, some of the same qualities that Arlinghaus should be showing (humility, trust, integrity) could easily be characteristics that one would find on the hiring template. Creating that template would be the best way to improve the staffing process at Oakley Pub and Grill.
As John R. Walker observes, a casual restaurant like Oakley has a defining presence: "it fits the societal trend of a more relaxed lifestyle…[with] signature food items, creative bar menus…[and] a comfortable decor" (p. 9). Oakley does all this -- now all it needs to do is fine-tune its services, reduce its costs, employ better food production, enhance its managers' leadership skills, and afford itself a staffing template. Then Oakley will be a more successful independent restaurant.
Therefore, Americans seeking to do business with Saudi nationals would be well advised to research their prospective Saudi counterparts thoroughly but to make preparations to travel to Saudi Arabia first before actually initiating contact with Saudi business people. Doing so and calling after arriving in Saudi Arabia instead of initiating contact from abroad demonstrates awareness of and respect for Saudi business customs right off the bat and in a way that should be noticed by Saudis, especially those who might be familiar with the fact that the norm in the U.S. is simply to call first or email to arrange the first meeting.
Saudis seeking to do business with American firms should understand that in the U.S., it might be inappropriate to travel to the location of a business first and then make initial contact expecting that the meeting will necessarily be planned during their stay. That is because in…
Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership
Strategies for the 21st Century
Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003). Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia.
Survival Books: London
Dynatronics Corporation (formerly Dynatronics Laser Corporation) was started in 1979 with the initial intent of developing laser technology for use in medical procedures. Unable to acquire the necessary FDA approval required to market the technology the company turned to other areas within the medical rehabilitation market. Seeing an opening in the market for ultrasound electrotherapy technology the company soon found a distribution channel that could support the new product offerings. Subsequent years led to the company developing additional products that have been used to treat chronic pain, test physical ability with computer software and to provide other forms of therapy. In addition, the company has ventured into the aesthetic market and has patented and distributed microdermabrasion technology for use by both aestheticians and plastic surgeons. Dynatronics has made several acquisitions over the years that have met with mixed results. The purchase of a rehabilitation…
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Venice During Renaissence
Renaissance literally meaning re-birth was a cultural movement that started at the end of middle Ages from 14th to 17th century. The movement started from Italy and spread into whole of the Europe. The age of renaissance is attributed to a heightened sense of toleration and reasoning in every aspect of life. Arts, craft, literature, politics, and science, all were re-shaped in the renaissance era. hile the birth of renaissance is widely attributed to Florence, Venice was another city of Italy that presented an interesting but challenging outlook to a historian. Venice during the renaissance era was an oligarchy but was called Republic of Venice. ith hardly any resemblance with modern day democracy, Venice enjoyed affluence and abundance due being the gateway of trade activities in Europe.
The republic also enjoyed a relatively stable political environment and trade activities thrived in the era. Glassworkers, woodworkers, artisans, and…
Bouwsma, William J. Venice and the Defense of Republican Liberty: Renaissance Values in the Age of the Counter Reformation. University of California Press, 1984.
Manchester, William. A World Lit Only by Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance-Portrait of an Age. Little, Brown, 1992.
Mason, Antony. Everyday Life in Renaissance Times. Creative Company, 2005.
McGough, Laura J. "Demons, nature, or God? Witchcraft accusations and the French disease in early modern Venice." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80.2 (2006): 219-246.
Management . There scenarios. Read scenarios carefully answer ability. Each scenario answered a maximum half page. I make 3 PAGES, excluding cover page.( YOU DO NOT HAVE TO MAKE COVER PAGE, I WILL DO IT) I attach assignment file.
Members of staff would have to receive fewer bonuses in order for Robert to get funds for hiring. Robert has introduced nepotism in the firm, which might have devastating effects in the end. Nancy was offered a job, not because of her qualifications, but in order for her to remain in the United States. This is a poor decision since Robert is not sure if she can manage to perform her duties.
Robert placed family above his employees, which demonstrates his leadership style. Members of staff might be disgruntled or demoralized with the lower bonus they receive. If the company does not perform as the previous year, there might…
Ethics in Management
Hiring ethical people
A couple things were interesting in chapter three namely attraction-selection-attrition cycle, title VII of the civil rights act, disparate impact, equal employment opportunity commission, and integrity tests. Attraction-selection-attrition cycle mainly deals with what attracts, and connects people to their place of work and vice versa (Dickson, Nieminen, & Biermeier-Hanson, 2012). Their own interests, personalities, values, and faith guide people towards the company they work for eventually. When an employee is satisfied with their work, it would be hard for them to resign, which makes more people to stay. Selection is meant to satisfy a given goal or fill a specific position. Therefore, it is vital to select the right person to suit the available position.
Disparate impact theory posits that any employment practices may be considered discriminatory if they have an adverse effect on specific persons. Protected classes of people may vary by statute,…
Dickson, M.W., Nieminen, L., & Biermeier-Hanson, B. (2012). Nepotism and organizational homogeneity: How the attraction -- selection -- attrition (ASA) process is accelerated by nonmerit-based decision making. Nepotism in organizations, 93-128.
Ones, D.S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F.L. (2012). Integrity tests predict counterproductive work behaviors and job performance well: Comment on Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, and Odle-Dusseau (2012).
Wilson, N. (2012). Uncovering teachers? beliefs through the development of a vision statement. Paper presented at the American Reading Forum Annual Yearbook [online].
According to Machiavelli, there are several different characteristics that must be exhibited to include: balanced generosity, compassion, honesty and the ability to listen to only select advisors. When looking at the first characteristic, balanced generosity, this means that a leader can not be too generous with the citizens. Otherwise, they will expect this generosity at all times, the moment that the leadership must increase taxes and have other financial burdens on the citizens, is when they will turn on them. This can affect the stability of the state, where the revenues generated from taxes are used to provide various services to the citizens. During times of crisis, the government may not have the funds necessary to fight wars or other situations that can come out of nowhere. While doing the opposite, being to frugal, will result in resentment from the citizens. This is because of the lack of services that…
Machiavelli, N. The Prince. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Print.
The Constitution is based on several key principals the most notable would include: separation of powers as well as checks and balances. Separation of powers is when there are clearly defined powers that are given to the various branches of: the government, the federal government and the states. Checks and balances is when one branch of the government will have the power to the check the authority of another branch. (Wood) for example, the Constitution would specifically spell out various powers of the executive branch. During the course of exercising these different powers, a citizen brings a lawsuit against the government in the judicial branch. Where, they claim that the actions that the executive branch is taking are unconstitutional. In this particular case, the executive branch would work off of the powers given to them in the Constitution. When they begin to overstep these boundaries, another branch of the government…
"British Political Parties." Politics Resources. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
"Fuel Efficiency Standards Hiked for 2011." MSNBC. 27 Mar. 2009. Web. 28 Apr. 2010.
"Key British Political Parties Pursuing Lilly Allen." One Indie. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
"Markets in New Territory in Three Party Britain." Thompson Reuters. 26 Arp. 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.
aters appears to have fairly limited ethics. His moral imperative appears to be guided by whatever will benefit him the most personally. Under his watch, the organization has become less effective and has seen its size reduced by 60%. aters does not feel the need to work hard, so he provides a poor example for his team as well. He is an ineffective leader, and is not respected by his charges. Beyond that, he is failing in his responsibility to the shareholders. As a manager, he has a duty to act as an agent of the shareholders (Donaldson & Davis, 1991). This means that he should be pursuing tactics that will earn the company the most profit. aters instead is pursuing self-interest to the detriment of earning the most profit.
The corporate culture appears to be contributing to the dilemma. Nobody in senior management appears to be especially concerned with…
Donaldson, L., Davis, J. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management. Vol. 16 (1).
Vitell, S., Davis, D. (1990). The relationship between ethics and job satisfaction: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 9 (6) 489-494.
These actions, along with the ones taken to address the various economic issues that are facing the government and the country, will help to sway favorable opinions towards Labor. Where, the party will be seen as one that was able to transform itself in the aftermath of the expenses scandal. This is significant because in the world of politics perceptions are the reality. If rown can change the focus and perceptions towards Labor favorably by addressing these issues, he will have been able to successfully transform his party. Over the course of time, this will help to make the political and economic system more responsive to the will of the people.
irch, Anthony. The ritish System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Cowell, Alan. "ritain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.
Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent.…
Birch, Anthony. The British System of Government. London: Routledge, 1998. Print.
Cowell, Alan. "Britain Wonders if More Elections Equal More Democracy." NY Times. 18 Mar.2007. Web. 5 May 2010.
Morris, Nigel. "Voters turn against War in Afghanistan." Independent. 28 July. 2009. Web. 5 May 2010.
Young, Toby. "Conservative Party Rise Confirmed." Daily Telegraph. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. 5 May 2010.
S. International Industries could face a situation like this. The existing legislation does not require safety equipment in one country that is standard in most countries. The company then needs to decide on a choice between using the safety equipment anyway or squeezing that last $500,000 in profit out of the well.
Ethical dilemmas occur frequently in business. They arise out of the conflict between two reasonable but mutually exclusive objectives. In each of these situations, the laws act as the source of ethical guidance, but that is not always the case. The ethical standards of one region do not always apply in other regions. This can be seen in international business with bribery, nepotism and the cultivating of political influence. For International Investments, such issues are going to occur constantly, given the businesses in which the company operates. It will be necessary for the company to develop an ethical…
EPA (2009). Cruise ship discharges. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/cruise_ships/
In this scenario, the forum makes an attempt to recognize the specific circumstances of each case, making serious efforts to hold each member of the organization liable "in so far as, and according to the extent to which, he has personally contributed to the malperformance of the agency" (pp. 191-192).
Turning to the actual question of why public accountabilities are necessary, Bovens expands upon five crucial functions that public accountability plays in democratic governance: democratic control, the enhancement of the integrity of public governance, the improvement of performance, the enhancement of the legitimacy of public governance, and providing public catharsis.
Bovens holds that aside from "just" being the hallmark of democratic governance, it is moreover the sine qua non-for democratic governance (p. 192). If we conceive of modern democracy as a series of "principal-agent relations," we can see how public accountability is the thread that strings the sequence together:…
Adelberg, S. & Batson, C.D. (1978). "Accountability and Helping: When Needs Exceed
Resources," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 343-50.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, J.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…
Fennell, D.A. (2006). Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Fennell, D.A. And Malloy, D.C. (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism: Practice, Theory and Synthesis. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Holden, a. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences. Oxon, England: Routledge.
Krippendorf, J. (1987) the Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Level 5 leadership is not enough
Company vision must be clear
Must be a belief in the future ( POW "Stockdale Paradox")
Change is often slow and incremental ("Flywheel")
Simplicity of direction and goals (hedgehogs, not foxes)
Judicious but forward-thinking use of new technology
Level 5 leaders have tremendous personal will combined with a lack of personal self-serving egotism
Abbot Labs: ending nepotism, by company insider and family heir George Cain. Risky, radical move but resulted in Abbot outperforming Merck and Pfizer
Cork Walgreen turning the modern Walgreen's into a pharmacy rather than a general store/soda shop
These leaders made necessary decisions and risked their personal popularity for the sake of their companies
Level 5 leadership is difficult to embody: Difficult to change a person's character
Selflessness seems, in many ways, innate in these leaders
Many had personal turning-points before becoming Level 5, such as Smith's battle with…
ood indicates that "everyone has different motivations and aspirations that they wish to achieve in their life. ork-life balance is about adjustments that can be made to working patterns to enable people to combine work with the other facets of their life. Bratton and Gold (2003: 105) de-ne work-life balance as, 'the relationship between the institutional and cultural times and spaces of work and non-work in societies where income is predominantly generated and distributed through labour markets.'" (p. 388) This implicates various aspects of one's working experience, including the manner in which one's responsibility's are balanced with one's personal needs; the degree to which social needs are constructed within the workplace; and the manner in which the employer goes about providing opportunities for attendance of personal needs for employees. This definition is also underscored by the basic assumption that employee morale and work/life balance are inextricable and that, additionally, these…
Allen, P. (2000). Wegmans Tops Best CNY Companies to Work for in America. The Business Journal, Central New York.
Ayree, S.; Srinivas, E.S. & Tan, H.H. (2005), Rhythms of Life: Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Balance in Employed Parents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 132-146.
Boyle, M. (2005). The Wegmans Way. CNNMoney.com.
CNNMoney. (2006). Fortune 100 Best Companies To Work For. CNN.com.
The study by Darrag et al. uses HRM as a mode to identify several clear obstacles to effective recruitment on an international scale. A major point of concern for MNCs, the article indicates, is the difficulty of penetrating culturally ingrained models of hiring and promoting. In such contexts as Egypt, Iran and Taiwan, the article reports that nepotism remains a powerful force preventing the use of merit in recruitment situations. These are concrete examples of the culturally-bound challenges facing the international human resource manager.
The Human Resource Planning theory states that these challenges require an HR department that is formulated according to the cultural particulars of a host country. The article by Darrag et al. concludes that where MNCs are able to make adjustments through their Human Resource Management departments, host countries are likely to see greater economic benefits. Yielding this presumption based on its case examination of MNCs operating…
Ardalan, K. (2008). Globalization and Culture: Four Paradigmatic Views. International Journal of Social Economics, 30(5), 513-534.
Brewster, C.; Sparrow, P. & Vernon, G. (2007). International Human Resource Management. London: CIPD.
Darrag, M.; Mohamed, A. & Abdel Aziz, H. (2010). Investigating Recruitment Practices and Probmes of Multinational Companies (MNCs) operating in Egypt. Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, 3(2), 99-116.
Morley, M.J. & Collings, D.G. (2004). Contemporary Debates and New Directions in HRM in MNCs. International Journal of Manpower, 25(6), 487-499.
Democracy and Clientelism:
Political clientelism is basically considered as the distribution of discriminatory benefits to people or groups in exchange for political support. Clientelism is a form of personal exchange that is always characterized by uneven balance of power between those involved and a sense of compulsion. Throughout history, this term has continued to create confusion and controversy due to the broad and varied range of political exchanges that it contains. Since it's a way with which the uneven and hierarchical exchanges of a feudal society are described, clientelism is also a means of describing the relationships between patrons and clients. The theory of democracy explains that voters have the right of making their choices freely, particularly during political elections. This concept has created new platforms for representation and political accountability as well as the benefits for sustaining and cultivating clientelistic bonds (Szwarcberg, 2009). In places with weak democracies, clients…
De Sousa Luis. "Clientelism and the Quality(ies) of Democracy Public and Policy Aspects."
Central European University, 2008. http://pdc.ceu.hu/archive/00004462/01/discwp-2008-02.pdf (accessed April 12, 2011).
Gallego, Jorge Andres & Raciborski, Rafal. "Clientelism, Income Inequality, and Social
Preferences: and Evolutionary Approach to Poverty Traps." Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2008. http://www.javeriana.edu.co/fcea/area_economia/inv/documents/clientelismIncomeInequalityandSocialPreferences_000.pdf (accessed April 12, 2011).
In addition, a series of joint ventures in which West German steel firms joined with East German firms and Krupp, Klockner, and Thyssen of Germany was pursuing other developmental initiatives in eastern Europe as well. Likewise, Arbed of Luxemburg was involved in steelmaking facilities in the former East Germany. According to Mangum et al., "The rising market for improved galvanizing for automobiles, appliances, canning, and other uses is producing a rash of joint ventures throughout the world. Some of these are internal to various countries and others involve international partners" (p. 74).
As a result, nearly 30% of the world's steel supply is now produced by plants belonging to companies that did not exist just 3 decades ago (Ahlberg, Pitkanen & Storsch 1999). As these authors point out, "Such upstarts have entered a global market that since 1980 has grown by less than 1% a year -- an average combining…
Ahlberg, J., A. Pitkanen and L.L. Schorsch. 1999. "Forging a New Era for Steel." The McKinsey
Altunisik, M.B. And O. Tur. 2004. Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change. New York:
Many people have become critics of the ethical standards of many industries, yet many such industries (pharmaceuticals, agribusiness, casinos, tobacco companies) remain highly successful.
Since the definition of ethics is always in the eye of the beholder, it is essential that the business frame the issue of ethics in a proprietary manner. Each firm will choose a slightly different version of ethics to which it will adhere, but that choice must reflect the ethical standards of potential investors and potential customers so as to continue to attract both groups. A business with a clearly thought-out, well-defined code of ethics is more likely to have those ethics permeate throughout the organization. If nothing else, the ethical principles will be consistent throughout the organization, such that management and other stakeholders know what to expect from their employees. That, at least, will provide insurance against the likelihood of an Enron-type situation where nobody…
Concord Business Development. (2001). Importance. Concord Business Development. Retrieved December 14, 2009 from http://www.concordbusiness.com/services/business_plans/importance.html
Cox, H. (2007). The importance of a business plan. EZine. Retrieved December 14, 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Importance-of-a-Business-Plan&id=834882
No author. (2007). Competitive Advantage. QuickMBA. Retrieved December 14, 2009 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/competitive-advantage/
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…
Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html
Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html
Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
The Greenwood neighborhood was literally, an ash heap. ut rebuild they did. The tightness of the community returned -- most say it never left -- and their religious faith kept them going. They returned as well to all of the values, traditions, and morals they held before the riot. With the support of each for their neighbor, slowly, it happened.
It became the "New Orleans" of Oklahoma during the 1920's with its jazz and blues music pumping out of saloons all along the Greenwood thoroughfare. y the 1960s, however, much of the population had moved away and the area became distressed. Urban renewal in the 1970s replaced part of the area with a highway loop. Several blocks of the old neighborhood were saved and became the Greenwood Historical District. A park and cultural center honor the Tulsa Race Riot, and the Chamber of Commerce plans a larger museum to…
Childs, R.E. "Black Wall Street." logicalthinker.tripod.com. http://logicalthinker.tripod.com/blackwall1.html (accessed September 7, 2009).
Davis, Kenneth C. Don't Know Much About History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Ellsworth, S. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa race riot of 1921. Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 1992.
Gates, Eddie Faye. "Oral History Accounts of the Tulsa Riot of 1921 by Black Survivors." Tulsa Reparations. http://www.tulsareparations.org/Vignettes.htm (accessed September 6, 2009).
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…
Callinicos, a., 2004, the Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx, 3rd Edition, Bookmarks Publication Ltd.
Engels, F., Marx, K., 2006, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Mondial
Groenwegen, P.D., 2003, Classics and Moderns in Economics: Essays on Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Economic Thought, Routledge
Marx, K., 2005, the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Mondial
However, this power is limited, and it only depends on the foundation's board members. Her power can mostly be exerted on her subordinates. Clark does not have any power over the board members. In fact, her power is established by these board members. However, Clark tries to increase her power by collaborating with female board members. This was not an unconditioned collaboration, since these board members only helped Clark gain more power by asking certain favors from Clark.
This case study presents the situation of a nonprofit foundation CEO whose power of action is extremely limited. Even more, Clark does not have the vote of confidence from board members. It seems that certain board members are trying to keep Clark from doing her job. Maybe they are worried that some negative aspects might come out regarding their activity. In these given circumstances, it was quite difficult for Clark to exert…
The country and the company itself present significant challenges that need to be overcome. Our company has invested a significant amount of money and time into the acquisition of this new company and we need to soon show our shareholders that this has been an inspired acquisition. Your mission will need to turn profit soon, but also to create a team of professionals who are motivated at their job and who will produce results in the next years.
The challenges you will encounter include a lack of motivation in their work, no long-term objectives, plans of action or approach and the incapacity to commit to change and accept the non-functionality of their own system. Things are done differently than we are used to here in the U.S. You will need to start by getting to know the team you have and by working out how you can complete your human…
Given the contend hazards that the employers facade, they should believe that applying email observing the strategies. Such policies demonstrate the employer's incompatible legal responsibilities. Constantly, employers who keep an eye on of email risks the judges finding either that the employer worked out power over an email mistreatment or that employees undergo an assault of privacy. However, failure to keep an eye on email schemes increases an evenly unappealing danger such as the third party ensembles for careless management. To stay away from the claims of assault of privacy based on monitoring, employers must make obvious that the email arrangement or internet doorway is a business possessions and that monitoring will take place plus that employees have no hope of privacy in email communication or internet use on business arrangement. (Deborah R. Schwartz, April 7, 2003).
The flow of email inside an organization can provide a source of…
Watson, Nathan. (2001). The Private Workplace and the Proposed Notice of Electronic Monitoring Act: Is Notice Enough? Journal of Federal Communications Law, 54, 74+.
Jasper Groot & Sander De Jonge. (2005). Situational Influences on the Use of Communication Technologies. Journal of Business Communication, 42, 4+.
Schwarts, Deborah R. (April 7, 2003). More Than Just E-Mail: Managing the Workplace Without Walls. Retrieved on December 9, 2007 at http://www.constructionweblinks.com/Resources/Industry_Reports__Newsletters/April_7_2003/email.htm
Rothberg, Deborah. (September 26, 2006). Workers Dissatisfied with Workplace Communication. Retrieved on December 9, 2007 at http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,2020820,00.asp
Though more and more organizations and communities have begun to accept a similar concept that they term networking. Networking can be anything from an informal grouping of people with similar goals meeting to discuss how each of their separate specialties and/or networks can aide a common goal, to personal/professional formal organizations that meet at given times throughout the year to meet new members of the business community and seek out connections to achieve personal/professional goals. As Taylor points out networking can take many forms but exists in and outside of most organizations in some form to elicit actions that met the differing needs of organizations. (Taylor, 2000, p. 251) Barabasi, discusses the nature of networking, though a concise analysis of how organizations and individuals influence one another to elicit results, in one example he states:
For example, in Silicon Valley the extensive movements of labor between companies create dense personal…
Wood, Whiteley & Zhang also point out that in a 1993 study by Chu and Ju, 70% of 2,000 Chinese respondents to a poll, "preferred to utilize the concepts of Guanxi over normal bureaucratic channels to advance personal interests and to solve problems." (2002, p.264) the implication of this popularity is that Guanxi is a method that is trusted and predictable in a cultural context and therefore frequently relied upon to resolve conflict and create needed changes. It is also frequently pointed out that the system is best utilized in structures that are within a weak legal and regulatory system, as due to this system dealings are more likely to rely on personal relationships more than abstract legal or moral concepts. (2002, p.264)
Review of Literature:
As the economy goes global, (Barabasi, 2003, p. 202) per say, the ideals that drive business may possibly become more universalized, likely to lean on the ideals of international markets, rather than on traditional concepts of business structure and leadership, as more and more foreign owned companies begin to do business in China as well as elsewhere. Yet, it must also be said that is there is a system that is, "better" than a western (market dominator) position than it should be explored and possibly utilized within the context of the nation, from which it comes and elsewhere if it translates to other business cultures. The difficulty for western business is that the concept of Guanxi does not easily translate to western models, and it is given a decidedly negative spin when it is only marginally understood. The western concept of "who you know not what you know" is decidedly contradictory to the individualism that at least guides the idealism of the nation, even in the highly
..significantly below the maximum of $3,000 per day" (and more like $300 to $350).
And fourth, in about 22% of the cases where nursing homes were in serious violation of regulations - and causing harm to their patients - "there was no record" of sanctions at all.
Conclusion: Given the widespread problem reviewed here in this paper, it seems reasonable that the federal government (with oversight by the Congress) should implement the recommendations of the GAO. One, there should be new legislation requiring the CMS administrator to "collect civil money penalties more expeditiously"; two, the policy of punishing nursing home violators needs to be greatly strengthened and enforced; three, the oversight of nursing homes that are frequently in violation of regulations should be expanded; and four, enforcement "data systems" need to be improved, so Congress and CMS administrators have up-to-date information on which nursing homes have received sanctions, how much…
Baisden, Harry. "Senate Panel Proves Nursing Home Failures." AHA News 36.36 (2000): p. 7.
Government Accountability Office. "Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate: Nursing Homes: Efforts to Strengthen Federal Enforcement Have Not
Deterred Some Homes from Repeatedly Harming Residents." Retrieved September 2, 2007, at http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt-GAO-07-241 .
Lee, Christopher. "Arizona Veterans' Services Director Quits Amid Scandal." The Washington
The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.
There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…
Simon, HA. "A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism." Science. 1990.
Trivers, RL. "The evolution of reciprocal altruism." The Quarterly Review of Biology. 1971. 46:35-55.
Wilkinson, GS. "Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat." Nature. 1984. 308:181-184.
" (Piot 2003)
hile this might seem true on the surface, especially if using the mess that is the current Zambia's Copperbelt area as an example, Robin would argue that it was the development projects themselves that led to failure not governmental influence as proscribed by Ferguson and others.
Robin states; "Development packages are resisted, embraced, reshaped or accommodated depending on the specific content and context." (Robin 2003-page 265)
Robin also states that, "In addition, in many parts of the developing world, it is the retreat of the neo-liberal state, rather than 'the tyranny of development', that poses the most serious threat to household livelihood strategies and economic survival." (Robin 2003-page 265)
In discovering developmental projects that are taking place across Africa it is interesting to note that there are a number of regional projects taking place.
These combined projects could enhance the entire continent's status. Ferguson espoused the fact…
Bank Group Set to Fund Infrastructure Projects (2007) African Development Bank Group, http://www.afdb.org/portal/page?_pageid=293,174339&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&press_item=12184235&press_lang=us , Accessed March 10, 2007
Baird Private Equity explores India strategies (2007) the Business Journal of Milwaukee, http://milwaukee.bizjournals.com/milwaukee/stories/2007/02/26/daily4.html , Accessed Mar 10, 2007
Development and Change (2002) Institute of Social Studies, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp 361-379
Macmillan, H. (1996) More Thoughts on the Historiography of Transition on the Zambian Copperbelt., Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 22, Issue 2, p 309-312
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…
This change in national politics has resulted in a much improved standard of living throughout Mexico and the growth of the middle class. The business climate inside Mexico is much improved and this trend should continue, however, the country is only a few years removed from being a totalitarian regime.
The illegal drug business remains a serious problem for the Mexican Government. It is a high priority for the Government as substantial portion of the national budget and military manpower is dedicated toward Mexico's war on drugs. This war often affects the operation of business within Mexico and must be considered (Gonzalez).
The taxing structure within Mexico is highly transitory (Stewart). The system is in a continual state of flux and anyone contemplating doing business in Mexico should be careful to be diligent and avail themselves of a qualified tax accountant well-versed in Mexican tax laws. The national government has…
DeMente, Boye Lafayette. Why Mexicans Think and Behave the Way They Do!: The Cultural Factors that Created the Character & Personality of the Mexican People. (2d Edition). Beverly Hills, CA: Phoenix Books, 2009.
Gilbreth, Chris. "Democratization in Mexico: The Zapatista Uprising and Civil Society." Latin American Perspectives (2001): 7-29.
Gonzalez, Francisco E. "Mexico's Drug Wars Get Brutal." Current History (2009): 72-76.
Nelson, Mexico Mike. Live Better South of the Border: Practical Advice for Living and Working (Live Better South of the Border in Mexico) 3rd Edition. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing, 2000.
Over 100 of that group will be allowed to participate in a special training session that both teaches and tests medical preparation and fire suppression skills, and which will allow those who pass to gain entrance into the department (eese 2011). Those who are not selected will be eligible to partkae in a $30 million dollar monetary award that was largely facilitated by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The fact that such a venerable organization had to become involved with this particualr grievance of African-American firefighters is largely indicative of the fact that such unethical practices of hiring -- which directly influence the amount of those promoted -- are based upon discriminatory measures against African-Americans.
In conclusion, it has been conclusively demonstrated that there is a history of unethical practices in regards to the promotion of African-American firefighters that continues throughout contemporary times. In some respects,…
Cosgrove, Maurenn. (2011). "Federal appeals court reinstates African-American firefighter discrimination suit." Paper Chase News Burst. Retrieved from http://jurist.org/paperchase/2011/08/federal-appeals-court-reinstates-african-american-firefighter-suit.php
Moran, C. (2011). "HFD exam lawsuit settled for 7 black firefighter." Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/HFD-exam-lawsuit-settled-for-7-black-firefighters-1687065.php
No author. (2011). "Organization History." Stentorians of L.A. County. Retrieved from http://lacostentorians.org/about.htm
No author. (No date). "African-American Firefighters: Our Brothers Under Fire." Wisconsin Black Historical Society. Retrieved from http://wbhsm.homestead.com/brothers_under_fire.html
As a catering manager a transplant hospital, describe factors influence people work place behave-based explain apply recognized theory motivation (Abraham Maslow) team improve performance.
Maslow: The hierarchy of needs
The theorist Abraham Maslow created a hierarchy of needs to describe what individuals sought out of life. The first level of the Maslow hierarchy is made up of basic needs, like food, shelter and clothing. The second level consists of the need for security, including fear of bodily harm. After that need is satisfied there a third need for belonging and social acceptance, followed by a fourth need for esteem (approval from other people). Only after these needs are met is a person capable of satisfying the highest-level need of self-actualization, or achieving a higher purpose in life (Maslow's hierarchy of needs, 2010, Honolulu College).
This is important to remember when managing a workplace because a critical aspect of Maslow's…
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 15, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
advertisements, the Johnson Bank says, "We'll treat you like family." As an employee, a company that makes this type of promise would seem to be an ideal work environment. It connotes the idea of a very warm environment, where customers, employees, and business owners are all involved in a very functional work environment which is backed by good will and good intentions towards one another. Certainly, working for a company that wants employees to treat its customers like family seems better than working for a company that wants it employees to treat its customers like wheels in a cog. Treating someone like family certainly implies that they will be treated better at that bank than they would by other people. In addition, one expects that treatment to extend to employees. The idea that a bank will treat people like family suggests that if an employee has an illness or other…
Abuse in America, 2011. Available from: . [3 September 2011].
Alexander, L, & Moore M. 2007. Deontological ethics. Available from:
. [3 September 2011].
Athanassoulis, N 2010. Virtue ethics. Available from: . [3
American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.
"Unimportant" American Events
In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267
"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html
"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
Decision in Paradise:
For Kava, we proposed development in the field of tourism since we had limited options like choice of opening a hospital, investing in tourism development etc. we decided that the best way Kava could be developed and our organization could have a more meaningful presence in this small land was by focusing was the development of tourism industry.
We must make it clearly that the choice of our course of action was dependent on one very clear-cut reason; we wanted to leave behind a legacy. We understand that by investing in Kava we can leave an indelible positive mark on the society, culture and economy of this country and we would like that very much because if we have a presence in this land, we just might also make it meaningful and worthy of people's respect and trust.
However like in any other developing nation, Kava is…
Tony oma's estaurant, a franchise in the restaurant industry that focuses on Italian food products. The company may employ anywhere from a dozen to 20+ employees per individual restaurant at any given time. Tony oma's like any restaurant in the food service industry has concerned itself with many different ethical issues and considerations including ethics related to vendor selection processes.
esearch suggests that a company such as Tony oma's must be particularly aware of ethical issues related to vendor selections, to ensure that vendors are selected for service in a fair and ethical manner along the strictest business morals. There are many opportunities for bribery and other ethical violations to occur in the vendor selection process.
The purpose of this report is to identify potential breeches of ethical conduct with regard to vendor selection and to help established a code of ethics related to vendor selection that is based on…
CADA. "CADA Suggested Code of Ethics for Vendor Evaluation." June, 2002.
Retrieved 29, November 2004,
ICCMA. "The 'free' lunch, an online discussion." Public Management, 83(5), 2001:2
NFSMI. "Chapter 1 -- Vendor Selection Procedures." National Food Service Management
Mary first needs to make it absolutely clear whether she is an employee or independent contractor. In this case, while she may have been hired as an independent contractor, she was later subtly reclassified as an employee. An independent contractor works freelance and part-time which means his place in the firm is not permanent. Mary was definitely one such contractor since her services was required for one specific project. Her contract with the firm was extended when another project came forth for which Mary's services were found suitable. However when the second project began, Mary was no longer an independent contractor since she was often asked to work with specific material and equipment and was also forced to follow company's work-schedule. This is an example of exploitation of independent contractor agreement since only an employee can be instructed to work with specific tools or when, where and how to…
1) IRS Common Law Rules: Accessed 12th Feb 2005: http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/article/0,,id=99921,00.html
The last century has seen an increase in the level of international purchases which has been supported by the developments in transportation and technology. Goods can move faster than before with developments in logistics. The negotiation and forming contracts for purchase with companies and communicate with potential suppliers in distant countries is also easier than in the past with the internet and tools such as video conferencing and emails. This facilitates the use of international suppliers. However, other firms may choose local suppliers believing strategy will best suit their needs. Local suppliers may be able to provide where there is an increase in the transparency of the supply chain, less exposure to risks such as interruption and exchange rate risks and proximity may allow closer collaborative relationships to develop. Both procurement strategies are viable, to assess the advantages associated with each approach the procurement from international and local suppliers can…
'Automotive and Auto Parts Industry in Turkey.' (2012). Turkish Ministry of Economy. [online] available: http://blog.tcp.gov.tr/?p=2632 .
"Automotive Industry Trends Affecting Component Suppliers.' (2005). International Labour Review, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 130-133.
Borrus, M., Ernst, D. & Haggard, S. (2001). International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. London: Routledge.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
The principle underlying the merit system is that recruitment and promotion should be based on ability rather than an affiliation. However, in both public and private organizations this has not always been the case. Instead, nepotism to obtain good jobs for members of one's family and rewards for friendship and political loyalty have been common. ut, as political pressures and human resources have come to influence decision making in organizations, the merit system has become the norm rather than the exception in recent years.
Most of the 19th century federal government roles were filled by what was referred to as the spoils system (Pfiffner). Staffing by presidential administrations rewarded political loyalty. At that time, government work was less complex than today and there was great concern that laws would be faithfully executed. Later, as political reform movements took hold, the Pendleton Act was passed in 1883 to replace…
Merit system principles. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://www.afpc.randolph.af.mil/permiss/civilian/c_12a.htm
Pfiffner, J.P. Government legitimacy and the role of the civil service. Retrieved February 28, 2005 from Web site: http://mason.gmu.edu/~pubp502/pfiffner-readings-legitimacy.htm