Neuron Essays (Examples)

283+ documents containing “neuron”.


Sort By:

Reset Filters

Neurons
This is how I would explain the electro-chemical interaction between neurons to a friend.

Imagine standing in a giant room with a large number of other people -- each of you are holding your arms out to either side of your body, like Leonardo Da Vinci's drawing of "Vitruvian Man." The giant room corresponds the brain and the nervous system, and you and the other people are each individual neurons. You have your arms out to either side because neuron cells have a long and skinny central body called the "axon"-so the length of your extended arms corresponds to this part of the neuron -- with receptor areas on either end that have fingerlike filaments, called "dendrites." In reality the field would have to be unebelivably large to actually be equivalent to the brain and nervous, which has billions of neurons. And everybody's fingers would have to be very long, because….

Each has its own skills associated with that specific areas (e.g. thinking is generally associated with the frontal cortex whilst vision with the occipital lobe; the frontal lobes are associated with motor control, speech, abstract thought, and sense of self, whilst the parietal lobes contain bodily sensations and the temporal lobes record hearing). Likewise each hemisphere has its specific expertise too with the analytical left containing speech, mathematical skills, or language and the right being largely nonverbal and holistic. None of these are exclusive to one side; rather they seem to prefer one side to the other. Observation of association of capabilities to specific neural region has partially been discovered by cutting the corpus colloseum that connects the brain thus 'splitting' the two hemispheres.
The brain can be further divided into the three regions of the forebrain (the most recent part), midbrain, and hind brain (the most primitive and oldest….

Bacterial Toxins & Damage to Neurons
hich bacterial toxins have negative impacts on the human body? This paper reviews those toxins and their effects on human functions.

Clinical Diseases

Professor F.H. Kayser explains that "Exotoxins" are pathogenic bacteria that are capable of producing a "variety of toxins that are either the only pathogenic factor" in the onset of diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and cholera, or if they aren't the only factor they are at lease a "major factor" in a person getting these three diseases (Kayser, 2011). Not all of these toxins attack the cells; cytotoxins, for example, can produce toxic effects in a number of different host cells, Kayser explains on page 15. But without fail, neurotoxins impact the neurons of the host, according to the author.

Kayser explains that AB toxins bind to "specific surface receptors on target host cells," and he lists the various AB toxins that do attack cells and….

As part of the experiment, another person entered the study area and expressed feelings of anger at the researcher for some time and at other times remained neutral. Later the researchers found that children who had witnessed the angry person were less likely to play with the toy compared to the children who had witnessed the neutral person. Also the researchers found that even the children who had seen the angry expression would play with the toy if the person did not return to the room. As Meltzoff says, "Mirror neurons show how what you see can be connected with what you do, but human beings can also regulate their behavior" [ScienceDaily]
Commenting on the implications of mirror neuron discovery, psychologist Daniel Stern says, " our minds are not separated or isolated and we are not the only owners of our own mind. Minds get created by virtue of constant….

Gila Cells & Neurons Glia
PAGES 2 WORDS 707

Its [mylelin insulation] growth enables a baby to gradually hold up its head, and its destruction by diseases such as multiple sclerosis causes severe impairment" (Chen 2009). Researchers have also found that both brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease may be the result of problems with glia cells. Clearly, glia "are more than mere support cells that cater to the needs of neurons" and a "dynamic dialogue between glia and neurons takes place," contrary to what was once thought (Glia guide brain development in worms, 2008, Virtual orlds).
In the case of the worm that had its glia removed, dendrites or communication receptors "were dramatically shortened and their axons, unable to branch to their expected locations, failed to make the right connections. Moreover, the team showed that neurons located closer to the removed glia have a more abnormal pattern of axon branching compared to those farther away,….

Imagery and Cognitive Mapping and Their Common Applications
Imagery and its applications

Humans are capable of imagining moving without actually moving in real life. Studies making use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) reveal that the same Motor Imagery (MI) part activated during real movement is also activated during imagination. Perhaps similar visual inputs lead to the activation of mirror neurons in the course of observing an action; internal inputs also activate them in cases of motor imagery[footnoteRef:2]. Researchers show that imagery makes use of the same neural pathways as those used in real movement[footnoteRef:3]. [2: Schieber, Marc H. Mirror Neurons: Reflecting on the Motor Cortex and Spinal Cord. February 18, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213000079 (accessed August 04, 2015). ] [3: Moran, Aidan, Jessica ramham, Christian Collet, Aymeric Guillot, and Tadhg Macintyre. "Motor imagery in clinical disorders: importance and implications." Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2015.]

Kinesthetic Imagery: Research that examined what effects imagery had on….

Mirror Neurons in the Context Of Cognitive Mapping
There is much controversy with regard to the degree to which vision is tied to cognition, especially when considering the way that mirror neurons can affect the way a person thinks and can influence the respective individual to have a particular view of the surrounding environment. The contemporary society has a very complex understanding of how the visual system works and yet people have trouble comprehending the exact links between the system and the way that people actually perceive the things they see. The fact that individuals store and decode information as a consequence of making use of the visual system is particularly intriguing when considering the idea or mirror neurons.

Through cognitive mapping, the brain interprets information about a person's environment and uses this respective information to influence the individual to act. The person basically takes information and construes a meaning concerning it.….

Stroke victims who were paralyzed on the left sides of their bodies were analyzed in a case study in which it was noted that approximately five percent of them not only denied their own paralysis but that of other victims in front of them, as well. Ramachandran explained this phenomenon as stemming from damage to these particular patients' mirror neurons, since they could not judge another's movement without the corresponding movement neural cell firing in their own brains. His study of brain waves in humans was in agreement with this premise, wherein it was noted that the MU wave is blocked and disappears when subjects move their hands. This suppression was also attributed to Rizzolati's mirror neuron system, since the suppression occurs when subjects watch others move their hands as well.
Despite the scientific nature of his conclusions, Ramachandran's attribution to the evolution of languages as stemming from the presence….


Phase one means building a strong foundation. The benefits of a strong foundation will be felt for many years to come. apid expansion is good, but not if it means sacrificing quality and support. Customers will talk about the NeuroStar to others. This best advertising that the company can have is to make certain that customers and patients have a positive experience not only with the device, but with the company and staff as well. The company needs to treat its customers the way they wish to be treated themselves. This is the philosophy that will result in building a strong base. This initial phase may take as long as two years.

Phase Two

Once a strong foundation has been established and sales begin to increase as a result of initial marketing and customer support efforts, then the business can focus on picking up the pace. It will be at least five….

What is important is in knowing that among the neurons of the human brain everything is mediated by what is called chemical messenger modules known as neurotransmitters that are released from one cell to another within the human body. Known as neurotransmission this process enables cellular modules to reach their target cell, binds it to the needed receptor, thus influencing the cell that has been reached. The most significant thing here is to remember that each neurotransmitter in the body can only act through its own aligned receptor even thought there might exist within a particular receptor several subclasses, each having different effect when interaction takes place. Three subtypes of recepters are influenced once GABA is released from the human cell, namely GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC. The other human body transmitter modules include acetylcholine, seratonin, aspartate, histamine epinephrine, norpinrphrine, dopamine, adenosine, ATP and nitric oxide..


One such study looked at a general look at what regulates and influence how bold or shy someone is. This manifests in humans but it also manifests in other animals such as fish and rabbits. When looking at fish, it was clear that bold fish had fewer interactions overall while shyer fish were much more conservative and reserved yet held series of reactions with a small group of friends. It is noted that even though animals are much simpler than humans in terms of physiology, they still have very complex social networks (Pike, 2008).

This particular study looked at whether the ratio of bold and shy fish had an overall reaction on the group's composition as a whole. In other words, and to ensure that this is perceived to be applicable to neurons, it is assessed whether the bold fish influence the neuron/synapse pathways and, thus, the overall behavior patterns of….

foundational scientific literature regarding memory and learning. Memory and learning have long been popular subjects of study by psychologists. Although the results of such studies were very insightful, it was difficult to draw deeper, more fundamental conclusions about the learning and memory experiments. However, the rapidly advancing field of neurobiology has provided the field with a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying learning and memory.
Studies regarding memory using imagery and cognitive mapping

Imagery is often used to improve memory through the process of encoding. When the brain sees a certain image associated with a certain piece of information, it is able to encode that association into the brain. (Goldstein, 2008, p. 347). When the person is given a prompt to recall that information, the brain has an additional prompt, the image associated with that information, to aid in the recollection of that information.

Organization helps to improve the process of….

Autistic Children
PAGES 5 WORDS 1703

Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder
Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.

Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief hypotheses concerning….

Human Development
PAGES 2 WORDS 823

Diamond
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the work….

143).
Far from being too simple an explanation for autism, Ramachandran notes that single causes often do lead to multiple symptoms. Ramachandran's hypothesis has been tested using a variety of brain imaging techniques including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Brain imaging did reveal dysfunctional mirror neurons in children with autism vs. those without it. In fact, Ramachandran calls the research using TMS "conclusive evidence" that mirror neuron function is the root cause of autism (p. 142). The study of embodied cognition enhances research into how mirror neurons impact autism syndromes.

Ramachandran also notes that mirror neuron deficiencies can cause dysfunctional language acquisition. After all, infants acquire language knowledge first from listening and then mimicking mother, father, and others. Autistic children struggle with mimicry. Mirror neurons play a role in language mimicry as does mu-wave suppression, which is why autistic children have trouble both with certain audio stimuli and with mimicking phonemes.

Therefore, the….

image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Disease

Neurons This Is How I Would Explain

Words: 962
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Neurons This is how I would explain the electro-chemical interaction between neurons to a friend. Imagine standing in a giant room with a large number of other people -- each of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Anatomy

Neurons Are the Initiators of

Words: 699
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Each has its own skills associated with that specific areas (e.g. thinking is generally associated with the frontal cortex whilst vision with the occipital lobe; the frontal lobes…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Disease

Neurons Victims of Bacterial Toxins

Words: 673
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Bacterial Toxins & Damage to Neurons hich bacterial toxins have negative impacts on the human body? This paper reviews those toxins and their effects on human functions. Clinical Diseases Professor F.H. Kayser…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Thesis

Psychology

Mirror Neurons the Discovery of

Words: 2258
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Thesis

As part of the experiment, another person entered the study area and expressed feelings of anger at the researcher for some time and at other times remained neutral.…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Disease

Gila Cells & Neurons Glia

Words: 707
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Its [mylelin insulation] growth enables a baby to gradually hold up its head, and its destruction by diseases such as multiple sclerosis causes severe impairment" (Chen 2009). Researchers…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Imagery Cognitive Mapping and Their Links With Mirror Neurons

Words: 1770
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Imagery and Cognitive Mapping and Their Common Applications Imagery and its applications Humans are capable of imagining moving without actually moving in real life. Studies making use of functional magnetic…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Interpreting and Duplicating Feelings as a Consequence of Mirror Neurons

Words: 483
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Mirror Neurons in the Context Of Cognitive Mapping There is much controversy with regard to the degree to which vision is tied to cognition, especially when considering the way that…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Reaction Paper

Communication - Language

Evolution of Language Mirror Neurons

Words: 662
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Reaction Paper

Stroke victims who were paralyzed on the left sides of their bodies were analyzed in a case study in which it was noted that approximately five percent of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Research Proposal

Business

Vienna Convention Neuronetics Inc Neuronetics

Words: 2348
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

Phase one means building a strong foundation. The benefits of a strong foundation will be felt for many years to come. apid expansion is good, but not if it…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
1 Pages
Term Paper

Anatomy

Gaba Receptors in Neurons in

Words: 301
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Term Paper

What is important is in knowing that among the neurons of the human brain everything is mediated by what is called chemical messenger modules known as neurotransmitters that…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Essay

Animals

Synaptic Communication This Report Will

Words: 1308
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

One such study looked at a general look at what regulates and influence how bold or shy someone is. This manifests in humans but it also manifests in other…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Article Review

Psychology

Foundational Scientific Literature Regarding Memory and Learning

Words: 1115
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Article Review

foundational scientific literature regarding memory and learning. Memory and learning have long been popular subjects of study by psychologists. Although the results of such studies were very insightful,…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
5 Pages
Research Paper

Children

Autistic Children

Words: 1703
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Term Paper

Teaching

Human Development

Words: 823
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Diamond Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Reaction Paper

Disease

Autism Is Characterized by Mental

Words: 553
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Reaction Paper

143). Far from being too simple an explanation for autism, Ramachandran notes that single causes often do lead to multiple symptoms. Ramachandran's hypothesis has been tested using a variety…

Read Full Paper  ❯