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This is how I would explain the electro-chemical interaction between neurons to a friend.
Imagine standing in a giant room with a large number of other people -- each of you are holding your arms out to either side of your body, like Leonardo Da Vinci's drawing of "Vitruvian Man." The giant room corresponds the brain and the nervous system, and you and the other people are each individual neurons. You have your arms out to either side because neuron cells have a long and skinny central body called the "axon"-so the length of your extended arms corresponds to this part of the neuron -- with receptor areas on either end that have fingerlike filaments, called "dendrites." In reality the field would have to be unebelivably large to actually be equivalent to the brain and nervous, which has billions of neurons. And everybody's fingers would have to be very…
National MS Society (2014). "Myelin." Online. Accessed 2 February 2014 at: http://www.nationalmssociety.org/about-multiple-sclerosis/what-we-know-about-ms/what-is-ms/myelin/index.aspx
Sacks, O. (1999). Awakenings. New York: Vintage.
Each has its own skills associated with that specific areas (e.g. thinking is generally associated with the frontal cortex whilst vision with the occipital lobe; the frontal lobes are associated with motor control, speech, abstract thought, and sense of self, whilst the parietal lobes contain bodily sensations and the temporal lobes record hearing). Likewise each hemisphere has its specific expertise too with the analytical left containing speech, mathematical skills, or language and the right being largely nonverbal and holistic. None of these are exclusive to one side; rather they seem to prefer one side to the other. Observation of association of capabilities to specific neural region has partially been discovered by cutting the corpus colloseum that connects the brain thus 'splitting' the two hemispheres.
The brain can be further divided into the three regions of the forebrain (the most recent part), midbrain, and hind brain (the most primitive and oldest…
Bacterial Toxins & Damage to Neurons
hich bacterial toxins have negative impacts on the human body? This paper reviews those toxins and their effects on human functions.
Professor F.H. Kayser explains that "Exotoxins" are pathogenic bacteria that are capable of producing a "variety of toxins that are either the only pathogenic factor" in the onset of diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and cholera, or if they aren't the only factor they are at lease a "major factor" in a person getting these three diseases (Kayser, 2011). Not all of these toxins attack the cells; cytotoxins, for example, can produce toxic effects in a number of different host cells, Kayser explains on page 15. But without fail, neurotoxins impact the neurons of the host, according to the author.
Kayser explains that AB toxins bind to "specific surface receptors on target host cells," and he lists the various AB toxins that…
Kayser, F.H., and Bienz, K.A. (2011). Medical Microbiology. New York: Thieme Medical
National Health Service. (2014) Tetanus & Botulism Treatments. Retrieved November 25,
2014, from http://www.nhs.uk .
As part of the experiment, another person entered the study area and expressed feelings of anger at the researcher for some time and at other times remained neutral. Later the researchers found that children who had witnessed the angry person were less likely to play with the toy compared to the children who had witnessed the neutral person. Also the researchers found that even the children who had seen the angry expression would play with the toy if the person did not return to the room. As Meltzoff says, "Mirror neurons show how what you see can be connected with what you do, but human beings can also regulate their behavior" [ScienceDaily]
Commenting on the implications of mirror neuron discovery, psychologist Daniel Stern says, " our minds are not separated or isolated and we are not the only owners of our own mind. Minds get created by virtue of constant…
1) ScienceDaily, 'Mirror Neurons: How do we reflect on Behavior', Accessed Dec 14th 2009, available at, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070504114259.htm
2) ESF, 'What do Mirror Neurons Mean', Accessed Dec 14th 2009, available at, http://www.interdisciplines.org/mirror
3) Ramachandran V.S, 'Mirror Neurons and Imitation learning as the driving force behind "the great leap forward" in Human Evolution', Accessed Dec 14th 2009, available at, http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/ramachandran/ramachandran_p1.html
4) Kohler, E., Keysers, C., Umilta, M.A., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., and Rizzolatti, G. Hearing sounds, understanding actions: Action representation in mirror neurons. Science (2002), 297: 846-848.
Its [mylelin insulation] growth enables a baby to gradually hold up its head, and its destruction by diseases such as multiple sclerosis causes severe impairment" (Chen 2009). Researchers have also found that both brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease may be the result of problems with glia cells. Clearly, glia "are more than mere support cells that cater to the needs of neurons" and a "dynamic dialogue between glia and neurons takes place," contrary to what was once thought (Glia guide brain development in worms, 2008, Virtual orlds).
In the case of the worm that had its glia removed, dendrites or communication receptors "were dramatically shortened and their axons, unable to branch to their expected locations, failed to make the right connections. Moreover, the team showed that neurons located closer to the removed glia have a more abnormal pattern of axon branching compared to those farther away,…
Chen, C. The other half of the brain. Retrieved October 6, 2009 at http://phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~cchen/class/scitran/Brain.pdf
Glia guide brain development in worms. (2008, July 14). Physorg.com. Retrieved October 6,
2009 at http://www.physorg.com/news135263394.html
Studying glia development. (2008, July 14). Virtual Worlds. Retrieved October 6, 2009 at http://www.virtualworldlets.net/Resources/Hosted/Resource.php?Name=GilaDev
Imagery and Cognitive Mapping and Their Common Applications
Imagery and its applications
Humans are capable of imagining moving without actually moving in real life. Studies making use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) reveal that the same Motor Imagery (MI) part activated during real movement is also activated during imagination. Perhaps similar visual inputs lead to the activation of mirror neurons in the course of observing an action; internal inputs also activate them in cases of motor imagery[footnoteRef:2]. Researchers show that imagery makes use of the same neural pathways as those used in real movement[footnoteRef:3]. [2: Schieber, Marc H. Mirror Neurons: Reflecting on the Motor Cortex and Spinal Cord. February 18, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213000079 (accessed August 04, 2015). ] [3: Moran, Aidan, Jessica ramham, Christian Collet, Aymeric Guillot, and Tadhg Macintyre. "Motor imagery in clinical disorders: importance and implications." Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2015.]
Kinesthetic Imagery: Research that examined what effects imagery…
1 Schieber, Marc H. Mirror Neurons: Reflecting on the Motor Cortex and Spinal Cord. February 18, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982213000079 (accessed August 04, 2015).
2 Moran, Aidan, Jessica Bramham, Christian Collet, Aymeric Guillot, and Tadhg Macintyre. "Motor imagery in clinical disorders: importance and implications." Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2015.
3 Callow, Nichola, Ross Roberts, Lew Hardy, Dan Jiang, and Martin Edwards. "Performance improvements from imagery: evidence that internal visual imagery is superior to external visual imagery for slalom performance." NCBI, 2013.
4 Bock, Otmar, Nadja Schott, and Charalambos Papaxanthis. "Motor Imagery: lessons learned in movement science might be applicable for spaceflight." Frontiers in Systems NeuroScience, 2015.
Mirror Neurons in the Context Of Cognitive Mapping
There is much controversy with regard to the degree to which vision is tied to cognition, especially when considering the way that mirror neurons can affect the way a person thinks and can influence the respective individual to have a particular view of the surrounding environment. The contemporary society has a very complex understanding of how the visual system works and yet people have trouble comprehending the exact links between the system and the way that people actually perceive the things they see. The fact that individuals store and decode information as a consequence of making use of the visual system is particularly intriguing when considering the idea or mirror neurons.
Through cognitive mapping, the brain interprets information about a person's environment and uses this respective information to influence the individual to act. The person basically takes information and construes a meaning…
Taylor, M. "The Oxford Handbook of the Development of Imagination," (Oxford University Press, USA, 2 Apr 2013)
Stroke victims who were paralyzed on the left sides of their bodies were analyzed in a case study in which it was noted that approximately five percent of them not only denied their own paralysis but that of other victims in front of them, as well. Ramachandran explained this phenomenon as stemming from damage to these particular patients' mirror neurons, since they could not judge another's movement without the corresponding movement neural cell firing in their own brains. His study of brain waves in humans was in agreement with this premise, wherein it was noted that the MU wave is blocked and disappears when subjects move their hands. This suppression was also attributed to Rizzolati's mirror neuron system, since the suppression occurs when subjects watch others move their hands as well.
Despite the scientific nature of his conclusions, Ramachandran's attribution to the evolution of languages as stemming from the presence…
1. Hawks, John (2011, March 11). Language and Spandrels. Retrieved from http://johnhawks.net/taxonomy/term/623
2. Padden, Carol. (2007, May 21). Mirror Neurons…Hmmm… Retrieved from http://languageevolution.wordpress.com/2007/05/21/mirror-neurons-just-how-relevant-are-they/
3. Ramadchandran, V.S. (2005). Mirror Neurons and Imitation Learning as the Driving Force Behind "The Great Leap Forward" in Human Evolution. Retrieved from http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/ramachandran/ramachandran_p1.html
Phase one means building a strong foundation. The benefits of a strong foundation will be felt for many years to come. apid expansion is good, but not if it means sacrificing quality and support. Customers will talk about the NeuroStar to others. This best advertising that the company can have is to make certain that customers and patients have a positive experience not only with the device, but with the company and staff as well. The company needs to treat its customers the way they wish to be treated themselves. This is the philosophy that will result in building a strong base. This initial phase may take as long as two years.
Once a strong foundation has been established and sales begin to increase as a result of initial marketing and customer support efforts, then the business can focus on picking up the pace. It will be at…
Fitzgerald, P., Fountain, S., & Daskalakis, Z. (2006). A comprehensive review of the effects of rTMS on motor cortical excitability and inhibition. Clinical Neurophysiology 117 (12):
2584 -- 96. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.06.712. PMID 16890483.
Baldauf, S. (2009). Brain Stimulation: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. No surgery required -- magnetic pulses treat symptoms of depression and other conditions
Posted July 15, 2009 U.S. News. Retrieved July 17, 2009 from http://health.usnews.com/articles/health/brain-and-behavior/2009/07/15/brain-stimulation-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation.html
What is important is in knowing that among the neurons of the human brain everything is mediated by what is called chemical messenger modules known as neurotransmitters that are released from one cell to another within the human body. Known as neurotransmission this process enables cellular modules to reach their target cell, binds it to the needed receptor, thus influencing the cell that has been reached. The most significant thing here is to remember that each neurotransmitter in the body can only act through its own aligned receptor even thought there might exist within a particular receptor several subclasses, each having different effect when interaction takes place. Three subtypes of recepters are influenced once GABA is released from the human cell, namely GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC. The other human body transmitter modules include acetylcholine, seratonin, aspartate, histamine epinephrine, norpinrphrine, dopamine, adenosine, ATP and nitric oxide.
One such study looked at a general look at what regulates and influence how bold or shy someone is. This manifests in humans but it also manifests in other animals such as fish and rabbits. When looking at fish, it was clear that bold fish had fewer interactions overall while shyer fish were much more conservative and reserved yet held series of reactions with a small group of friends. It is noted that even though animals are much simpler than humans in terms of physiology, they still have very complex social networks (Pike, 2008).
This particular study looked at whether the ratio of bold and shy fish had an overall reaction on the group's composition as a whole. In other words, and to ensure that this is perceived to be applicable to neurons, it is assessed whether the bold fish influence the neuron/synapse pathways and, thus, the overall behavior patterns…
IntroPsych. (2013, March 3). How Neurons Communicate | in Chapter 02: Human Nervous System | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Table of Contents for Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://www.intropsych.com/ch02_human_nervous_system/how_neurons_communicate.html
NIH. (2013, March 3). Communication Between Synapses. NIH. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709812/
Pike, T. (2008, January 1). Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network . Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1650/2515.full
Sekata, J. (2004, January 1). ScienceDirect.com - Animal Behaviour - Social experience affects territorial and reproductive behaviours in male leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. ScienceDirect.com | Search through over 11 million science, health, medical journal full text articles and books.. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347201919529
foundational scientific literature regarding memory and learning. Memory and learning have long been popular subjects of study by psychologists. Although the results of such studies were very insightful, it was difficult to draw deeper, more fundamental conclusions about the learning and memory experiments. However, the rapidly advancing field of neurobiology has provided the field with a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying learning and memory.
Studies regarding memory using imagery and cognitive mapping
Imagery is often used to improve memory through the process of encoding. When the brain sees a certain image associated with a certain piece of information, it is able to encode that association into the brain. (Goldstein, 2008, p. 347). When the person is given a prompt to recall that information, the brain has an additional prompt, the image associated with that information, to aid in the recollection of that information.
Organization helps to improve the…
Dagan, R. (2011). Cognitive mapping: Definitions, examples, resources. Intraspec.ca: An online journal. Available at http://intraspec.ca/cogmap.php .
Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (January 01, 1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain: a Journal of Neurology, 119, 593-609.
Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (2006). Mirrors in the Mind. The Scientific American, November 2006, 55-61.
Goldstein, B.E. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday experience (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder
Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.
Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…
Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, (2), 271 -- 283.
Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R.M., Snyder, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Anatomical Differences in the Mirror Neuron System and Social Cognition Network in Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1276-1282.
Receveur, C., Lenoir, P., Desombre, H., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C., & Malvy, J. (2005). Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes. Autism, 9, (1), 69-82.
Rizzolatti, G. & Craighereo, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169 -- 192.
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…
Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's
Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,
Far from being too simple an explanation for autism, Ramachandran notes that single causes often do lead to multiple symptoms. Ramachandran's hypothesis has been tested using a variety of brain imaging techniques including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Brain imaging did reveal dysfunctional mirror neurons in children with autism vs. those without it. In fact, Ramachandran calls the research using TMS "conclusive evidence" that mirror neuron function is the root cause of autism (p. 142). The study of embodied cognition enhances research into how mirror neurons impact autism syndromes.
Ramachandran also notes that mirror neuron deficiencies can cause dysfunctional language acquisition. After all, infants acquire language knowledge first from listening and then mimicking mother, father, and others. Autistic children struggle with mimicry. Mirror neurons play a role in language mimicry as does mu-wave suppression, which is why autistic children have trouble both with certain audio stimuli and with mimicking phonemes.…
Synapse Competition and Elimination
Throughout the growth and life of vertebrates and many animals, beginning even in the embryonic stages of development and continuing throughout adult life, a process known as synaptic competition takes place that eliminates certain underperforming synapses and neurons and leads to the dominance of a single motor neuron bringing even in embryonic stages (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). This begins with the innervation of musculature during embryonic development by a single motor neuron that remains dominant and leads to the ongoing elimination of other motor neurons throughout life (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). Though the mechanisms by which synaptic competition and the resulting synaptic eliminations occur are not precisely known, there has been some research into this area and the beginnings of reasonable theory explaining this phenomenon have been developed.
In embryonic development, synaptic competition begins prior to the innervation of musculature with developmental processes and random firings…
Howard, I. & Rogers, B. (1995). Binocular vision and stereopsis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wyatt, R. & Balice-Gordon, R. (2003). Activity-dependent elimination of neuromuscular synapses. Journal of Neurocytology 32(5): 777-94.
anatomical position, the person will access information stored in the hippocampus regarding the object's position, height, etc. The brains motor system in areas such as the motor cortex, primary visual cortex and the motor homunculus then activate to control the motor functions via the muscle movements. Electrical impulses via neurons connected to each other via axons and dendrites travel from the brain along the spinal cord and nerve fibers to the muscles with the spinal cord which make up the central nervous system. The impulses are then transferred to the peripheral nervous system under our control to the nerves in the hands, hips, shoulders, knees, feet, etc. To perform the step up motion.
The chemical activities in synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus activate synaptic terminals in the dendrites. The dendrites then activate neurotransmitters that impulse rapidly toward the neuron's cell body. Each nerve impulse begins in the dendrites…
They cannot carry impulses as they do not have an axon and dendrites. The oligodendrocyte cells are more numerous than the neurons and make up almost 90% of the brain cells. Thus, to differentiate between a neuron and oligodendrocyte the researcher would have to eliminate the presence of the axon and dendrite and check the density of the presence of these cells within the brain sample. [Wikipedia, 2005]
ASTOCYTE: These are another type of Glial cells that can easily be differentiated through their star shape. The astrocytes are seen to contain many secondary filaments that function just like dendrites in neurons. When examined the nuclei of the astrocytes is seen as smaller than that of the oligodendrocytes. The glial cells are non-neural and can easily be distinguished from the neurons. [Glia, 2005]
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,…
Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005
Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia
Author Not Available, Glia, 2005, http://www.mb.jhu.edu/tins/media/Neuroglia.txt
It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.
ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).
Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…
Wiley & Sons.
Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L., & Kenney, W.L. (2008). Physiology of sports and exercise (4th
ed.). Champaigne, IL: Human Kinetics.
News Reporting on Crimes, Corruption, and worsening Economic Conditions:
News channels also telecast detailed reports on crimes, corruption, political instability, and worsening conditions of economies. General public, which is already in a miserable condition due to a stressful life further gets into tensions and worries due to such type of information. These reports present a very weird picture of what is happening around the world. All this creates an atmosphere of restlessness, anxiety, and depression among the general public (Kraut & Attewell).
Impacts of Information overload on Investors:
Investing in a particular asset, organization, or industry is such a decision which requires a comprehensive and careful analysis of the relevant facts and figures. Generally, investors look at the industry trends over the last few years in a view to anticipate the attractiveness and potential of their investment. Now-a-days, there are various sources through which they can obtain this information. But…
Bondarouk, Tanya. Handbook of research on e-transformation and human resources management technologies: organizational outcomes and challenges. Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2009. Print. (412)
Costigan, Sean & Perry, Jake. Cyberspaces and global affairs. Burlington: Ashgate Publishers, 2012. Print. (p. 319)
Eppler, Martin. Managing information quality: increasing the value of information in knowledge-intensive products and processes. New York: Springer, 2006. (p. 2)
Kraut, Robert & Attewell, Paul. Media Use in a Global Corporation: Electronic Mail and Organizational Knowledge. 6 July 1996. Web. 16 March 2012.
In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…
Brettschneider, J., Libon, D.J., Toledo, J.B., Xie, S.X., McCluskey, L., Elman, L., & #8230;
Trojanowski, J.Q. (2012). Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathologica, 123(3),
395 -- 407. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0932-x
Crespi, C., Cerami, C., Dodich, a., Canessa, N., Arpone, M., Iannaccone, S., & #8230; Cappa, S.F. (2014). Microstructural white matter correlates of emotion recognition impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cortex, 53, 1 -- 8
When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.
Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.
Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).
Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…
Jankovic, J. (2008). Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:368 -- 376.
Neve, A.K. (2009). The Dopamine Receptors, The Receptors. Edition 2. Springer.
Webster, R. (2001). Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. John Wiley and Sons.
Ecologically, human hearing was needed to communicate better in order to survive; higher ranges of hearing have no real genetic advantage because it does not help humans to find food, shelter, or to communicate with one another. In addition, being able to localize sounds (friend or foe) would be essential and usually those sounds occur under 20,000 Hz (rustling of leaves, breaking of branches, etc.) (pp. 193-4).
2. The text explains how we might distinguish loudness for low-frequency sounds. How might we distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone?
Loudness is a sensation that is related to amplitude (strength of frequency). We distinguish loudness based on many factors; speed of the sound, quality of the sound, etc. The higher the amplitude, the louder something appears -- and in higher frequency tones, the amplitude is faster and the peaks more robust, so the sound appears to be much louder than the identical…
Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cenage
Sage Publications. Retrieved from: http://dualibra.com/wp-content / uploads/2012/12/BiologPsych.pdf
Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).
As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…
Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.
Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.
Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.
Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
An impulse opens "gates" in the membrane that allow the positive sodium ions to rush in, which pushes the impulses along by moving electrons. When the impulse passes, the sodium moves out again and the nerve cells basically resets itself back to its resting potential.
When the nerve impulses reach the muscles they are meant to move, a similar use of ions inside and outside the muscle fibers occurs. In this case, sodium and potassium are used to spread the impulse across the muscle, but it is the influx of calcium into muscle fibers that reacts with the tropomyosin present in the cells, causing the fibers to contract, which pulls on the bones of the skeletons creating movement. The specific leg muscles necessary for stepping up in a step are the biceps femoris, which flexes the knee and extends the hip, the pectneus, which flexes the hip and raises the…
Myth of the First Three Years
Major Points of the Arguments made by Broude and Zero to Three
Broude presents arguments against the myth of the first three years by exposing some of the fallacies propagated by popular neuroscience. The first argument that she makes is that the stage of brain development is not the same as the stage of child development. She argues that the fact that the brain is developing connections rapidly should not be taken to imply that the connections are being formed as a result of rapid learning. She argues instead that the forming of connections among neurons is simply the stage-setting for learning to take place in later years of the lifespan. Her second major argument is that a number of traits are experience-expectant and not age dependent. The fact that most of these experiences are available to children during the first three years of…
Dowling, M. (2009). Young children's personal, social and emotional development. Sage Publications.
OECD. (2007). Understanding the brain: The birth of a learning science. OECD Publishing.
Wilson, C. (2006). No on is too old to learn. iUniverse.
John Rawls / Mencius
John Rawls's A Theory of Justice is concerned with distributive rather than retributive justice: there is precious little discussion of crime and punishment in Rawls's magnum opus, but plenty of discussion about equality and fairness. Rawls seems to be embarked on a Kantian ethical project of establishing universal principles, but his chief concern is to establish his principles without requiring, as Kant does, an appeal to God as the ultimate guarantor of the moral necessity of his conclusions. In place of God, Rawls offers a thought experiment, which he calls the "Original Position." The reader is asked to imagine himself or herself before birth, being offered a comprehensive survey of the different types of lives into which he or she could potentially be born. Rawls wants the reader to consider whether the available permissible options in a given society are, in themselves, an existing critique of…
Kogan et al. (2009) report that the increasing prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) makes the identification of these disorders a public health priority. Many of the studies of the prevalence of ASD are taken from clinical data; the researchers believe that this data inaccurate. The researchers review all of the current research used to determine the prevalence of ASD and point out several flaws in each of these studies. In order to get an accurate point prevalence measurement the researchers used the National Survey of Children's Health (N = 78, 037) that utilizes parental reports of children aged three to seventeen years old to determine the prevalence of ASD. The study would help identify demographic variables associated with ASDs.
The researchers considered a child in the study to have ASD if a physician had told their parents at one time or another that the child had an ASD diagnosis.…
Dawson, G., Munson, J., Webb, S.J., Nalty, T., Abbott, R., & Toth, K. (2007). Rate of head growth decelerates and symptoms worsen in the second year of life in autism. Biological psychiatry, 61(4), 458-464.
Kogan, M.D., Blumberg, S.J., Schieve, L.A., Boyle, C.A., Perrin, J.M., Ghandour, R.M., ... & van Dyck, P.C. (2009). Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the U.S., 2007. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1395-1403.
Oberman, L.M., & Ramachandran, V.S. (2007). The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological bulletin, 133(2), 310-327.
So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.
It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…
Cluett, J. (2009). "Information About Anatomy: Orthopedics." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://orthopedics.about.com/od/anatomy/Information_About_Anatomy.htm
Freudenrich, C. (2009). "How Muscles Work." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://health.howstuffworks.com/muscle1.htm
Pbs.org. "The Secret Life of the Brain." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/3d/
hat is AI?
Future of AI
The Expert System
hat is an Expert System?
Three Major Components of an Expert System
Structure of an Expert System
Field and Benefit
Debate on Comparison
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined
Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.
An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…
Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.
Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.
Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.
Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
There are numerous technical intricacies to neurobiological research. The human brain is a completely intricate mechanism and holds numerous neurons. This creates problems in studying consciousness particularly in comprehending how brain processes trigger human consciousness, and how the brain realizes consciousness. The major aspect of perception is that for every conscious condition, people experiences some qualitative disposition to that state of being consciousness. In this regard, this paper assesses the disparity amid semantic and syntactic knowledge. The paper also highlights the disparities between knowledge content and form, and ascertains the effects of knowledge content and form when evaluating the intelligence of a machine.
Consciousness refers to the state of being responsive towards ones setting. It is the state or condition of wakefulness where one is able to recognize some inner thoughts or feelings or external objects. Scores of philosophers have tried to understand the temperament of consciousness and…
Palmer, D.E. (1998). Searle on Consciousness: or How not to be a Physicalist. Ratio, 11(2),
Tallis, R. (2010). Consciousness, not yet explained. New Scientist, 205(2742), 28-29.
Jinchang, W. (2010). Some Philosophical Thoughts on Machine Consciousness. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), 266-270.
Searle, J.R. (2000). Consciousness. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 557.
Based on an earlier study conducted on rats, the researchers determined that the most efficacious way of testing the specific electrical membrane properties of the non-pyramidal neurons being studied was an application of alternating hyper-polarizing and depolarizing rectangular current pulses lasting five hundred milliseconds (Kawaguchi, 1995, ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). he research confirmed the high firing rates of connected local neurons, especially when compared to the relatively low-firing pyramidal neurons, strengthening the observations of in-tandem functional properties of cortical neurons (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). For ease of measurement, voltages were amplified but not altered (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).
After conducting the physiological and electronic tests on the prepared neuron pairs, morphological analysis was conducted as well. his was the final step in assessing the differences in conduction of different cortical neurons in relationship to their differences in structure and interrelationship with other neurons; now that electronic measurements had…
The pairs were left intact for one to two hours after the recording process, which allowed enough time for the proper saturation of the neurons with dye to ease visualization of axons, dendrites, and inter-neural spaces (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). They were then preserved in a cold paraformaldehyde solution for seventy-two hours before being transferred to an anti-freezing solution and storage at seventy-nine degrees below zero Celsius (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Sections were also dehydrated during this process to minimize later shrinkage in terms of thickness; upon removal from cold storage the samples were sliced into sections no more than sixty micrometers thick and further dyed (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Visual analysis was aided by three-dimensional computer reconstruction (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).
The findings and confirmation of other findings that occurred in the process of this research covers a wide area of neurobiological knowledge. The study was undertaken to further understanding of the mechanisms and differentiations in neural functions, specifically cortical functions, and it was a complete success in this goal. The identified differences in postsynaptic interneurons -- specifically, the differences in axonal arbor size and distance -- were shown to have a direct correlation with the number of synapses directly inked to presynaptic pyramidal neurons, suggesting a strong structure-function correlation that increases the efficacy of synaptic and neural functions (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). The authors due acknowledge that there were limitations in their methods, specifically when it comes to the area of visual analysis and description of their research samples, but they stress that their findings compare favorably with descriptions of synaptic connections as seen with light microscopes, rather strengthening the reliability of previous data rather than undermining their own methods of measurement and analysis and their own conclusions (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).
This research was conducted with a particular interest in the function of cortical neurons in the production and preservation of visual memory, and has significant implications in this area. It had previously been established that mnemonic neurons retain traces of preferred spatial targets and actually appear to be inhibited in the non-preferred direction (Funahashi et al., 1989; Wilson et al., 1994; Rao et al., 1999; ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Interneurons had long been postulated as the mechanism by which such preference and inhibition is accomplished, and this research confirms that there is a physiological basis for this conclusion (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).
A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."
In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain,
Second Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN
The Dualism Argument
Pure Materialist Viewpoint
Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli
Neurons and Synapses
Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship
In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…
Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.
Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.
Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.
Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
Innate animal behavior is the internalized congenital system adapted for the facilitation of survival and reproduction. It is a basic element of ethology. The receptor capability of studying this behavior is due to simplified nervous systems among invertebrates. This ethological research through vision is referred to as overt animal behavior. This animal behavior can be categorized into three major classifications; innate, learned or complex. Learned animal behavior is the possession of behavioral characteristics through experience. This context discusses innate and complex animal behaviors in detail.
Reflexes can be referred to as an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. They are responses triggered by disturbances in the environment surrounding an organism. The basic unit in connection to innate behavior is the simple reflex arc. The behavior is a neural alleyway that involves few neurons in most cases two neurons, which are the sensory and the motor neurons.…
" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.
The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…
"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…
Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.
Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems
Static and Dynamic Equilibrium
Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium
There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.
The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…
Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.
Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.
Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29
The results of this study found that some negative bias towards a patient's socioeconomic standing -- particularly from less-experienced dental students -- can result in "differential treatment" (e.g., less attentive care) (Carson, 675). But by "heightening awareness" of potential biases (that are based on accent or perceived lower socioeconomic status, or on racism) among dental students, through educational initiatives, stereotyping and bias can be reduced if not eliminated (Carson, 678). Another suggestion (Carson, 678-79) in terms of ensuring the quality of treatment is to "inhibit social categorical thinking." This would require not treating the patient as "unique" but rather as a "collections of symptoms."
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
A Constraint in Children's Action Planning? The Journal…
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
2006). The neurological degeneration caused by this disease has also been found to reduce cognitive abilities pretty much across the board, and the inclusion of emotional recognition in its list of reduced functions suggests a stronger neurological basis for the phenomenon (Winblad et al. 2006). This also suggests a definite relationship between the neurological functions recognized in conscious cognition and the processing of emotional inputs (Winblad et al. 2006).
Much of the information regarding the psychological mechanisms that allow for the phenomenon of emotional recognition via facial features also comes from the study of unhealthy or abnormal cases. Interestingly, in one study involving "average" college students, the existence of primary psychopathic traits was positively correlated with recognition of fearful faces, but seemed to show no effect on the ability to recognize other emotions (Del Gaizo & Falkenbach 2008). This suggests a psychological predisposition to the recognition of certain emotions even…
Cheng, Y.; Chou, K.; Decety. J.; Chen, L.; Hunge, D.; Tzenga, O. & Lin, C. (2009). Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of human mirror-neuron system: A voxel-based morphometric investigation. Neuroscience, 158(2), pp. 713-20
Del Gaizo, a. & Falkenbach, D. (2008). "Primary and secondary psychopathic-traits and their relationship to perception and experience of emotion." Personality and Individual Differences, 45(3) pp. 206-12
Elkman, P. (1994). "Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: A reply to Russell's mistaken critique." Psychological bulletin 115(2), pp. 268-87.
Focquaert, F.; Braeckman, J. & Platek, S. (2008). "An evolutionary cognitive neuroscience perspective on human self-awareness and theory of mind. Philosophical Psychology, 21(1), pp. 47-68.
An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.
Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.
Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.
Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm
Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.
It is also thought to be the process responsible for the observation that blind individuals (for one example) tend to develop exceptional abilities in their other senses to compensate for the additional burdens on cognition.
Cross model reassignment refers to the full-scale replacement of certain types of sensory input for entirely different types. The process by which the blind learn to read Braille provides an example of cross model reassignment whereby it is believed that unused regions of the brain normally dedicated to receiving and processing visual stimuli are transformed into neurological structures capable of processing sensory input from the fingertips.
The ole of Neuroplasticity in Memory and Learning:
Generally, neuroplasticity lies at the root of all human cognitive processes and learning. It is precisely the ability of neurons to form complex interconnected pathways and networks consisting of large numbers of linked neurons that allows the brain to incorporate experiences…
Schwartz, J., Begley, S. (2002). The Mind & The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
It was found that academic exam stress caused significant increases in P and TAI scores, which were related to high levels of serum, significantly more so in males than females, who only had an increase in serum sgp130 when taking birth control drugs. Males were found to have significantly more serum sCD8. The results suggest that psychological stress induces immune-inflammatory changes with complex regulatory responses in IL-6 signaling, decreased anti-inflammatory capacity of serum and interactions with T-cell and monocytic activation. The results of this study also suggest that sex hormones may modify stress-induced immune-inflammatory responses (ong et al. p. 293).
Anxiolytic drugs of the benzodiazepine class and other drugs that affect catecholamine, GABAA, histamine and serotonin receptors, alter the stress response and regulate stress hormone secretion. It has been shown that exposure to hostile conditions induces lowered immune system and cardiovascular responses, as well as neural circuits and neurotransmitter system…
Song, C, Kenis, G., van Gastel, a., Bosmans, E., Lin, a., de Jong, R., Neels, H., Scharpe, et al. (1999). Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans. Part II. Altered serum concentrations of natural anti-inflammatory agents and soluble membrane antigens of monocytes and T. lymphocytes. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 85, 3. Retrieved at http://www.psy-journal.com/article/PIIS0165178199000128/abstract .
Tait, M. (2007). Music 'enhances ecstasy effects.' Focus. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/Omegaman_UK/drugs.html.
Van de Kar, L.D., Blair, M.L. (1999). Forebrain pathways mediating stress-induced hormone secretion. PubMed: A service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Chicago: Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine.
The chronological order of these studies, having started with most recent ones, also proves that constant advancements have been made in this particular arena. Thus, some important conclusions can be drawn for a further study.
First, in order to properly study long-term memory in fruit flies, it is essential to have both qualified individuals and qualified equipment. This will necessitate some funds, or at least the inclusion of the experimenter in a laboratory which can furnish him or her with these particulars. In other words, this is not an easy experiment. This is, in part, due to the nature of studying long-term memory, which cannot easily be observed, especially in animals, but also to the fact that the behaviours that demonstrate long-term memory in this particular species are quite hard to observe with the naked eye. However, the species does prove the best possible for such studies, for its behaviour…
Baker, M. "Long-term memory controlled by molecular pathway at synapses." (2007). Ground Report. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .
Ulman, Neil. "Fruit-fly gene: Clue to human memory." (1996). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2011, < http://ezproxy.library.nyu.edu:34344/docview/398487618/fulltext?source=fedsrch&accountid=12768>.
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ethinking the Universe
Conflicts between religion and science are neither new nor novel. In the 1600s, Galileo was hauled before a court and convicted of heresy for saying (and publishing) that the earth revolved around the sun instead of the opposite. There have been trials on the teaching of evolution, controversies about physics and even states that battle schools and parents for including certain scientific concepts in the public school curriculum. Yet, the more science discovers the details of biology and physics, the more it seems that within each tiny creation there are similarities -- almost a microcosm of the entire universe within one molecule. To some, like Gerald Schroeder, this indicates that existence is about universality - and universality is about a way to describe the existence of everything. This in turn, is more of a cosmic journey, both macro and microcosmic as the merging between science and religion…
Kalat, J. (2013). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cenage/Wadsworth.
Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.
Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…
Capodano AM. Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2000. Available at, http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/AstrocytID5007.html
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Karen T. Barker and Richard S. Houlston, "Overgrowth syndromes: Is dysfunctional P. 13 Kinase signalling a Unifying mechanism," European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 665-670. Available online at, http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n9/full/5201026a.html
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Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…
Bainbridge, William Sims, Edward E. Brent, Kathleen M. Carley et al. (1994). Artificial Social
Intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 407.
Berry, Frances Stokes, William D. Berry and Stephen K. Foster. (1998). The Determinants of Success in Implementing an Expert System in State Government. Public Administration
Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL
Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.
Health effects can include,…
Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119
Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National
Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports
Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
In conclusion, much academic attention has been spent on the role of serotonin deficiency and its role in depression and other mood disorders. There has been increasing attention on developing SSRIs that are target-specific in an attempt to reduce unwanted side effects. However, as we have seen too much serotonin many have lasting effects on the brain and contribute to elderly dementia, or permanent damage to the hippocampus.
It appears that maintaining the proper balance of serotonin in the system is the best method for the prevention of the immediate effects of depression and the long-term effects of dementia. Diet plays an important role in the ability of the body to maintain proper serotonin levels. However, there may be times when the body simply cannot maintain the balance on its own. That is when drug therapy such as MAOIs and SSRIs come into play. These drugs are good are relieving…
Biver F, Wikler D, Lotstra F, Damhaut P, Goldman S, Mendlewicz J. 1997. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor imaging in major depression: focal changes in orbito-insular cortex. Br J. Psychiatry 1997 Nov; 171:444-8.
Dunkley, E.J.C., et al., Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria: a simple and accurate diagnostic decision rule for serotonin toxicity. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 2003. 96: p. 635-642.
Green, R. (2006). Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Br J. Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S145-52.
McEwen BS; Conrad CD; Kuroda Y; Frankfurt M; Magarinos AM; McKittrick C (1997). Prevention of stress-induced morphological and cognitive consequences
Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…
Moss sex driven by scent by Gisela Telis (2012).
Mating is a natural process observed in every living thing in its own unique way. While worms can reproduce in the opposite head position, the sexual intercourse between humans is completely a different phenomenon. A similar yet different reproduction method is used by the Mosses. The article written by Gisela Telis (2012) demonstrates the recent findings on the innovative mating procedure of the Mosses. The article also compares the recent findings with the earlier studies done in previous years and is related to the field of biological psychology as it focuses upon plant evolution and the idea of pheromones.
Telis (2012) has found out that Mosses require help from tiny little creatures to play an important role in their mating procedure. Earlier it was observed and widely believed that Mosses reproduce by wind and water. In essence,…
Telis, G. (2004, July 18). Moss sex driven by scent. Science AAAS. Retrieved 21st July, 2012 from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/07/moss-sex-driven-by-scent.html?ref=hp
Williams R. (2012). Mairjuana reveals memory mechanism. Scientific American Mind, No. 45.
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…
Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology. http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html
2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi
Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm
Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
To find out if you have ALS, your doctor will do a physical exam and will ask you about your symptoms and past health. You will also have tests that show how your muscles and nerves are working." (ebMD, 1) These tests may given the physician cause to observe the nerve cells where atrophy has occurred. Because ALS will generally prove debilitating to both upper and lower motor neurons, symptoms demonstrating a degeneration in both capacities will frequently be a tip-off that ALS is present.
Host/Intermediate host or Life
The individual who is host to this condition will have a limited life expectancy. ALS is a fatal disease which may run its course in a period of months or over a number of years. But as with the namesake of the condition in the U.S., Lou Gehrig, even those in peak physical condition may be struck by an aggressive advancement…
Aebischer, P. & Kato, a.C. (2007). Playing Defense Against Lou Gehrig's Disease. Scientific American.
Ray, S.S. & Lansbury, P.T. (2004). A Possible Therapeutic Target for Lou Gehrig's Disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(16), 5701-5702.
Reichenberg, E. (2008). Understanding ALS. ALS Hope Foundation.
Walling, a.D. (2006). Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Lou Gehrig's Disease. American Academy of Family Physicians.
Discussion about Brain Death and Cerebral Definitions
It has been researched that the human brain collapses at prior to the cessation of the human organs; the collapse of the human brain is attributed to the elimination of the large numbers of redundant neurons, and the aging process i.e. The gradual loss of sensory capacities. It has been reported that the visual acuity decline on linear basis between the age limit of 20-60, and soon after sixty the declination of the visual acuity is exponential. By the age of 45, the depth perception is reported declination in accelerated manner, and the speech comprehension is expected to get affect after the age of 80 due to the quarter loss of the extensive neurons in the superior temporal gyrus of the auditory cortex. The research has observed that significant decrease in the neuron density is expected, as a result of the aging process.…
Robert H. Blank. Technology and Death Policy: Redefining Death. Department of Government, Brunel University. 2001.
Peter Monaghan. The Unsettled Question of Brain Death. The Chronicle of Higher Education Vol. 48, Issue, 24. 2002.
Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).
Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…
Acetylcholine. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.chemistryexplained.com/A-
Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://axon.psyc.memphis.edu/~charlesblaha/3507/Biogenic%20Amines/Lecture%20-
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…
Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .
Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.
Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.
Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
Oliver Sacks takes a profound look into the lives of individuals who have had their entire lives shift from one of normalcy, to one inflicted by the disability of blindness. However, despite how tragic their inability to see may be interpreted by those around them, for the most part, the individuals portrayed in the Mind's Eye have been able to surpass the obstacles presented to them. In this collection of essays, Sacks takes readers on a path of understanding both the limitations imposed upon those stricken with blindness, as well as the assumptions of those who surround them.
Sacks shares with his readers the immense learning that he was able to gain through the memoirs of the blind authors that he studied. In almost every opportunity granted to the individuals who are blind, they were able to take advantage not of what they were missing, but instead they…
Bear, Mark F., Barry W. Connors, and Michael a. Paradiso. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007. Print.
Sacks, Oliver W. The Mind's Eye. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 2010. Web/eBook
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.