Neuron Essays (Examples)

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Synaptic Communication This Report Will

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88651219



One such study looked at a general look at what regulates and influence how bold or shy someone is. This manifests in humans but it also manifests in other animals such as fish and rabbits. When looking at fish, it was clear that bold fish had fewer interactions overall while shyer fish were much more conservative and reserved yet held series of reactions with a small group of friends. It is noted that even though animals are much simpler than humans in terms of physiology, they still have very complex social networks (Pike, 2008).

This particular study looked at whether the ratio of bold and shy fish had an overall reaction on the group's composition as a whole. In other words, and to ensure that this is perceived to be applicable to neurons, it is assessed whether the bold fish influence the neuron/synapse pathways and, thus, the overall behavior patterns…… [Read More]

References

IntroPsych. (2013, March 3). How Neurons Communicate | in Chapter 02: Human Nervous System | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Table of Contents for Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from  http://www.intropsych.com/ch02_human_nervous_system/how_neurons_communicate.html 

NIH. (2013, March 3). Communication Between Synapses. NIH. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2709812/

Pike, T. (2008, January 1). Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network . Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from  http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1650/2515.full 

Sekata, J. (2004, January 1). ScienceDirect.com - Animal Behaviour - Social experience affects territorial and reproductive behaviours in male leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. ScienceDirect.com | Search through over 11 million science, health, medical journal full text articles and books.. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347201919529
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Foundational Scientific Literature Regarding Memory and Learning

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6423266

foundational scientific literature regarding memory and learning. Memory and learning have long been popular subjects of study by psychologists. Although the results of such studies were very insightful, it was difficult to draw deeper, more fundamental conclusions about the learning and memory experiments. However, the rapidly advancing field of neurobiology has provided the field with a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying learning and memory.

Studies regarding memory using imagery and cognitive mapping

Imagery is often used to improve memory through the process of encoding. When the brain sees a certain image associated with a certain piece of information, it is able to encode that association into the brain. (Goldstein, 2008, p. 347). When the person is given a prompt to recall that information, the brain has an additional prompt, the image associated with that information, to aid in the recollection of that information.

Organization helps to improve the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dagan, R. (2011). Cognitive mapping: Definitions, examples, resources. Intraspec.ca: An online journal. Available at http://intraspec.ca/cogmap.php.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (January 01, 1996). Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain: a Journal of Neurology, 119, 593-609.

Gallese, V., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., & Rizzolatti, G. (2006). Mirrors in the Mind. The Scientific American, November 2006, 55-61.

Goldstein, B.E. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday experience (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Autistic Children

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47452496

Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder

Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.

Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…… [Read More]

References

Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, (2), 271 -- 283.

Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R.M., Snyder, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Anatomical Differences in the Mirror Neuron System and Social Cognition Network in Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1276-1282.

Receveur, C., Lenoir, P., Desombre, H., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C., & Malvy, J. (2005). Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes. Autism, 9, (1), 69-82.

Rizzolatti, G. & Craighereo, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169 -- 192.
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Autism Is Characterized by Mental

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21565238

143).

Far from being too simple an explanation for autism, Ramachandran notes that single causes often do lead to multiple symptoms. Ramachandran's hypothesis has been tested using a variety of brain imaging techniques including transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Brain imaging did reveal dysfunctional mirror neurons in children with autism vs. those without it. In fact, Ramachandran calls the research using TMS "conclusive evidence" that mirror neuron function is the root cause of autism (p. 142). The study of embodied cognition enhances research into how mirror neurons impact autism syndromes.

Ramachandran also notes that mirror neuron deficiencies can cause dysfunctional language acquisition. After all, infants acquire language knowledge first from listening and then mimicking mother, father, and others. Autistic children struggle with mimicry. Mirror neurons play a role in language mimicry as does mu-wave suppression, which is why autistic children have trouble both with certain audio stimuli and with mimicking phonemes.…… [Read More]

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Human Development

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48680821

Diamond

Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…… [Read More]

References

Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's

Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,

New York.
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Psychopathology Understanding of Psychopathology Psychopathology Has Had

Words: 2785 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7904372

Psychopathology

Understanding of psychopathology

Psychopathology has had differentiated opinions from variant psychologists. Warner's opinion of relabeling people's process and Prouty's therapy that offers a mentally unwell person are both discussed in depth for better understanding. Also, the effects of language barrier to collaborating psychologists and psychiatrists in dealing with person-centered therapies have been reviewed in this article. Communication enhancement is fundamental for the relaying of information between the different medical practitioners is what will help in the scientific research on matters dealing with brain functionality, and the enhancement of methods to counter the dysfunctional elements in human ability. This paper aims at examining closely the person-centered approach, and its efficiency in dealing with the brain disorders and other physical impairments.

Psychopathology is a study that deals with behaviors, human feelings and thoughts that either causes depression or anxiety (distress), forces one to indulge in dangerous activities, which can be against…… [Read More]

References

Allan, H.F., 2000. Where Have All The Abnormal People Gone? Humanist Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 2, p. 29.

Eldin, G. And Golanty, E., 2009. Health and Wellness. New York: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Joseph, S. And Worsley, R. ed., 2007. Person-centered Practice. Herefordshire: PCCS Books.

Joseph, S., 2006. Person-centered Coaching Psychology: A Meta-theoretical Perspective. International Coaching Psychology Review, Volume 1, Number 1.
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Neurobiology Binocular Vision One of

Words: 532 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38317401



Synapse Competition and Elimination

Throughout the growth and life of vertebrates and many animals, beginning even in the embryonic stages of development and continuing throughout adult life, a process known as synaptic competition takes place that eliminates certain underperforming synapses and neurons and leads to the dominance of a single motor neuron bringing even in embryonic stages (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). This begins with the innervation of musculature during embryonic development by a single motor neuron that remains dominant and leads to the ongoing elimination of other motor neurons throughout life (Wyatt & Balice-Gordon, 2003). Though the mechanisms by which synaptic competition and the resulting synaptic eliminations occur are not precisely known, there has been some research into this area and the beginnings of reasonable theory explaining this phenomenon have been developed.

In embryonic development, synaptic competition begins prior to the innervation of musculature with developmental processes and random firings…… [Read More]

References

Howard, I. & Rogers, B. (1995). Binocular vision and stereopsis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wyatt, R. & Balice-Gordon, R. (2003). Activity-dependent elimination of neuromuscular synapses. Journal of Neurocytology 32(5): 777-94.
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Anatomical Position the Person Will Access Information

Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3032335

anatomical position, the person will access information stored in the hippocampus regarding the object's position, height, etc. The brains motor system in areas such as the motor cortex, primary visual cortex and the motor homunculus then activate to control the motor functions via the muscle movements. Electrical impulses via neurons connected to each other via axons and dendrites travel from the brain along the spinal cord and nerve fibers to the muscles with the spinal cord which make up the central nervous system. The impulses are then transferred to the peripheral nervous system under our control to the nerves in the hands, hips, shoulders, knees, feet, etc. To perform the step up motion.

Part 2:

The chemical activities in synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus activate synaptic terminals in the dendrites. The dendrites then activate neurotransmitters that impulse rapidly toward the neuron's cell body. Each nerve impulse begins in the dendrites…… [Read More]

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Brain Cells Distinguish Between the

Words: 374 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12378271

They cannot carry impulses as they do not have an axon and dendrites. The oligodendrocyte cells are more numerous than the neurons and make up almost 90% of the brain cells. Thus, to differentiate between a neuron and oligodendrocyte the researcher would have to eliminate the presence of the axon and dendrite and check the density of the presence of these cells within the brain sample. [Wikipedia, 2005]

ASTOCYTE: These are another type of Glial cells that can easily be differentiated through their star shape. The astrocytes are seen to contain many secondary filaments that function just like dendrites in neurons. When examined the nuclei of the astrocytes is seen as smaller than that of the oligodendrocytes. The glial cells are non-neural and can easily be distinguished from the neurons. [Glia, 2005]

eferences

Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005

Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,…… [Read More]

References

Author Not Available, the Brain, Enchanted Learning.com http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml,2005

Author Not Available, Glial Cell, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glia

Author Not Available, Glia, 2005,  http://www.mb.jhu.edu/tins/media/Neuroglia.txt
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Psychology Concepts of Psychology Theories

Words: 1907 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92469574

It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.

ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).

Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…… [Read More]

Wiley & Sons.

Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L., & Kenney, W.L. (2008). Physiology of sports and exercise (4th

ed.). Champaigne, IL: Human Kinetics.
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Communication Technologies Rapid Advancements in

Words: 2449 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56172188



News Reporting on Crimes, Corruption, and worsening Economic Conditions:

News channels also telecast detailed reports on crimes, corruption, political instability, and worsening conditions of economies. General public, which is already in a miserable condition due to a stressful life further gets into tensions and worries due to such type of information. These reports present a very weird picture of what is happening around the world. All this creates an atmosphere of restlessness, anxiety, and depression among the general public (Kraut & Attewell).

Impacts of Information overload on Investors:

Investing in a particular asset, organization, or industry is such a decision which requires a comprehensive and careful analysis of the relevant facts and figures. Generally, investors look at the industry trends over the last few years in a view to anticipate the attractiveness and potential of their investment. Now-a-days, there are various sources through which they can obtain this information. But…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bondarouk, Tanya. Handbook of research on e-transformation and human resources management technologies: organizational outcomes and challenges. Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2009. Print. (412)

Costigan, Sean & Perry, Jake. Cyberspaces and global affairs. Burlington: Ashgate Publishers, 2012. Print. (p. 319)

Eppler, Martin. Managing information quality: increasing the value of information in knowledge-intensive products and processes. New York: Springer, 2006. (p. 2)

Kraut, Robert & Attewell, Paul. Media Use in a Global Corporation: Electronic Mail and Organizational Knowledge. 6 July 1996. Web. 16 March 2012.
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Cognitive Deficits in Amyotrophic Sclerosis

Words: 2919 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59314852

, 2010).

In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…… [Read More]

References

Brettschneider, J., Libon, D.J., Toledo, J.B., Xie, S.X., McCluskey, L., Elman, L., & #8230;

Trojanowski, J.Q. (2012). Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathologica, 123(3),

395 -- 407. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0932-x

Crespi, C., Cerami, C., Dodich, a., Canessa, N., Arpone, M., Iannaccone, S., & #8230; Cappa, S.F. (2014). Microstructural white matter correlates of emotion recognition impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cortex, 53, 1 -- 8
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Neurobiology Resting Potential if the

Words: 1384 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33236257

When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.

8)

Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.

9)…… [Read More]

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Neurotransmitters Are Chemicals Endogenously Produced in the

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94018370

Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).

Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…… [Read More]

References

Jankovic, J. (2008). Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:368 -- 376.

Neve, A.K. (2009). The Dopamine Receptors, The Receptors. Edition 2. Springer.

Webster, R. (2001). Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. John Wiley and Sons.
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Ch 5 Biologists Can Develop Antibodies

Words: 2082 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79577433

Ecologically, human hearing was needed to communicate better in order to survive; higher ranges of hearing have no real genetic advantage because it does not help humans to find food, shelter, or to communicate with one another. In addition, being able to localize sounds (friend or foe) would be essential and usually those sounds occur under 20,000 Hz (rustling of leaves, breaking of branches, etc.) (pp. 193-4).

2. The text explains how we might distinguish loudness for low-frequency sounds. How might we distinguish loudness for a high-frequency tone?

Loudness is a sensation that is related to amplitude (strength of frequency). We distinguish loudness based on many factors; speed of the sound, quality of the sound, etc. The higher the amplitude, the louder something appears -- and in higher frequency tones, the amplitude is faster and the peaks more robust, so the sound appears to be much louder than the identical…… [Read More]

Source:

Kalat, J. (2010). Biological Psychology, 11th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Cenage

Sage Publications. Retrieved from: http://dualibra.com/wp-content / uploads/2012/12/BiologPsych.pdf
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Fluoxetine Prozac Since Its Approval for Use

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61933670

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).

As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.

Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.

Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.

Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Stepping Up Tracing a Nerve

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80966191

An impulse opens "gates" in the membrane that allow the positive sodium ions to rush in, which pushes the impulses along by moving electrons. When the impulse passes, the sodium moves out again and the nerve cells basically resets itself back to its resting potential.

When the nerve impulses reach the muscles they are meant to move, a similar use of ions inside and outside the muscle fibers occurs. In this case, sodium and potassium are used to spread the impulse across the muscle, but it is the influx of calcium into muscle fibers that reacts with the tropomyosin present in the cells, causing the fibers to contract, which pulls on the bones of the skeletons creating movement. The specific leg muscles necessary for stepping up in a step are the biceps femoris, which flexes the knee and extends the hip, the pectneus, which flexes the hip and raises the…… [Read More]

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Myth of the First Three Years Major

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30295014

Myth of the First Three Years

Major Points of the Arguments made by Broude and Zero to Three

Broude presents arguments against the myth of the first three years by exposing some of the fallacies propagated by popular neuroscience. The first argument that she makes is that the stage of brain development is not the same as the stage of child development. She argues that the fact that the brain is developing connections rapidly should not be taken to imply that the connections are being formed as a result of rapid learning. She argues instead that the forming of connections among neurons is simply the stage-setting for learning to take place in later years of the lifespan. Her second major argument is that a number of traits are experience-expectant and not age dependent. The fact that most of these experiences are available to children during the first three years of…… [Read More]

References

Dowling, M. (2009). Young children's personal, social and emotional development. Sage Publications.

OECD. (2007). Understanding the brain: The birth of a learning science. OECD Publishing.

Wilson, C. (2006). No on is too old to learn. iUniverse.
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John Rawls Mencious and Naturalism

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76701756

John Rawls / Mencius

John Rawls's A Theory of Justice is concerned with distributive rather than retributive justice: there is precious little discussion of crime and punishment in Rawls's magnum opus, but plenty of discussion about equality and fairness. Rawls seems to be embarked on a Kantian ethical project of establishing universal principles, but his chief concern is to establish his principles without requiring, as Kant does, an appeal to God as the ultimate guarantor of the moral necessity of his conclusions. In place of God, Rawls offers a thought experiment, which he calls the "Original Position." The reader is asked to imagine himself or herself before birth, being offered a comprehensive survey of the different types of lives into which he or she could potentially be born. Rawls wants the reader to consider whether the available permissible options in a given society are, in themselves, an existing critique of…… [Read More]

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Autonomy Abuse and the Hippocampus

Words: 2602 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67428134

Current brain imaging surveys and other experiments also present evidence that child abuse could permanently damage neural structure and the functioning of the developing brain itself (Carloff).

Cohen (2001) discusses the merits of art therapy with its innate therapeutic qualities, which simultaneously activate the nervous system, the brain, the endocrine and the immune system in a uniquely particular way to support effective clinical management. Psycho-neuroendoimmunology connects an unregulated stress response to health, with stress as the underlying neurological dynamics of psychological and behavioral symptoms. Stress triggers an adaptive sympathetic nervous system response aimed at maintaining an optional state of functioning. This nervous system regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response to stress, which in turn provides the energy for survival and temporarily sharpens memory and brain function. Nature intends the use of this sympathetic adaptive response for survival, but the external reality is that our daily lives or urban environment…… [Read More]

References

1. Al-Kurdi, H. (2006). Messing with Our Minds. Dirty Tricks, Inc. VOXNYC.  http://www.voxfux.com/features/mind_control_child_abuse_cover_up.html 

2. Bower, B. (1996). Small Hippocampus Linked to Higher Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Science News: Science Service, Inc. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n20_v149/ai_18319734

3. Brick, N.D. (2005). How Childhood Sexual Abuse Affects Interpersonal Relations. Smart News. http://members.aol.com/smartnews/howchildhoodsa.htm

4. Carloff, A. (2002). Child Abuse and Damage. Punkerslut.  http://www.punkerslut.com/articles/childabuse.html
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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Words: 1125 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8315679

Kogan et al. (2009) report that the increasing prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) makes the identification of these disorders a public health priority. Many of the studies of the prevalence of ASD are taken from clinical data; the researchers believe that this data inaccurate. The researchers review all of the current research used to determine the prevalence of ASD and point out several flaws in each of these studies. In order to get an accurate point prevalence measurement the researchers used the National Survey of Children's Health (N = 78, 037) that utilizes parental reports of children aged three to seventeen years old to determine the prevalence of ASD. The study would help identify demographic variables associated with ASDs.

The researchers considered a child in the study to have ASD if a physician had told their parents at one time or another that the child had an ASD diagnosis.…… [Read More]

References

Dawson, G., Munson, J., Webb, S.J., Nalty, T., Abbott, R., & Toth, K. (2007). Rate of head growth decelerates and symptoms worsen in the second year of life in autism. Biological psychiatry, 61(4), 458-464.

Kogan, M.D., Blumberg, S.J., Schieve, L.A., Boyle, C.A., Perrin, J.M., Ghandour, R.M., ... & van Dyck, P.C. (2009). Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the U.S., 2007. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1395-1403.

Oberman, L.M., & Ramachandran, V.S. (2007). The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological bulletin, 133(2), 310-327.
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Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study Behavior

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28253040

Psychologists Use Scientific Methods to Study

behavior and mental processes.

behavioral disorders.

unconscious mental processes.

the meaning of dreams.

Cognitive psychology can best be described as

the study of higher mental processes.

the therapeutic applications of critical thinking.

the area of psychology which attempts to reduce judgmental thinking.

a subspecialty of psychology based exclusively on observation rather than experimentation.

Who was a leading proponent of behaviorism in the United States until his/her death in 1990?

Carl Rogers

Skinner

Ivan Pavlov

Albert Bandura

Charles Darwin argued that ____ determines physical traits of survival.

A. cognition

B. genetics

C. environment

D. nurture

5. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?

A. psychodynamic

B. humanistic

C. cognitive

D. sociocultural

6. Which of the following best describes a correlational study?

A. research that studies the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables

B. research that explains the effects of one variable on…… [Read More]

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Stepping Up One Step and

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39410551



So far, we have accomplished stepping up one step, but this is only half of the process necessary for reaching something on a high shelf. The second step, of course, is reaching up with the arm to grasp the desired object. The beginning of the process is pretty much the same -- a nerve impulse originates in the brain (possibly in the motor cortex for this more complex and less-often performed task), and then travels along the spinal cord and periphery nerves to the proper muscles (pbs.org). Again, the neuromuscular junction is the site of chemical/electrical messaging between he nerve and the muscle fiber, and the same process activates the muscle tissue.

It is worthwhile to examine exactly what process takes place in the muscle tissue once activated that actually enables movement. muscles work by contracting; at the cellular level, the muscle fibers actually cling together and shorten when activated,…… [Read More]

References

Cluett, J. (2009). "Information About Anatomy: Orthopedics." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://orthopedics.about.com/od/anatomy/Information_About_Anatomy.htm

Freudenrich, C. (2009). "How Muscles Work." Accessed 17 May 2009. http://health.howstuffworks.com/muscle1.htm

Pbs.org. "The Secret Life of the Brain." Accessed 17 May 2009.  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/3d/
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Neural Network

Words: 3129 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7103440

Artificial Intelligence

hat is AI?

Future of AI

The Expert System

hat is an Expert System?

Three Major Components of an Expert System

Structure of an Expert System

Neural network

Fuzzy Logic

Chaos Engineering

Field and Benefit

Debate on Comparison

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Expert System Defined

Consulting applies a knowledge-based system to commercial loan officers using multimedia (Hedburg 121). Their system requires a fast IBM desktop computer. Other systems may require even more horsepower by using exotic computers or workstations. The software used is even more exotic. Considering there are very few applications that are pre-written using AI, each company has to write it's own software to determine the solution to their specific problem.

An easier way around this obstacle is to design an add-on. The company Fuziare has developed several applications which act as additions to larger applications. FuziCalc, FuziQuote, FuziCell, FuziChoice, and FuziCost are all products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barron, Janet J. "Putting Fuzzy Logic into Focus." Byte April (1993): 111-118.

Butler, Charles, and Maureen Caudill. Naturally Intelligent Systems. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1990.

Bylinsky, Gene. "Computers That Learn By Doing." Fortune 6 Sep. 1993: 96-102.

Liebowitz, Jay. "Roll Your Own Hybrids." Byte July (1993): 113-115.
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Consciousness There Are Numerous Technical Intricacies to

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27035821

Consciousness

There are numerous technical intricacies to neurobiological research. The human brain is a completely intricate mechanism and holds numerous neurons. This creates problems in studying consciousness particularly in comprehending how brain processes trigger human consciousness, and how the brain realizes consciousness. The major aspect of perception is that for every conscious condition, people experiences some qualitative disposition to that state of being consciousness. In this regard, this paper assesses the disparity amid semantic and syntactic knowledge. The paper also highlights the disparities between knowledge content and form, and ascertains the effects of knowledge content and form when evaluating the intelligence of a machine.

Introduction

Consciousness refers to the state of being responsive towards ones setting. It is the state or condition of wakefulness where one is able to recognize some inner thoughts or feelings or external objects. Scores of philosophers have tried to understand the temperament of consciousness and…… [Read More]

References

Palmer, D.E. (1998). Searle on Consciousness: or How not to be a Physicalist. Ratio, 11(2),

Tallis, R. (2010). Consciousness, not yet explained. New Scientist, 205(2742), 28-29.

Jinchang, W. (2010). Some Philosophical Thoughts on Machine Consciousness. Proceedings for the Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), 266-270.

Searle, J.R. (2000). Consciousness. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 557.
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Krimer L & Goldman-Rakic P

Words: 1290 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43990945



Based on an earlier study conducted on rats, the researchers determined that the most efficacious way of testing the specific electrical membrane properties of the non-pyramidal neurons being studied was an application of alternating hyper-polarizing and depolarizing rectangular current pulses lasting five hundred milliseconds (Kawaguchi, 1995, ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). he research confirmed the high firing rates of connected local neurons, especially when compared to the relatively low-firing pyramidal neurons, strengthening the observations of in-tandem functional properties of cortical neurons (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). For ease of measurement, voltages were amplified but not altered (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).

After conducting the physiological and electronic tests on the prepared neuron pairs, morphological analysis was conducted as well. his was the final step in assessing the differences in conduction of different cortical neurons in relationship to their differences in structure and interrelationship with other neurons; now that electronic measurements had…… [Read More]

The pairs were left intact for one to two hours after the recording process, which allowed enough time for the proper saturation of the neurons with dye to ease visualization of axons, dendrites, and inter-neural spaces (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). They were then preserved in a cold paraformaldehyde solution for seventy-two hours before being transferred to an anti-freezing solution and storage at seventy-nine degrees below zero Celsius (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Sections were also dehydrated during this process to minimize later shrinkage in terms of thickness; upon removal from cold storage the samples were sliced into sections no more than sixty micrometers thick and further dyed (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Visual analysis was aided by three-dimensional computer reconstruction (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).

The findings and confirmation of other findings that occurred in the process of this research covers a wide area of neurobiological knowledge. The study was undertaken to further understanding of the mechanisms and differentiations in neural functions, specifically cortical functions, and it was a complete success in this goal. The identified differences in postsynaptic interneurons -- specifically, the differences in axonal arbor size and distance -- were shown to have a direct correlation with the number of synapses directly inked to presynaptic pyramidal neurons, suggesting a strong structure-function correlation that increases the efficacy of synaptic and neural functions (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). The authors due acknowledge that there were limitations in their methods, specifically when it comes to the area of visual analysis and description of their research samples, but they stress that their findings compare favorably with descriptions of synaptic connections as seen with light microscopes, rather strengthening the reliability of previous data rather than undermining their own methods of measurement and analysis and their own conclusions (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).

This research was conducted with a particular interest in the function of cortical neurons in the production and preservation of visual memory, and has significant implications in this area. It had previously been established that mnemonic neurons retain traces of preferred spatial targets and actually appear to be inhibited in the non-preferred direction (Funahashi et al., 1989; Wilson et al., 1994; Rao et al., 1999; ctd. In Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001). Interneurons had long been postulated as the mechanism by which such preference and inhibition is accomplished, and this research confirms that there is a physiological basis for this conclusion (Krimer & Goldman-Rakic, 2001).
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Parkinson's Disease a Brief Description of Parkinson's

Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82724099

Parkinson's Disease

A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."

In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).

The Cause…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W. & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain,

Second Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Mental Representations and the Mind-Brain

Words: 2282 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16628063

Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship

MENTAL EPESENTATIONS AND THE MIND-BAIN

The Dualism Argument

Pure Materialist Viewpoint

Theories

Visual Stimuli vs. Speech stimuli

Descartes Point-of-View

Neurons and Synapses

Mental epresentations and the Mind-Brain elationship

In cognitive (neuro) science all through the last few decades, as in philosophy in the last 100 years, the issue of the mind-body (or mind-brain) occurrences is still open to discussion. Illogically, ever since Descartes nobody has suggested a workable alternate view of this problem. esearchers and thinkers have offered some approaches, yet none has gained the assent of the majority of thinkers. During a person's daily toils the separation that goes on between an individual mind and consciousness is hardly ever thought about or talked about. But then again it is the primary cause for the majority of your existence problems. This separation is not even a recognized fact, as consciousness and mind seem to…… [Read More]

References

Baars, J.B. (2013). An architectural model of consciousand unconscious brain functions: Global workspace theory and IDA. Neural Networks, 20, 955-961.

Bartels, A. (2010). Visual perception: Converging mechanisms of atten-tion, binding, and segmentation. Current Biology, 7(9), 56-78.

Gabbard, G.O. (2013). Mind, Brain, and Personality Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 34-45.

Sevush, S. (2013). Single-neuron theory of consciousness. Journal ofTheoretical Biology, 21(9), 704-725.
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Innate Animal Behavior Is the Internalized Congenital

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17911582

Innate animal behavior is the internalized congenital system adapted for the facilitation of survival and reproduction. It is a basic element of ethology. The receptor capability of studying this behavior is due to simplified nervous systems among invertebrates. This ethological research through vision is referred to as overt animal behavior. This animal behavior can be categorized into three major classifications; innate, learned or complex. Learned animal behavior is the possession of behavioral characteristics through experience. This context discusses innate and complex animal behaviors in detail.

Simple Behaviors

Reflexes

Reflexes can be referred to as an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. They are responses triggered by disturbances in the environment surrounding an organism. The basic unit in connection to innate behavior is the simple reflex arc. The behavior is a neural alleyway that involves few neurons in most cases two neurons, which are the sensory and the motor neurons.…… [Read More]

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Brain to Body Impulse Impact

Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21628894

" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.

The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.
Encyclopedia.com/doc/106-slidingfilamenttheory.html


Group/molecular-neurobiology-synapse_formation/
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Neurotransmission OCD and the Psychotropic

Words: 2322 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76916718



Discussion

Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.

Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.

…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]

References

Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.

Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
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Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems Static and

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88782789

Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems

Static and Dynamic Equilibrium

Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium

There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.

The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…… [Read More]

References

Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.

Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.

Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29
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Perception Research Into Aspects of

Words: 1737 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59754200

The results of this study found that some negative bias towards a patient's socioeconomic standing -- particularly from less-experienced dental students -- can result in "differential treatment" (e.g., less attentive care) (Carson, 675). But by "heightening awareness" of potential biases (that are based on accent or perceived lower socioeconomic status, or on racism) among dental students, through educational initiatives, stereotyping and bias can be reduced if not eliminated (Carson, 678). Another suggestion (Carson, 678-79) in terms of ensuring the quality of treatment is to "inhibit social categorical thinking." This would require not treating the patient as "unique" but rather as a "collections of symptoms."

orks Cited

Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical

Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),

667-683.

Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence

A Constraint in Children's Action Planning? The Journal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical

Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),

667-683.

Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
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Emotional Recognition of Written Expressions

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3105763

2006). The neurological degeneration caused by this disease has also been found to reduce cognitive abilities pretty much across the board, and the inclusion of emotional recognition in its list of reduced functions suggests a stronger neurological basis for the phenomenon (Winblad et al. 2006). This also suggests a definite relationship between the neurological functions recognized in conscious cognition and the processing of emotional inputs (Winblad et al. 2006).

Much of the information regarding the psychological mechanisms that allow for the phenomenon of emotional recognition via facial features also comes from the study of unhealthy or abnormal cases. Interestingly, in one study involving "average" college students, the existence of primary psychopathic traits was positively correlated with recognition of fearful faces, but seemed to show no effect on the ability to recognize other emotions (Del Gaizo & Falkenbach 2008). This suggests a psychological predisposition to the recognition of certain emotions even…… [Read More]

References

Cheng, Y.; Chou, K.; Decety. J.; Chen, L.; Hunge, D.; Tzenga, O. & Lin, C. (2009). Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of human mirror-neuron system: A voxel-based morphometric investigation. Neuroscience, 158(2), pp. 713-20

Del Gaizo, a. & Falkenbach, D. (2008). "Primary and secondary psychopathic-traits and their relationship to perception and experience of emotion." Personality and Individual Differences, 45(3) pp. 206-12

Elkman, P. (1994). "Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions: A reply to Russell's mistaken critique." Psychological bulletin 115(2), pp. 268-87.

Focquaert, F.; Braeckman, J. & Platek, S. (2008). "An evolutionary cognitive neuroscience perspective on human self-awareness and theory of mind. Philosophical Psychology, 21(1), pp. 47-68.
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Immune Biopsychology Interactions of the

Words: 4188 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47766172



An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.

The…… [Read More]

References

Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.

Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.

Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm

Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.
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Neuroplasticity Memory and Learning Neuroplasticity

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9714362

It is also thought to be the process responsible for the observation that blind individuals (for one example) tend to develop exceptional abilities in their other senses to compensate for the additional burdens on cognition.

Cross model reassignment refers to the full-scale replacement of certain types of sensory input for entirely different types. The process by which the blind learn to read Braille provides an example of cross model reassignment whereby it is believed that unused regions of the brain normally dedicated to receiving and processing visual stimuli are transformed into neurological structures capable of processing sensory input from the fingertips.

The ole of Neuroplasticity in Memory and Learning:

Generally, neuroplasticity lies at the root of all human cognitive processes and learning. It is precisely the ability of neurons to form complex interconnected pathways and networks consisting of large numbers of linked neurons that allows the brain to incorporate experiences…… [Read More]

References

Schwartz, J., Begley, S. (2002). The Mind & The Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York, NY: Harper Perennial.
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Drugs on Stress Perception and Stress Adaptation

Words: 1426 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11440362

It was found that academic exam stress caused significant increases in P and TAI scores, which were related to high levels of serum, significantly more so in males than females, who only had an increase in serum sgp130 when taking birth control drugs. Males were found to have significantly more serum sCD8. The results suggest that psychological stress induces immune-inflammatory changes with complex regulatory responses in IL-6 signaling, decreased anti-inflammatory capacity of serum and interactions with T-cell and monocytic activation. The results of this study also suggest that sex hormones may modify stress-induced immune-inflammatory responses (ong et al. p. 293).

Anxiolytic drugs of the benzodiazepine class and other drugs that affect catecholamine, GABAA, histamine and serotonin receptors, alter the stress response and regulate stress hormone secretion. It has been shown that exposure to hostile conditions induces lowered immune system and cardiovascular responses, as well as neural circuits and neurotransmitter system…… [Read More]

Song, C, Kenis, G., van Gastel, a., Bosmans, E., Lin, a., de Jong, R., Neels, H., Scharpe, et al. (1999). Influence of psychological stress on immune-inflammatory variables in normal humans. Part II. Altered serum concentrations of natural anti-inflammatory agents and soluble membrane antigens of monocytes and T. lymphocytes. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 85, 3. Retrieved at http://www.psy-journal.com/article/PIIS0165178199000128/abstract.

Tait, M. (2007). Music 'enhances ecstasy effects.' Focus. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/Omegaman_UK/drugs.html.

Van de Kar, L.D., Blair, M.L. (1999). Forebrain pathways mediating stress-induced hormone secretion. PubMed: A service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Chicago: Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine.
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Fruit Flies the Importance of

Words: 2167 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14864618

The chronological order of these studies, having started with most recent ones, also proves that constant advancements have been made in this particular arena. Thus, some important conclusions can be drawn for a further study.

First, in order to properly study long-term memory in fruit flies, it is essential to have both qualified individuals and qualified equipment. This will necessitate some funds, or at least the inclusion of the experimenter in a laboratory which can furnish him or her with these particulars. In other words, this is not an easy experiment. This is, in part, due to the nature of studying long-term memory, which cannot easily be observed, especially in animals, but also to the fact that the behaviours that demonstrate long-term memory in this particular species are quite hard to observe with the naked eye. However, the species does prove the best possible for such studies, for its behaviour…… [Read More]

Baker, M. "Long-term memory controlled by molecular pathway at synapses." (2007). Ground Report. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .

Ulman, Neil. "Fruit-fly gene: Clue to human memory." (1996). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2011, < http://ezproxy.library.nyu.edu:34344/docview/398487618/fulltext?source=fedsrch&accountid=12768>.

"Fruit Fly Definition." (2011). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved July 22, 2011, .
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Schoreder's the Hidden Face of God

Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31614801

ethinking the Universe

Conflicts between religion and science are neither new nor novel. In the 1600s, Galileo was hauled before a court and convicted of heresy for saying (and publishing) that the earth revolved around the sun instead of the opposite. There have been trials on the teaching of evolution, controversies about physics and even states that battle schools and parents for including certain scientific concepts in the public school curriculum. Yet, the more science discovers the details of biology and physics, the more it seems that within each tiny creation there are similarities -- almost a microcosm of the entire universe within one molecule. To some, like Gerald Schroeder, this indicates that existence is about universality - and universality is about a way to describe the existence of everything. This in turn, is more of a cosmic journey, both macro and microcosmic as the merging between science and religion…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Kalat, J. (2013). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cenage/Wadsworth.

Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
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Astrocytic Tumors Brain Tumor Is

Words: 2607 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78488625

Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.

Treatment

Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Capodano AM. Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2000. Available at,  http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/AstrocytID5007.html 

BTS, "Brain Tumor Facts & Statistics," Accessed Nov 18th 2007, available at http://www.tbts.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=384&itemID=16535

Karen T. Barker and Richard S. Houlston, "Overgrowth syndromes: Is dysfunctional P. 13 Kinase signalling a Unifying mechanism," European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 665-670. Available online at,  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n9/full/5201026a.html 

Medscape, " a Review of Astrocytoma Models: Molecular pathologies of Astrocytoma," Neurosurgical Focus 8(4), 2000 eMedicine, "Astrocytoma, Brain," Accessed on Noiv 18th 2007, available at http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic60.htm
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Embryo and Stem Cell

Words: 1143 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72184005

Embryo and Stem Cell Therapy

There are numerous studies which have investigated the potential benefits of embryonic stem cell therapy in restoring central nervous system function and other functions in humans with impaired cellular function.

In the article "Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease" the author's objectives are to investigate stem cell therapy as a plausible treatment for Parkinson's disease using animal subjects. esearchers have widely held the belief that embryonic stem cell research would be useful in alleviating the symptoms of Parkinson's. The disease itself typically results according to the authors when midbrain neurons are lost, particularly those neurons that synthesize dopamine, and important neurotransmitter.

Embryonic stem cells can generate dopamine, thus the authors propose that they become the basis for cell therapies. The scope of the study is limited to examination of stem cell function and dopamine production in…… [Read More]

References:

Kim, J.H., Auerbach, J.M., Rodriguez-Gomez, J.A., Velasco, I., Gavin, D., Lumelsky, N.,

Lee, S.H., Nguyen, J., Sanchez-Pernaute, R., Bankiewicz, K. & McKay, R. (2002). "Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease." Nature, 418: 50-56. 30, November 2004: Available: http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v418/n6893/full/nature00900_fs.html

Niwa, H. (2001). "Molecular mechanism to maintain stem cell renewal of ES Cells." Cell

Struct. Funct., 26: 137-148. 2, December, 2004: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/csf/26/3/137/_pdf
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Expert Systems and Neural Networks

Words: 5427 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89110827

Expert Systems and Neural Networks

The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks

The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bainbridge, William Sims, Edward E. Brent, Kathleen M. Carley et al. (1994). Artificial Social

Intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 407.

Berry, Frances Stokes, William D. Berry and Stephen K. Foster. (1998). The Determinants of Success in Implementing an Expert System in State Government. Public Administration

Review, 58(4):293.
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Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami Dade County FL

Words: 4630 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84746661

Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL

Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.

Health effects can include,…… [Read More]

References

Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119

Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National

Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports

Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
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Seratonin and Mood Understanding Seratonin

Words: 1816 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97493294



In conclusion, much academic attention has been spent on the role of serotonin deficiency and its role in depression and other mood disorders. There has been increasing attention on developing SSRIs that are target-specific in an attempt to reduce unwanted side effects. However, as we have seen too much serotonin many have lasting effects on the brain and contribute to elderly dementia, or permanent damage to the hippocampus.

It appears that maintaining the proper balance of serotonin in the system is the best method for the prevention of the immediate effects of depression and the long-term effects of dementia. Diet plays an important role in the ability of the body to maintain proper serotonin levels. However, there may be times when the body simply cannot maintain the balance on its own. That is when drug therapy such as MAOIs and SSRIs come into play. These drugs are good are relieving…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biver F, Wikler D, Lotstra F, Damhaut P, Goldman S, Mendlewicz J. 1997. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor imaging in major depression: focal changes in orbito-insular cortex. Br J. Psychiatry 1997 Nov; 171:444-8.

Dunkley, E.J.C., et al., Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria: a simple and accurate diagnostic decision rule for serotonin toxicity. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 2003. 96: p. 635-642.

Green, R. (2006). Neuropharmacology of 5-hydroxytryptamine. Br J. Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S145-52.

McEwen BS; Conrad CD; Kuroda Y; Frankfurt M; Magarinos AM; McKittrick C (1997). Prevention of stress-induced morphological and cognitive consequences
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Biopsychology Nature and Nature Psychology Explains the

Words: 2533 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39058309

Biopsychology

Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…… [Read More]

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Biological Psychology

Words: 1127 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81446152

Biological Psychology

Grade Course

Moss sex driven by scent by Gisela Telis (2012).

Mating is a natural process observed in every living thing in its own unique way. While worms can reproduce in the opposite head position, the sexual intercourse between humans is completely a different phenomenon. A similar yet different reproduction method is used by the Mosses. The article written by Gisela Telis (2012) demonstrates the recent findings on the innovative mating procedure of the Mosses. The article also compares the recent findings with the earlier studies done in previous years and is related to the field of biological psychology as it focuses upon plant evolution and the idea of pheromones.

Telis (2012) has found out that Mosses require help from tiny little creatures to play an important role in their mating procedure. Earlier it was observed and widely believed that Mosses reproduce by wind and water. In essence,…… [Read More]

References

Telis, G. (2004, July 18). Moss sex driven by scent. Science AAAS. Retrieved 21st July, 2012 from http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2012/07/moss-sex-driven-by-scent.html?ref=hp

Williams R. (2012). Mairjuana reveals memory mechanism. Scientific American Mind, No. 45.
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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

References

Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208
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Behavioral Biology

Words: 2124 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34673982

ehavioral iology

iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).

Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology.  http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html 

2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi

Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm

Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
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Language Disorders Disabilities and Learning

Words: 2040 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98514559

Language Impairments: Evidence-Based Interventions

Language Impairment Interventions

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

Evidence-Based Interventions for Pediatric Language Impairments

So strong is the genetic impulse driving language acquisition that all children will learn to speak some form of language (Sousa, 2011, p. 28, 196). This fact suggests that the remaining question confronting children, parents, educators, and society is how well these skills are learned. Problems encountered along the way, however, can sometimes have a significant impact on a child's ability to communicate with others, both now and as adults. The greatest challenges are those faced by children with speech and language disorders. To better understand the language problems confronting otherwise developmentally normal children the recommended interventions, especially from an educator's point-of-view, will be examined and discussed in this research paper.

Neurological Correlates of Language Development

Comprehending how a speech or language disorder in a child could develop and impact their…… [Read More]

References

Deniz Can, D., Richards, T., & Kuhl, P.K. (2013). Early gray-matter and white-matter concentration in infancy predict later language skills: A whole brain voxel-based morphometry study. Brain and Language, 124(1), 34-44.

Ratner, N.B. (2013). Why talk with children matters: Clinical implications of infant- and child-directed speech research. Seminars in Speech and Language, 34(4), 203-214.

Schuele, C.M., Spencer, E.J., Barako-Arndt, K., & Guillot, K.M. (2007). Literacy and children with specific language impairment. Seminars in Speech and Language, 28(1), 35-47.

Snowling, M.J. & Hulme, C. (2012). Interventions for children's language and literacy difficulties. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 47(1), 27-34.