As part of the experiment, another person entered the study area and expressed feelings of anger at the researcher for some time and at other times remained neutral. Later the researchers found that children who had witnessed the angry person were less likely to play with the toy compared to the children who had witnessed the neutral person. Also the researchers found that even the children who had seen the angry expression would play with the toy if the person did not return to the room. As Meltzoff says, "Mirror neurons show how what you see can be connected with what you do, but human beings can also regulate their behavior" [ScienceDaily] The neural basis of empathy and callousness will also offer a new etiology for a spectrum of antisocial behaviors. Also with this new insight into the psychology of behavior, psychologists can now look forward to new empirical basis for understanding the basic therapeutic processes of psychotherapies such as hypnosis, cognitive behavioral therapies and other similar interventions. For victims of stroke and other conditions that caused neural damage, observation therapy would offer a new ray of hope for the regeneration of damaged neural circuits. More research is awaited in this new and promising field of neuroscience.
Commenting on the implications of mirror neuron discovery, psychologist Daniel Stern says, " our minds are not separated or isolated and we are not the only owners of our own mind. Minds get created by virtue of constant interaction and dialogue with other minds, so that the whole idea of a "one person psychology" ought not to exist or atleast it must be incomplete" [ Peter Philippson, pg 46] Psychologists also opine that this ability to control empathy is important as otherwise people would forever be influenced by the pain and suffering of others. "If we were to consciously feel what [others] feel all the time, we would be in permanent emotional turmoil, leaving no room for our own emotions," report Frederique de Vignemont and Tania Singer in a recent article in Trends in Cognitive Science. [ScienceDaily]
The discovery of Mirror neurons has led to new theories in understanding the development of human social cognition, empathy, imitative skills, learning skills, etc. Mirror neurons are very important and unique neuronic cell types that are activated not only by doing action but also by observing an action. With an important role in understanding others feelings and emotions, mirror neurons contribute immensely to human social behavior. This possible role of mirror neurons in developing the social cognition skills is confirmed by the fact that autistic children who are otherwise intelligent, exhibit a near total lack of empathy and other social skill deficits. EEG studies of autistic subjects show a dysfunctional mirror neuron activity confirming this ...
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2) ESF, 'What do Mirror Neurons Mean', Accessed Dec 14th 2009, available at, http://www.interdisciplines.org/mirror
3) Ramachandran V.S, 'Mirror Neurons and Imitation learning as the driving force behind "the great leap forward" in Human Evolution', Accessed Dec 14th 2009, available at, http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/ramachandran/ramachandran_p1.html
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5) Ferrari P.F., Gallese V., Rizzolatti G., and Fogassi L. Mirror neurons responding to the observation of ingestive and communicative mouth actions in the monkey ventral premotor cortex. European Journal of Neuroscience (2003) 17: 1703-1714.
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8) Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff,1 Michael J. Vitacco,2 Alexander R. Graf et.al, 'Neurobiology of Empathy and Callousness: Implications for the Development of Antisocial Behavior', Behav Sci Law. 2009; 27(2): 137 -- 171., Available online at, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2729461/?tool=pmcentrez
9) Ernest S. Rossi, Kathryn L. Rossi & Los Osos CA, 'The Neuroscience of Observing Consciousness & Mirror neurons in therapeutic Hypnosis', American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 48:4 April 2006, Available Online at, http://www.erickson-foundation.org/10thCongress/HandoutCD/Presenter%20Handouts/Rossi,%20Kathryn/K%20Rossi%20handouts%202.pdf
10) Peter Philippson, 'The Emergent Self: An existential Gestalt Approach', Karnac
11) http://www.interdisciplines.org/mirror/papers/1 (comp review)
The neural basis of empathy and callousness will also offer a new etiology for a spectrum of antisocial behaviors. Also with this new insight into the psychology of behavior, psychologists can now look forward to new empirical basis for understanding the basic therapeutic processes of psychotherapies such as hypnosis, cognitive behavioral therapies and other similar interventions. For victims of stroke and other conditions that caused neural damage, observation therapy would offer a new ray of hope for the regeneration of damaged neural circuits. More research is awaited in this new and promising field of neuroscience.
foundational scientific literature regarding memory and learning. Memory and learning have long been popular subjects of study by psychologists. Although the results of such studies were very insightful, it was difficult to draw deeper, more fundamental conclusions about the learning and memory experiments. However, the rapidly advancing field of neurobiology has provided the field with a deeper understanding of the biological processes underlying learning and memory. Studies regarding memory using
" To determine the empathy / entropy paradox is the grave test of our species' aptitude to endure and flourish. At any time a new energy government has congregated with a new communications upheaval, society is pressed toward further difficulty. This time around is serious nevertheless, we may not have sufficient time to change. The Empathic Civilization is rising, but will it happen fast enough to ward off global catastrophe? The
There are some indications that observational learning might be genetic; animals teaching their young to hunt and the discovery of mirror neurons -- brain cells that fire when emotions/behaviors are observed in others -- both point to a biological basis for this type of learning. This learning is far more likely to occur if observed behaviors are met with rewards, however. Observational learning is also at the heart of
John Rawls / Mencius John Rawls's A Theory of Justice is concerned with distributive rather than retributive justice: there is precious little discussion of crime and punishment in Rawls's magnum opus, but plenty of discussion about equality and fairness. Rawls seems to be embarked on a Kantian ethical project of establishing universal principles, but his chief concern is to establish his principles without requiring, as Kant does, an appeal to God
Note the distinct similarities. An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the
History of RSD The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the