Bacterial Toxins & Damage to Neurons
Which bacterial toxins have negative impacts on the human body? This paper reviews those toxins and their effects on human functions.
Professor F.H. Kayser explains that "Exotoxins" are pathogenic bacteria that are capable of producing a "variety of toxins that are either the only pathogenic factor" in the onset of diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and cholera, or if they aren't the only factor they are at lease a "major factor" in a person getting these three diseases (Kayser, 2011). Not all of these toxins attack the cells; cytotoxins, for example, can produce toxic effects in a number of different host cells, Kayser explains on page 15. But without fail, neurotoxins impact the neurons of the host, according to the author.
Kayser explains that AB toxins bind to "specific surface receptors on target host cells," and he lists the various AB toxins that do attack cells and neurons in those cells. Diphtheria toxin is an AB toxin, and it can lead to "cell death" through protein synthesis (Kayser, 16). The clinical reality associated with the diphtheria toxin is that it kills mucosal cells, which...
The ultimate result is a condition the author describes as "massive watery diarrhea" and a substantial loss of water and electrolytes (16).
The tetanus toxin directly attacks the neurons (synapses), preventing them from producing the "synapses of the interior horn" which in normal situations transmits inhibiting impulses to the motor nerve terminal" (Kayser, 16).
Meanwhile in the book Neurobiology of Brain Disorders: Biological Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, the authors explain that the release of toxins can have a negative impact on the human nervous system. In particular the authors mention the "Clostridium botulinus and tetani toxins, which are metalloproteases that inhibit synaptic vesicle release" (Zigmond, et al., 2014). Those difficult words basically mean that the human body's neurons are disrupted by the tetanus toxin (as mentioned in the previous page) and by the botulinum (associated with the…
Neurons This is how I would explain the electro-chemical interaction between neurons to a friend. Imagine standing in a giant room with a large number of other people -- each of you are holding your arms out to either side of your body, like Leonardo Da Vinci's drawing of "Vitruvian Man." The giant room corresponds the brain and the nervous system, and you and the other people are each individual neurons. You
Each has its own skills associated with that specific areas (e.g. thinking is generally associated with the frontal cortex whilst vision with the occipital lobe; the frontal lobes are associated with motor control, speech, abstract thought, and sense of self, whilst the parietal lobes contain bodily sensations and the temporal lobes record hearing). Likewise each hemisphere has its specific expertise too with the analytical left containing speech, mathematical skills,
As part of the experiment, another person entered the study area and expressed feelings of anger at the researcher for some time and at other times remained neutral. Later the researchers found that children who had witnessed the angry person were less likely to play with the toy compared to the children who had witnessed the neutral person. Also the researchers found that even the children who had seen
Its [mylelin insulation] growth enables a baby to gradually hold up its head, and its destruction by diseases such as multiple sclerosis causes severe impairment" (Chen 2009). Researchers have also found that both brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease may be the result of problems with glia cells. Clearly, glia "are more than mere support cells that cater to the needs of neurons" and a "dynamic
Imagery and Cognitive Mapping and Their Common Applications Imagery and its applications Humans are capable of imagining moving without actually moving in real life. Studies making use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) reveal that the same Motor Imagery (MI) part activated during real movement is also activated during imagination. Perhaps similar visual inputs lead to the activation of mirror neurons in the course of observing an action; internal inputs also
Mirror Neurons in the Context Of Cognitive Mapping There is much controversy with regard to the degree to which vision is tied to cognition, especially when considering the way that mirror neurons can affect the way a person thinks and can influence the respective individual to have a particular view of the surrounding environment. The contemporary society has a very complex understanding of how the visual system works and yet people