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19). The hippocmpus is responsible "for memory storge nd for sptil mpping of the physicl environment" (Chill, 2005, pr. 18). Thus, women nvigte using lndmrks, wheres mles use spce nd orienttion to estimte distnce.
Studying the physicl spects of the brin in mles nd femles highlights emotionl nd cognitive differences between the two sexes. In the femle brin, the two hemispheres pper to be more interconnected, suggesting greter bility to multitsk. The femle brin hs more ctive frontl cortex thn tht of mles nd the femle brin better copes with boredom. As for the cortex, mles nd femles seem to use it for different mens. In the mle brin, greter re is used for sptil-mechnic functions, wheres in femles, greter re is used for emotions nd verbl responses (Willims, 2008, p. 20).
Even the physicl development of the brin of ech sex tkes plce t different rtes. In women, "the…… [Read More]
Schizophrenia in Neuropsychology
Schizophrenia is a rare but complex type of mental disorder which often has life-altering ramifications. Even though less than 1% of people all over the world are at risk of developing schizophrenia those who do may end up suffering from hallucinations, delusions and end up having difficulties in occupational and social situations they are in. with the knowledge of the symptoms and risk factors of the disorder which includes the onset of manifestation of the symptoms one can be able to spot the warning signs of this disorder.
Schizophrenia distorts the way a person thinks, expresses their emotions, acts, perceives reality and relates to other people. Those who have chronic schizophrenia have a problem when it comes to their functioning in the society, at their places of work, in schools and even within their relationships. Schizophrenia can leave an individual that is suffering from it frightened…… [Read More]
CRISS- Annotated Bibliography
Annotated… [Read More]
.....neuroscience is one of the most common scientific field of study that basically involves study of the nervous system. Most of the jobs in neuroscience involves dealing with some problems that do not necessarily involve working in the lab. An example of such jobs that interests me is neuropsychology, which is an area in neuroscience that focuses on the science of brain-behavior relationships. I find clinical neuropsychology as an interesting field of neuroscience since it combines concepts of psychology in the study of the nervous system, particularly brain-behavior relationships. Given the combination of neuroscience and psychology, clinical neuropsychology will enable me to feel empathy for my patients/clients when addressing their issues (Ogden, 2012). In light of my passion for this field, brain functions and neuroscience that I find interesting are neurobiological theories that explain dysfunctions in language, behavior networks, vision, memory, and emotion. These brain functions and neuroscience are interesting…… [Read More]
According to A.J. Larner's book, "A Dictionary of Neurological signs," prosopagnosia is a neurological condition, "a form of visual agnosia characterized by an inability to recognize previously known human faces or equivalent stimuli (hence a retrograde defect) and to learn new ones (anterograde defect)" (Larner, 2010). Larner further distinguishes between two forms of prosopagnosia: apperceptive and associative agnosia. This "category-specific recognition disorder," as G, Neil Martin calls it in his "Human Neuropsychology" is often, but not always, associated with other forms of visual agnosia such as alexia or achromatopsia.
Prosopagnosia can be congenital or developmental, or a consequence of brain damage, following a stroke, a brain injury, or caused by a degenerative disease (Kinai, 2013) . There are two types of prosopagnosia: apperceptive prosopagnosia and associative prosopagnosia. This form of visual impairment has various degrees of manifestation, from mild to severe and can or cannot be associated with other…… [Read More]
Windy McNernev and obert West (2007), both with the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India, explain that returning the DVD while running errands depicts an illustration of effective prospective memory. Substantial documentation signifies that in various instances, the accessibility of one's effective memory ability or attentional resources can be vital for the comprehension of deferred intentions.
ichard L. Marsh, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Jason L. Hicks, Louisiana State University, Baton ouge, Louisiana and Gabriel I. Cook (2006), University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, examine whether ask interference, having an intention, creates a cost to other ongoing activities. In the journal article, "Task interference from prospective memories covaries with contextual associations of fulfilling them," Marsh, Hicks and Cook report contemporary research indicates that particular intentions held over the shorter term interfere with other tasks. As the collective effect of such costs would prove prohibitively costly in everyday life, Marsh, Hicks…… [Read More]
" (ND, p.1) According to Ryan the human brain is an "evolved system" and one that is organized "to an underlying evolutionary logic." (ND, p.1) It is the claim of evolutionary psychologists that "the human brain has not changed" and furthermore, that it has not been "under any evolutionary pressure to do so -- in any significant way over the past 100,000 years, and therefore, modern man maintains the 'mind' of his Stone Age ancestors." (ND, p.1)
Lynch (2004) author of 'The Neuro Revolution: How rain Science is Changing Our World" states that "emotions and feelings are mediated by distinct neural systems. Whereas emotions are automatic responses to stimuli, feelings are 'private, subjective experiences' that emerge from the cognitive processing of an emotion eliciting state."(p.1) Therefore, it can be understood that indeed human brains are to some extent hardwired however, the individual's cognitive processing capacity has a great deal to…… [Read More]
"In other words, these results may reflect the effects of disorganization in interhemispheric processing of information, as well as intrahemispheric competition" (Fitzgerald & Greiner, 1992, p. 396). In fact, because every individual is unique, formulating across-the-board generalizations about adult stutterers can be misleading, but there have been some valuable insights gained from the treatment of adult stutterers and these issues are discussed further below.
Treatment of Adult Stuttering.
esearch has shown that approximately 80% of stutterers manage to completely recover from the condition without any clinical intervention, a process that typically takes place during early adulthood or adolescence; such recovery from childhood stuttering is thought to be attributable to increased self-esteem, acceptance of the problem and the resulting relaxation (Gibbons & Sims, 2006). In fact, according to Boberg (1993), "Adult stutterers consist of less than half of all those who ever stutter and should, therefore, be considered a functionally distinct…… [Read More]
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]
communications in a business setting compromise the work of that business, a solution must be found for the benefit of the company and of all who work there. Problems can arise when employees whose tasks require written communications skills are deficient in those skills. Problems can arise also when employees are expected to both understand and explain matters verbally and nonverbally.
The cure for the first problem could be as simple as sending the employee in question for writing instruction.
The cure for the second is, however, much less straightforward. The problem might arise because of the use, or misuse, of strategic ambiguity either by the employee exhibiting the problem, or by managers and colleagues who deal with her. Or it might be caused by an unrecognized personal problem of the employee, for example, a drinking/drugs problem or a cognitive disability of short or long duration. This paper looks at…… [Read More]
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET represents a new step forward in the way scientists and doctors look at the brain and how it functions. An X-ray or a CT scan shows only structural details within the brain. The PET scanner gives us a picture of the brain at work. - What is PET?
The epigraph above is reflective of the enthusiasm being generated among clinicians concerning the advent of positron emission tomography and its potential for imaging the human brain. The introduction of sophisticated neuroimaging techniques such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has shifted the emphasis of neuropsychology from lesion localization to diagnosing the etiology of diseases (Maruish & Moses, 1997).
Behavioral neurology also benefited from innovations in neuroimaging techniques. The advent of improvements in the imaging of brain anatomy through computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI), as well as functional imaging with single photon emission…… [Read More]
Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) has considerable impacts on the normal functioning or operation of the brain. In most cases, brain injuries damage nerve cells to an extent that these cells no longer transmit information to each other in the ordinary manner. Brain injuries are usually divided into three major categories i.e. mild, moderate and severe depending on the extent of neurological damage that takes place. Given their impact on neurological functioning, brain injuries have impact on one's cognitive ability levels. Some of these impacts include cognitive disabilities, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and effect on life roles at different development stages and ages. Therefore, the extent with which brain injuries affect a person's cognitive ability levels is an important topic of study. Is there a direct link between brain injuries…… [Read More]
Brain training with non-action video games and its effects on brain health among the elderly showing early signs of dementia
Past researches have revealed the potential contribution of video game-playing to the improvement of certain cognitive functions among healthy aged individuals (Lampit, Hallock & Valenzuela, 2014; Jak, Seelye & Jurick, 2013). Drawn by the above results reached by scholars in the field, game-making firms have developed and released several kinds of games aimed at brain training (for instance, Brain Age, Brain Challenge and Big Brain Academy). Ever since their earliest releases into the gaming market, games of this sort have enjoyed immense popularity worldwide (Toril, Reales & Ballesteros, 2014; Nouchi et al., 2013). Among the anticipated advantages of such games is improved cognitive functions (for instance, recall, processing pace, executive function, and concentration), indicated often using the term 'transfer effect'.
This research project specifically aims at examining the…… [Read More]
Mental therapy using non-intense video games and how it affects brain health among the aged population showing early symptoms of dementia.
The deterioration of cognitive abilities and brain tissue due to age could have several adverse effects on mental systems and could even lead to dementia. Thus, researchers are trying to discover methods which could help keep brain function, independence, health and cognition among aged people in its best shape. Usually, with age, the white and gray matter of the brain shrivels with this action seen more in its prefrontal cortex than other regions. Other affected brain parts are the cerebellum, the prefrontal cortex on the side as well as the central temporal lobe structure which includes the hippocampus. Despite this, the occipital cortices and the entorhinal do not experience any form of shrinkage (Ballesteros et al., 2015). Common symptoms of this shrinkage include reduced memory strength, lower mental processing…… [Read More]
The field of neuroscience that interests me most is a research position at a hospital or university. I believe that being attached to a research facility within the medical community has the potential for high demand in the future, as a growing segment of the population ages and develops Alzheimer’s and dementia. Neurological disorders have a devastating effect on the person affected, and those around them. I see neurological diseases of the aging process as particularly devastating because the person slowly loses their life and their special connection with those who love them. I am interested in two areas in particular. I am interested in Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia, and disorders of memory that occur at any age.
To be successful in this career path, it will be essential to focus on the research methodology and procedures for both human and animal studies. Any projects…… [Read More]
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]
The concepts of short- and long-term memory, as well as input and output all fit well within the language of computer science and psychologists quickly determined that they could use computers to study human thought and behavior (Wallace et al., 2007). Not only did the computer provide a way of looking at human thought, the use of the computer within the science of psychology also helped to add legitimacy to psychology as a scientific field of inquiry (Neisser, 2009).
But why do the roots of cognitive psychology represent one of the most influential periods in the whole history of psychology with respect to modern day psychology? Today, nearly all areas of psychology include some understanding and investigation of cognition. Some of the biggest developments in psychology have included studies in the field of neuropsychology and we now know more about the inner functioning of the human brain than ever before…… [Read More]
HD is extremely debilitating, and if the patient lives long enough, the symptoms can become extremely severe. It is not uncommon for patients who suffer from the disease to suffer extreme depression and sometimes suicide, so developing medications that could delay or slow the disease are extremely important, and laboratory testing should definitely continue in this area.
Laboratory work in the past decades has helped develop a much deeper understanding of the disease. A group of writers note, "Within the last 4 decades, great strides have been made that have furthered our understanding of the neural bases of HD" (Montoya, Price, Menear and Lepage 2006). This is also extremely important in the understanding and eventual eradication of the disease.
All of these results are extremely positive for families who know they suffer from the disease, and for hopefully preventing the disease in the future. Without laboratory testing and research, many…… [Read More]
hen people who experienced lucid dreams were studied in order to determine their brain activity during lucid dreaming, it was found that their cerebral hemispheres behaved similarly to how they did while they were awake. The left cerebral hemisphere was more active when people sang in their dreams while activity in the right cerebral hemisphere would intensify when the subjects counted (Laberge, p. 300).
One of the most common concepts present in the reports of those who claim to have experienced a lucid dream is the one relating to sexual activity. Laberge was also engaged in studying sexual activity during lucid dreams and found that the body reacted to sexual stimuli imagined by the person sleeping similarly to how it would react if the subject was awake. In spite of the fact that most subjects who underwent lucid dreams reported having orgasms, they did not show any signs of actually…… [Read More]
More generalized assessments include the Wechsler Memory Scale, created by the founder of the IQ test of that name, which offers a generalized assessment of different memory types (sensory, short, and long-term) and is most appropriate for adults.
In general, two basic types of neuropsychological memory tests exist. "In almost all objective tests, quantitative results are compared with some normative standard, including data from groups of non-brain injured persons and groups of persons with various kinds of brain injury. If the norms are based on age and educational achievement, valid comparison can be made between an individual's performance and that of persons in known diagnostic categories as well as persons who do not have a diagnosis of brain injury. Qualitative assessment of neuropsychological tests provides a look at the processes an individual may use in producing the quantitative scores. Analysis of the pattern of performance among a large number of…… [Read More]
There are rumors, the Forbes report goes on, "that the owners are looking to sell the team, which has sizeable debt and has had a hard time attracting season ticket holders" (Forbes).
Another struggling franchise mentioned often in analysis as a financial loser is the Atlanta Thrashers. Forbes reports the team lost 10% of its value in the 2008-09 season and is now worth $143 million. Local revenue per fan is $10 and the Thrashers' debt is 46% of its total value; player salaries were $39 million and gate receipts were $23 last season. "A nasty and continuous legal battle amongst the eight owners…has resulted in the team turning to Goldman Sachs for investors"
(Forbes). Although the Thrashers are not in the so-called Sun Belt, Atlanta is not known for ice, snow, and cold, like the more traditional hockey venues experience.
The financial struggles of some teams today is not…… [Read More]
A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United ay to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch). Those activities include arts and crafts, chair aerobics, games, socializing, breakfast, lunch and a snack, Claunch explains. On many days a special visitor or group comes to entertain the seniors; among those groups are the Gulf Coast omen's Club, the Garden Club, PAS Ministry, gospel groups, line dancers, pianists and sing-along singers.
hen an Alzheimer's patient is stimulated (by being entertained, walking, or engaging in a game of some kind that challenges the mind but does in minimally) the nerve…… [Read More]
Davis (2007) stated that baseline testing must be performed at a young age so that children with prosopagnosia do not grow feelings of isolation and depression for now, there is no treatment available with prosopagnosia same with dyslexia or autism, however once parents become familiar with their child who have this condition, parents will be able to adjust with the situation, although it can be difficult emotionally, specifically if their child cannot identify them as his/her parents; on the contrary, it is not as good as when parents reprimand their child for something that can not be managed and for the children who have prosopagnosia, it can be reassuring to be acquainted with why their parent can be at times appear unaware to them.
Duchaine and Garrido (2008) said that the results are constant with face-specific processes, but it is also consistent with other accounts of face recognition, cases illustrating…… [Read More]
In that regard, I liked the simple description (p 71) that "[i]n exchange for shining a light on the disorder, prosopagnosia had made him an adult."
That also raises another question I would pose to my classmates: At what point does a person become an adult? What do you think Duchaine would have done with his life if he had never discovered Bill Choisser's website?
The essay suggests other important possible implications of the neurological phenomenon responsible for the way human beings process and remember visually identifying information about one another. Specifically, it implies that just as the basis of human facial recognition is a hard-wired physiological process, so may be the manner in which human beings respond to skin color. If that is true, it may change the way we understand racism and ethnic biases based on physical appearance. The fact that components of racism me be hard-wired in…… [Read More]
It often means interventions opening the doors of our lives to strangers, healthcare providers, whose job it is to assist the elderly in achieving and maintaining the highest quality of life possible until the individual crosses from this existence into the mystery of the next one.
Some of the physical conditions that are associated with aging are Alzheimers disease, which while associated with aging can manifest onset well before what many people might view as 'elderly." It is perhaps because it afflicts people at earlier ages that Alzheimers is one of the physical problems associated with aging that receives a lot of attention, and, therefore, more funding than some others areas of health problems associated with aging. Alzheimers is often diagnosed as dementia, an irreversible or reversible condition depending on the specific cause. It is, however, difficult to diagnose and treat because it has numerous potential causes, all of which…… [Read More]
This revision, they note, was "partly in recognition of research demonstrating that traumatic events were in fact not uncommon. DSM-IV defines the traumatic stressor as when a person 'experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event or events that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of self or others" (Vasterling and Brewin 6).
The diagnostic criteria established by the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) for PTSD state that an individual must have:
itnessed, experienced, or otherwise been confronted with an event that involved actual or possible death, grave injury, or threat to physical integrity; and,
The individual's response to such a traumatic event must include severe helplessness, fear or horror (cited in Clancy 2004).
According to Clancy (2004), a number of professions such as law enforcement, firefighters and combat veterans tend to experience a…… [Read More]
Important Theorists and their Contributions:
roca contributed greatly to the initial recognition of the importance of specific brain regions to particular aspects of human psychology and behavior in the middle of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, William James published one of the first formal academic explanation of biopsychology just before the turn of the 20th century, titled the Principles of Psychology (Dennet, 1991; Pinker, 2002). James acknowledged that personal experience and external environmental factors played a role in human psychological development, but only in so far as they represent sets and types of automatic, involuntary, and inherent biological responses to circumstances (Dennet, 1991).
Approximately 60 years later, Walter Hess pioneered a method of directly exploring the role of specific brain regions and structures through the use of electro- stimulation (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). y implanting electrodes into anesthetized laboratory animals, Hess demonstrated that specific behaviors could be triggered by electrically…… [Read More]
Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.
The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.
A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.
Furthermore,…… [Read More]
(apaport 1942: 149)
It is important here to have some framework with which to discuss parapraxes
Aitchison, as a psycholinguist blends both the disciplines of psychology and linguistics to give a more balanced view overall. She proposes first two broad definitions for type of parapraxis. (1998: 244) the first is when a wrong item or word is unintentionally chosen, these are generally referred to as slips of the tongue and an example would be, "Did you remember to buy some toothache?" eplacing the word toothpaste, which was intended, with toothache, which was unintended. She also refers to these more properly as slips of the brain. Secondly there is a classification of errors that are due to the faulty assemblages of the language within the statement. The word choice is usually correct but the grammatical assemblage of the statement is not. Here is an example she uses of this:, "Someone's been…… [Read More]
They developed several laws and principles to describe human experiences and perceptions. The cognitive movement was pioneered by the works of Chomsky and Piaget and focused on the role of cognition in relation with the outer environment (which provides input for information processing) and behavior.
The most important findings so far regard the components of visual perception, the most important stages of development (according to Piaget), how do most of our complex mental processes work (for instance memory, attention, decision-making etc.), how do processes like the orienting response, habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation influence behavior, how does the speech develop, the components of an emotional reaction, the relationship between cognition and emotion, how does the infant attachment develop and what impact it has on adult life, how the concepts of self-concept, self-awareness develop, the concept of self-esteem, the different temperamental types and personality etc.
This multitude of problems…… [Read More]
In a separate study, researchers at Brandeis University concluded that aging adults with moderate hearing loss may spend cognitive energy on hearing accurately to the extent that their ability to remember spoken language suffers (Medical, 2005).
Although the studies above may have determined that age has some effect on loss of cognitive function, no definitive determination has been made as to whether hearing loss is the cause or simply a part of the reason for loss of cognitive function.
The research proposed will examine the effects of hearing loss on cognitive function regarding verbal recognition and performance of auditory processing. Whether hearing loss in individuals of any age affects their loss of cognitive function will be determined by testing 60 subjects who have experienced hearing loss due to aging or other reasons, compared to a control group of comparable subjects without hearing loss by administering the same test to them.…… [Read More]
Overall each of the articles contribute significantly to the study of PTSD. The impact of memory and learning issues for those that have the disorder should not be downplayed as such issues can negatively impact the quality of life for those with the disorder.
Each of the articles provide answers to disqualify certain hypotheses and qualified others as worth further study Overall Assessment.
With each of the articles the medical and mental health community came one step closer to targeting and discovering exactly where the problem is in learning and memory issues for people with PTSD. Even when the answer is, "no" that is not where the problem is, it helps narrow down where in fact the problem does originate from.
ACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIE,1 LISA TISCHLE,1
KAINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HAVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis…… [Read More]
, & Mitchell, D. (2001). omatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(6), 499.
Bourne, G.H. (Ed.). (1960). The tructure and Function of Muscle. New York: Academic Press.
Burgess-Limerick, R., Abernethy, B., Neal, R.J., & Kippers, V. (1995). elf-elected Manual Lifting Technique: Functional Consequences of the Interjoint Coordination. Human Factors, 37(2), 395.
Cooley, E.L., & Morris, R.D. (1990). Attention in Children: a Neuropsychologically-Based Model for Assessment. Developmental Neuropsychology, 6(3), 239-280.
Granata, K.P., lota, G.P., & Wilson, .E. (2004). Influence of Fatigue in Neuromuscular Control of pinal tability. Human Factors, 46(1), 81.
Grillon, C., inha, R., Ameli, R., & O'Malley, .. (2000). Effects of Alcohol on Baseline tartle and Prepulse Inhibition in Young Men at Risk for Alcoholism and/or Anxiety Disorders. Journal of tudies on Alcohol, 61(1), 46.
Gunnar, M.R. & Nelson, C.A. (Eds.). (1992). Developmental Behavioral Neuroscience.…… [Read More]
Further evidence for the possible value of noise for children with ADHD is presented by Abikoff et al. (1996). These researchers evaluated the effect that extra-task auditory stimulation had on academic task performance of children with ADHD. This was executed by studying both children with ADHD and normal students during the performance of arithmetic tasks during three different auditory stimulus conditions: high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech) and no stimulation (silence). The findings indicated that the normal subjects performed similarly under all three conditions, while the ADHD subjects performance was significantly better under the music condition that the silence or speech conditions. This information could prove to be valuable for teachers in the classroom environment. The presence of music in the classroom during tasks such as arithmetic might facilitate the performance of students with ADHD. Since normal students performed equally well under all auditory conditions, the presence of music would…… [Read More]
Particularly, the risks of diverse neoplasms have been seen to be raised in Turner Syndrome is quite low quantum, however, except for gut cancer and gonaboblastoma in patients having occult Y chromosome sequences. (Cabanas; Garcia-Caballero; Barreiro; Castro-Feijoo; Gallego; Arevalo; Canete; Pombo, 2005)
Additionally, there appear to have no prior indication of the relationship between the Turner Syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma, irrespective of the fact that there has been one report of an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a TS patient in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Several epidemiological studies and studies relating to exhaustive long-term monitoring of GH-associated patients have been seen to have benefited therapeutically from GH treatment and found to be safe having no detectable effect on risk of cancer. But the current studies have shown a probable relationship between GH-IGF axis and the pathogenesis of neoplasms. The study on papillary thyroid carcinoma after GH therapy for Turner Syndrome…… [Read More]
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics.
Because Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is a relatively new field of scholastic inquiry, the field is currently "undergoing change," ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008). Changes reflect shifting social, economic, and political realities. Without falling pray to the traps of ethical relativism, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice remains heterogeneous and diverse.
The roots of the theory are difficult to trace because of the "disciplinary cross-pollination" that has occurred ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008).…… [Read More]
Experimental esearch and eport Writing
esearch has shown that organizational strategies aid in memorization tasks such as word recall. Several studies have shown the effectiveness of using organizational strategies such as hierarchical categorization in aiding in word recall. Our experiment, a partial replication of the study conducted by Bower et al. (1969), examined the impacts of hierarchical word lists on word recall. College students were presented with word lists that were arranged either randomly or in categories. The number of words correctly recalled was measured for each participant. While our results were not as definitive as Bower et al. (1969) study, they do yield implications for further research for additional age groups.
The Impact of Categorization on Word ecall
esearch has shown that organizational strategies aid in memorization tasks such as word recall. Matlin (2002) presents four such organizational strategies: chunking, first-letter technique, narrative technique, and hierarchy technique. In…… [Read More]
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…… [Read More]
Textbook chapters most relevant to this particular component on the relevancy of cost utility and cost effectiveness as it relates to non-pharmacological or supplement treatment effectiveness in comparison to Prozac, will highlight in a balanced manner, the cost benefit of both interventions as evidenced by empirical study. Moreover, the side effects of flouxetine such as nausea, anxiety, insomnia, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of appetite should be taken into consideration when discussing the cost benefit to the client. In addition, any balanced discussion on the subject should include discourse with regard to the propensity for antidepressants to cause increased risk of suicidal ideations as compared to intervention via therapy such as rational emotive or cognitive behavioral therapy (Prigatano & Plinskin, 2003).
Flouxetine, or Prozac continues to be one of the most prescribed antidepressants for those clinically diagnosed with depression. Since its introduction some 20 years ago, Prozac has…… [Read More]
Taste and Smell
Age elated Changes in Perception of Flavor and Aroma
It has been posited that the perception of flavor and aroma are derived from the senses of chemical irritation, taste and smell (awson, 2003).
Together, these senses constitute what has been termed chemosensation, although these sensory systems are purportedly considerably variant in their physiology and anatomy. Nevertheless, they do have the ability to regenerate, and their noted susceptibility to aging and age associated diseases has been noted (awson, 2003). It has been reported that nearly one third of all older individuals report dissatisfaction with their sense of smell and taste, and the actual occurrence of sensory loss amongst the elderly is maintained to be even higher (Pelchat, 2001). Furthermore, it has been asserted that age related sensory loss affects both personal safety and quality of life (awson, 2003). Moreover, the impact of the loss on the elderly's physical…… [Read More]
The MMPI-2 has been used successfully to detect feigning in neurological and psychiatric control groups (Klein, 2007). As a result, the MMPI-2 is the most frequently used test in forensic psychological testing. There is, however, still substantial "debate which of the four subscales is most useful for identifying malingering" (Klein, 2007). However, one of the MMPI-2's lingering problems is that it is a test where people can incorporate coaching, so that it is somewhat vulnerable to coaching.
The issue of coaching is critical in the forensics environment. This is because the goal of forensic psychology is to use neuropsychological assessment methods to help in some type of legal proceedings. These proceedings can be civil or criminal proceedings. In both civil and criminal environments, the need for accurate diagnosis can be critical to outcomes for the person being tested and for people being impacted by their testing. Moreover, it can be…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]
The research adopted pre-test, quasi-experimental, within subject's model that demanded testing before and after introduction of photomurals. The research is based in Sonoma County Male Adult Detention Facility (MADF) in California.
12 officers participated in the pre and post-tests. 8 males and 4 females constituted this population. The subjects' ages ranged between 25 and 50 years with mean age falling at 33.4 years. The experienced years of the subjects varied from 10 to 152 months (mean experience 51.25 months).
Staff members were invited to help in the collection of data through training on the use of polar monitors, their application, and data recording techniques. In the process of data collection, subjects were required to rest quietly during briefing with monitors for about ten minutes. They attended their booking areas with monitors on. They recorded time and nature of unusual activities, scenes or situations during their shifts. Six weeks…… [Read More]
(Grossman, 2003, Academic Search Elite)
It is hoped that a greater understanding of the human brain's ability to recognize faces in a specific sequence, group of patterns, density and also in whole or part will further assist the purveyors of new technology to train machines to do the same. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps. Face recognition systems may one day provide significant benefits in military applications...." (Taslitz, 2002)
Though the different systems still have problems and kinks, specific to each type the promises of face recognition technology being used in this manner is a highly developing theory with a great deal of research to back it. "...the Pentagon is funding a fifty-million dollar initiative to use face-recognition technology a s a means for combating terrorism." (Taslitz, 2002)
The collective information available to the researcher is substantial with regard to the issue of…… [Read More]
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…… [Read More]
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]
technology plays a very important role in the learning process of students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). The previous problems encountered by lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners, such as learning adversities caused by complexities in the behavioral patterns, were reduced when technology started to play a role in the educational environment of ADD/ADHD students. Problems even in simple learning intervention are now rarely experienced by both the lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners ever since technology became part of the educational curriculum for special students.
There are different kinds of technologies that are applied these days to facilitate the learning process of ADD/ADHD learners. This includes multimedia computers and televisions among many other learning devices that have been developed. Their use in special classroom environments presents advantages and disadvantages, as how they also do to normal learners who have no disabilities. However, in an advocate to maximize…… [Read More]
" (Eugenia Costa-Giomi 2004, 141) Among the academic benefits associated with three years of piano lessons, the children tended to have higher math computation scores, higher language scores, and higher self-esteem than children not involved in music.
Many studies and a wide array of empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that music improves the academic performance and test scores of children, including those in Middle and High School, but certainly also including Elementary and College students. These benefits may occur because of the increased activity in the temporal and left-frontal areas of the brain that have been observed during exposure to music, or because music brings "cohesion" to already existing background noise. (Geake & Ivanov 2003) Or perhaps the link between music and academic success may trace back to the Ancient ideas of how the arts affect the essence of the soul. (Costa-Giomi 2004) Regardless of the root cause of why…… [Read More]
The assessment was done in one session which included estimation of verbal, attention, memory, working memory, intellectual and language functions of the participants. The researchers used the American Adult eading Test to estimate the premorbid verbal intelligence of the participants where they were required to read irregular words which cannot be pronounced correctly using the rules of phonics out loud. This provided a good estimate of the Verbal IQ of the participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was also a stable and valid measure of the premorbid intellectual functioning of the older demented and non-demented adults.
The verbal intelligence and general intellectual ability of the study participants was estimated through the administration of the information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and it provided a stable and valid measure despite the advanced age of the participants. The performance of the subject's verbal memory was measuring using the…… [Read More]
biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.
Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:
An overview of the debate
Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]
A Brief Description of Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder that occurs in middle-age to older adults. The disorder has a mean beginning of about 55 years of age. The incidence of Parkinson's disorder increases with age. PD affects about 0.15% percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). PD was first described in 1817 by James Parkinson's "Essay on the Shaking Palsy."
In 95% of PD cases diagnoses there is no genetic association (no one in the family has it) and these cases are designated as sporadic PD. In the small number of remaining cases the disorder is inherited (Dauer & Przedborski, 2003). A condition known as secondary Parkinsonism that resembles the physical presentation of PD can be brought on by a number of drugs or other conditions such as dopamine antagonist medications, hypoxia, and from brain tumors (APA, 2000).
The Cause…… [Read More]
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]
A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.
An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.
A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).
What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?
Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).
3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…… [Read More]
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…… [Read More]
Healthcare Master Case Study
Baum, C.M., et al. (2008). eliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility of the Executive Function Performance Test: A Measure of Executive Function in a Sample of People With Stroke The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62 (4); pg 446.
Study rationale. The research study is designed to assess the validity and reliability of a test for executive function in post-stroke occupational therapy patients. Clinical tests of executive function may not be good predictors of a patient's ability to function in day-to-day life. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) employs ordinary daily living skills in which the post-stroke patients are likely to have engaged in the past, and are reasonable target behaviors for adaptation to independent or supported living arrangements. The test is particularly valuable in that it offers a convenient test for executive function using real-world tasks.
esearch design. An experimental design is employed in this study.…… [Read More]
The control of motor movement progresses from mastery of gross movement to fine motor control as humans develop (Wilson, 2013). This progression depends on the maturation of the extrapyramidal motor system, followed by the maturation of the pyramidal motor system. The extrapyramidal motor system incorporates multiple areas of the brain that are involved in controlling gross motor movements, including the cerebellum and basal ganglia. The cerebellum functions to coordinate muscle movement in response to sensory stimuli generated by muscles, tendons, the reticular formation, and the vestibular system. By comparison, the role of the basal ganglia in regulating muscle movement is still being investigated. In general terms, the basal ganglia serve as an information relay center for various centers within the cerebral cortex; however, researchers seem to agree that one of the functions of the basal ganglia is to inhibit muscle movements before they can begin.
esearchers have also…… [Read More]
Nature of Cognition
Ever since Simon and inet developed the first intelligence test in 1905, the field of psychology has maintained a strong interest in the nature of intelligence. How do we think? Why are some people better problem solvers than others? What is cognition, the ability to think about our environment? Why are some people consistently more able to use their brains to think, to remember, and to problem-solve than others?
The first IQ tests were devised to determine which children were mentally retarded. These children were pulled away from mainstream education. However, the tests did an effective job of predicting school success for all students, and their use was broadened (Sternberg, 1999). Multiple tests were developed to measure cognition, which might be defined as the ability to think abstractly. Markman (2001) described it in this way:
Cognition depends on the ability to imagine or represent objects and events…… [Read More]
Tourette's Syndrome: How It Affects Education
Imagine living in a body, explosive in nature, uncontrolled in behavior, and unpredictable in affect.
Now place that body in setting that requires concentration, interaction, and measured response - a classroom. Use your imagination again and pretend that you are a school district administrator.
You have just learned that three students with Tourette's syndrome are moving into one of your schools this fall. You are already facing budget cuts that threaten the integrity of the educational programming. How will you afford the special training that is required to accommodate your new students?
Alternatively, you are the mother of a child with TS. Your child is segregated from the other students because she spits and hums uncontrollably. Her self-esteem and frustration play out in jerks and tics. How will her future be secure without the present support of professional educators?
There are ramifications beyond the…… [Read More]
Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.
Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).
Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…… [Read More]