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In Massachusetts the puritans were in a mission to purify the Church of England and were intolerant when it came to religion. hode Island viewed church and state as separate entities. The settlers here posed a challenge on the protestant beliefs and therefore granted religious freedom to everyone (eligion Shaping New England and Chesapeake Bay Colonies, 2011).
When comparing the settlement of these two colonies it is seen that settlement in the southern colonies took a longer as opposed to the settlement in New England. Jamestown, Virginia was the first to be settled in 1607, followed by Maryland in 1634, North and South Carolina in 1663 and the last original colony Georgia was settled in 1732.the settlement in New England took place in merely eighteen years. Plymouth was the first in 1620, Massachusetts followed in 1630, hode Island and Connecticut were settled in the same year 1636 and New Hampshire…
Academic America, (2012). New England Expands to New Colonies. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from http://www.academicamerican.com/colonial/topics/newcolonies.html
Sayar Udin, (2010). Religion Shaping New England and Chesapeake Bay Colonies. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from http://www.***.com/essays/Religion-Shaping-New-England-and-Chesapeake-611919.html
Nobleman, M.T. (2002). The thirteen colonies. Minneapolis, Minn.: Compass Point Books.
To be sure, the smattering of colonial unrest that occurred in North America throughout history still echoes and occurs even to this day in some forms. Back in 1676, it started with Bacon's ebellion in Pennsylvania when there were squabbles about alleged non-payment for services rendered and the wrong group of Indians were attacked in retaliation for one of those squabbles. The latter led to more conflagrations (NPS, 2015). Indians were also at the center of the unrest to be found in Massachusetts (and other areas) circa 1723 in the form of the Northeast Coast Campaign which itself was a part of the larger Father ale's War in New England and parts of Canada (On War, 2015). ace also became an issue in unrest like the New York Slave evolt in 1712. Since the slaves were held in close quarters at most times and not in the fields,…
NPS. (2015). Bacon's Rebellion - Historic Jamestowne Part of Colonial National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service). Nps.gov. Retrieved 9 September 2015, from http://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/bacons-rebellion.htm
On War,. (2015). Father Rale's War. Onwar.com. Retrieved 9 September 2015, from https://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1700s/yr20/fatherraleswar.htm
PBS. (2015). Africans in America/Part 1/New York's Revolt of 1712. PBS.org. Retrieved 9 September 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p285.html
In comparison the works all also demonstrate the extreme difficulty that must have been experienced by the colonists when they sought to move to places where there was no infrastructure. The Plymouth and Jamestown accounts even say something so similar it could have been written about the same place and peoples, "But when they departed, there remained neither tavern, beer house, nor place of relief" (Smith) and "Being thus passed the vast ocean, and a sea of troubles before in their preparation (as may be remembered by that which went before), they had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weatherbeaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to, to seek for succor." (Bradford)
In contrast the works offer a divergent general feel, as the Jamestown colony sets up a small government simply to oversee the development of the common goal,…
Also, the land in New England did not allow for vast fields of crops, such as Virginia was blessed with. Small farms were the rule of the day in New England.
Another very different part of life for New England was that they had a better relationship with the Indians than the Chesapeake settlers did. The Pokanokets even signed a treaty with the Pilgrims, "and during the colony's first difficult years the Pokanokets supplied the English with essential foodstuffs" (31).
Further, when the Massachusetts Bay Company (MBC) was established in 1629, Congregationalist merchants "boldly decided to transfer the headquarters of the MBC [from England] to New England" (31). This allowed the settlers to handle their own affairs, "secular and religious, as they pleased." This dynamic was very different from the forced ties the Virginians had with the English crown.
Still another major difference (from Chesapeake) in the development of the…
Collier, Christopher. Decision in Philadelphia: The Constitutional Convention of 1787.
New York: Random House: Reader's Digest, 1986.
Meachem, Sarah Hand. "They Will be Adjudged by Their Drink, What Kinds of Housewives They Are." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 111 (2002):
Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs,
Moreover, the Quakers turned down New England's request for assistance during the New England-Indian Wars.
The colonists set up an agricultural economy where they grew their own food like corn and wheat. The cattle they raised gave them meat, milk, and butter. They also kept chicken and sheep. The colonists who settled in Pennsylvania came for religious reasons. They wanted religious freedom. Penn branded the Catholic Church as a "Whore of Babylon" and Puritans as "hypocrites and revelers in God." After Penn had written "The Sandy Foundation Shaken" the Bishop of London ordered that he be imprisoned until he recanted his written statements (Anonymous, 2012).
African slaves in the southern colonies like the South and North Carolina worked in the rice field. Some had good knowledge of rice growing having come from rice growing regions in West Africa. by, 1708, majority of people of living in the rice growing regions…
Anonymous. (2012). Colonial Settlement 1587-1770. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://www.rc255.will.k12.il.us/rcms255/textbooks/documents/chap03_001.pdf
Burke, H. (2012). Slavery in Virginia. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from http://henryburke1010.tripod.com/id4.html
Rothbard, M.N. (1999). Conceived in Liberty. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Founding European Colonies in the New World
Founding of European Colonies in the New World
The New World was not founded over night. It was, in fact, a very laborious period where several European colonies worked for centuries to secure a new spot in a virgin territory, filled with natural resources the continent of Europe had never seen before. Early struggles and hardships eventually led to successful colonies which, over time, developed into their own autonomous nations.
There were a number of events which led to the early development of European colonies in the context of the New World. Essentially, some of the greatest navy developments in Europe took place during this time period. Countries like Spain and Portugal began building up their navy in an attempt to hold greater competitive advantage over their other European counter parts. There were a number of wars and conflicts during the period, where…
British colonizers took a different approach as compared to Dutch and French settlers in America. The former actively pursued their apparent "God-given" power to carry out farming, fishing and hunting activities within Native Americans' lands and water resources.
Chesapeake and Middle Colonies
The region lying between the Chesapeake (i.e., Virginia and Maryland) and the New England colonies encompassed New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Delaware (i.e., "middle colonies") which were formerly Dutch colonies. By the year 1670, the largely-Protestant migrant group from the Netherlands boasted the world's biggest mercantile fleet as well as the loftiest living standards. They were in control of trade in the northern European region and grew into one among the most liberal and multicultural European communities, in addition to being the British's fiercest rival in international trade. They welcomed and supported religious and cultural diversity unlike a majority of America's other colonizers from the European continent.…
Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).
Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…
Funston, Judith E. (1990) "Authority, Autonomy, and Representation in American Literature, 1776-1865." By Mark R. Patterson. Review. The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 2., pp. 650-651.
Kwok, Gordon. (2001) Civil War Poetry. 13 Feb 2008. http://hometown.aol.com/gordonkwok/cwpoetry.html
Larkin, Edward. (2008). Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
Outline of American Literature. (2006). Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers, 1776-1820. USINFO.STATE.GUV website. 13 Feb 2008. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/lit2.htm
hythms of Colonial Life
It is a misconception at the outbreak of the evolutionary War that the colonists from Massachusetts Bay and Chesapeake Bay regions had solidarity on their side. It is a theme of American patriotism one would like to believe but could not be further from the truth. The truth is the colonies had vast differences. This paper will discuss the environmental and volitional factors that contributed to these differences. Environmental factors include geography, climate and soil. Volitional factors include goals of the founders, decisions concerning land ownership, labor systems, and religious practices. These factors contributed to important demographic and economic changes "in the years between settlement and the War of Independence" (51). Did these changes bring the two colonies closer together or create a larger divide? I believe these changes set in action the characteristics that make each region unique and definitely created a divide in cultural…
Author. (year). Rhythms of Colonial Life: The Statistics of Colonial Chesapeake Bay and Massachusetts Bay. City: Publisher.
It also set up a conflict between labour and capital, a variation of the old conflict between peasants and nobility. Because it was based on a competitive "free" market, capitalism inherently sought labour-saving and time-saving devices by which it might increase efficiency and productivity. In other words, manufacturing and production processes were sped up through specialisation (division), automation, mechanisation, routinisation, and other alienating forms of production in which the human being was less a personality at work and more a replaceable cog in a much larger system. This changed the way construction products were made. The concept of capitalism itself envisioned the mass production system and then made it a reality.
Furthermore, with the rise of the factory and the mechanisation of labour, farming began a decline and people flocked to the cities to find other types of work. Added to this there were advances in medicine which meant that…
O'Conner, P. (2003). Woe is I: The grammarphobe's guide to better English in plain English. New York: Riverhead Books
Many Europeans viewed America as the New World. To them this was a world full of new expectations, opportunities and, for others, the chance of a new beginning. The success, or failure, of the early settlers was largely dependant on the motives and expectations that they brought with them, but also on the way in which they dealt with the problems awaiting them in their new land. Just as with the Spanish settlers of the 16th Century, the inhabitants of the first permanent English colonies, at Jamestown in Virginia and Plymouth in New England, came to America with differing motives and an individual set of expectations. Records appear to suggest, however, that in pursuit of their opportunities, the colony at Jamestown adopted an approach that was similar to that of the Spanish, unlike their counterparts in Plymouth.
Those who traveled to America did so for a wide variety…
Ayers, Edward. American Passages: A History of the United States. London:
Harcourt Brace College, 1999.
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. New York: McGraw Hill, 1993.
Virtual Jamestown. Jefferson Village. 25th September 2002 http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/vcdh/jamestown/ .
James II. had pursued it from a very different point-of-view when he consolidated the northern and middle colonies under Sir Edmund Andros (Appleby, 1984). The high-handed proceedings of Andros and his master rendered the Americans averse from any future plans of federation imposed from without, and the social and religious differences between the various regions long prevented the rise of any motion to union from within. All had their disagreements with the home government, but none had sufficient sympathy with their neighbors to fight their battles in common. Nevertheless, the French peril from 1689 onwards rendered co-ordination at least of military effort desirable, and plans were discussed from time to time which, whilst themselves abortive, kept alive the idea of union which bore fruit at length in the Philadelphia Congress of 1774. In all these plans the initiative came from the British government or its representatives; the royal officials in…
Akenson, Donald Harman. 1985. Being Had: Historians, Evidence and the Irish in North America. Don Mills: P.D. Meany Publishers.
Appleby, Joyce. 1984. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York UP.
Appleby, Joyce. 1992. Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.
Archibald, Peter. 1978. Social Psychology as Political Economy. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360
McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
What Happened to the Lost Colony of Roanoke:
An Unsolved Historical Mystery
The beginnings of European settlement in the Americas are often traced to the Puritans and the founding of the colony at Plymouth. Yet there was a much earlier settlement primarily composed of civilians in the form of the colony of Roanoke, Virginia. Roanoke was founded in 1587 by John White.[footnoteRef:1] White left the colony to obtain more resources and colonists from England and was delayed for three years due to Britain’s war with Spain. When he arrived back on Virginian soil, the entire colony of more than a hundred inhabitants was entirely vacated. The name of a native tribe, “Croatoan” was carved on a post.”[footnoteRef:2] The colony had been plagued by hunger and poor relations with the native population and had apparently fallen victim to some natural or manmade disaster—but what? [1: Andrew Lawler, “The Mystery of Roanoke…
The European actions against the natives were in error, because they were committed by Protestant Christians, who, unlike Catholics or savages, should have known better and responded with higher forms of faith and feeling. The Indian atrocities were seen as inevitable, the result of "undesigned provocation" (even though esley acknowledges that the settlers are interlopers) rather than a response in defense of their land (ard, 1872).
Thus, although the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights may proclaim religious separation from all churches, America was actually founded by individuals seeking to create what today we would call a theocracy. Despite early amicable relations with the natives, eventually conflicts over territory caused the two populations to be hostile. The violence that ensued was justified by the religious rhetoric and beliefs of the Puritans, as they strove to create a New Jerusalem in a land that was inhabited by people whose civilization…
Atkins, Scott Eric. (2008) "Pilgrims and puritans." American Studies at the University of Virginia. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/puritan/purhist.html
Native Americans of North America." (2007). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://encarta.msn.com
Religious tolerance in Colonial America (2008). Geocites. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://www.geocities.com/crownac/religious_tolerance.htm
Ward, Nathanial. (1647). "Against toleration." E-text of American History Told by Contemporaries. Vol. 1. pp. 393-96. Retrieved 25 Jan 2008 at http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/ward.html
As a result, the majority of European business companies that handled the large number of fur trades were English. The largest of such firms was the Hudson's ay Company established in 1670 (elden, 82). This institution was the center of North American fur trading for more than two hundred years. It was founded by two French fur traders English merchant. The English government granted the company sole trading rights within the Hudson ay region. The development of the fur trade resulted in a greater integration between traders and merchants, and created an entire social system based upon this concept.
The French dominance of the marketplace meant that other European players wanted to gain momentum within the industry. ritish Merchants founded the North West Company in Montreal in order to compete with the stranglehold of Canadian fur trading (Innis, 154). y the late 1700's, fur became a much harder commodity to…
Burley, D., J. Scott Hamilton, and Knut R. Fladmark (1996) Prophecy of the Swan: The Upper Peace River Fur Trade of 1794-1823. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
Innis, Harold (1956) the Fur Trade in Canada. University of Ontario Press, Totonto.
Rich, E.E. (1966) Montreal and the Fur Trade. McGill University Press, Montreal.
And even when they were not, and returned to Europe sniffing and huffing in letters and treatises about the evils of Native, pagan ways, they wielded some of their harshest critical words against Europeans who had 'gone native.' (4) These critiques are an example of how Calloway as a historian finds some portrait of how Native ways were before and after European settlers, how the settler's influence changed Native ways, and of the usefulness even of biased accounts of such early encounters between Natives and Europeans.
Calloway thus deals firstly with the assumed static and polarized war of historians that have given a misleading view of Indian and European interactions, before proceeding into the more rich and complex history provided by primary sources. However, he admits that his thesis is not without precedent, for as early as 1952, one historian noted that sports, agriculture, education, government, and all other facets…
Calloway, Colin. New Worlds for All: Europeans, Indians, and the Remaking of Early America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.
eligion played an important role in the lives of many of the Northern colonists as well, but by the time of the evolution it was not nearly so prevalent in the politics of the day as it had been during the earlier times of the Puritan and Pilgrim settlements. This was, in fact, one of the main societal -- and ultimately political -- differences between the Northern colonies and the rest of the British colonies. The quiet reserve and stoicism that was a strong part of the Puritan tradition persist even to this day, however, and was if anything stronger then than it is now. In certain ways, then, religion did play an important role in shaping New England society. Though its direct effects were muted by the time that the evolutionary action was beginning, the puritan streak influenced the personality of the culture and many of its individuals.
Bonomi, Patricia U. "Hippocrates' Twins': Religion and Politics in the American Revolution." The History Teacher, 29 (2), pp. 137-44.
Bushnell, Amy Turner. "Review: Another's Country: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on Cultural Interactions in the Southern Colonies," J.W. Joseph and Martha Zierden, eds. The Journal of Southern History, 2002. Pp. 889-91.
Kierner, Cynthia A. "Hospitality, Sociability, and Gender in the Southern Colonies." The Journal of Southern History, 62 (3) pp. 449-480
Pagliassotti, Druann Lynn. "Apparel and attribute: The social construction of status in New England colonies and the United States." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, United States -- California.
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
American History: Rights and Freedoms of Women in the 1600's
In the early 1600's the ritish King made grants of charters were granted for settlements that were to become established colonies in the New World or America. y the 1700's 13 colonies had been established namely Massachusetts, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Rhode Island. The Constitution was not yet and Freedom not yet won and the rights of women varied from area to area.
This paper intends to explore what rights women possessed in the different areas of settlement in the early America as well as the difference of women's rights in other race and cultural groups in that time period. Further to understand what freedom was held by "Free Colonial Women" as well as what motivated the white and black women of that time to either declare…
Reader's Companion: Encyclopedia of North-American Indians (nd) located [Online] available at: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/index/html/topic/colo.htm
"Colonial History of Maryland" (nd) excerpt from: Our Country Vol.1 1800's [Online] available at:
Colonial life was like in two different areas. The writer compares and contrasts the way of life experienced during colonial times in the Chesapeake area and the new England area during Colonial America. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.
Each year as Thanksgiving approaches students throughout the nation dress in traditional colonial garb and put on skits and meals to portray colonial life in America. While this has become a tradition for American students it has also become a blended generic portrayal of colonial life with little attention paid to area differences and similarities. Colonial times shared many similar facets as the nation of America began to build its foundation, but within that era there were also region and culture specific differences that set populations apart from each other. The new England Colonial life and the Chesapeake area colonial life can be held side by side to…
Life in Colonial America
In New England
Why were the Northern colonies settled?
ritish agricultural revolution and English settlement patterns in their colonies in New England. It is the authors contention that the world view of the English influenced their agricultural practices and the way that these practices changed the ecology of the land in New England. While largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, it did however have commonalities with the Middle and Southern colonies, a relentless drive West and a decimation of Native American cultures and populations. Needless to say, there were huge differences between this English world view and English agricultural policies and the Native American world view, agricultural practices and approach to the environment.
While agriculture was largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, the idea in the English settlers mind to keep pushing West to find arable land was alive and well and continued throughout the colonial period. Surprisingly enough, this English…
Canterbery, E. Ray. The Making of Economics: The foundation. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific
Publishing Company, 2003.
Cochrane, William W. Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Rochester, MN:
Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1993.
The Puritans and early 19th century Americans also tended towards a pessimistic view of the world: the physical body and the physical universe were perceived as being inherently evil in conjunction with the concept of original sin. Death was therefore viewed as liberating. Because of westward expansion, 19th Century Americans cultivated more utopian visions and were generally more hopeful about the future of the United States. Furthermore, the Puritans lived outside the confines of the nation-state so their attitudes toward human life and politics differed from that of 19th century Americans.
Ethics in Puritan New England and in early 19th century America were rooted in Christian beliefs. The Puritans laid the foundations for a normative ethics that closely followed the Biblical commandments. 19th century Americans would conveniently override Biblical ethos when it came to the treatment of slaves and Native Americans and therefore both Puritans and early 19th century Americans…
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
The American response to the British rule under King George III was not swayed by traditional pieties toward monarchy. For example, the official portrait of George III as reflected in the 1770 woodcut illustration from a children's schoolbook (reprinted p121) presents a naive and sentimental patriotism about the idea of "empire" altogether: George is presented as King "by the Grace of GOD" and proclaimed "Defender of the Faith," which mark the English monarch's traditional role as the official head of the Church of England. This was, of course, official policy established only after religious and doctrinal conflict had provoked a civil war and replaced the monarchy with Cromwell's protectorate a little over a century earlier -- but it is worth noting that the origin of so many New England colonies in religious sects, like the Puritans (New England), England's persecuted Catholics (Maryland), or Quakers (Pennsylvania), that rejected the…
Mary Beth Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers. New York: First Vintage, 1996. 512 pp., bibliography, index.
Mary Beth Norton is the Mary Donlon Alger Professor of American History at Cornell University. In addition to Founding Mothers and Fathers, Norton has also published In the Devil's Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692. These two books are part of Norton's ongoing scholarly examination of the intersection between gender and politics in pre-Revolutionary America. In the 1996 publication Founding Mothers and Fathers, Norton argues that power manifested in gendered ways, in multiple spheres of colonial American life including the family, the community, and the government. The author's goal is to show how gendered power impacted the social, economic, and political development of the colonies and the early United States. With an in-depth examination of the private, public, and family spheres, Norton explains how founding females were as influential as males in shaping…
The various places he stops represent certain alternative futures, and the brothel promises one of pleasure. His ability to resist it -- whether through morality or lack of money -- and continue on his journey is indicative of the revolutionary spirit. The fact that he keeps moving, and keeps searching in new places, matched the movement of the revolution and indeed of the country since then as it goes through its great democratic experiment.
Hawthorne's story is very enjoyable just as a piece of fiction. It is also an interesting historical piece, describing the feel of life in pre-Revolutionary America and the different opinions at various levels of society. These things are brought out in the setting perhaps more than in any other single element of the story. Time and place are incredibly essential to this story; the story is, in fact, about the changing political setting of the American…
Ceremonies of Possession/Differences in How America as Settled
Patricia Seed in her book, Ceremonies of Possession, assumes a novel position in regard to the settlement of the New orld by the various European powers. Seed's theory is that each of the five main nations involved in the settlement of the New orld: England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, did so in their own unique way and that these unique ways were more closely related to the individual country's rituals and practices as opposed to their inherited traditions. Reducing Seed's theory to its least common denominator: "Englishman held that they acquired rights to the New orld by physical objects, Frenchmen by gestures, Spaniards by speech, Portuguese by numbers, Dutch by description
The demonstration of the English dependence on physical objects can be seen in their heavy reliance on building, erecting, and planting as part of their cultural development when they…
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995).
Ceremonies of Possessions
Seed, Patricia, Ceremonies of Possession: Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640. (Cambridge University Press: 1995). p. 179.
thirteen colonies that drafted and announced the Declaration of Independence stating their intention to separate from England shortly thereafter wrote the first governing document, the Articles of Confederation. The Articles set forth and defined the relationship between the various colonies and how the relationship between such colonies would serve to form one entity. The Articles served to provide the colonies with a form of unification while the Revolution was being fought but as the nation attempted to recover from the War and build a new nation the Articles proved too weak to be effective. The Articles failed to grant Congress the power to raise funds, regulate trade, or conduct foreign policy without the voluntary agreement of the states. There were attempts to alter the Articles in order to increase the powers of the Congress but these efforts failed and a Constitutional Convention was convened to attempt to revise the Articles…
Evolution of New England Puritan Gravestone Symbols
The evolution of Puritan New England gravestone symbols (e.g., death heads, cherubs, and urn and willows), inscriptions, borders, and finials, styles popular in New England from approximately1620-1820.
y comparing seriation charts from a variety of colonial Puritan cemeteries, one can begin to see that changes in style may be connected to a broader cultural context.
There is no universal agreement among scholars regarding the relationship between the symbols on Puritan gravestones and ideology. James Deetz, Allan Ludwig, and Peter enes all link gravestone style to a larger cultural context but David D. Hall challenges this interpretation by suggesting that this type of research is reading too much into the meanings of mere designs and decoration ("Nonchronological Sources of Variation in the Seriation of Gravestone Motifs in the Northeast and Southeast Colonies."). Over the years, through direct observation and seriation charts, experts have generally…
Roots Web. "Colonial Arlington Source Records?" RootsWeb 1 May 1997. 1 Oct. 1999 ftp://ftp.rootsweb.com/pub/usgenweb/nj/hudson/
Gorman, Frederick, and Michael DiBlasi. "Nonchronological Sources of Variation in the Seriation of Gravestone Motifs in the Northeast and Southeast Colonies." Puritan Gravestone Art, editor Peter Benes, 79-87. Boston, Ma.: Boston University, 1976.
But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the fur trade brought them, and hunted to meet the demands of European markets rather than the needs of their families." (from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the emaking of Early America, p.15)According to Colin Calloway Indian peoples quickly became involved into the system of colonial trade and ultimately they became an integral part of Atlantic colonial economy which worked only for colonists. European colonists wanted to change Indian culture and system of values which were considered to…
Morris, R. The Emergence of American Labor available on web resource: http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/chapter1.htm
Convict Servants in the American Colonies, Artilce available on web resource: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3614090&place=home03
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 15.
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 69.
American colonies can be divided into those in New England, those in the middle region of the country, and those in the South. The histories of each section were different, and though all were basically British by the time of the American Revolution, other European nations had founded or developed different parts of the New orld. New England was developed by the British and the Dutch; the South was settled by the British, Spanish, and French at different times. The image of the Puritans of New England has become emblematic of the colonial era for most Americans, though, and historian Michael Zuckerman describes the life of a community in Puritan New England in the eighteenth century in his book Peaceable Kingdoms (1970), pointing out the importance of the town meeting and other influences of the community as a whole that kept the peace and served as government, police power, and…
Zuckerman, Michael. Peaceable Kingdoms: New England Towns in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970.
Among the first major nations to have their people leaving for America were the Irish and the Germans. Life in Europe during the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries had been difficult, with the lower classes living in extreme poverty. As a result, people saw the opportunity of establishing themselves in a place where they would escape their problems. People coming to America from countries other than England generally received harsh treatments because the English felt that North America mostly belonged to them.
hile white people coming to America did so in search of freedom and riches, black people had a totally different fate in store for them. Black people were brought into America as slaves and could have no dreams since they knew that freedom was an inaccessible concept.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries have been a period in which women were still regarded as not being qualified to fulfil…
1. Berlin, Ira, "Many thousands gone," Harvard University Press, 2000.
2. Middleton, Richard, "Colonial America," Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
3. "Puritanism in America," Retrieved April 19, 2009, from Wake Forest University Web site: http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/three.html
"Puritanism in America," Retrieved April 19, 2009, from Wake Forest University Web site:
Neal Salisbury, Manitou and Providence, 110-135
Q1. I was surprised at the initial good faith shown by the natives to the settlers. I was also surprised by the degree to which the natives were willing to trust the settlers, in exchange for trading agreements. The relationship between the natives and the settlers, which was unequal from its inception and in its subsequent outcome, is a powerful illustration of the danger of putting material goods at a higher priority than territorial security and upholding one's values as a people.
Q2. Given the later animosity between the two sides, the agreement was extraordinary: both sides agreed to aid one another if attacked, to return any tools that were stolen (reflecting European notions of personal property and thus an important point for the English), to disarm during meetings, and to turn over any Indians suspected of assaulting settlers to the English (while the…
This is a 3 page paper that compares life in the Southern Colonies of the Chesapeake Bay and those in the "deep south" with that of the Colonies of New England and the Middle Colonies. There are 3 references used.
The Early American Colonist faced different challenges and led a different lifestyle depending on where in the country they lived. These variances ranged from schooling, to terrain, to the crops they planted and the climate they endured.
The Farming Communities
Farming was essential to all of the regions. Large-scale farming was better for the South. The climate there was warmer and the soil was richer. Tobacco and rice were grown on large plantations to be exported to Britain. Each plantation was like a small village. The owners of the plantations were the "mayor, judge, sheriff, preacher, doctor, lawyer and storekeeper (unknown, 1996)." There was a blacksmith, cobbler, tanner and…
Author unknown (01-01-1996). American Colonies. Young Students Learning Library
United States Information Service (01-01-1991). United States of America. Chapter 1A. The Colonial Period. Countries of the World
Wood, Gordon S. (06-12-2000). Give Me Diversity or Give Me Death. The New Republic
Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108.
Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the eintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76.
Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, ecreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22.
Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the Colonial Legislatures." Yale University's Avalon Project. etrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_circ_let_1768.asp
Judgments and Decrees National Archives, ecords of District Courts of the United States, ecord Group 21. (1773). "Dowry Gift of Slaves: Ann Taylor vs. Thomas Hart Jr.." The National Archives Documented ights. etrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/documented-rights/exhibit/section1/detail/dowry-gift-transcript.html
Lambert, F. "I Saw the Book Talk': Slave eadings of the First Great Awakening." The Journal of Negro History Vol. 77, No. 4 (Autumn, 1992), pp. 185-198. etrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3031473?uid=3739600&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=47699031113437
Brauer, J.C. (1954). The Nature of English Puritanism: Three Interpretations." Church History. 23 (2): 99-108.
Coon, D. (1976). Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the Reintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina. The Journal of Southern History. 42 (1): 61-76.
Daniels, B.C. (1991). "Did the Puritans Have Fun? Leisure, Recreation, and the Concept of Fun in Early New England." Journal of American Studies. 25 (1) 7-22.
Governors of Massachussettes. (1768). "Massachusetts Circular Letter to the Colonial Legislatures." Yale University's Avalon Project. Retrieved from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/mass_circ_let_1768.asp
Baumgarten, Linda. (2002). hat Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America: The Colonial illiamsburg Collection. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Bilhartz, Terry D., and Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States, Volume 1. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Crunden, Robert Morse. (1996). A Brief History of American Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Fisher, John Hurt. (2001). "British and American, Continuity and Divergence" in the
Cambridge History of the English Language: English in North America, Eds. Hogg, Blake,
Algeo, Lass, and Burchfield. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grigg, John a., and Mancall, Peter C. (2008). British Colonial America: People and Perspectives. estport, CT: ABC-CLIO.
Horsman, Reginald. (1981). Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-
Saxonism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Jandt, Fred Edmund (2007). An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community.…
Baumgarten, Linda. (2002). What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America: The Colonial Williamsburg Collection. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Bilhartz, Terry D., and Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American History: A Brief History of the United States, Volume 1. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Crunden, Robert Morse. (1996). A Brief History of American Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
King Philip's ar
Section 1(Intro to Chapter 3)
ho was King Philip and why was he important?
Colonists gave the youngest son of Massasoit, the Indian leader Metacom, the name King Philip (Fitzgerald, 1998), who during their early years in Plymouth had helped save the Pilgrims from starvation. However, the deterioration in relations between the colonists and the native tribes led to King Philip's war (Fitzgerald, 1998).
Thus, Philip became the Grand Sachem of the ampanoags. In Kawashima's book, he opined that King Philip could have been a great leader, but situations occurred at that time prevented him from leading a united Indian front (Fitzgerald, 1998). However, he was an important leader, as he was the one who foresighted that the English would not halt their spreading out and if left unchecked it would be the end of the ampanoags (Fitzgerald, 1998).
Thus, Philip in an attempt to stop the…
Fitzgerald, Brian. Book review. King Philip's War: BU professor's book explores New
England's forgotten war. 13 March 1998. Vol. I, No. 23. BU Bridge. www.bu.edu
Ranlet, Philip. Reviews of Books. A Seventeenth-Century Murder Mystery. Hunter College. October 2002. The William & Mary Quarterly.
However, at the same time the onset of what many scholars regard as the first truly national event within the history of the fledgling United States of America took place throughout the 1740's, and indicated that the traditional religious beliefs that mandated a strict following of God would not so easily be overturned. The Great Awakening largely begin when George Whitefield, an Oxford-trained Anglican minster who came to Georgia in 1738, began touring through the lands pronouncing that people had limited time to repent before they were consumed by the fires of hell. This perspective certainly adhered to that which was shared by many of the pilgrims and puritans who initially began the colonies in the 17th century. Jonathan Edwards was another influential factor in this movement, and delivered a number of influential sermons during the early years of the 1740s in which he claimed damnation awaited anyone who would…
A little over a year later, on June 7th, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution that the Congress officially declared independence from England. This prompted the creation of a committee to draft the declaration which consisted of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, enjamin Franklin and Roger Sherman.
They brought the declaration to the floor of Congress and it was officially accepted on July 4th, 1776. Five long years later, efforts by the Minutemen and the regular Continental army secured a victory for the colonists and their independence.
utler, Allen. "The Declaration of Independence: Herald of the American Revolution." 20 Jan. 2006. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/16964/the_declaration_of_independence_herald.html
Who Were the Minutemen? http://www.ushistory.org/brandywine/special/art01.htm
utler, Allen. "The Declaration of Independence: Herald of the American Revolution." 20 Jan. 2006. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/16964/the_declaration_of_independence_herald.html
Butler, Allen. "The Declaration of Independence: Herald of the American Revolution." 20 Jan. 2006. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/16964/the_declaration_of_independence_herald.html
Who Were the Minutemen? http://www.ushistory.org/brandywine/special/art01.htm
Butler, Allen. "The Declaration of Independence: Herald of the American Revolution." 20 Jan. 2006.
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
Massachusetts and Virginia
The Colonial period saw the English established a number of colonies in America. These colonies were not only divided by geography, but also by such things as religion, economics, and other factors. Far to the north, in an area called "New England," lay the colony of Massachusetts, a religious-based society founded by members of a strict religious sect as a refuge from persecution. In the south lay Virginia, settled by a company, for economic purposes, and where religion did not dominate every aspect of society. These two English colonies were both English and Protestant., but could not be more different.
During the early 17th century there was "bitter persecution in England of those whose religious views differed from the Church of England." ("Massachusetts Colony") Among these were the Puritans, who wanted to purify the Church of England from harmful doctrines that were too similar to Roman Catholicism.…
"Massachusetts Colony." Colonial Ancestors- Colonial Genealogy Records and History. Web. 16 June 2011. http://colonialancestors.com/ma/colony.htm
"Puritan Life." Ushistory.org. Web 16 June 2011. http://www.ushistory.org/us/3d.asp http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Virginia.html
"Virginia" History of the U.S.A.: Converted from Henry William Elson's History of the United States. 1904. Web 15 June 2011.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).
In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed…
Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press, 1988.
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Previous to 1776, the United States of America was formed by colonies ruled by British government. The colonists were no longer willing to be ruled by England, and as a result they started to fight for their independence. There were a series of important events which drove to the unification of the colonies into United States of America. Colonist complaints drove to a revolution which soon transformed into a full-scale war.
The colonists were unhappy because the British government denied them a series of essential rights. They could not trade resources with any other country but England, and in addition to that British government increased taxes significantly. In 1770 colonists started to protest against the British government. In 1773 England issued a law meant to have colonists pay taxes on tea and send the money to England. In December 1773 a group of colonists dressed as Native American…
1. America's Fight for Independence, Retrieved December 17, 2012 from the San Diego Community College District website: http://programs.sdce.edu/elcivics/resources/independence
2. Conway, Stephen, American War of Independence (1775-1783), November 13, 2011, Retrieved December 17, 2012, from the Wiley Online Library website: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow016/pdf
3. Barnes, Dr. Ian, Royster, Charles, The Historical Atlas of the American Revolution, Routledge, 2000
Colonial Culture efore the American Revolution
The Great Awakening and Religious Change
The Impact of Education
When discussing causes of the American Revolution, most historians cite growing taxation, lack of representation in the national government, attempts by the King and Parliament to curb the power of colonial legislatures, and restrictions on trade as some of the primary causes. Often ignored as a cause are the changes in American colonial society that occurred in the decades before the revolution. Americans began to develop a cultural identity separate from that of Great ritain. Attitudes toward religion underwent sweeping modifications as a result of the Great Awakening. Landed aristocracy was unable to dominate society in the same way that it did in England. Education became more prevalent. New ideas concerning the nature and rights of people were debated and gradually accepted. All of these factors played a part in propelling Americans toward independence.…
Canada, Mark. "Journalism." Colonial America: 1607-1783. n.d. 25 February 2003 http://www.uncp.edu/home/canada/work/allam/16071783/news/ .
Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography and Other Writings. Ed. L. Jessie Lemisch.
New York: Nal Penguin, Inc., 1961.
Heyrman, Christine Leigh. "The First Great Awakening." October 2000. National
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd
Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Similarly, when parliament passed the Sugar Act and the Currency Act in 1764, colonialists viewed the British with contempt. The Sugar Act included tariffs on most luxury goods that were imported from Great Britain and was not limited to sugar alone; the act was devised as a legitimate means to collect taxes from the colonies, which demonstrated a successful agricultural industry. Debt incurred by the wars on both sides of the Atlantic had drained the British budget significantly enough to warrant domestic taxes in England. Imposing a tariff on goods ranging from textiles to wine was therefore a natural attempt to raise more money in the interest of offsetting national debt.
The Crown asserted its right to impose the tariffs because of the role the colonies played in the French and Indian War but the colonialists rejected the argument, instead pointing out that only the British supported the war effort.…
American Revolution: The Complete History." American Revolution. Retrieved Sept 26, 2006 at http://www.americanrevolution.com/
Prelude to Revolution." American Revolution. Retrieved Sept 26, 2006 at http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/rev-prel.htm
Education in America
The seventeenth century has been called, as an age of faith, and for the colonists a preoccupation with religion, as probably right. The religious rebel of the sixteenth century was severe and shaking as its impact was felt both on the continent as well as in America. However, intelligent Americans of the seventeenth century thought and realized that education could, and may be should, be a handmaiden to religion. Yet, humanism was there more than religion in the intellectual diet of the educated Americans 1.
The humanists preceded their work at a stable speed, which, affected education of northern, middle & southern colonies of America. However, many argued that without much attention given to education, and without even realizing that the books comprised illustrations of better life were taught into schools in order to affect the life and mind of students, how could the aspiration of humanism…
1. George R. Waggoner; Barbara Ashton Waggoner. Education in Central America
University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, KS. 1971
2 H.E. Butler. Institutes of Oratory. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, Harvard
University Press, 1921, 4 vols.
Byrd's work also predated the Lewis and Clarke journals in his information on the natural history of the area. In fact, he wrote about the Native American tribes and the flora and fauna, much still unknown at the time. This, too, was part of the Enlightenment though, a rather Lockean concept of using one's knowledge to both understand and interpret the universe. By attempting definition, Byrd was following the path of the philosopher who sought to better understand himself by describing his world -- and by describing his world, having the ability to better understand the complex relationships therein. Thus, the settlement of a mere 1728 boundary dispute had significance far beyond colonial law. We may be sure that Byrd had studied Locke, for there is much in the journals that reads as if Locke edited the passages. Locke, for instance, thought childhood was a type of innocence…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Baesler, M. Asylum for Mankind: America, 1607-1800. Cornell University Press,
Dolmetsch, C. "William Byrd II: Comic Dramatist?" Early American Literature.
6 (1), 1971, 28+.
British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.
Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…
An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usis/history/chapter2.html
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians.html
From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/H/1994/ch1_p9.htm
witchcraft scares in the Chesapeake colonies and no uprising like Bacon's Rebellion in New England. Consider the possible social, economic, and religious causes of both phenomena.
The colonies of New England were based on patriarchal religious social orders that were fundamentally misogynistic. The Protestant systems in New England fomented the fear of witchcraft, a parallel for a fear of feminist power. On the other hand, New England lacked the cash-crop ready system that had been emerging in the Chesapeake region. Bacon's rebellion was a labor issue related to economic power, whereas witch hunts were related to gender issues and social power.
What made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers?
Native American peoples did not have the same disease resistances that Europeans had developed over several generations. They did not develop the types of sophisticated weapons using gunpowder that he Europeans had, and also, Native Americans were used…
The south, once it began to grow its staple crop, tobacco, formed large plantations, for which slaves bought from the Dutch were imported. The north had far fewer slaves, and its business was more diverse, what with the manufacturing of textiles, shipping, blacksmithing, and more. The spirit of the South, however, was already forming by the eighteenth century, with figures such as Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry and George ashington leading the nation to Independence from England in 1776. The north, on the other hand, was led by men like John Hancock and Samuel Adams, whose opinion on how the colonies should be united was not shared by all. Jefferson was in favor of states rights and a small central government, but the Federalist papers that would help establish the Union would be the voice of a system of federal government that would keep tyranny at bay through a system…
"Colony of Virginia." Son of the South. 2011. Web. 16 June 2011.
"Massachusetts Colony." Son of the South. 2011. Web. 16 June 2011.
independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically
Political and Economic Unity
In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…
Augustine, Florida) in the America's was at Roanoke in 1585. The first settlement was a disaster and all returned to England. The second settlement in 1587 disappeared. (Taylor, 1998)
Religiously, the South remains dominated by English ways and hierarchies. There is no democratic debate about the faith, even to expunge sinners from the fold. Politically, only men with land dominate the legislatures. And in terms of Native relations, the disappearance of previous colonies speaks for itself. Disease also weakens the bodies of the colonists, making them more open to Native attacks.
The inequality of relations between fellow colonists is further underlined by the treatment of Black slaves in the colony. Since its inception, slave laws reflect the racism of the colony, stressing the deliberate separation of blacks and whites. Even Christian slaves are not called Christian, (another defamation of the religious attitudes of Virginia) as one 1680 law has a…
The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. "Slavery and the Law in Virginia." 2005
http://www.history.org/history/teaching/slavelaw.cfm .[14 Feb 2005]
Logan, Samuel. "The Pilgrims and Puritans: Total Reformation for the Glory of God." Table talk magazine, vol. 20, no. 11, November 1996.
Norris Taylor, Jr. "The Massachusetts Bay Colony." 1998. Massachusetts Bay Colony Website. http://members.aol.com/ntgen/hrtg/mass.html
Homelessness in the United States
Common Sense by Thomas Paine
The political situation in the colonies of America were more than ready to receive the pamphlet entitled Common Sense by Thomas Paine. Paine's writing provided a nation confused about their future and issues surrounding it, with a needed spur towards action and clarity of thought. The ambivalence of the time from the end of 1775 results from equally strong but opposing forces in the collective consciousness of the American mind during this time.
On the one hand, there was the urge towards autonomy and independence, while on the other a fundamental dependence on the ritish still reigned. Exacerbating the confusion within people's minds was the political upheaval manifest in the war breaking out in Massachusetts during April, as well as the Second Continental Congress. Further battles against the ritish were fought in New England and the South (Foner 79).
Foner, Eric. Tom Paine and Revolutionary America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Penguin, 1983