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Violence in the Media
The presence of violence in the media has been a rather prominent and controversial issue for some time. Its presence as an important issue has been made all the more important and presence by the fact that there is now 24/7 cable news and a concurrent 24/7 news cycle. This omnipresent news cycle is present on the internet as well. Some people decry the fact that so much of the news is violent while others say that the journalists in question are just reporting what is going on. hile there are points to be made for both sides but the "if it bleeds, it leads" mentality is in full effect and the news media seems all too ready to give the dire predictions and push the narrative they want consumed and believed when the time comes.
There are some that say that violence in the…
Mattejat, Fritz and Helmut Remschmidt. "The Children of Mentally Ill Parents." Deutsches
Arzteblatt International 105.23 (2008): 413. Web. 6 June 2016.
A review of the implications and results when the mentally have children and/or abuse drugs. It is clearly asserted and perhaps proven within the report that people who are mentally ill end up raising children that themselves are mentally ill
Mendoza, Jessica. "Ferguson Case Reveals U.S. Media's Flaws In Covering Issues Of Race."
Media & Public Opinion
There are many people that might think or even assert that the media plays a passive role in reporting the news and that there is not a causal link between what is depicted or reported in the media and what is then seen and witnessed within the press and other media spheres. However, this cannot be further from the truth. This is not to say that everyone is influenced and shaped in large part by what the media says. At the same time, to suggest that the public is not guided or urged in a given direction by what the media does or does not do would be less than true. While the media is often referred to with insults or pejoratives, they possess and wield a major role in American society and that power is sometimes misused to a great degree.
There are a…
API. (2016). American Press Institute. Retrieved 27 August 2016, from https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/journalism-essentials/bias-objectivity/understanding-bias/
Calderone, M. (2008). Hannity and Colmes split up -- POLITICO.com. Politico.com. Retrieved 27 August 2016, from http://www.politico.com/blogs/michaelcalderone/1108/Hannity_and_Colmes_split_up.html
Clark, L. (2006). Walter Cronkite - About Walter Cronkite - American Masters - PBS. American Masters. Retrieved 27 August 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americanmasters/walter-cronkite-about-walter-cronkite/561/
Clark, M. (2016). 10 stories the National Enquirer actually got right. Politicschatter. Retrieved 27 August 2016, from http://politicschatter.com/politics-talk/slideshow/stories-national-enquirer-actually-got-right/
Media: An Exercise in Sensationalism
In modern society, the media contributes little more than sensationalism entertainment rather than serious coverage of current and relevant news affairs. Corporate mergers and consolidations of broadcasting agencies have resulted in a need to offer media coverage that will attract ratings and boost profits rather than assure the well being and best interests of the public. Consumers are no longer informed, but rather sensationalized as a result of the news media. The news media tends to be biased and subjective, offering limited views on important political and international phenomena, thus depriving consumers of their right to fair and unbiased coverage. These ideas are explored more below.
Though consumers now have more media coverage available than at any point in the past, the overall welfare of consumers has not benefited from media coverage in recent years. The news media is charged with providing consumers unbiased information…
Baker, William F., and George Dessart. Down the tube: An inside account of the failure of American television. New York: Basic Books, 1998
Champlin, D. & Knoedler, J. (2002). "Operating in the public interest or in the pursuit of private profits? News in the age of media consolidation." Journal of Economic Issues, 36(2) 459.
Croteau, David, and William Hoynes. (2001). The business of media: Corporate media and the public interest. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press, 2001
Sparrow, Bartholomew H. (1999). Uncertain guardians. Baltimore: Baltimore: The Johns
Ethnic/Race in the News Media
Race and Ethnicity in the News Media
When news media made the conversion to radio from print only, a new era was born in America. The birth of television pushed the mass media to an even more omnipresent place in our society. Today it is impossible to avoid the news media without reverting to a completely hermetic and reclusive state. Newspapers, radio broadcasts, television, and the Internet all stream information into our homes and businesses, information on which people rely to understand world events and local news. However, if the information presented to society is inaccurate, the majority of the public will still believe it to be fact. Subtle messages can easily be entwined with the news to present whatever image the media would like to convey. Additionally, even entertainment in the media has become so closely related to the actual news that it is…
AAR. "History of AAR." Artists Against Racism. http://www.vrx.net/aar/history.html
Creeley, Will and Rendall, Steve. "White Noise: Voices of Color Scarce on Public Radio." Extra! September/October 2002. Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting. http://www.fair.org/extra/0209/white-noise.html
Douglas, Susan. Listening In: Radio and American Imagination. New York: Times Books, 1999.
Ely, Melvin Patrick. The Adventures of Amos 'N' Andy: A Social History of an American Phenomenon. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
Citizen Journalism, Tech, Advertising
"If news media have to cut back and are unable to provide the same level of coverage for their communities that they did in the past, citizen journalism may need to step in," said Margaret Duffy, associate professor of the Missouri School of Journalism (Hurst). Her comment was posted in a July 2010 depiction of a study on Citizen Journalism vs. Legacy News, which refers to traditional coverage by mainstream sources. The outcome was not positive; it appears that the grassroots alternative is falling short of its potential. Few citizen journalists publish daily and sites that host them do not have the resources for conventional investigative writing. The Weblog of the World Association of Newspaper and News Publishers (WAN-IFNA) was even more specific in claiming that informal writing of this nature was no threat to their sector. Apparently they do not believe that readers will find…
Bandon, F. Citizen Journalism & Democracy in Africa: An exploratory study. HighwayAfrica.com. Open Society Foundation for Africa. 2010. Retrievable from http://www.highwayafrica.com/media/Citizen_Journalism_and_Democracy_Book.pdf.
Bentley, C.H. Citizen Journalism: Back to the Future. Discussion Paper: Carnegie-Knight Conference on the Future of Journalism, Cambridge, MA. June 20-12, 2008. Retrievable from http://citizenjournalism.missouri.edu/researchpapers/bentley_cj_carnegie.pdf.
Bruns, A. Citizen Journalism and Everyday Life: A case study of Germany's myHeimat.de. ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation Queensland University of Technology. 1-11. No date. Retrievable from http://www.highwayafrica.com.
Hurst, N. Citizen Journalism vs. Legacy News: The battle for supremacy. Missouri School of Journalism. Columbia, MO. July 8, 2010. Web. Viewable at http://journalism.missouri.edu/2010/07/citizen-journalism-vs.-legacy-news-the-battle-for-news-supremacy/ .
rock Turner's ruling of a six-month imprisonment by Judge Aaron Persky, the internet was filled with people's aggressive responses. rock Turner, a famous athlete in the swim team of Stanford University, was pronounced guilty of having sexually assaulted a 23-year-old unconscious woman. He was also charged for three sexual offences. The internet and all social media forums overflowed with people's call to the judge to review the sentence. These included blogs, CNN videos, Twitter and Facebook posts as well as hashtags, which called upon rock Turner as a rapist, while also appealing for justice for the victims. A letter written by Turner's friends Leslie Rasmussen delivered a similar message; the reason why rape cases occur on campuses isn't always because of the rapists (Li, 2016).
The rape victims have not been given much say on media forums. Very rarely are they actually given a chance to speak on talk shows…
BEALE, S. S. (2006). THE NEWS MEDIA'S INFLUENCE ON CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY: HOW MARKET-DRIVEN NEWS PROMOTES PUNITIVENESS. William and Mary Law Review, 397-404.
Fiducia. (2012, August 14). The Media's Influence on Criminal justice policy. Retrieved from fiduciaproject.eu: http://www.fiduciaproject.eu/new/15/the-media-s-influence-on-criminal-justice-policy
Golshan, T. (2016, June 07). Why the Stanford sexual assault case has become a national flashpoint, explained. Retrieved from Vox Explainers: http://www.vox.com/2016/6/7/11866390/brock-turner-stanford-sexual-assault-explained
Li, W. M. (2016, June 10). The Stanford rape and the social media effect. Retrieved from abc.net.au: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-06-10/li-the-stanford-rape-case:-a-social-media-game-changer/7500452
Sourcing in the Current News Media
Over the last 50 years, the issue of women in media has been continually brought to the forefront. This is because there is an emphasis on promoting ideas that are relevant to the largest demographics within society. While at the same time, there are discussions on those issues that are germane to specific groups (such as women). The basic idea is to be able to offer a wide range of content, on topics that are of most interest to everyone. However, when you look beneath the surface, it is clear that the majority of content in media is often focused towards men. This is because advertisers and studios are spotlighting the fact that males are earning more money in comparison with their female counterparts. Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by Economica. They found that over the last…
"Comparative Analysis." Business Dictionary, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011
"Media Coverage of Women." Media Awareness, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.
"Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources." UMD, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011
"Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research." Wilderdom, 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011
In the American government, several civil rights events have been discussed to show how they influence a sense of social responsibility. On July 2, 1964, are when the American civil rights legislation law was enacted, and this Act managed to outlaw discrimination issues based on issues like sex, race, national origin, and religion. From this Act, people were given the right to be politically and socially free thereby fostering equality. For example, the Montgomery Bus Boycott became the turning point for the African Americans because they would soon enjoy the freedom of movement and influence other civil rights groups globally. Parks saw an opportunity, and she was determined to stand against the unfair laws imposed on African Americans (Kenney, 2015). After Park's arrest, the yearlong boycott started and directed towards the racially segregated city buses. The protesters persevered through the unrelenting pressures from county courts, city hall, and…
Barnes, M. D., et al. (2008). Analysis of media agenda setting during and after Hurricane Katrina: Implications for emergency preparedness, disaster response, and disaster policy. American Journal of Public Health, 98(4), 604-610.
Burns, S. (Ed.). (2012). Daybreak of Freedom: The Montgomery Bus Boycott. Chapel Hill: Univ of North Carolina Press.
Kenney, K. L. (2015). Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott. USA: ABDO.
Keneally, M. (2017 Aug). Ruby Ridge siege, 25 years later, a ‘rallying cry’ for today’s white nationalists. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/ruby-ridge-siege-25-years-called-rallying-cry/story?id=49296439
Rapoport, R., McGlennon, A. I. & Abramowitz, J. (2015). The Life of the Parties: Activists in Presidential Politics. University Press of Kentucky
Over the next twenty-five years, however, the digital divide will be decreased. Despite the slow pace of change in much of the developing world, change will occur over the next twenty-five years. In addition, the younger populations of most of these countries will mean that the opportunity to replace citizens with little likelihood of adopting modern telecommunications with young ones who will know of nothing else. As the pace of innovation slows in the est over the next twenty-five years, the developed world will have a chance to catch up, particularly in the countries where strong economic growth rates promise to bring those nations in the developed world in that span of time.
M. & Farlie, R. (2006). The determinants of global digital divide: a cross-country analysis of computer and Internet penetration. Oxford Economic Papers. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://oep.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2006/12/03/oep.gpl024.abstract
Dasgupta, S., Lall, S. & heeler,…
M. & Farlie, R. (2006). The determinants of global digital divide: a cross-country analysis of computer and Internet penetration. Oxford Economic Papers. Retrieved May 10, 2010 from http://oep.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2006/12/03/oep.gpl024.abstract
Dasgupta, S., Lall, S. & Wheeler, D. (2005). Policy reform, economic growth and the digital divide: An econometric analysis. Oxford Development Studies. Vol. 33 (2) 229-243.
Guillen, M. & Suarez, S. (2005). Explaining the global digital divide: Economic, political and sociological drivers of cross-nation Internet use. Social Forces. Vol 84 (2).
They are able to check into many different issues and determine whether what someone tells them is accurate always, sometimes, or not at all, and this helps them to make informed decisions regarding healthcare, finances, environmental issues, and many other areas of life.
When it comes to correcting the misinformation that they see, however, there is no real responsibility for this, it seems. Some people will work to correct the problems that they hear about and that they see in media reports, but most people just examine the information for themselves, determine whether it is accurate or not, and use the knowledge that they have acquired to make their own informed decisions. Beyond that, however, they do little to try to change the perceptions of the media or of other members of society that choose to believe in what the media has to tell them.
Digital Divide and the Global Village
Digital divide does pose a serious problem for developing countries because it is, as Aleph Molinari states, "a new illiteracy" (Molinari). Just as the Industrial Revolution put the estern nations ahead of the rest of the world, the digital divide is putting a gap between those same industrialized worlds and the developing world, which is falling behind -- behind in terms of having access to information that the developed world has, behind in terms of being able to take advantage of tools and technology that can allow persons to connect to one another across the planet for free, and behind in terms of possessing the tools to be able to meet the requirements and demands of the business world in the 21st century. The further the gap widens, the farther behind the developing world is being left.
Thus, it is important that developing countries…
Campbell, Patricia; MacKinnon, Aran; Stevens, Christy. An Introduction to Global
Studies. UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.
Molinari, Aleph. "Let's bridge the digital divide!" TED.com. Web. 1 Apr 2016.
New Media Implications
The improvement of internet and other technology and its ready availability to more and more people has revolutionized the structure and population of the media around the world. People that would normally be members of the audience have become the creators of news and vice versa. The lines that separate news makers and people that normally would be making news or expected to make news have blurred significantly and in several different ways. There are many examples of countries that could be focused on for this subject but one of the best is the United States.
There are multiple ways in which the structure of news creators has changed and evolved over recent months and years. One way in which the idea regarding audience and news sources has been altered significantly is the corporate structure of the people that are providing the news. The companies…
Babad, E. (2005). The Psychological Price of Media Bias. Journal of Experimental
Psychology. 11 (4), 245-255.
Barkow, J., O'Gorman, R. & Rendell, L. (2012). Are The New Mass Media Subverting
Cultural Transmission. Review of General Psychology. 16 (2), 121-133.
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). WikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/Wikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). When news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Media as the Linguistic Discourse Analysis Object
esearch in Discourse Analysis - Linguistics
Discourse analysis' focus is noteworthy semiotic events. Discourse analysis aims to understand not only the nature of the semiotic event, but also the socio-psychological traits of the participants of the event. The proposed subject of research is media discourse analysis or media as the linguistic discourse analysis object. Media is highly relevant and almost fundamental to life in the 21st century. There is no doubt that there are social, perceptual, psychological, linguistic, and behavioral affects of technology and media upon users and communities. Objects of discourse analysis vary in their definition of articulated sequences of communication events, speech acts, etc. Media is nothing but a series of coordinated sequences of various communications events operating semiotically. Therefore, media discourse analysis is a worthwhile linguistic research endeavor. The hypothesis of the research contends that media discourse analysis, as part…
Chen, L. (2004) Evaluation in Media Texts: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Investigation. Language in Society, 33(5), 673 -- 702.
Chigana, A., & Chigana, W. (2008) Mxit It Up in the Media: Media Discourse Analysis on a Mobile Instant Messaging System. The South African Journal of Information and Communication, 9, 42 -- 57.
Constantinou, O. (2005) Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Media, modes and technologies. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(4), 602 -- 618.
Gamson, W.A., Croteau, D., Hoynes, W., & Sasson, T. (1992) Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 373 -- 393.
Vietnam films have rewritten the winners and the losers of that saga and action-adventure films reinforce cultural norms of violence and power (175). Despite the increased real presence of women in positions of power, often media representations of women and other formerly disenfranchised groups remain stereotyped or relegated to marginal or token roles, although this is changing. Still, certain outlets like women's magazines often function as advertisements that perpetuate corporate images that make women feel worse, rather than better about themselves (188). Furthermore, a hegemonic ideology is implied by supposedly mainstream news organizations. Consider the construct of 'economic news.' This implies that the 'economy' is in a neat little box, and that social issues of race and political disenfranchisement, limits on wealth and access to education and power, have no role in who possess wealth and who lacks wealth in society. Economics as separate from other issues is essentially an…
Media Presentation Analyzation: Design & Ethical Relationships
The war in the Middle East is an example of an on-going media presentation that is covered in the radio, television and on the Internet. More recently covered are the accounts of the beheadings of those kidnapped and in yesterday's news, of numerous people killed or wounded in the Iraqi car blasts in Najaf, Iraq. This paper will examine the design and ethical relationships of the media's presentation of the war in Iraq using the attached article downloaded off the Internet for the analysis. It will examine television and the new media environment of the Web, for both have become central in determining both the design and ethical dimensions of the media's coverage of the war in the Middle East.
Turning on the television means establishing a connection with the place of broadcasting and being literally and continually present at the birth of…
Bruce, B.C. (2000), "Credibility of the Web: Why we need dialectical reading," Journal of Philosophy of Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp.97-109.
Design -- Media Presentation Analysis
Media in the Courtroom
High profile court cases, especially murder trials and celebrity cases are more likely to attract the national media than ordinary cases that usually of no interest beyond the local level. These are also the kinds of cases when the issue of TV cameras in the courtroom is most significant, and when judges have to give serious thought to handing down gag orders that block all public discussion of the case for the duration of the trial. In this era of Internet, Facebook, 24-hour cable news and YouTube, any events or statements in the court can easily become 'viral' and be seen instantly by millions of people around the world. For most of the 20th Century, recording devices and movie and TV cameras were not allowed in the courts, but only reports from the print media and drawings by sketch artists. This technology existed for many decades…
Ferguson, R. 2011. "Cameras in the Courtroom." The American Spectator.
Mesereau, T.A. 2011. "Effectively Handling High-Profile and Celebrity Cases." Los Angeles Lawyer, Survival Guide for New Attorneys in California, Fall 2011 Issue
How Technology Shapes Society
A society is a conglomerate of people who, for some reason, are throw together in a particular bounded region. The group has to make laws that will govern their actions and they also determine how they will live together in the most productive manner. But, there are events and devices that some say can change the way this group of people behaves and what laws they will make for one another. For example, an early hunter-gatherer society subsisted on what they could kill and find. Then someone invented the hoe, and they became cultivating societies (Keel, 2011). This meant that the people did not have to roam so far afield to find they needed to exist. Thus they could stay closer together and build up societies. Small events sometimes shape great changes in society without the people within the society realizing that the invention will…
Anderson, P., & Tushman, M.R., (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs: A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604-619.
Beals, G., (1997). The biography of Thomas Edison. Retrieved from http://www.thomasedison.com/biography.html
Carlson, W.B., (1992). "Artifacts and frames of meaning: Thomas A. Edison, his managers, and the cultural construction of motion pictures," in W.E. Bijker and J. Law Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, pp. 175-198.
Chandler, D., (2002). Technological or media determinism. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/tecdet/tdet01.html
New Religious Movements
Of the myriad new religious movements which have arisen over the course of the twentieth century, only a few have resorted to violence and mass suicide as a course of action. Perhaps the most famous of these, the so-called Jonestown Massacre, resulted in the deaths of over nine hundred people, and serves as the basis for John Hall's examination of the particular preconditions and precipitating factors which lead one cult or new religion to violence instead of another. Hall's theory is applicable beyond the case of Jonestown, and in fact may be used to better understand the motivating factor behind the mass murder/suicides committed by the Order of the Solar Temple in the 1990s. In particular, by considering Hall's theory in conjunction with the analysis of the Solar Temple deaths given by Jean-Francois Mayer, it will become clear that each of the six preconditions and three precipitating…
Hall, John R. "The Apocalypse at Jonestown." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden,
MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Print.
Mayer, Jean-Francoise. "Our Terrestial Journey is Coming to an End': The Last Voyage of the Solar Temple." Cults and New Religious Movements. Malden, MA: Blackwell
Publishing, 2003. Print.
Media With the Military in Battle
There must be a cost-benefit analysis performed before formally agreeing to attach reporters to military units during active engagements. There are pros and cons for the side of the press and on the side of the military. It has become practice or tradition since the Vietnam War for journalists to be permitted to accompany and document the activities of various military units. Therefore, there is a fairly substantial precedent set for this form of cooperation. When considering this situation, imagining the outcome can assist in adequately preparing both sides for the accompaniment.
The military units that would have journalists should be provided as much notice as possible. This would give the commanding officers a chance to prepare assignments that would both satisfy the journalists and provide a respectable amount of operational secrecy. The journalists should receive some kind of basic military training and…
Constitutional Rights Foundation. (2012). Press Freedom vs. Military Censorship. Web, Available from: http://www.crf-usa.org/america-responds-to-terrorism/press-freedom-versus-military-censorship.html . 2012 November 09.
Ricchiardi, S. (2006). Dangerous Assignment. American Journalism Review, Web, Available from: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4003 . 2012 November 10.
This, to the advantage of the politician though it may be, is a disservice to the public. As we can see by the media's expanded agenda of campaign issues, the old issues have never been resolved in the sixty plus years since World War , and new ones have been piled on, and one very important one, healthcare, which is indicative of a serious problem in America. However, what we do not have to benefit the public is fact-based news reporting, and we do not have politicians who are plain-speak. This is because of the quid-pro-quo relationship that exists between the media and politics that facilitates one or the other over the public need and interest.
To be a member of an informed public today, means that one must rely on one's own ability and interest in assessing facts, and performing research independent of the "we make you,…
If you are a typical journalist, like those with whom I come in contact on a daily basis... you never have had an economics course that explains how a local business can affect the outcome of a bidding procedure, influence the growth patterns of a city, or even cheat its stockholders or consumers (Koch, Tom, 1990, p. 37)."
Ullman elaborates further the shortcomings of the academic nature of today's journalist, but the point is, that a journalist need not be schooled in these specialties to report the facts; the point further being that today journalists have begun analyzing speech patterns and words of politicians in ways such that it skews for the listener the meaning of what was originally said, and causes the listener to question his or her own interpretation of the politician's words. This, to the advantage of the politician though it may be, is a disservice to the public. As we can see by the media's expanded agenda of campaign issues, the old issues have never been resolved in the sixty plus years since World War II, and new ones have been piled on, and one very important one, healthcare, which is indicative of a serious problem in America. However, what we do not have to benefit the public is fact-based news reporting, and we do not have politicians who are plain-speak. This is because of the quid-pro-quo relationship that exists between the media and politics that facilitates one or the other over the public need and interest.
To be a member of an informed public today, means that one must rely on one's own ability and interest in assessing facts, and performing research independent of the "we make you, we'll break you," media and political machines that exist today.
The attorney general also made sure that the mainstream media had plenty of scary stuff about terrorists to cover in a dramatic fashion. For instance, Dettmer notes that, "The manner of the announcement by a live TV linkup for Ashcroft in Moscow and a star-studded news conference at the Justice Department added massive drama. With the surprising exception of Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz, aides and officials appeared determined to talk up the dirty-bomb threat" (2002, p. 47). With the terrorist alert standing at orange today, and riveted up to red tomorrow, who knows where it will be next Tuesday? Indeed, anum (2004) emphasizes that, "The media, of course, doesn't really want definitive answers to the problems of homeland security. In fact, the media is probably happier with unanswered or unanswerable questions since these make for better stories and provide a good forum for endless pundits to discuss endless…
Allan, S. & Zelizer, B. (2004). Reporting war: Journalism in wartime. New York: Routledge.
Beale, S.S. (2006). The news media's influence on criminal justice policy: How market-driven news promotes punitiveness. William and Mary Law Review, 48(2), 397-399.
Billeaudeaux, A., Domke, D., Hutcheson, J.S. & Garland, P. (2003). Newspaper editorials follow lead of Bush administration. Newspaper Research Journal, 24(1), 166-167.
Crockatt, R. (2003). America embattled: September 11, anti-Americanism, and the global order.
Unlike other wars, this was not against the armies of a nation, but a cohort of individuals who were driven by an ideology (Islamism). This army knew no boundaries and did not use conventional tactics of war fare. Even when the Taliban were imprisoned, the media first reasoned and then insisted that the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war applied to these prisoners. Bill Maher, comedian, political commentator and host of the program "Politically Incorrect" called the terrorists "freedom fighters." (Landau, 2009) Many editorials were written excoriating Americans for ill-treatment of these prisoners. Some in the media even averred that these prisoners deserved the same rights guaranteed to those in correctional facilities in the United States. This meant that those imprisoned in the war on Terror could be given specific rights as afforded by the Constitution of the United States of America. The media in its insistence…
Acheson, Dean, and Dean Acheson. The Korean War. New York,: Norton, 1971.
Hersh, Seymour. "Torture at Abu Ghraib: American Soldiers Brutalized Iraqis. How Far up Does the Responsibility Go?" The New Yorker May 10, 2004.
Landau, Saul. Freedom Fighters, Terrorists or Schlemiels? . 2009. Available: http://www.counterpunch.org/landau01302009.html . April 14, 2009.
MediaResearch. How the Media Vote. 2009. Mediaresearch.com. Available: http://www.mediaresearch.org/biasbasics/biasbasics3.asp. April 14, 2009.
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
Yet, every major aspect of the Internet builds on the strengths of those prior media forms.
The development of technology has allowed for cultural acceleration, as each media form starting with the telegraph represents an improvement in the speed and/or scope of communication (Carey, 2010). The telegraph separated transportation from communication, which was the first step. The telephone increased speed further, and wireless telegraph set the foundation for later wireless technologies. Radio and television, for example, were based on wireless broadcast, which enabled communications to reach a broader audience. here the telephone and telegraph introduced an accelerated pace to communications, the impacts of any one given communication were individual. News of the Titanic sinking, for example, was carried through a network of different messages on different media (Carey, 2010). Such large-scale impacts of communication on society became commonplace with radio. Television had yet more potency as a communications…
Carey, J. (2010). Electricity creates the wired world. In possession of the author.
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
New Media and Politics
Digital media has been extremely instrumental in the organization and expression of political protest. This case study will examine the impact of digital media and social networking and the importance it plays in contemporary political movements.
In the work entitled "New Media and Development Communication," stated is that modern mobile phones "…are transforming civilians into journalists." Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005, p.1) The report states that a critical role was played by mobile phones in the world receiving information about the pro-democracy protests in Myanmar" which involved 1,000 individuals being arrested and 30 to 40 monks and 50 to 70 civilians being killed. The report states specifically:
"Dissent turned into outrage as mobile phones transmitted grainy images of Myanmar's revered monks being beaten by junta security forces, 'Citizen Journalists' -- everyday citizens in Myanmar -- began surreptitiously recording video and taking photos of the…
Cagaptay, Soner (2012) Can Dictators Survive New Media. CNN Special Report. Retrieved from: http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/10/can-dictators-survive-new-media/
Cottle, Simon (2011) Cell Phones, Camels, and the Global Call for Democracy (2011) Open Democracy. 27 Sept. 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.opendemocracy.net/simon-cottle/cell-phones-camels-and-global-call-for-democracy
New Media and Development Communication (2005) Columbia University, ITU Report, 2005.Retrieved from: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/sipa/nelson/newmediadev/Citizen%20journalism.html
Preston, Jennifer (2011) Social Media Gives Wall Street Protests a Global Reach. The New York Times. 15 Oct 2011. Retrieved from: http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/15/social-media-gives-wall-street-protests-a-global-reach/
media is an extremely powerful tool which can be used to change people's opinions regarding issues. However the effectiveness of media generally depends on how people use it. The two stories given to the news director are on completely diverse subjects. oth of the stories hold relevance to the society. The one about the celebrity death holds people's interest while enlightening the public about the park story is crucial to creating awareness in people's minds. In today's world, media ratings have become the most important part to media producers (Croteau & Honyes, 2001). Channels don't show news items for public welfare rather they concentrate on stories that make higher profits for them (Daily Source Org, 2005-2012). Keeping in mind the current media landscape, the news director should choose to air the park story as the lead story.
The role of media in the contemporary society has been restricted to the…
Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2001). The Business of Media. California: Pine Forge Press.
Tompkins, A. (2003, December 14). The physcological effects of media violence on children.
Parallels in Journalism Studies
Chapter 11 by Coleman et al. is primarily concerned with the importance and methods of agenda setting in mass media, communication, and journalism studies. Agenda setting is a set that should come very early on in the production process of media for critical reasons. Without an agenda, the media lacks direction. Without an agenda, it is nearly impossible to judge or evaluate the success of a piece of media. Agenda setting is like knowing one's audience: if a media producer or journalist does not know his/her audience and lacks a concise & clear agenda, then there really is no point in producing such a piece of media. It would be a waste of time and resources. According to this chapter, agenda setting did not begin in mass media specifically nor journalism. Methods and research into agenda setting in the United States began with several presidential…
Coleman, R., McCombs, M. & Shaw, D & Weaver, D. (2009). Agenda Setting. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 147-160). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 11)
Cottle, S. (2009). Journalism and Globalization. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 341-356). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 24)
Entman, R.M., Matthes, J. & P. Pellicano, L. (2009). Nature, Sources, and Effects of News Framing. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 175-190). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 13)
McNair, B. (2009). Journalism and Democracy. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. 237 -- 249. New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 17)
Consumers often do not know that, for example, Disney owns ABC, when they are watching ABC present an ostensibly objective business story about the children's entertainment industry. Consumers may have the illusion of choice because they are watching different channels, without realizing that they may be watching many channels, all owned by the same network or media mogul.
Fewer media outlets means less diversity in terms of the range of news stories that is covered, not simply ideology. A narrower range of what is deemed 'important' and 'newsworthy' limits consumer awareness about the world. Although channels have proliferated, watching more channels does not necessarily translate into a new perspective, or even more knowledge. Gaining an audience is an expensive and daunting task for new media companies and FCC regulations that would allow for more mergers, permitting consolidation of up to 45% control in a geographic market, would make it all…
Blosser, Larry (2010l). Introduction. The case against media consolidation: Evidence on concentration, localism and diversity. Edited by Mark Cooper. Retrieved May 5, 2010 at http://www.fordham.edu/images/undergraduate/communications/caseagainstmediaconsolidation.pdf
The Fairness Doctrine. (2003). PBS. Retrieved May 5, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/now/politics/fairness.html
This makes using the Internet much more desirable for advertisers, who may soon be unwilling to advertise in newspapers at all, especially as the current age demographic of news readers begins to taper off with the inevitable consequences of aging.
Of course, it could be argued that people have always had access to free content in the form of libraries, which did not result in the demise of paid, print media. The convenience of reading a book, however, has become less of a factor as laptops grow more streamlined and because of innovations like Amazon's Kindle, which enables users to access printed content on a small, easily transported computer device. In fact, even libraries themselves are becoming more digitally-based, as college students can research journals online from their dorm bedrooms, and many academic journals, facing small subscription pools and high costs of production, are shifting to an online format.
More Americans turning to the web for news." (1 Mar 2008). Reuters. Retrieved Jul 9, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/article/technologyNews/idUSN2824760420080301
Greenspan, Brian, Theodore Olsen, & Brian Tierney. (28 Apr 2008). "The future of print media:
How to adapt to the digital age." Global Conference 2008. The Milken Institute. Retrieved Jul 9, 2008 at http://www.milkeninstitute.org/events/gcprogram.taf?function=detail&eventid=GC08&EvID=1356
Nakashima, Ryan. (7 Jul 2008). "Digital threat prompts movie industry downgrade." AP News
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…
Altbach, Philip. (1995). International book publishing, and Encyclopedia. Fitzroy Dearborn.
Bagdikian, Ben. (1993). The Media Monopoly. Beacon Press.
Barton, C. Franklin, Jay B. (1994). The First Amendment and the Fourth Estate: the Law of Mass Media,6th ed. Foundation Press.
Coronel, Sheila. (July 31, 2000). Investigative Reporting: The Role of the Media in Uncovering Corruption. Southeast Asian Press Alliance.
The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…
Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.
Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.
media in the United States plays an increasingly more active role in what we see, what we hear, how we think, and how we learn about the rest of our world. The media today is comprised of massive, powerful conglomerates and has replaced the small, independent news agencies that once produced the news. Instead, the dissemination of the news has become the responsibility of large corporations whose primary business is most likely something other than collecting, researching, and broadcasting the news. Journalism is no longer the primary responsibility of most news agencies. The new responsibility is generating profits.
Take the example of the one of the world's largest news media companies: Rupert Murdochs's News Corporation which owns the Fox News Agency. In addition Murdoch's Corporation owns an additional individual 26 televisions stations and a majority interest in 7 others. The News Corporation has total assets in excess of 52 billion…
News stations have strict rules regarding the ethics of monetary compensation for stories (i.e. It isn't allowed), however, and this is likely an effort to bolster local sales by highlighting certain local businesses. This also provides a way for Denver news organizations to remain connected -- and appear connected -- to the community. internet advertising has found a fairly steady pattern, and the television stations that have news websites have employed the same types of banners, though often in more muted tones, that are found on most commercial websites.
What is the projected growth of the news broadcasting industry in the next 3-4 years in Denver?
Unfortunately, growth foes not seem very likely in the area of television news broadcasting in the Denver area for some time. Even assuming that the economic troubles end within the next year, the broadcast industry in the Denver area is largely saturated. Though there…
"Denver Colorado Local News Media." Accessed 30 June 2009. http://www.mondotimes.com/1/world/us/6/402
"Denver Population Growth Statistics." Accessed 30 June 2009. http://www.clrsearch.com/RSS/Demographics/CO/Denver/Population_And_Growth
Rocky Mountain Media Watch. Accessed 30 June 2009. www.bigmedia.org
Gender stereotyping is a pernicious and pervasive practice. The media reinforces already existing gender norms, thereby perpetuating structural inequalities and gender inequity. However, the media can also be instrumental in transforming gender norms by combatting stereotypes and depicting gender in unconventional ways. Gender stereotypes can confirm unconscious biases and beliefs about the role and status of men and women. Likewise, the portrayals of gender in the media reinforce behavioral norms. Research shows that “constant exposure to the same dated concepts in the media” can lead to adverse effects that can “last a lifetime,” (Knorr, 2017, p. 1). Therefore, it is critical to become active, engaged consumers of media and to increase media literacy throughout the society.
Gender portrayals in the media will differ according to media type, such as news media versus advertisements, or children’s programming versus programming for adults. Similarly, gender stereotypes vary from culture to culture. Although gender…
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
Also stated in their findings was that exposure in the laboratory of video games that were 'graphically violent...increased aggressive thoughts and behavior (2000:1) Also stated in this report is that other studies conducted by Anderson and Gentile give indication that videogames "have a strong effect on aggression..." particularly in children.
3. Coleman, Loren (2004) The Copycat Effect Paraview Publishing. Online available at http://www.paraview.com/coleman/index4.htm.
According to Coleman, the copycat effect has been a result of media coverage of events such as school shootings. Coleman brings to light how media affects culture within a society.
4. The Culture of Commercialism (2006) Media Awareness Network Online available at http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/ethics/rr_culture_commercialism.cfm.
This work states that "advertising projects false images commercialism distorts our culture by turning every event into a reason to consume.... [and that]...advertising perpetuates stereotypes..."
5. Digital Beginnings: Young Children's Use of Popular Culture, Media and New Technologies Popular Culture and Media Literacy: Research…
actions by the police in the incident involving the killing of a mountain lion were shortsighted and demonstrated a lack of leadership and good judgment. The needless killing of the animal proves that the police used excessive violence in dealing with the problem and the justification for the killing was not satisfactory.
The most important question to ask in this case is why didn't the police simply apply more patience to the situation? The early morning hours when this problem occurred suggests that no person was in any significant danger, and this is further backed up by the fact that the news media was so close during the brutal filming of the incident. The need to rush was a misjudgment and the police are suffering the PR backlash that they most likely deserve.
While it is easy to criticize when mistakes are made, a solution to this problem was quite…
New media can seem threatening at first, as it signals deep and meaningful changes in the ways information is created and shared in the society. In "Mind Over Mass Media," Steven Pinker (2010) argues that new technologies are typically perceived as threatening until they become commonplace. Early hysteria and fear about new media soon subsides, as the actual effects of the new media are not as adverse as was initially believed. Even the printing press was considered evil in its day, according to Pinker (2010). New media has improved scientific research and has made vast amounts of quality information available more quickly to more people. One of the reasons why new media is not threatening is that the brain tends to keep information fragmented. Learning how to condense one's thoughts into a PowerPoint presentation does not imply that the same person will consistently condense his or her thoughts in other,…
The media is often assailed for a number of failings. These failings include focusing on the wrong things, not focusing on the right things nearly enough and focusing on the proper things in the wrong overall way. While the media certainly mishandles class issues and other problems of import, their usual goal is probably not comedy but instead pushing one worldview and viewpoint over another and specifically instead of another. While media in general is largely ineffectual and problematic on a number of levels, some of their activities border on the insidious and starkly negative.
The pull quote from the test pretty much summarizes Diana Kendall's summary of American media in a nutshell. To show the quote again and in its entirety, it was "rather than providing a meaningful analysis of inequality and showing realistic portrayals of life in various social classes, the media either play…
Baum, M.A., & Groeling, T. (2008). New Media and the Polarization of American
Political Discourse. Political Communication, 25(4), 345-365.
Colombo, G. (2013). Rereading America: cultural contexts for critical thinking and writing (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins.
Media and Society: The Problem of Too Much Fake News
Is the era of fake news becoming too dangerous for our families today? As Jones (2013) notes, communication media in the digital world is a powerful tool that we all must be mindful of lest we risk using it poorly and causing more harm than good. With the recent news faux pas involving a group of high school Catholic boys being harassed by a group of protestors yet getting blamed by news media right and left, getting “doxxed” by celebrities calling for blood, and receiving death threats all over an incident blown completely out of proportion, we as a community have to stop and consider how we allow the media to dictate the terms by which we live our lives. This paper will explain why we have to get a better handle on the problem of fake news before it…
Media & Society
The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief summary and review of several topics pertaining to media, modern technology and the overall paradigm that has been formed by the combination of the two. The author of this report will touch in several topics. These topics will include the historical and contemporary roles of media in society, how the chemical and electronic technology of photography, recording and transmission has advanced from its initial discover to the present, how the mass media makes use of these technological innovations, how the development of this digital technology has affected the content, distribution and style of electronic media and how the role of mass media has changed with these overall developments. The author will make use of at least two peer-reviewed sources along the way. While there is much more to life than the media and technology, these…
Carpenter, S., Hoag, A., Grant, A.E., & Bowe, B.J. (2015). An Examination of How
Academic Advancement of U.S. Journalism Students Relates to Their Degree
Motivations, Values, and Technology Use. Journalism & Mass Communication
Educator, 70(1), 58-74. doi:10.1177/1077695814551834
Collision of Old and New
My experience with old media has completely changed as a result of the Internet. I no longer go to the movies or use DVDs, as I can see and stream all I want on the Internet from video hosting sites. I no longer even use a TV (never cared much for commercials anyway). I have some books but never look at them because all the reading I do can be done on the Internet.
Plus, with streaming sites like Netflix or YouTube, there is really no need to wait for TV shows anymore. It used to be in the old days that we would get excited about a new episode, but now there is so much content available on so many sites, and all at once too that it is just about impossible to keep up with it all. Additionally, the programming is so much…
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
Injustice and the Media
There was a point in the not-too-distant past when it was reasonable to perceive the media as a force collectively aimed at informing the public, exposing corruption, surfacing scandal and general performing the responsibility of protecting the people's right to know. However, several forces have permeated the so-called 'fourth estate,' diluting the media's acceptance of this responsibility. At one end of the spectrum, the growth in value of cable news such as CNN or MSNBC has created a highly monetized and commercially-motivated form of news. At the opposite end of the spectrum, the increasing visibility of social media such as Facebook and Twitter in spreading news stories has removed much of the accountability or professionalism from our media outlets.
The result is that our media outlets rarely have the motivation to ensure that a well-informed public is made aware of injustice in all its forms.…
Boettger, B. (2012). The Social Responsibility of Social Media. Media Post.
Chiyamwaka, B. (2008). Media Ethics: A Call To Responsible Journalism. Hippo Lodge Liwonde.
Christians, C.G. (2007). Utilitarianism in Media Ethics and Its Discontents. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 22(2-3), 113-131.
Daily Graphic. (2009). Ethical, Responsible Journalism Essential for Media's Success. Modern Ghana.
In a one day diary of media consumption, it becomes evident that many of my interactions with the world are via media. I receive most of my information through media forms as well. Even when relaxing, media is something that drives the process. There is also a lot of passive consumption of media in my daily life. My media consumption will be analyzed through the lens of different media theories.
Turow argues that media and advertisers have become exceptionally adept since the 1970s at understanding audiences, their consumption patterns, and how to exploit these. For our part as audience, we have much less understanding of our own consumption patterns. This exercise was the first time that I had really given thought to my daily media exposure, only to realize that my use of media is constant, throughout the day, and sometimes very passive. I used media forms as…
Turow, J. (1997). Breaking up America University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Fenton, N. (no date). The internet and social networking. In possession of the author.
Thirdly, the growing up-to-the-minute exposure of the journalists to the physicality of the war detracted from the big picture and instead exaggerated the importance of singular happenings and specific events.
It is in the loss of the big picture that the Bush regime is most able to capitalize on its military's control of the press. While in the 1990s, the President's father struggled with "pooled" journalists and the lack of coherent and stable eye witness accounts, the current President instead embedded an army of over 700 journalists inside the United tate's military campaign as they waged war on the unsuspecting Iraqis.
There is a pretty fine line between being embedded and being entombed," observed Dan Rather in response to the Gulf War of the 1990s.
With the American journalists and those internationally desiring the protection of the winning force fully embedded with the American soldiers at war, the military operation…
Sides, Hampton. "Unembedded." The New Yorker. March 24, 2003.
Jamail, Dahr. "Fallujah: How not to Handle Insurgency." The Arab-American News, April 27th.
Morford, p. 2.
A college student talking to an old high school friend through Instant Messaging may send that friend a copy of an interesting article that flashed across the screen. News may not be prime reason for using the Internet but still the Internet is vital for transmitting news and opinion, even of dispatches from war torn areas, or disaster afflicted zones where the conventional media cannot penetrate. In ages past, sitting around the television watching the news may have had other purposes than information -- family togetherness, relaxation, as well, but that did not discount the information received.
Furthermore, the Internet provides a plurality of viewpoints that the three networks and the major city newspapers did not and often still do not provide. One could even make a parallel to the plethora of newspapers of the turn of the century, all biased and slanted and somewhat dubious in fact-checking perhaps (but…
Mindich, David. Tuned Out: Why Americans under 40 don't follow the news. New York: Oxford Press, 2004
One reporter for the New York Daily News rants, "Come on, let's be serious…if anything is clear, it is that the trip of the famous couple to Havana has exposed the travel ban as what it is: a senseless, anachronistic and anti-democratic policy, contrary to U.S. interests and values," (uiz, 2013).
What was done to resolve the controversy?
There has yet to be a clear resolution to the controversy, but the expression of symbolic free speech on the part of Beyonce and Jay-Z has deepened the discourse about the purpose and effectiveness of the Cuba embargo. The celebrity visit has caused new dialogue about Cuban-American relations and the meaning behind the ongoing travel ban Many Americans do not give much thought to the travel ban; but Cuban-Americans take the ban personally. Now that the Cold War is over, it does not seem to make much sense to have an embargo.…
Boesveld, S. (2013). Beyonce and Jay-Z's Cuba jaunt sparks uproar as U.S. politicians accuse Obama of breaking tourism embargo. National Post. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/04/09/beyonce-and-jay-zs-cuba-jaunt-sparks-uproar-as-u-s-politicians-accuse-obama-of-breaking-tourism-embargo/
Brown, H. (2013). How the GOP response to Beyonce's Cuba trip highlights broken policy. Think Progress. April 9, 2013. Retrieved online: http://thinkprogress.org/security/2013/04/09/1838661/rubio-beyonce-cuba/?mobile=nc
Hudson, D.L. (n.d.). Posts tagged 'nonverbal expression.' Inside the First Amendment. Retrieved online: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/tag/nonverbal-expression
Peralta, E. (2013). Treasury: Jay-Z and Beyonce Traveled to Cuba on U.S.-Approved Trip. NPR: The Two-Way. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/04/09/176732458/treasury-jay-z-and-beyonce-travelled-to-cuba-on-u-s-approved-trip
Media eview Project
The 1993 film "What's Love Got To Do With It" presents many of the classic symptoms and effects of domestic violence. As such, it provides a great deal of insight into this phenomenon, both on the part of the abuser and on the one who is receiving the abuse. The film is a musical biography of Tina Turner, who was one of the late 20th century's most popular singers. The movie opens up with Tin Turner as a young girl singing in a church choir. Even at this early age her prowess as a singer, the power of her voice and the zeal she expresses through her musical performance, become readily apparent. It is crucial to note that despite such an enthusiastic performance, Tina Turner (who is going by her true name at this point, Anna Mae Bullock), is enduring a tumultuous home life. Her mother eventually…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1997. Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64430/
Ebert, R. (1993). "What's love got to do with it." www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved from http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/whats-love-got-to-do-with-it-1993
Maslin, J. (1993). "What's love got to do with it film review." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9F0CE4D71539F93AA35755C0A965958260
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
Alter, Jonathan. "Moving Beyond the Blame Game. (Panel Discussion)," Newsweek, May 17, 1999.
Beyer, John. "PERSPECTIVE: How movie and TV violence hits children; Is there too much violence on television and is it time to curb it? John Beyer, director of the organization mediawatch-uk argues that media viol," Birmingham Post, March 21, 2007.
Chatfield, Joanne E.. "Influence of Media Violence on Children." American Family Physician, February 15, 2002.
Children's Hospital Boston. "Teen-Rated Video Games Loaded With Violence;
This contest would be entirely hosted on YouTube with links to the Fearless site, showing every uploaded video entry. Having a contest like this brings the voice of the Fearless customer into the very center of their social media strategy and also sets the foundation of a highly effective virtual community. User-generated content is especially powerful in getting potential customers to see how they are part of the broader customer base, seeing how others like them are using the products shown (ndrew, Fischer, Yongjian, 2012). For Fearless this will also break down the barriers to having customers share more information, thereby creating a more effective dialogue than they are having today. The essence of any effective branding strategy is the embedding of messaging in social networks that support and strengthen the overall customer experiences a given product or service is attempting to convey (Zaglia, 2013). The YouTube Video Contest, with…
As a first step in creating this online community, Fearless needs to sponsor more contests for customers, where the winner gets a free year's supply of all the Fearless Chocolate they want (limit of 250 lbs.) and a free trip to Berkeley, California to see the manufacturing of chocolate. Berkeley is just across from San Francisco, so giving a free week in that city would be a very big motivator for people to produce entries. This contest would be entirely hosted on YouTube with links to the Fearless site, showing every uploaded video entry. Having a contest like this brings the voice of the Fearless customer into the very center of their social media strategy and also sets the foundation of a highly effective virtual community. User-generated content is especially powerful in getting potential customers to see how they are part of the broader customer base, seeing how others like them are using the products shown (Andrew, Fischer, Yongjian, 2012). For Fearless this will also break down the barriers to having customers share more information, thereby creating a more effective dialogue than they are having today. The essence of any effective branding strategy is the embedding of messaging in social networks that support and strengthen the overall customer experiences a given product or service is attempting to convey (Zaglia, 2013). The YouTube Video Contest, with the grand prize being a trip to San Francisco and Berkeley, in addition to a year's supply of chocolate, will generate tens of thousands of entries, create a very strong dialogue between the company and its customers.
Pinterest is one of the most rapidly-growing social networking sites for sharing images, and is being used widely by consumer brands to further engage with prospects and customers. Fearless is a natural fit for Pinterest, and needs to also sponsor a recipe contest on this site, where customers are asked to provide pictures and recipe instructions of what they make from the company's chocolates. The first prize could also be a trip to an Francisco and tour of the factory, in addition to attendance at a local cooing school in the city, which is known for its excellence in culinary arts. This would again bring the voice of the customer directly into the social media efforts, initiate and sustain very strong level of communication with them and best of all, bring visual imagery showing customers' commitment to the brand. What Fearless needs to do is create a very strong connection with customers where their stories come out in social media, and the majority of traffic on social media is about them. Fearless will succeed by making customers the rock stars of their social media efforts.
In terms of Facebook, the company continues to rely on this social network for promoting advertising and engaging in limited conversations with customers. What' needed on Facebook is a much more interactive approach to communicating with and connecting with customers. The company recently hosted a
MEDIA LA: Argue Against: Discuss 1st amendment implications Family Prevention Tobacco Act 2009. Are tobacco
The Family Prevention Tobacco Act of 2009 was one of the more controversial pieces of legislature passed in recent times, for the simple fact that it gave a great deal of authority to the Food and Drug Administration to limit the effectiveness of the tobacco industry and its various companies to sell its products. There are multiple components of this legislation, which encompass various aspects of sales, advertising, inspections and registration of new products on the part of manufacturers. Among the many points of dissension that individual and collective entities within this industry claim regarding this legislation is that it limits their First Amendment right of freedom of speech. A thorough examination of the spirit and the lettering of this act, however, reveals that of its many different components, only one (that pertaining to advertising)…
No author. "Tobacco Controls Have Public Health Impact." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/Features/TobaccoControls/
Sifferland, Alexandria. "Colorful Ways Tobacco Industry May Be Skirting Labeling Rules." Time. 2013. Web. http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/15/colorful-way-tobacco-industry-may-be-skirting-labeling-rules/
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "Overview of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: Consumer fact Sheet." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2013. Web. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm246129.htm
It is predicted that dot coms would increase their sales by 21.2% in a year if they were not to increase their employees. Furthermore revenue per employee would increase by 24.47%, gross income by 27.22%, and gross income per employee by 28.4%. The areas in which learning takes place then include selling, fulfilling customer requirements, and providing customer satisfaction to an increasing degree of excellence. This is done without increasing resources in terms of employees or capital.
In terms of structure and improvement, there are a variety of interacting layers in the digital media offered by Internet technology. Consulting, training and integration services are part of layer two, which interacts with IP-based networks and applications, that form layer 1. These layers interact with digital dot coms at layers 3 and 4, enabling them to provide media-rich content with continuous improvement as layers 1 and 2 continuously improve their products and…
Since Facebook has a lage numbe of uses, eachability of taget maket can be ensued in a moe cost effective way. A fee Facebook page can be used fo a moe inteactive maketing with consumes.
Justification of Rationale
The buying bief is of immense impotance to the plan. The economic cisis has inceased maketing costs of businesses significantly. Most bands that exist in competitive makets look fo cost effective but pime media slots. The maket foces that detemine the advetising costs in vaious media ae vey active. Moeove, the allocated budget fo Geat Smell is limited and the sales have gone down by 2% in the past yea.
The impotance of the buying bief is that it addesses the two most citical aspects of the poduct that is the declining sales along with the competition that exists and the limited budget. Keeping the citical aspects in view, the buying bief…
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Prime Time 40/wk 40/wk 1250000
28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron avis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor…
Davis, Aeron (2006) Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: Lessons from the Financial Markets. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) Sage Publications.
Aeron Davis states that the work in writing "Media Effects and the Question of the Rational Audience: "... offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behavior. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this 'strong effects' paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."
Media Effects on Culture
Television remains the single most influential medium in the lives of young people. However, a three-year National Television Violence Study found: "two-thirds of all programming contains violence; children's programs contain the most violence; the majority of all entertainment programming contains violence; violence is often glamorized; and the majority of perpetrators go unsanctioned" (Muscari 2002).
Television violence is graphic, realistic and involving, shows inequity and domination, and portrays most victims as women, children and the elderly (Muscari 2002). Children tend to focus on the more intense scenes, such as violent moments, rather than story components, and these "aggressive acts lead to a heightened arousal of the viewer's aggressive tendencies, bringing feelings, thoughts and memories to consciousness and can cause outwardly aggressive behavior" (Muscari 2002).
hen video games were introduced in the 1970's, they quickly became a favorite pastime for children, and now make up a $10+ billion industry. Today, children average…
Chory-Assad, Rebecca M. (2005 December 01). Effects of affective orientation and video game play on aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kirn, Timothy F. (2006 September 01). Nature and media's nurture spawn girl violence.
Family Practice News. Retrieved January 16, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
Muscari, Mary. (2002 November 01). Media violence: advice for parents.
Media Negatively Affects the Body Image Concerns of Adolescent Girls
Among adolescent girls, body image concerns are not uncommon. The hypothesis of this paper believes that media negatively affects the body image concerns of adolescent girls. The independent variable is the adolescent girls and the dependent variable is the media. This is because adolescent girls can be affected by a lot of other things when it concerns body image, this can come in the form of their peers, society and even history. These variables can affect the concerns on body image of adolescent girls in both a positive and a negative way. However, this paper will only discuss the negative affects which body images are supplied by media to adolescent girls with.
The theoretical approach which best suits this study is the Psychodynamic Approach. This is because the concerns regarding body images are implanted in the minds of these adolescent…
Anschutz, D.J., Van Strien, T., & Engels, R.C. (2008). Exposure to Slim Images in Mass Media: Television Commercials as Reminders of Restriction in Restrained Eaters. Health Psychology. 27(4); 401-408.
Cheng, H.L. & Mallinckrodt (2009). Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 56(5); 365-375.
Clark, L., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). Sociocultural and Individual Psychological Predictors of Body Image in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 44(4); 1124-1134.
Dohnt, H. & Tiggemann, M. (2006). The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls: A Prospective Study. Developmental Psychology. 42(5); 929-936.
In "The Work of Being Watched: Interactive Media and the Exploitation of Self-Disclosure," Andrejevic (2002) critically analyzes interactive media in terms of labor economics. Being watched is a form of work, Andrejevic (2002) claims. Because consumers are not typically paid for their services, the relationship between consumer and enterprise is a parasitic one. Enterprise is exploiting consumers by watching their online behavior, tracking that behavior, and tallying that behavior as marketing data. That marketing data has inherent value, which is why large investments are made into online and other forms of high-tech surveillance. If Andrejevic (2002) had his way, each and every consumer would be paid for surfing the Web and even for watching television. Andrejevic's (2002) claim is of course absurd and completely unfeasible. Moreover, Andrejevic (2002) is completely ignoring the potentially positive effects of consumer surveillance. Contrary to what Andrejevic (2002) has to say, consumer surveillance has…
Andrejevic, M. (2002). The Work of Being Watched: Interactive Media and the Exploitation of Self-Disclosure.
Joseph, P. (2007). Zeitgist: The Movie.