Comparison Between Rights and Employment in Nigeria and in the UK
The issue regarding employment is an important issue in all countries, no matter their level of civilization and development. Although rules and regulations regarding employment are being continuously improved, there are certain categories that are not satisfied with the progresses made by authorities in the rights of employment field. These categories, whether they belong to the public or to the private sector, feel disfavored by certain aspects stipulated in employment laws.
Each country establishes employment rules in accordance with the characteristics of the country in case and of its workforce. There are clear differences between employment laws in developed countries and those in developing regions, like Africa and Asia. However, there are several similarities between these countries and their approach to employment rights.
In Nigeria, the employment rights are established by the Labor Act in the Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990. The law refers to protection of wages, contracts of employment, terms and conditions of employment, recruiters and recruiting, enforcement provisions, apprentices, employment of women, young persons, domestic service, labor health areas, forced labor, settlements of disputes, and others (Labor Act, 1990).
The Labor Act intends to establish the work conditions and the relationships between employees and their employers, but also the rights and obligations of the government of the country. The law tries to build the basis of a work environment that is similar to work environments Western countries. This is because the Nigerian lawmakers understand the necessity of regulations in the employment field, which leads to increased efficiency and productivity with effects on the employees, companies, and the overall economy.
In the UK, the employment rights that are stipulated in the employment laws established by the government include: rights at work, wages, pay levels in certain conditions, lay offs and short time working, sickness periods, time off work, the right to ask for training, the right to ask for flexible working, health and safety, harassment and discrimination, bullying, trade unions, surveillance at work, notice of dismissal, and other rights (Directgov, 2010). These are the basic rights that employees in the UK benefit from if they are legally hired.
The basic rights regarding work conditions are stipulated in the employment laws of each country. But specific rights about work are developed from these basic rights in accordance with the level of development of each country and the type of work required in that country and the objectives of the employment law in case. There are countries where there is a high degree of discrimination at work and the legislation in these countries must focus on reducing discrimination. In countries where this is not a problem, the work legislation does not refer to discrimination.
In other countries children exploitation is a well-known phenomenon and must be properly addressed by employment laws in that country and on international level. Countries that employ an increased number of immigrants must make sure that the working rights of these immigrants are clearly established and known by the public.
Similarities between Employment Rights in Nigeria and in the UK
There are several aspects regarding employment rights that are common between countries belonging to different cultures. For example, the labor laws in Nigeria and in the UK present a series of similarities that prove the fact that Nigeria's government is trying to develop a work environment that is similar to that in Europe or in the U.S. Such a work environment should be able to provide at least minimum conditions for the workers, payment rates that are in accordance with their work efforts and with their needs, and that also provides career growth opportunities.
In the case of Nigeria and the UK, there are similarities regarding certain aspects included in the work regulations of these countries. For example, the work regulations of both countries establish the kevels of payment, the manners of payment, and deductions that can be made by employers from their employees' pay.
Regarding contracts of employment, the legislation in both countries establish the conditions of contracts of employment. In addition to this, the regulations in these countries determine the rights and obligations of employees and employers regarding the application of contracts of employment. The general aspects regarding contracts of employment are similar between Nigeria and the UK.
The terms and conditions of employment are quite clear and address numerous issues in both countries. The Nigerian work legislation is quite developed in this area and there are little differences between the employment rights in the two countries regarding these aspects. The employment laws in Nigeria and in the UK establish the hours of work and overtime conditions, the holidays with pay, the periodicity of payment of wages.
In addition to this, the work legislation in the two countries establishes conditions of sickness leave, and the calculation of payment and benefits in such situations. There are also other conditions regarding these aspects that are stipulated in these laws in Nigeria and in the UK.
The work laws in both countries refer to certain categories of personnel and the conditions for their recruitment and work. These categories of personnel mainly refer to women and young people. The Nigerian authorities are making efforts regarding the improvement of work conditions in these cases.
In Nigeria, people's rights are established by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria adopted in 1999. In the UK, the rights of people and institutions can be found in a set of laws, although the UK does not have a proper Constitution. The similarity between the two countries in this matter is represented by the fact that the sections included in the Nigerian Constitution are addressed by various laws in the UK system.
There are several similarities between the two countries' fundamental laws' approaches to citizenship. For example, these laws establish the conditions that must be met by individuals in order to become Nigerian or British citizens: citizenship by birth, citizenship by registration, citizenship by naturalization, dual citizenship, renunciation of citizenship, deprivation of citizenship.
Another similarity between the two countries is represented by their approach to fundamental rights. Both countries' laws refer to the right to life, to the dignity of human persons, to personal liberty, to freedom of thought, of expression, of movement, and other fundamental rights established on international level.
Differences between Employment rights in Nigeria and in the UK
There are a series of differences between the employment system in the two countries and in the laws that regulate these systems. There are differences in the approach of the employment laws, but also in theoretical aspects that are differently applied in these countries.
For example, although the basic rights regarding employees' payment are similar in the two countries, there are a series of aspects that differ regarding this issue. The Nigerian labor law establishes places and manners where spending the wages is illegal. Also, the Nigerian law stipulates that there are conditions where wages are not to be paid. Such aspects are not included in the UK employment law.
There are also differences regarding the contracts of employment in the two countries. The Nigerian takes into consideration medical examination. This aspect is not granted that much importance in the UK law. This is mainly because of the health problems that are common in Nigeria. The UK law also refers to changes in these contracts and their effects. This is not clearly addressed by the Nigerian law.
The UK law is basically more thorough in establishing a series of conditions for contracts of employment. Therefore, the UK employment law also discusses contracts without specific working hours. This cannot be found in the Nigerian law. The UK law also addresses illegal contracts. This is because the country is trying to reduce the level of workers that are not legally employed (Citizens Advice Bureau, 2010).
This is a very common phenomenon in Nigeria, but the legislation in the field does not give enough power to authorities to identify and intervene in such cases. Maybe it is because the Nigerian authorities feel that the phenomenon is too developed for them to handle, or they consider that this would negatively affect the population that cannot find a legal place to work.
One of the most important differences between employment rights between Nigeria and the UK is represented by employees' right to ask for time for training that is clearly established by the UK law. This is considered to be a basic right in the UK legislation regarding work conditions. However, there are several conditions that must be met by the employees requesting time for training. In addition to this, the employer is not obliged to provide a period of time for employees to do training.
Another important right that can be obtained by UK workers but not by Nigerian workers, refers to the fact that employees have the right to ask for flexible working. There are obviously a series of conditions that must justify the employees' need…