Nonverbal / Demonstrative Communication
The functions of nonverbal communication, according to Professor Mark Frank, include: a) nonverbal communication actually defines communication by "providing the backdrop for communication" (for example, a dimly lit room means communication should be subdued but a brightly lit room with cheerful colors offers a chance for loud talking, laughter and even frivolity); b) nonverbal communication can "regulate" how verbal communication takes place (when the listener nods that he has understood what the speaker has said, it is a cue for the speaker to continue talking); c) nonverbal communication "can be the message itself" because a simple smile indicates acceptance or happiness; a wave means goodbye; raising an index finger suggests "we're number one" and raising a finger to lips means please be quiet (Frank, 2012, pp. 6-7).
Professor Frank (Director of the Communication Science Center at the University of Buffalo) points out that there…… [Read More]
A first date is invariably a difficult situation. Both people feel insecure about what first impression they are making. Both feel the stress of a first encounter and worry about what to say and what to avoid. In addition, this stress might be compounded by the knowledge that nonverbal communication also plays a big role in the first impression created, as well as the decision to date the person again or not. If both parties are aware of the nonverbal clues that work best during a first date, this could help to enhance the experience for both people, because it can boost confidence and take some of the stress away from the first encounter.
Part of the stress of the first date and the nonverbal gestures that go with it resides in the fact that they are numerous and serve many purposes. Some nonverbal gestures, for example, serve…… [Read More]
I found myself often unconsciously mirroring her lack of eye contact and shifting body position. Instead of using my body to communicate peace, calm, and a sense of self-confidence and self-worth, I did the opposite and mirrored her inhibition and slouching posture.
In the case of my supervisor, I felt uncomfortable because of the subject I was forced to address with him, and his general demeanor. With a work colleague, I generally try to be less animated, and more focused on the content of my speech. I try to be still when a supervisor is speaking, to show my absolute attention, even though my nervousness can sometimes betray me. Regarding my supervisor, I wish I could have been more cool, calm, and collected, and more focused and meaningful in my use of gestures, rather than scattered and nervous in terms of my eye contact and use of hand motions. Had…… [Read More]
Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Criminal Justice
The administration of criminal justice is difficult and complex work which requires training not just in legal doctrines and procedural norms but also in the psychological makeup and behavioral tendencies exhibited at various levels of the criminal justice system. This calls for a perceptive ability to engage in effective communication both of the verbal and nonverbal kind. Indeed, from police work and courtroom procedure to detention and juvenile corrections facility oversight, the processing and placement of individuals within the criminal justice system is accommodated by certain communication approaches that can optimize efficiency, stability and fairness. The discussion hereafter considers the array of techniques and expectations that shape the communication practices of police officers, court personnel and corrections officers.
Communication is an everyday part of police work. A great many law enforcement scenarios call for the intuitive use of communication…… [Read More]
Besides employing some of the facial expressions that he shares with Jay Leno and Dennis
Miller, Mr. Letterman is extremely skilled at the use of the so-called "pregnant pause." In some respect, he may have cultivated from Johnny Carson the use of silent looks in response to his guests' innocent statements to maximize the potential for comedic interpretation or double entendre.
A more dramatic example of this comedic use of non-verbal cues would be Mr.
Letterman's use of gestures such as slapping his palms down on his desk while pushing himself back from his desk, or mimicking wiping his brow with his hand, or even with a cue card. Mr. Letterman also uses props to maximize the comedic effect of spoken words, such as when he tosses a card behind him to the coordinated sound effect of breaking glass.
Mr. Letterman also employs exaggerated facial expressions denoting either surprise or…… [Read More]
Nonverbal communication norms can vary significantly from one culture to the next. The first concept to understand is the meaning of culture. Culture "describes activities or behaviors, refer to the heritage or tradition of a group, describe rules and norms" and otherwise describes "general characteristics" of a group (Matsumoto, chapter 1). Cultures arise from such things as environmental conditions, needs and motives. Culture with respect to communication governs the norms of communication within a given society. Every society has a need for social coordination, and culture is the intermediary by which the norms of in-group communication occur (Matsumoto, chapter 1). Thus, culture typically governs the norms within a group with respect to all forms of communication, including the non-verbal.
When one is raised in a culture, one learns how to communicate within that culture. The forms that communication takes are passed along within that culture so that while one is…… [Read More]
Non-Verbal Communication in Military
Military leadership is active, purposeful and authoritative, and captures the lessons of experience and uses the wisdom and methods of history's great captains to show the way for current and future leaders (Jantzen pp). However, writing doctrine and understanding the human dimension of leadership in the twenty-first century will be more complex than ever due to the advancements in technology (Jantzen pp). Information technology is unique from other technologies because of its role in radically reinventing organizational structures, doctrine and procedures, yet it is also very flexible and can be altered to fit the culture and unique needs of the organization (Jantzen pp).
The information age has been called the information revolution, and a closely related concept is revolution in military affairs (Jantzen pp).
The term "revolution" connotes what George Gilder calls a paradigm shift, or the "collapse of formerly pivotal scarcities" coupled with "the rise…… [Read More]
In 1969, Ekman and Friesen delineated communicative nonverbal behavior as those actions that are evidently and knowingly planned by the sender to send out a stipulated message to the receiver. Their delineation does not take up the sharing aspect even though it takes up the aspect of purpose. They elucidate that there is no compulsion that communicative actions should have a common decoded definition; there could be communicative actions without information where the sender planned to send out a message but no one recognizes him. (Function and Impact of Nonverbal Communication in a Computer Mediated Communication Context: An Investigation of Defining Issues)
Non-verbal behavior associated with movement, which might be of any portion of the body, or the complete body is known as Kinesics. (Kinesics: http://stephan.dahl.at/nonverbal/kinesics.html) Kinesics points to posture, bodily movements, viz. gesticulations, and the manner in which the body is used in a particular circumstance. Posture…… [Read More]
I could have made more of an effort to connect nonverbally by relaxing and keeping eye contact during the emotional parts of the conversation.
The second encounter had different challenges: I was talking to someone while walking on a busy street. I had to juggle my focus between my conversational partner and the various obstacles in front of us and on the ground. I think I could have done a better job keeping in nonverbal contact with my friend, either through touching him or her when we could not make eye contact to indicate my presence, or turning to look more frequently at him. Although this dialogue was pleasurable, it can be difficult to show interest and attention while moving, and avoid tripping or getting hit by cars. There is always a balance between showing attention to what is going on in your surroundings, and engaging with the other individual,…… [Read More]
Non Verbal Cues of Bill Clinton's Speech: January 26, 1998
Clinton was certainly in a tight spot when he gave the addendum to his speech regarding the fact that he did not have sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky. The nation had changed their focus from what he had accomplished, as a President, to who he had had sex with. He had much to lose, not the least of which was his political career.
His speech on January 26, 1998 was meant to reassure the nation that he was innocent. However, to paraphrase Shakespeare, the President doth protest too much, methinks. His non-verbal cues easily gave the impression that he was a man with something to hide, a man who was desperate to get the public to believe him, before the truth finally emerged.
Non-Verbal Cues of Bill Clinton's Speech: January 26, 1998
On January 26, 1998, President Bill Clinton…… [Read More]
The cultural space that I visited and covered was a state-tour musical concert attended by close to 5,000 people at all concert locations. I showed up on three occasions. The interactions between attendees were lively and varied. Various verbal and non-verbal aspects could be picked up. Some of the non-verbal communication setups I observed included, but they were not limited to, shaking of hands, gestures, hugging, touching, and even facial expressions. Aspects of verbal communication identified were proximity and eye contact. In this discussion, I will concern myself with proximity.
In essence, in non-verbal communication, proximity has got to do with the distance communication participants keep between each other during the conduct of their interactions. In the three concerts I attended, the distance people kept between each other varied. For instance, as the concert commenced, there was an observed shorter distance between friends and people who appeared to…… [Read More]
Nonverbal Communication: Public Observations
Perhaps the most striking difference between men and women in terms of their nonverbal communication is their use of personal space. Riding on a bus or in a waiting room, males tend to spread out, sometimes taking up two seats or more. It is not unusual to see a male with his legs open and hands dangling between them. This looks almost like a challenging posture, even if he is apparently relaxed and not being openly threatened.
In contrast, even a woman who seems confident and is casually dressed in jeans will often assume a contained posture in a similar public environment. She will cross her legs, thereby making herself smaller, rather than occupying even her full allocation of space. In the waiting room I observed, I noticed that when a woman sat next to a man she would often be particularly intent upon squeezing her…… [Read More]
Because other research has indicated that nonverbal cues can be laden with emotion, and even be important indicators of deception, understanding the use of nonverbal cues in response to certain questions by therapists can give those therapists an important point of reference in evaluating responses.
Unfortunately, despite some significance in the statistical findings of Hill and Stephany (1990), there are complications and limitations to the usefulness of this research study. In theory, this could be an incredibly useful research study because it could provide therapists with a new, statistically proven, tool for evaluating the responses of clients and improving their therapeutic methods. Unfortunately, even Hill and Stephany (1990) admit that they had difficulty reconciling their findings with the research already extant or hypothesized in the relevant literature. For example, previous research has indicated that less controllable nonverbal cues such as leg movements or posture shifts should be more significant than…… [Read More]
" This type of skill or behavior is also closely linked to self-disclosure, genuineness and immediacy.
Central to this skill is the ability to communicate one's thoughts and feelings in a way that is respectful of the other person's feelings and does not denigrate or overtly criticize them in any way.
While there are many skills that can be interpreted as confrontational, it is also possible to present both verbal and non-verbal types of behavior that are confrontational but in a way that promotes and conveys sincere and genuine feelings of interest and openness in the therapeutic relationship. In the use of language this means to convey to the other individual that the apparent attitude of confrontation is really an effort to sincerely and genuinely help and assist. The key words here are assertive, calm and concerned.
One uses language in a way that is serious and calm but also…… [Read More]
He listened attentively to my description, and waited until I had finished talking before responding. We maintained eye contact throughout this exchange. The salesman then showed me the range of what they had within my requirements, demonstrating the traits of each model. He accented these traits with explanatory hand gestures. The CR for both myself as customer and the salesman was complete, and thus I feel that the exchange was successful.
Another exchange that I experienced in my capacity as customer was at a cell phone dealer. As above, I entered, and was approached by a young salesman. This person looked nervous, but nonetheless smiled as he introduced himself. He did not shake my hand, but rather invaded my personal space. I must add that the shop was fairly crowded, which did not help to either ease the salesman's nerves or improve my increasingly irritated disposition. I however tried to…… [Read More]
" I found myself saying, "Never mind, it's clear you're too busy. I'll go next door to XYZ." She rolled her eyes and didn't attempt to stop me. Of course, I won't be going back there for a while. I look back on the experience and realize that I did give non-verbal clues, but they weren't received by the clerk. I smiled, I pointed to the items I was interested in, I kept irritation out of my voice, and I keep a cheery note in my voice. Her reactions on the other hand were very negative. She stood with her hands crossed over her chest as I took up her time, made nervous gestures, looked at her watch, and walked from one end to the counter to the other. I felt she was not receiving my non-verbal (or verbal) communication, and it was like there was a wall between us.…… [Read More]
communication includes nonverbal and unwritten communication and involves facial expressions, the tone of a person's voice, body language, and related issues. Smiles, handshakes, crossed arms, raised eyebrows, and comments that appear to be "dripping" with sarcasm are all part of demonstrative communication (Barnlund, 2008; Montana & Charon, 2008). Both listening and responding are involved in the interaction between individuals who use demonstrative communication, because this kind of communication can be something that begins a conversation and elicits a response, or something that is used to create a response to communication that has already been presented by someone else (Berko, et al., 2010; Heyman, 1994). For example, "icy" treatment and other clearly hostile or passive-aggressive communication can be used to keep people away or to elicit a response from another person. If communication is unacceptable, demonstrative communication can also be used to show another person that there is no desire to…… [Read More]
The study of kinesics, or body language, supplements an understanding of human communication. Often it is not the content of speech, but the gestures and symbols accompanying speech that convey meaning. During a visit to a Starbucks at a local mall, I observed that emblems, illustrators, regulators, adapters, and affect displays are ubiquitous.
According to Gibbon (1998), emblems are "gestures that can be used instead of speech," which have a "direct verbal translation," and are "known by almost everybody in the group," (p. 1). The emblems most often noticed during my observation at the Starbucks at the mall were the two head-shaking emblems that indicate "yes" and "no." Shaking the head up and down indicates yes, viewed when the clerk asked people questions to which they answered in the affirmative. On the other hand, shaking the head from left to right would indicate a negative response to a question.…… [Read More]
nonverbal behavior has James made?
From the case study provided, there are various mistakes of James' own nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal behaviors such as emotions, attitudes and personality traits come clear from his conversation with Bob Croze. For instance, when Bob tells James that he was late and therefore he had already placed an order with one of James' competitors, James conveys his attitudes and expresses his emotions by increasing his voice in speed and pitch as well as, rising up ready to leave. This shows that James was not happy with Bob since he had placed an order with his competitor.
Cite at least 3 examples, explaining James' nonverbal behaviors and the messages they sent.
Expressing emotion (For example, James not happy with Bob, and so increases his voice in speed and pitch)
Conveying attitudes (For example, crossing arms and legs while talking to Bob)
Demonstrating personality traits (For example,…… [Read More]
Messages are normally communicated verbally or non-verbally. Verbal communication may be written or oral. Non-verbal communication means engaging visual signs or audio signs in order to communicate a message. Nonverbal signals are a significant part of the communication procedure. These consist of hand gestures, facial eye contact, touch languages, body movements, posture, and vocal modulations. They can deliver as much significance as words, presenting feelings for instance fear, joy, and anger. Audiences also measure character traits for instance honesty and trustworthiness by means of a speaker's nonverbal actions. An assortment of theories has been established to study these types of communication. ith that said, the two theories that are to be discussed in this paper are Proxemics and Semiotics.
Semiotics and Proxemics: hat are they?
Semiotics is basically what is called the study of signs in body, words, language, and sounds. Researchers in this area look for instructions that regulate…… [Read More]
Observing Nonverbal Communication
When observing a group of preschool students between the ages of three to four years old, one common nonverbal communication observed was violent physical contact. When one child wanted a toy that the other child had, this child hit him until he let go of the toy. In another instance, one child said something that was upsetting to another, and the response was getting punched.
This nonverbal communication was quite blatant. The child that was doing the hitting was communicating that he was very upset with the other child and wanted something. In the first instance, the child was communicating that he wanted to have the toy that the other child was playing with. The second child eventually understood this and handed over the toy. In the second instance, the child was communicating that he did not like what the first child had said.
In…… [Read More]
Motivation, Stress, And Communication
Ford motor is a global company dealing with the manufacture of vehicles. It has several offices/manufacturing plants in most parts of the world. For the company to run smoothly and efficiently, its operations are divided into several department headed by several departmental managers. One of the departments am in charge is the Supply Chain Systems Sales department a position I filled as the head of department.
A Supply Chain System Sales Operations Manager is in charge of two broad roles. One of roles concerns supplies while the other deals with sales of their locomotives. These two roles are interlinked in a way that the person in charge must ensures that their sales offices are supplied by their products (vehicles) for sales and shipping of new vehicles to other customers or to their sales offices in countries ford motors has no factory. Sales are an interactive kind…… [Read More]
Men vs. omen' -- Nonverbal communication and the egg meeting the sperm
One need look no father than the bookshelves that proclaim men are from Mars, omen are from Venus to see the point-of-view of Emily Martin advocated in her essay "The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles." Although readers may like to think of science as objective in its categories, in fact, beginning a study by looking at men and women as the absolute categories of human sexual nature is itself biased, Martin suggests. The language of biological texts is equally as coded between activity and passivity, sperm vs. egg, just as subjective as the language that 'sees' certain planets as male or female.
Scientific language is human created, and it both affects and reflects the way we think about gender. Even in a female-created and directed study such as…… [Read More]
An interdisciplinary team is formed from a group of health care providers belonging to different fields of health sciences; they work together as a team to bring the best possible outcome for patient. The efficiency of this team is achieved by following three basic steps that include communication, coordination and sharing of responsibilities. In order to provide quality care in primary health care system, the hospitals need to get closely integrated with the whole health service system (Ilyas, 2006).
Who makes up the membership of the interdisciplinary team in this agency?
Members of the interdisciplinary team vary according to the age and the degree of disability of an individual. Main aim of such team is to provide support to the patient in the best possible manner. The interdisciplinary team members of Hospitals at Ontario, includes Physicians, Nurses, Midwife, Dietitian, Pharmacist, Psychologist, Podiatrist, Physiotherapist, Chiropractor and Occupational Therapist. In…… [Read More]
Importantly, there is a certain structure and decorum involved in business negotiations. For example, the atmosphere is usually relaxed and contemplative and "…periods of silence are not uncommon and are an essential part of negotiating" (Doing usiness in Poland | Polish Social and usiness Culture). Consequently, small talk is not seen as part of the negotiating situation. However, before a business meeting casual conversation is usually part of the process.
5. Conclusion: Recommendations
In terms of the above analysis a number of central aspects emerge. The most significant is the Polish respect for authority and hierarchy which must be balanced against their strong sense of individuality. Small points of etiquette, such as shaking hands and addressing people formally at first, are also important to remember.
In the final analysis, the most important aspect of interacting with someone for Warsaw is to not only be aware of their customs but also…… [Read More]
Intercultural Film Analysis on Up in the Air
Interpersonal attraction is one of the themes at the heart of Up in the Air. For the purposes of this analysis, interpersonal attraction is taken to mean the ways in which people are drawn toward one another. The main character, yan Bingham, is a challenging character to analyze in this regard because he has experienced significant success through resisting interpersonal attraction, and yet he eventually comes to realize that people cannot simply shelter themselves from interpersonal attractions, even if they desire to live in complete alienation from others. yan makes his living through flying to workplaces and firing employees so that the bosses do not have to perform the unpleasant task, and yet he also doubles as a motivational speaker. His character is unusual in that he effectively tells people they are not suitable for their jobs (in his job…… [Read More]
Embracing the limits of my control will enable me to deal with stress appropriately.
Nonverbal and Cultural Barriers to Communication
It is only when the intended receiver of a message understands the information contained within the message that communication can be regarded effective. The world is today regarded a global village. This effectively means that intercultural communication will continue being even more common going forward. In so many ways, effective communication will enable me to successfully execute the mandate of my new position. Given the multicultural nature of our institution, there exists a significant need for me to explore ways of overcoming cultural barriers to communication. In seeking to overcome the said barriers, I will amongst other things ensure that I understand the receiver's perspective. This will help minimize instances of wrong interpretation. I will also ensure that the message is delivered in a format that can be understood by…… [Read More]
This is exacerbated by the problem that Carmen is close friends with the owner Kenneth. Kenneth has a similar conflict management style to Carmen. He can be extremely nice when dealing with people casually, but whenever a problem arises like Carmen he makes excuses, avoids the problem, tries to pass it on to someone else, or resorts to texting or faxing messages rather than confronting complaints. Their favorite 'nonverbal' communication strategy is simply not being there.
A failure to listen is one of the most common workplace communication problems. "When people or groups are in conflict, communication between them tends to get worse and worse. As a conflict escalates, people limit their direct contact with people on the other side, because such conflict is uncomfortable or threatening….Eventually all direct communication between parties may be cut off. Sometimes, communication is cut off in protest" (Lack of communication channels/avoided communication, 2005, OTPIC).…… [Read More]
B: No you didn't.
A: You just weren't listening.
A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?
B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.
A: Thank you
Prompt (2) Stereotypes:
Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.
The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.
Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.
We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.
Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…… [Read More]
There are a number of really wonderful employers in the United States; companies that are consistently known for their excellent treatment of their employees. Fortune Magazine identifies the top 100 companies to work for each year and gives various details about each company. The company I would like to work for is Methodist Hospital System, Houston. It has consistently been identified as one of the best employers in the country, with a reputation for treating its employees fairly and establishing a great atmosphere. Moreover, this career would be in the healthcare industry, which is projected to be a growth area for the foreseeable future, so it is an excellent field.
Create a brief job description for a position within the company you research that you would like to fill.
The job that I would like is Senior Marketing Specialist. Marketing specialists with the Methodist Hospital System have a unique…… [Read More]
The research question examined in this study poses the following question: "How does one person's behavior affect another person's behavior?" Specifically, this study is intended to assess the various mechanisms through which people communicate, both verbally and non-verbally. The study is intended to examine the different methods in which males vs. females communicate, and explore whether a difference in gender correlates with a different approach to communicate. Also examined is whether or not males or females are likely to be influenced by each others communication cues, and whether one gender is more influenced by certain settings/cues than the other.
Non-participant observation was the methodology selected for this study. Specifically, in order to best assess and observe gender relationships, our group decided to split the observations between two social settings: bars where people might "hang out" casually and the student center. Four members of our group went to Pete's…… [Read More]
acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this…… [Read More]
I would incorporate much in the way of nonverbal communication to entice the students to remain engaged while listening to what I had to say. I think the best method of deliverance would be the use of live communication followed up by literature the students would take with them. The use of media, including interviews with other students and their experiences with drug and alcohol abuse would be relevant and useful in this context.
Using the Yale attitude changing approach, I would establish credibility by approaching students as a peer and victim of abuse; the messages I provided would allow for two sides of the argument, meaning students could offer their own objections to what it is I had to say. The messages given would be of support rather than designed to persuade students directly, so I would take a peripheral route to persuasion. Using these methods and approaches will…… [Read More]
Constructive attitudes towards work, leisure, time and change, set apart organizational models of attainment and enthusiasm, individualism as well as realization of self, and being humanistic as well as helpful that result in constructive culture that urges communications with individuals and strategies to assignments which will allow the employees to fulfill satisfaction needs of a higher plane and would bring about changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006)
As opposed to this, defensive attitudes to work, leisure and time are typified by looking for support and unanimity, being traditional and compliant, and being reliable and submissive that result in defensive culture. Defensive cultures support or completely need communication with individuals in manners that will not endanger individual safety and will not lead to changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006) Further, family, social mobility and religion are especially more vibrant that show conventional model of ancestry following and notions of family structure, as also modifications ushered…… [Read More]
The Behavior Valence and the Communicator Reward Valence together help show the range of G's response to my expectancy-violating behavior. However, as Burgoon and Hale state, many factors other than nonverbal expectancy violation may have contributed to G's response to my actions. For example, setting may have easily been a factor: libraries are for study and work, not for jocular embraces and easy-going times; secondly, had his friends been around and I included in their circle, such diminishment of space and embracing may have been deemed appropriate if the circumstances and the timing were right -- then again, perhaps not; thirdly, G having the type of personality he has, there is no guarantee that even someone with whom he desires to be on a more intimate footing would have received an overall positive valence from G. G may insist upon presenting himself ambiguously in all situations so as to resist…… [Read More]
Ken and Jane
How do you perceive Jan's effort to convince Ken to forgive her? Based on what you have learned in this chapter, suggest two ways she might more effectively seek Ken's forgiveness.
She could have used a time based intervention to talk about the instance further when the conversation would have not been as heated. If they both had a chance to calm down then the conversation might have went smoother. Another tactic Jan could have tried would be to apologize and to address Ken's concerns so that it could be formed into a win-win. For example, Jan could have said that she was sorry if she did ruin his chances with the girl, but she would try to help him find an even more suitable match.
What are two nonverbal cues used by Jan. What are two nonverbal cues used by Ken? In what ways…… [Read More]
A High Impact Negotiations Model: An Answer to the Limitations of the Fisher, Ury Model of Principled Negotiations
This study aims to discover the ways in which blocked negotiations can be overcome by testing the Fisher, Ury model of principled negotiation against one of the researcher's own devising, crafted after studying thousands of negotiation trainees from over 100 multinational corporations on 5 continents. It attempts to discern universal applications of tools, skills, and verbal and non-verbal communication techniques that may assist the negotiator in closing deals with what have been "traditionally" perceived as "difficult people." This study concludes that there are no such "difficult people," but rather only unprepared negotiators. The study takes a phenomenological approach to negotiations, with the researcher immersing himself in the world of negotiation training from 2012-14, for several major multinational corporations, intuiting the failings of the negotiators with whom he comes in contact,…… [Read More]
informal forms of education. I need to look clean and manicured. Details are important. I would wear something casual yet stylish. It is important to dress for success, too, since success is part of what I am selling. I cannot look too casual - I must look like I have achieved something in life because of my educational track.
This attitude should also be reflected in non-verbal behaviors. I would focus my nonverbal cues on energy and enthusiasm. I want my audience to be excited about traditional education. Part of what I am presenting in an educational track that will give students power and control over their life, so I need to move in a way that shows those two attributes. Movements should not be too exaggerated, but I cannot be stiff either. Audience sizes will probably range from dozens to hundreds, sufficient that nonverbal cues such as an expressive…… [Read More]
Communication is defined as both, the imparting or exchanging of information or news, and it is the successful conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings. The methods of communication can be verbal or non-verbal. In particular, the latter is known as demonstrative communication, which includes, the use of facial expression, body language, appearance, and various gestures to convey how he or she feels.
Non-verbal communication is might be used to reinforce verbal communication or as a form of communication on its own. For example, when introducing oneself to other, it might not be enough to just say hello but he or she may add to it a facial expression like a smile or a certain positive and friendly demeanor. As a sender of such demonstrative manner, the receiver will then be able to gauge how to react, which in such situation is positive. In addition, the way a person looks…… [Read More]
Dual Coding Theory (DCT) was originally developed for memory research. The basic notion is that images and words influence memory differently. DCT has been applied to reading and has been used to improve reading programs. The assertion is that learning to read a new word is more efficient if more than one part of the brain is activated, by paring verbal and nonverbal codes. Verbal code would be language in any form; nonverbal codes are tangible objects, pictures, feelings, and events. If one code is forgotten, the second code can serve as a backup during word retrieval. By paring written words, pronunciations, pictures, and experience we are focusing on all levels of processing in DCT which fosters learning. The following paper describes the basic elements of DCT.
According to Dual Coding Theory (DCT) information is represented in the brain via both verbal and imagined codes (Paivio, 1971). These two…… [Read More]
gestures, I realized that I needed a bit more understanding regarding my own approach to non-verbal communication. I began by asking friends and associates about my non-verbal traits, and was actually surprised at their views telling me that often non-verbally I was more expressive than verbally.
Learning about non-verbal communication, I found that it is much more than gesture, and includes looks, dress, hair style, jewelry, and more -- everything and every message we send to the outside world unspoken, but nevertheless important and meaningful. When we use non-verbal gestures, for instance, we can communicate a great deal through our body posture, facial expressions, arm & hand gestures, or combinations. When we speak, we use tone, timbre, style and rhythm to emphasize or express emotion, but because our communications are co complex, some experts believe that depending on the culture, over 80% of human communication has an element of non-verbalness.…… [Read More]
A major goal of learning is facilitation of basic literacy and language skills of difference students, the importance of which stems from a persistent school failure in the United States of students with Hispanic, African-American and American Indian background (Gay, 1994). Multicultural education can ease the tensions by teaching skills in a cross-cultural communication style that emphasizes interpersonal relations, perspective taking, contextual analysis and understanding differing points-of-view and frames of reference (Gay, 1994). Students must learn how their cultural condition may affect values, attitudes and beliefs, as well as preferences, expectations and behaviors (Gay, 1994).
As an experienced administrator working within the U.S. school system, I learned that within U.S. society there also still exists a strong ethnic prejudice as well as "ethnocentric values that are based and driven by cultural beliefs not based on fact; there is in fact a tendency in the U.S. To ascribe attributes and behaviors…… [Read More]
Computer-mediated communication has "revolutionized social interaction," (Georgakopoulou, 2011, p. 93). On some days, I communicate with others more with digital devices than in person, such as days I am home studying. Instead of using the phone or talking in person, I will use messenger apps or email. Social media is also an important type of computer-mediated communication. It matters because of the ways technology transforms the nature of communication. The term "mediation" refers mainly to the means by which a message is transmitted (Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic, 2004, p. 18). When we are in person or even on the phone, our brains can pick up a slew of cues, such as tone of voice, pauses in the person's speech, pace of speaking, and other forms of non-verbal communication. We detect tone and emotion in body language, eyes, and timbre of voice. These cues are all absent in computer-mediated communication, with…… [Read More]
Being a job coach is an honor, a privilege, and even a necessity in today’s workplace environment. Based on evidence highlighting the effectiveness of coaching, more and more companies are “opting for team coaching as a more effective way to improve team capability and performance, while at the same time saving on costs,” (Stout-Rostron, 2016, p. 238). The friend in question should absolutely insert herself as a coach to help manage and leverage diversity in the organization and promote an organizational climate of inclusivity. In fact, someone with an international background is perfectly poised to guide organizational policy and practice regarding diversity and communication.
Religion can be a central component of individual identity construction and community cohesion. Just as employees have rich social and family lives outside of their place of employment, they also observe religious practices that coincide with their personal beliefs or their cultural background. While…… [Read More]
correspondence bias and why might it occur? Are there cultural variations in the correspondence bias?
In the practice of social psychology, correspondence bias or also known as the theory of fundamental attribution error will refer to the over-valuing of explanations that are based from personality perspective under circumstantial situations. This process can lead into misunderstanding between one or two parties that include communities, societies, and groups that are living within the same area or different area. This can be considered as a form of stereotyping incidents for the reason that there are false beliefs and perceptions regarding a particular individual or group with respect to their daily routines and practices. There are cultural variations in the correspondence bias for the reason that discrimination regardless of age, race, and gender can be a perfect example for this case according with their demographical orientation and capabilities as pointed out by Bundel (2011).…… [Read More]
hether or not a man shaves, and general grooming patterns including smells can reveal a lot about a person's lifestyle, the message they are trying to send about themselves, and the impression they are trying to make on others.
2. Office arrangements can have a direct bearing on the ways people interact and communicate. The office divided into cubicles with low walls allows coworkers to interact verbally and nonverbally, such as through eye contact, smiles, or waves. Such an office gives off a general impression of being social, encouraging interactions between employees during and after work. Other offices with regular walls dividing cubicles or with separate rooms promote a more independent working environment in which socializing or communicating with coworkers is discouraged. Especially when doors are kept closed, coworkers will not feel encouraged to socialize after work or even during the work day. However, favorable impressions with regard to professionalism…… [Read More]
effective communication in the criminal justice profession. Good verbal and nonverbal communication is essential in every area of the criminal justice system, and developing good communications techniques is essential for criminal justice professionals. These skills can be used with other professionals, in interrogations, and in just about every aspect of a criminal justice career.
The process of effective verbal and nonverbal communication between criminal justice professionals entails everything from writing case decisions in the judicial setting, to writing police reports, internal communications, public relations material, and communications regarding cases, interviews of suspects, and much more. All of these communications between professionals follow a process of information being found, verified, and used to advance the field or the case in some way. It also uses primary and secondary sources for the information, and the process also entails several stages in the information flow. These stages are informal discussion, formal reports, exchange…… [Read More]
For instance, doctors usually tend to show the real situation through their facial expressions.
According to Smith,
There are no occurring contradictions as signs of body expressions or gestures are understandable to the family members"
This kind of example only demonstrates the success of using nonverbal communication. In the case we mentioned, the emotional pain showed by a physician is almost equivalent to telling the real truth to the patient's family about the patient's health condition. Here, the flow of information gathered from a nonverbal form is effective because despite of lack of speech, the sender is able to deliver the message that he wants to convey.
The book of Smith (1966) reiterates that the symbols exist in nonverbal communication. Symbols are sometimes used in hospitals to deliver information about a patient. Symbols such as medical symbols cannot be understood by a layman unless they are explained to him by…… [Read More]
I would like to fill the position of Executive Organizational Design in ABC Company. The following details provide complete understanding of the job along with required job specifications.
Job Description -- Executive Organizational Design
Executive Organizational Design is primarily responsible for coordinating and assisting in various OD processes and projects and ensure timely follow-up and completion of tasks.
Qualifications/Competencies Education: Advanced degree in H
Expertise: elated experience in H
Other skills include advance MS Office, time Management and excellent communication
Organizational elationships: Executive OD directly reports to Manager OD and collaborates with all departments for successful execution of projects.
Developing a High Performance Culture:
Coordinate to ensure that organizational structure, headcount and reporting lines are accurately represented in the system. Coordinate to ensure that all organizational members have access to culture survey. Assist the line managers in scheduling Action-Planning workshops and keep a strict follow-up on…… [Read More]
List 4 examples of opportunties you have given students to listen to language at school. Ensure that you include one example that reflects the relevance to the student's culture and background.
A Jewish student, who attends Hebrew School classes in the evenings, shared information about the Hebrew alphabet and history about the Hebrew language with the class as part of a student-directed learning session. The entire class practiced reciting the alphabet, and we watched a short film that was in Hebrew with English subtitles so that the students could hear the language in normal use. This student was able to share the language as well as an important part of her culture with the class in a fun lesson.
One student who aspires to be a comic book artist is very enthusiastic about Japanese anime and Japanese "manga" comic books. He brought authentic Japanese anime videos and manga…… [Read More]
The Asian view takes longer and includes carefully considering all the long-term implications and nuances that Americans often ignore. This way of thinking may be confusing to American negotiators at first, plus the fact that nothing is ever completely settled. Instead of solving one thing at a time and moving on to the next item, Asian style allows the negotiators to come back again and again (circular fashion) to points already discussed. They may even discuss many issues concurrently and consider the whole situation all at the same time.
Use of time is a form of non-verbal communication. It sends a message about what one believes -- and in this case, what the culture values. To Americans who value their time and see it as something they don't have enough of, the Asian view can be frustrating. To Japanese and Chinese team members, time is never something to be saved;…… [Read More]
Resolving of conflicts between two people is usually simple. However, in many situations, resolution of conflicts can be made more difficult. This is true when it comes to workplace situations, per chance conflicts that arise with strangers and so forth. However, when family or friendship is in the mix and a conflict is present, resolution and solutions can be fleeting and hard to come by. Not only are there personal feelings and a lot of history involved, there can also be a lot of bogging down and movement away from clean solutions as there can be a focus on things that are not really the problem. Rather, they are just a manifestation or symptom of the problem. While the particular details matter a great deal, there needs to be a weeding out of what the real problem is and everyone involved has to be committed to focusing on…… [Read More]
Moreover, because of the high levels of tourism, no one would be out of place in Miami. acism exists in North America, in the United States and in Miami; however, it is determined to be as pronounced in some other more conservative cities.
With race and ethnicity it is important to mindful of the history of America in relation to how immigrants have been treated in general, and to Latin immigrants specifically. There are a number of ethnic groups represented within the Latin immigrant population and there should not be blanket generalizations applied to the group as though they represent one culture or ethnic group.
Ofttimes, nonverbal communication can be as significant as verbal communication. For those individuals of Latin descent, some of the more general associations with nonverbal communication are the importance of shaking hands in the introduction process. Culturally, there is purportedly the view that…… [Read More]
Different experts have defined emotional intelligence in their own ways. In the following paragraph, I will share some definitions with you.
According to Mayer and Salovery (1997), emotional intelligence is the capacity to reason about emotions and increase the thinking level. Bar-on (1997) on the other side, gives a simple definition by saying that emotional intelligence is to effectively understand each other, relate to them and adapt the immediate surroundings. Another definition was given by Marques in 2007 states that emotional intelligence is an "an ability to recognize the meanings of emotion & their relationships and to reason and problem solve on the basis of them."
All these definitions have one thing common; which is to understand and know each other's emotions by enhancing and broadening the thinking level. Both of you need to be emotionally intelligent if you want to make a successful lifetime relationship, especially you Jeff. You…… [Read More]
Therapeutic Relationships in Mental Health
Journal Summary Assignment
Complete this m andatory assignment.
SAVE it as docx
it to your instructor from BLACKBOARD.
Review your journal entries with the aim of analyzing your learning.
Assess your development of therapeutic communication skills.
a) Analyze your own knowledge base: what areas are clear for you and which are fuzzy and need more work?
Type or paste your analysis below. You can add more space to each simply by continuing to type. You can remove unneeded white space by deleting it if you wish.
These areas of the knowledge base/these communication skills are clear to me: Listening skills, nonverbal messaging, empathetic understanding, understandable language, caring helper, genuineness.
I want to work more on these areas of the knowledge base or these skills:
Self-Reflection / self-analysis.
b) Determine how your understanding of the knowledge base guides your use of communication skills.
I apply…… [Read More]
Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.
Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.
How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?
A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…… [Read More]
The maintenance roles help to support the creative side, which is a task that can be high risk at times (Benne & Sheats, 1978). The work that the junior members do in providing support to the creatives while simultaneously challenging them to develop stronger ideas is one of the reasons that the shop's output is so highly regarded.
This group has a significant amount of trust. The different members have built this trust over the course of years and multiple projects. ith this trust, however, they are able to be stronger, in particular with task roles. Assumptions are challenged frequently, in particular with regards to the outcomes sought by the customers. The group views this is value added to the customer, by refining a vague customer concept into something that is actionable for the advertising firm.
The high level of trust that the group members have in one another allows…… [Read More]
Negotiations and Communications
Negotiation is the art and science of finding a way to agree between two or more groups. All of us know how to negotiate, we do it constantly during our days; between family, friends, colleagues, retailers, etc. Essentially, we are performing a communications duty that is part of group behavior. We use our communications tools -- both verbal and non-verbal, to express a viewpoint, to elicit a response, and to find a way to cooperate. Individuals who wish to improve their negotiating skills have a number of tools they can use. One of these, the Personal Bargaining Inventory, measures the five cognitions and their range of importance to the individual:
Planning -- Anticipation, rehearsal, monitor a plan in advance how conversations will occur.
Presence -- Awareness of the other's reactions, how to change resistance, etc.
Modeling -- Sizing up the environment, paying closer attention to how others…… [Read More]
Ethics in Law Enforcement
"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)
Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.
Deception in the Interrogation Room
Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…… [Read More]
The purpose of graphic advertising is to ensure the potential consumer that the product being shown will in some way improve their lives and that not buying the product will make them less happy. This is achieved through both verbal and nonverbal messages along with connotative and denotative messages. orking together, the obvious information is paired with the inferred information to send a message to the consumer to purchase this product. In the case of this specific advertisement for Campbell's Spaghettios, the colors of the packaging, the actual words printed on the packaging, as well as the overall layout of the packaging are used to convince consumers to buy.
The Campbell's company has been around for a very long time. American consumers will be used to the trademark red and white can used by that company. This alone sends a subconscious message to adults who would have eaten…… [Read More]