The recent nuclear crisis suffered by Japan seems to justify the fear-mongering much of the mainstream media engages in regarding the use of nuclear energy. Yet, many experts know that "nuclear imaging is used on tens of thousands of patients every day to take pictures of their hearts, lungs, kidneys, bones, brains and other organs" (Walters, 2009, p. 33) with very little adverse reactions to the procedure(s). Oftentimes the media engages in this type of behavior with the belief that it will encourage additional sales, and they are correct in thinking so. However, such behavior does little to allay the concerns of those individuals who fear nuclear use, no matter if it's deemed safe or not.
The fact that Walters penned the words before the Japan catastrophe is ironic indeed; his purpose was to call attention to the fact that "a dwindling supply of medical isotopes means patients…… [Read More]
Health Threat of Medical Ionizing adiation
Impact of Nuclear Medicine Exposures
In October 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alerted all healthcare facilities involved in performing brain perfusion computed tomography (CT) to ensure their patients were not being overexposed to ionizing radiation (Samson, 2009). This notice was in response to the discovery that 206 patients subjected to this procedure at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles had been exposed up to eight times the recommended dose. The immediate effects to some patients were skin reddening and hair loss, but the long-term effects could be an increased risk of cancer. Since the error was in the programmed settings for the CT equipment, none of the medical personnel bothered to check the actual radiation doses the patients were receiving. The absence of exposure monitoring allowed the equipment to perform at this setting for over a year and a half.…… [Read More]
Thyroid "hot spots" incidentally detected by whole body Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tormography (FDG-PET) scan
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) whole body positron emission tormography (PET) scan is being used more often in the diagnostic follow-up or work-up of patients. In such conditions, positive PET scans with unanticipated hot spots within the thyroid region could be given the definition of thyroid FDG-PET incidentaloma, a name analogous to unexpected sonographic thyroid modules. A description of eight consecutive patients referred to the endoctrine department due to thyroid "hot spots" is given, incidentally detected by whole body FDG-PET scan. By applying ultrasound, histology reports, and fine needle aspiratory cytology (FNAC) in an experiment, an identification of pathology underlying thyroid FDG-PET incidentaloma will be attempted. FNAC showed a hint for surgery in all patients. Surgery has been carried out in 7 patients. There was a correct identification of malignancy in five patients; two having medullary thyroid carcinomas, one with…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
A Dissertation Presented using the Meta-Analysis Technique
Komi E Fiagbe Comment by Owner: This is exactly what I wanted to see Komi. Your literature review should also identify the 20 studies that you want to analyze to give your readers an understanding of what you are doing. I want you to email me all three chapters as we move into the next course.Dr. A Christina Anastasia PH-D Chair
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
[Committee Name], [Degree], Committee Member
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best…… [Read More]
2009). SPECT identifies the physiologic consequence of the clot rather than the clot itself. Adding low-dose CT without contract agent raises the level of confidence in the reading result. At the same time, it reduces inconclusive studies with SPECT alone from 5% to 0% when combined with low-dose CT. Furthermore, specificity improves with fewer false-positive readings from 18% - 0%. Low-dose findings explaining subtle perfusion defects otherwise perceived as PE on SPECT alone account for the improvement. The study also showed that V/Q SPECT with low-dose CT is useful as a routine method. Immobilization during the SPECT and low-dose CT procedure lasted only 20 minutes. Even critically ill patients can tolerate it. The 11 out of the overall total of 196 volunteer patients were disqualified for participation in the study because of discomfort, shortness of breath or lack of willingness to remain in supine position. Those who qualified were placed…… [Read More]
Ga DOA OC Radio Pharmaceutical
Neuroendocrine tumors (NE) are neoplasms characterized by tissue immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine differentiation markers, appearance as a small mass that can be off white to yellow often in submucosa and prevalence throughout the body but typically found in the intestine or lungs (Oberg2011). he tumors can be malignant and are typically detected through hormone markers in a first diagnosis (Arnold 2003). Because of the diffuse nature of this type of tumor, detecting and imaging NEs requires scanning and typically requires a contrast agent to detect the location of tumors in tissue (an 2011). Many NE cells possess an overexpression of somatostatin receptors on their surface (Kwekkeboom 2005, VenEssen 2007). Somatostatin receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to somatostatin, a growth hormone inhibiting hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation (Florio 2002). he overexpressed somatostatin receptors can be used to both…… [Read More]
A cohort of approximately one hundred participants recently diagnosed and not yet treated for neuroendocrine tumors will eventually be selected for this study, providing an adequate sample size to produce significant validity, reliability, and generalizability (Gabriel et al., 2007). A control group of approximately twenty-five individuals recently given negative results on conventional scintigraphy and/or dedicated CT diagnostic measures for neuroendocrine tumors will also be included in this study. All study participants will undergo imaging/diagnostic testing for neuroendocrine tumors using each of the three target methodologies -- [68Ga]-DOTATOC-based PET imaging, conventional scintigraphy, and dedicated CT (111ln-octreotide scintigraphy), with all tests completed on each patient within a four-day timeframe and all testing for the study completed in a three-month period. Follow-up documentation of treatments, neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis confirmation or rejection using histopathology, CT and MI, and an ultimate determination of neuroendocrine tumor at the time of initial testing will also be conducted…… [Read More]
The conclusion according to Ludwig, et al. (2001) is that "the flat-panel detector has diagnostic performance superior to that of conventional screen-film storage-phosphor radiography for detecting shall artificial osseous lesions at clinical exposure settings. With the flat-panel detector, exposure may be reduced by a sum of 50% in order to gain satisfactory
In the study entitled: "Performance of a Flat-Panel Detector in Detecting Artificial one Lesions: Comparison with Conventional Screen-Film and Storage-Phosphor Radiography" which was written by Karl Ludwig, M.D. et al. states that the case study was done with the express purpose of comparing a "large-area direct-readout flat-panel detector system with a convention screen-film system and storage-phosphor system" for the detection of "small artificial osseous lesions simulating osteolytic disease" and in the assessment of diagnostic performance as the exposure dose decreases over time. The results stated in the study were that: "ROC analysis showed A) Values of 0.820 (speed…… [Read More]
eduction of Malpractice
One of the key manners in which direct-to-physician advertising of pharmaceuticals can lead to health promotion is in the reduction of malpractice on the part of physicians when it comes to the administering of pharmaceuticals. It is of course the primarily (and ultimately, solely) the physicians' responsibility to ensure the proper and effective use of pharmaceutical products, just as it is their responsibility to ensure that all care practices and interventions are in the best interests of the patient. Pharmaceutical companies have this goal and this responsibility as well, however, and they can be instrumental in making sure that true best interests are served with current knowledge of best practices and new potentials. As advertising is ultimately the provision of information, it can be seen that the direct advertising of pharmaceuticals to physicians can provide more comprehensive, detailed, and current information regarding new products, new…… [Read More]
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…… [Read More]
Belonging to Alliant Credit Union Mean to Me?
I am on track to graduate from a Nuclear Medicine program in September of 2015. his is an important step for me because the nuclear medicine program holds out great hope for more efficient strategies for diagnosing and treating disease -- and healing people who are suffering.
After graduation I will pursue a career at Kaiser Permanente. I will pay off my credit card debt and begin a savings and retirement program at Alliant Credit Union, to assure my own financial security but also to ensure that my parents have the resources to be comfortable and happy in their retirement years.
Going back to 2009, when I bought my first automobile -- which is a huge step for a young person in terms of the need for independence, for transportation and the need to learn how to manage one's finances -- I…… [Read More]
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has recently constructed an ultramodern pediatric imaging facility. The healthcare facility exclusively focuses its improved services on children's imaging. In this paper, we present a marketing approach that covers computed Tomography (CT), fluoroscopy, General radiology (X-ay), Magnetic resonance Imaging (MI), Nuclear Medicine as well as ultrasound. The work includes an assessment of both the internal as well as external environment which is important in allowing us to determine the full advantage associated with the CHOP brand, the strategic location of the facility as well as the purchase of the new and improved equipment to warrant the integrated marketing strategy. The approach is however, threatened by the existence of another major hospital within Philadelphia that also offers pediatric imaging services. This risk will however be mitigated by CHOP's approach of focusing on pediatric imaging at an affordable price. Pediatric imaging is to form CHOP's niche market.…… [Read More]
The investigators noted that because patients who have skip metastases and negative pelvic lymph nodes have been found to later develop distant metastases, ProstaScint imagine was instrumental in detecting metastatic disease and prompting further investigation." (2004)
The work of Murphy and Troychak (2000) entitled: "Follow-Up Prostascint Scans Verify Detection of Occult Soft-Tissue Recurrence After Failure of Primary Prostate Cancer Therapy" published in the Prostrate Journal reports a study conducted for the evaluation of the ability of ProstaScint scan in the detection of prostatic bed recurrent and metastases to regional or distant lymph nodes. The study reported is of one hundred sequential patients who were evaluated with repeated ProstaScint scans due to evidence of recurrence during the disease course. These patients were followed from November 1994 and April 1999 and had "concurrent bone scans and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) evaluations. They have had hormone therapy (n = 53) and/or experienced a…… [Read More]
Next I will respond to the accusation that I collaborated with other students on Question 3 in violation of the exam instructions which read, "Students may not work together." I assure the committee that collaboration with others for this exam was never a consideration for me for the following reasons.
One, I had no reason to consult with others because as a take-home exam, I had a wealth of information and ample time available to me to conduct research at the library or on the Internet. Moreover, I have proven myself to be a hard-working and successful student, one who would not need the assistance of others on a straightforward exam question.
Second, if I had needed or wanted to consult with others I would hesitate to use my fellow classmates as a reliable resource. Rather, I would much prefer the more valuable input from my place of employment: I…… [Read More]
Missed reast Carcinomas
Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.
The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…… [Read More]
Healthcare Team Members
HEALTH CARE TEAM
The healthcare team is assembled and trained to meet the special needs of patients and their families (Ezziane, et al., 2012). A skilled health care team can consist of doctors, nurses and many other health care professionals. A patient may encounter many different team members, each playing a special role in delivering quality care (Allen, 2009).
Attending Physicians (M.D., Doctor of Medicine) are experts in very specialized areas such as obstetrics or pediatrics. Most physicians treat injuries and illnesses in patients by giving exams, taking medical histories, prescribing medications, and ordering, performing, and interpreting diagnostic tests. They oversee and lead the healthcare team.
Education - Physicians complete at least 4 years of undergraduate school, 4 years of medical school, and 3 to 8 years of internship and residency, depending on their specialty.
Anesthesiologists (M.D., Doctor of Medicine or D.O., Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine) administer…… [Read More]
Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia and St. Francis Medical, Columbus Georgia
Because resources are by definition scarce, it is important for tertiary healthcare providers to develop healthcare delivery structures that are efficient and effective. Since every healthcare organization is unique, though, these delivery structures can vary widely in scope and purpose. To gain some fresh insights into the healthcare delivery structures that are used by civilian and military health facilities, this paper provides a comparison of Martin Army Medical Center at Fort Benning, Georgia with St. Francis Medical in Columbus, Georgia, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Comparison
Martin Army Medical Center, Fort Benning, Georgia
Health care delivery structure. Opened in 1958, this is a U.S. Department of Defense facility operated by the U.S. Army that offers inpatient, outpatient and emergency services. At present, Martin Army Medical Center 250-bed,…… [Read More]
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…… [Read More]
Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going
The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.
Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…… [Read More]
It will also attempt to identify average time lengths between episodes. This study will be important not only to the treatment of Vietnam Veteran PTSD but to the treatment of all PTSD sufferers who have flashbacks.
Coming home from war: a literature review: in the last of three articles, Deidre Wild examines the stressors faced by health professionals returning from the Gulf. (clinical).
From: Emergency Nurse | Date: May 1, 2003 | Author: Wild, Deidre | More results for: viet nam ptsd http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/13/1/101
Dissociative Flashbacks After ight Frontal Injury in a Vietnam Veteran With Combat-elated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Marcelo L. Berthier, M.D., Angel Posada, M.D. And Carmen Puentes, M.D.
eceived March 3, 2000; June 27, 2000; accepted July 7, 2000. From the Department of Medicine and Dermatology, University of Malaga, Spain, and the Service of Nuclear Medicine. Department of adiology, Carlos Haya University Hospital, Malaga, Spain. Address correspondence to…… [Read More]
Estimates of cost savings from the reduction in film costs as well as through reduced work hours needed for the creation of images and the reading of images by physicians will lead to an average annual cost savings of between five hundred- and seven hundred and fifty-thousand dollars a year, leading to an overall cost benefit of one hundred- to three hundred and fifty-thousand dollars a year compared to traditional film production techniques (Hoffman 2008; ath 2010). A ten percent reduction in costs could be achieved through increasing the competitiveness of a the bidding process amongst companies that produce the technologies necessary for a successful PACS, as well as through reducing the time and personnel involved in training programs. This latter is not especially advisable, however, as indirect costs will likely be created though reductions in the efficacy of the adoption and a reduced improvement in treatment efficiencies and speeds…… [Read More]
Educational development is a mix of both formal and informal learning conditions as assessment of my own educational experience has taught me. I cannot say that one is more important than the other; each segment together has taught me different elements -- made me grow -- and combined in producing the 'me' that you see today.
In his "Notes for an Obituary," Einstein once noted that the system of education was a deliberate intention on the part of the state to mislead youth. He distrusted all forms of education, and from his pre-adolescent days refused to be taught. Religious leaders, too, he felt were disillusioned and deluding society. Yet Einstein felt that the fault belonged, not to the rabbi or to the priest, but with the force behind them that disregarded liberty of thought and made education compulsory. As regards Einstein himself, he was determined that formal education would not…… [Read More]
Human esource Development Initiatives for the Department of Veterans Affairs
As the nation's largest healthcare provider and second-largest federal agency, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is responsible for administering a multi-billion dollar budget in support of the nation's heroic veterans. The VA fulfills its mandate to care for veterans and their families through a nationwide network of medical centers, outpatient facilities, Vet Centers and domiciliaries that provide the entire spectrum of medical, surgical and rehabilitation healthcare services. Given the importance of its mandate and scope of its budget, the VA is well situated to take advantage of a wide range of human resource initiatives that can save money, improve organizational performance and the quality of healthcare provided to the country's veteran population. This study defines five such human resources initiatives and describes how they can be applied to achieve these goals. A summary of the recommendations and their potential…… [Read More]
Prospects of a brighter future for Cote d'Lvoire
Cote d' Lvoire has finally recovered from a decade old socio-political crisis which plagued it from 2002-2011. This crisis hindered the almost all efforts in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDG indicators have shown a decrement in performance over the past years. Now growth is on its way and relations are being established with international financial institutions. The MDG goals will be attained by the latest 2012-2015 via the National Development Plan which has been enforced by Ivorian government (World Bank, 2011).
Situation of the MDGs in Cote d'Ivoire
The case for MDG's in Cote d'Lvoire
Birth of MDG indicators: A short introduction
According to MDG's, it's clear that there has been delay in eradication against poverty and education sector, gender discrimination in education, lack of women empowerment, child and mother health to name a few. The only work done…… [Read More]
massive shortage of radiologic technologists of the 1990s has abated, there is still some shortage of workers in the field. Most such workers ply their trade in large hospitals, which average 21 imaging workers. ural facilities have a harder time recruiting workers, so hospitals in the most desirable locations might not even experience a shortage at this point. Key to recruiting for rural hospitals is thus to outcompete the urban facilities, but they must also look to their own areas for talented people who can be guided into the profession.
ecruitment and retention are ultimately linked. Factors like training programs for career development solve problems both for facilities and workers. Workers like the control that such programs give them over career development -- this is a selling point both during the recruiting process and thereafter as well. For the hospital, such training results in workers who cost more, but who…… [Read More]
But licorice is not just something sweet. Instead, it has long been praised for its healing properties, being used to help snackers with a variety of ills feel better. hile this has been the case with a variety of common household foods turned home remedies, such as baking soda and 7-Up, the consequences of licorice's healing properties might be more serious -- interfering with certain medications.
On March 24, 2009, the American Chemical Society heard evidence that the active ingredient in licorice, the same ingredient that has allowed it to be "used as a good treatment for plenty of ills" (Ehrenberg), can interfere with other medications. That ingredient is called Glycyrrhxin, and it is a natural compound found in plants that are related to the pea. For quite some time, this compound has been used to treat ailments in Europe and Asia, although its history as an ingredient for flavoring…… [Read More]
Do patients understand what it means to donate tissue to science? Not only that, but use of EG cells confuses stem cell research with the debate over abortion, bring up the risk of biasing emotions (McDonald 7).
So, while stem cell research is an exciting new field that holds much promise, ethical problems arise to delay research, discovery of benefits or dangers, and involve many who have no knowledge of the complexities of the field. Though controversies usually accompany new discoveries in science, this biotechnological process involves manipulating the basis of life itself in embryonic stem cells. But the field is rapidly changing. hat is true today may be outmoded tomorrow. A neutral substitute for stem cells may be discovered that will prove to be the answer to these ethical questions.
Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. "Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors." Fertil…… [Read More]
Certainly, it must be stated that more study is needed and worth pursuing in this diagnostic method in forensics.
Bisset, . et al. (2002) Postmortem examinations using magnetic resonance imaging: four-year review of a working service BMJ 2002;324:1423-1424 (15 June) Online available: http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/324/7351/1423
Post Mortem Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI) (2005) http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/developments.htm
Alderstein M.E., Peringa J., van der Hulst V.P.M, Blaauwgeers H.L.G., van Lith J.M.M. (2003), 'Perinatal mortality: clinical value of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice', BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 110 Issue 4 pp. 378-382
oberts I.S.D., Benbow E.W., Bisset ., Jenkins J.P.., Lee S.H., eid H., Jackson A. (2003), 'Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in determining cause of sudden death in adults: comparison with conventional autopsy', Histopathology 2003 42: 424-430 May 2003
Virtopsy: Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland 2005 the Technical Working Group Forensic Imaging…… [Read More]
additional equipment used by first responders might include both breathing masks and full-fledged gas masks (depending on the circumstances), ropes, ladders, flashlights, helmets
(some sporting lights), anchor points, buoyancy control devices, stretchers (some with wheels, others are handheld) portable radios, food, water, antibiotics, insulin, needles and even more. Much of this equipment will be a matter of not only practicality, but of necessity as well.
First responders also need clothing that reflects the nature of the emergency with which they need to address. If the situation which they are addressing is one that includes biological components the clothing they must don is a bit different than that of regular first responder's clothing. First responders clothing can include a number of different items such as; insulated, waterproofed heavy and highly visible jackets, multiple-use bandanas, public safety, police and fire vests, polyurethane overalls, parkas, coats and waterproof jackets.
Many of…… [Read More]
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
PET represents a new step forward in the way scientists and doctors look at the brain and how it functions. An X-ray or a CT scan shows only structural details within the brain. The PET scanner gives us a picture of the brain at work. - What is PET?
The epigraph above is reflective of the enthusiasm being generated among clinicians concerning the advent of positron emission tomography and its potential for imaging the human brain. The introduction of sophisticated neuroimaging techniques such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has shifted the emphasis of neuropsychology from lesion localization to diagnosing the etiology of diseases (Maruish & Moses, 1997).
Behavioral neurology also benefited from innovations in neuroimaging techniques. The advent of improvements in the imaging of brain anatomy through computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI), as well as functional imaging with single photon emission…… [Read More]
Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices
Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…… [Read More]
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…… [Read More]
Uranium Trioxide (UO3)
Uranium trioxide occurs as an orange powder and is the form of uranium identified in the colored glass found evidencing its use as a paint color component dating back to the First Century AD (Krauss, 2001).
Atkins, P.W. (1995). Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the Land of the Chemical
Elements. Basic Books: New York.
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia University Publishing: New York.
Feynman, .P. (1997). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most
Brilliant Teacher 6th Edition. Addison-Wesley: eading, MA.
Foster, a.. And Wright, .L. (1968). Basic Nuclear Engineering. Allyn & Bacon:
Krauss L.M. (2001). Atom: An Odyssey from the Big Bang to Life on Earth…and
Beyond. Little, Brown, & Co.: New York.
Lamarsh, J.. (1975). Introduction to Nuclear Engineering. Addison-Wesley: eading,
Liverhant, S.E. (1960). Elementary Introduction to Nuclear eactor Physics. Wiley…… [Read More]
Gaia Theory: A Critical Analysis
In the 1960's, James Lovelock, a British atmospheric chemist, was engaged in research commissioned by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration
NASA) in the United States. Specifically, the studies were intended to develop a method for determining reliably whether or not biological life existed on Mars. Part of Lovelock's work involved analyzing certain elements of Earth's atmospheric properties and mechanisms, in order to understand how a planet teeming with biological life might be differentiated accurately from interplanetary distances from a planet completely devoid of biological life (Enteractive, 1995).
While Lovelock's NASA research project originally pertained to Mars rather than to the Earth, his findings led him to postulate a theory in which he characterized
Earth as a complex living organism, rather than merely an inanimate host for the many terrestrial life forms dependent on it for sustenance. Lovelock called his theory
Gaia" after an ancient…… [Read More]
Countries such as Spain and England were able to colonize other countries with their advanced military and weapons system.
With the two World Wars in the 1900s, weapons and military have evolved to meet the challenges posed by the times. States are in particular looking for more technological applications in developing their army and navy. Another branch of the military service was developed in this era, the birth of the air force. The invention of the airplane led to its development from a means of transportation to a formidable military weapon. The quest of military superiority was now determined by an advanced air force, planes well armed to drop bombs at the opposing navy and army as well as deploy infantry in the battlefield. Germany and Japan in World War II had good fighter planes that won them several battles in the onset of the war, but the consolidated air…… [Read More]
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]
Chemical and Biological Terroism
Biological and Chemical Terrorism Prevention
The United States Government has identified the potential of chemical, biological, radiological and/or nuclear (termed CBN) terrorism, especially after the September 11 attacks. They have been concerned ever since Sarin was used in a Tokyo subway (Aum Shinrikyo in 1995) and the anthrax case (in November 2001). The chances of terrorists resorting to these agents in warfare are pretty high considering their advantages over conventional methods. Most organizations fighting terrorism are not equipped well enough to detect such chemicals. A closed container can help most of them escape discovery. The low cost involved in their production increases the dangers manifold. Since most of the above agents affect the human body directly, they are essentially more efficient than conventional warfare.
Chemical weapons have four major classifications. Choking agents are aimed at being fatal and are easily accessible. Phosgene is one such industrial…… [Read More]
Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:
No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.
Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.
Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.
Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.
The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…… [Read More]
Technologies like array tomography also show how the human brain may be best understood as a computer that operates on both electricity and on chemicals. One section of the brain, the cerebral cortex, contains more than 125 trillion synapses. Boyle's (2010) source material from the Stanford School of Medicine notes that the number of synapses in the brain is "roughly equal to the number of stars in 1,500 Milky Way galaxies," (Goldman 2010).
Array tomography as a visualization instrument also reveals advancements in digital imaging as well as nanotechnology. The mouse brain used in initial array tomography experiments was sliced at only 70 nanometers thick (Goldman 2010). Measured at the level of the nanometer,, the layers of the brain that can be cut and then imaged with array tomography are small enough that scientists are able to understand more about how the brain works. Without technologies like array tomography, the…… [Read More]
I grew up in China, the oldest of two daughters. My family unit, my gender, and my culture all had strong impacts on the way I have lived my life and on the way I live my life now. Who I am now is a direct reflection of my childhood and family of origin. Both my parents were senior electrical engineers. They are strong and hardworking people with positive attitudes. Our household was democratic in its structure. The children were treated with dignity and respect, and in return we gave a lot of respect to our parents. My mom and dad motivated and encouraged both my sister and me. As a result of the mutual love and respect in the household, my childhood was a happy one. I had enough structure in my life, from school and other activities, to develop a sense of self-discipline. My parents encouraged us…… [Read More]
ampell, C.. And Saltmarsh, M. (2009, September 2). A reluctance to retire means fewer openings. The New York Times.
From the earliest years of the program, Social Security has been a three-legged stool steadied by a precarious balance of retirement savings, social insurance, and transfer programs.
Economists have recognized for decades that the economic well-being of an aging American society has been undermined by a "perfect storm" brought about by the Industrial evolution, urbanization, the reconfiguration of families from extended to nuclear, and a considerable increase in life expectancy. The social and demographic changes have eroded traditional strategies -- charity, labor, family, and assets -- that fostered economic security. An agrarian society linked labor to prosperity and generally ensured that families could subsist through their own efforts. In the move from farms and rural villages to cities and towns, people traded crops ruined by weather and pests for recessions and…… [Read More]
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…… [Read More]
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…… [Read More]
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]
History of Magnetic esonance Imaging (MI)
Getting an MI scan may someday become as common as getting an X-ray. - Davis Meltzer, 1987
According to Gould (2004), on July 3, 1977, an event took place that would forever alter the landscape of modern medicine, although outside the scientific research community, this event hardly attracted any notice at all. The event in question was the first MI exam ever performed on a human being. The procedure required almost five hours to produce one image, and the images were, by today's standards, very primitive (this first MI machine now occupies a special niche in the Smithsonian); however, its successors number if the thousands today (Gould, 2004). The advent of the MI clearly represented the beginnings of a new standard in noninvasive radio imaging that continues to be refined. This paper provides the background and history of magnetic resonance imaging, including its discovery…… [Read More]
CISM in the Event of a Terrorist Attack on a Nuclear Facility
This research explores the impact of mental stresses experience by workers at a nuclear power plant during and after a critical incident. Concerns over critical incidents at nuclear facilities has caused public fear that was exasperated during the Three Mile Island incident. The dangers of nuclear power and radiation exposure are embedded in modern culture and have been since the height of the Cold War. Another associated fear has been the possibility of terrorists using a nuclear facility as a target. The World Trade Tower bombings exasperated these fears when it was realized that such an attack was possible right in everyone's backyard.
A critical incident involving a nuclear power facility is different from a similar critical incident that does not involve a nuclear plant. Core meltdown is the greatest fear surrounding nuclear power plant accidents. The recent…… [Read More]
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]
This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.
Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.
Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.
Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.
These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is…… [Read More]
Many did not agree with this action because Senators Fulbright and Russell believed it would lead to an air strike on est Berlin or a blockade of that city. They knew it would lead to war. Kennedy had few choices but instead did not back down and lead the country through the crisis. He never "lost sight of the fact that once military action started, there was no telling at what level of escalation it could be stopped" (Stern 2003, p. 108).
Timing caused many of the problems Kennedy faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Many critics surmise the failure of the blockade but really its lack of strength came down to the fact Kennedy hesitated because he waited for OAS approval. This allowed for Soviet ships to arrive safely to Cuba before the escalation and this represents weakness on Kennedy's part. hy couldn't have acted aggressively? He was not…… [Read More]
PART 2-Historical Event
A specific historical event which has added to our understanding of certain aspects of the natural world is represented by the Chernobyl disaster. Which occurred in 1986. "The accident caused the largest uncontrolled radioactive release into the environment ever recorded for any civilian operation, and large quantities of radioactive substances were released into the air for about 10 days." (www.world-nuclear.org) in the period in which the accident took place, many countries were undergoing development processes. The international trend included an increased trust in the use of science and technology. Locally, while the importance of the central was understood, the same thing could not be stated about the risks it involved. It is believed that the accident was caused due to the lack of proper preparation of the workers.
The consequences of the explosion included the death of thirty workers and the contamination with thyroid cancer of…… [Read More]
Countermeasures and Neutralization of eapons of Mass Destruction
At this intricate turn of the 21st century, one of the most pertinent issues at hand is that of national and international security. Humanity has come a long way in augmenting the value of life through so many miraculous technologies, but unfortunately man has simultaneously developed certain instruments that are particularly questionable and hence a threat to the life we envision. Today the world all over is ever vulnerable to large-scale attacks conducted via such abominable technologies. These weapons of mass destruction are chemical, nuclear, radiological and even biological agents, which have evolved in the hands of many countries through the years, and their possession by hostile states or terrorist organizations is a grave cause of concern for all those people who claim to support the concept of security. (The hite House 2007) As such countermeasures against prospective threats to security and…… [Read More]
stem cells. It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well.
The pertinent issue on the floor of the U.S. congress in the deliberations on stem cell studies on humans is how to handle embryonic stem cell research (ESR), a kind of research that may generate crucial lifesaving therapies, which demands the damaging of embryos. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR (Aylesworth, 2010). The U.S. Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…… [Read More]
Having known the mounting dangers, many public health and bio-terrorism experts, members of Congress and some well-positioned ush administration officials convey increasing discomfort about what they think are flaws in the country's bio-defenses. Over the earlier years, awareness steps have been made, mainly in the large cities. ut most of necessary equipments are not available.
The federal government's standard answer to the anthrax assaults of 2001 and the warning of upcoming bio-terror attacks has been to accumulate huge amounts of drugs and vaccines to take care of or vaccinate sufferers or possible sufferers. However, these medicines are ineffective if there is no dependable system in place to quickly distribute and give out them to the disturbed populations early enough for the drugs to be successful. Regrettably, as of now, we do not have this strong, competent system in position in the United States. At the close of 2003, only two…… [Read More]
If the parents are loving and supportive, their own unit will probably remain intact and even grow stronger. Outside forces could create many sociological impacts on the family, from censure to even loss of careers. In addition, the altering of values inside the family may pave the way for sociological change in the family members in the future. As sociologist Noble states, "Today most people continue to spend most of their lifetime in nuclear family relationships though they undergo continuing changes in their aspirations and expectations as the structural and demographic circumstances of their lives change" (Noble, 1998). Thus, the two young children in the family may create families of their own that differ from the makeup of their own family, and recognize the diversity of society and family members. The sociological implications of the problem are many, and the family will have to weather them to stay together and…… [Read More]
(Sources: Hayes-Bautista, 1988; Perez y Gonzalez, 2000).
Conclusions - General characteristics of immigrant families - Most Latino immigrants fall into two solid groups when coming to America -- rural and seasonal farm workers; many following the crops from Texas through California and back, and many into the cities where better paying, and more stable, jobs are available. Luis and Maria moved to a larger city because they were told that it would be "easier on them." Cities exist for many reasons and the diversity of urban form and function can be traced to the complex roles that cities perform. Cities serve as centers of storage, commerce, and industry. The agricultural surplus from the surrounding country hinterland is processed and distributed within the city. Urban areas have also developed around marketplaces, where imported goods from distant places could be exchanged for the local products. Throughout history, cities have been founded at…… [Read More]
Public Health Emergencies
When it comes to public health, there are two main issues: basic control of general public health concerns, and what takes place during an emergency. The United States and other countries have recently made some changes in how public health emergencies are handled, mostly in response to disasters that have been seen on their home soil or in other areas of the world. A public health emergency can come from a natural disaster, a terrorist act, or in other ways, but being prepared for it is important. It can also be difficult, because it is unpredictable and cannot be accurately planned for in many cases.
esponse to Japan Disasters
Japan has experienced its share of public health emergencies in recent years. The tsunami created a massive issue for a significant number of people (CDC, 2011). Additionally, the nuclear radiation that began leaking added fuel to the fire,…… [Read More]
This approach has been regarded as one of the best and safest approaches. Despite this, there is widespread concern about proper radioactive waste management. (National esearch Council (U.S.), 1)
According to a 1976 EDA report, the nine facilities for radioactive waste disposal have been referred to as significant health hazards. Leaks and spills at such facilities are not very uncommon. In fact, the radioactive waste storage facility at ichland has reported around 18 leaks in a period of 20 years discharging approximately 430,000 gallons of radioactive wastes, shows the enormity of the situation. Leaks have also been reported in Kentucky, New York State, and in Tennessee. (Gyorgy, 130) it has been reported that the U.S. generates radioactive PCB wastes at a rate greater than 5 million tons annually. Moreover, the U.S. has more than 200 million tons of uranium mill tailings in which 85% of its original radioactivity still persists.…… [Read More]
This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)
HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…… [Read More]