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Iran's nuclear program began during the era of the Shah, and blossomed into a plan that included the building of 20 nuclear reactors. During the Iran-Iraq conflict, two of these unfinished reactors were bombed in ushehr, while through the 1979 revolution, the Iranian nuclear program has gone through stops and starts, its current guidelines seem to include the building of 15 power reactors and 2 research facilities. Since 1992, Iran has compiled with IAEA and allowed routine inspections of its facilities and progress.
According to an IAEA report, "the Director General was informed by Iran of its uranium enrichment programme, which was described as including two new facilities located at Natanz, namely a pilot fuel enrichment plant (PFEP) nearing completion of construction, and a large commercial-scale fuel enrichment plant (FEP) also under construction" (June, 2003). This was the first time the Director had seen these plants. It has been argued…
Implementation of the NPT safeguards agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Report of the International Atomic Energy Agency, June 2003.
Online version, http://fas.org/nuke/guide/iran/iaea0603.html
Walt, S. An unnecessary war.(U.S.-Iraq conflict).
This does not build trust" (Dupre, 2007).
Tehran's main revenue still comes from oil, and a realist would suggest hitting Iran where it could 'hurt' it, economically. This would mean threatening to isolate Iran from the international community by seeking other sources of oil on the part of the United States, unless Iran abides by the non-proliferation treaty, and that the U.S. should pressure Iran's major oil 'clients' to find other sources, with incentive packages offered to those states, such as India. Ultimately, "Iranian authorities know that there is no other alternative than Iran's integration in the international society and becoming a key constructive player in the region," and that it cannot become a rogue state like North Korea because it is dependant upon the commerce of oil with other nations (Dupre, 2007). Other nations that might be damaged by its nuclear capacity with economic and political leverage must capitalize…
Dupre, Bruno. "Iran Nuclear Crisis: The Right Approach." Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Feb 2007. [11 Feb 2007] http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=print&id=19002
Idealism." IR Theory. [11 Feb 2007]
It has been viewed to manipulate the treaty for its gains in terms of securing security. After the treaty was signed, the international community's interest to agree to rules that had been accepted created a source of safety. The current world has termed the treaty as a regime.
In the U.S. context, their aim is to provide security for their citizens because of the nuclear weapons threat. The treaty has been signed by more than 180 states worldwide. In order to ensure that there is safety while nations continue with their nuclear program, a separate organization was created to oversee the process of monitoring such activities: the International Energy Atomic Agency (IAEA). U.S. As the hegemonic state has the power to protect other nations from harm: other nations view this as a mutual benefit. While the U.S. gain more power plus safety from states that are within the NPT treaty,…
Forsberg, R. (2005). Nonproliferation Primer: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Weapons. Michigan: MIT Press
Gallacher, J, Blacker, C. & Bellany, I. (2005). The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. New York:
Kessler, J. (2005). Verifying Nonproliferation Treaties: Obligation, Process, and Sovereignty.
NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty
Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security. Newer and more advanced weapons continued to be inducted in the armed forces of developed and industrialized nations in the world particularly Soviet Union, United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. While all these countries had started their researches for development of nuclear weapons as early as 1930s, the United States of America officially emerged as the first country to have nuclear weapons developed.
While development of nuclear weapons was initially considered as an individual nation's effort to strengthen its country's security and sovereignty, it was in August 1945 when the idea of nuclear proliferation and nuclear warfare alarmed the international community. This was when the United States of America bombed to cities in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki,…
Alley, R. 2000, 'Reinvigorating Nuclear Disarmament', New Zealand International Review, vol. 25, no.5, pp.11.
The Disarmament Debate: The Fate of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2005, Harvard International Review, vol.27, no. 2, pp. 72+.
Litman, L. 2003, 'Cleaning House: Dirty Bombs and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty', Harvard International Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 32+.
Lund, M. 2009, 'The Eighty Percent and Twenty Percent Solutions to Nuclear Proliferation', Brigham Young University Law Review, vol. 2009, no. 3, pp. 741+.
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.
The Politics of Proliferation
The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.
Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is…
Curtis, L. 2007. "U.S. Policy and Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Containing Threats and Encouraging Regional Security." The Heritage Foundation. July 6, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Kerr, P. 2004. "Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program. Arms Control Today." January/February 2004. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_01-02/Libya (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Lavie, M. "Israel Stands by Vague Nuclear Policy." December 7, 2006. Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701234.html)
Levy, D. 2007. "U.S. nuclear policy goes from MAD to NUTS, Panofsky says." Stanford Report. April 18, 2007. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/april18/pief-041807.html (Accessed August 21, 2008)
Selling Nuclear Technology
The sale of United States nuclear technology to other countries has gained more criticism, especially in light of the September 11 attacks and the current war against Iraq. Despite these security concerns, however, many corporations still advocate efforts to repeal federal laws regarding the sale of such technology to countries such as China. This paper examines the pros and cons of both positions, paying particular attention to the history and ramifications of continued sale of nuclear technology.
The United States should continue selling nuclear technology
Common perception holds that foreign countries like China, Pakistan and Algeria are the main supporters of the sale United States nuclear technology. However, many American companies such as estinghouse, Bechtel and General Electric support the move to allow the export of American nuclear technology and parts to countries such as China.
For these companies, the reasons are economic. Domestic demand for nuclear…
Hedges, Stephen J. "China's surprising nuclear helpers." U.S. News and World Report. September 29, 1997. Proquest database.
Lee, Rensselaer. Smuggling Armageddon. New York: St. Martin's Griffin Press, 2000.
Muradian, Vago. "U.S. Gov't Eyes Resuming Weapons Sales To Pakistan, Indonesia." Defense Daily International 21 September 2001. 7 December 2001 http://www.clw.org/atop/restrictions_ddi092101.html .
Nunn, Sam. "U.S. investments in a peaceful Russia." Issues in Science and Technology. Summer 1995. 11(4): 27-31. Proquest database.
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
Weapons Proliferation, simply defined, is the rapid increase or spread of weapons in the context of global security. If we are to measure the weapons capabilities of the world, the United States retains the lion's share: in 2002 the Economist estimated that American military spending would exceed 379 billion in 2003 (Economist, 6/18/2002.) For comparison's sake, Russia, the world's second largest nuclear power, had a total GDP of merely 346.6 billion in 2002 (Economist, 7/22/2003.) However, the "balance of terror" that underscored the cold war era was in many ways much safer than the current situation. Whereas 'weapons proliferation' once referred to the number of weapons in existence, it has taken on a new meaning; it now is usually meant to reflect the number of political entities capable of using weapons of mass destruction. The number of such countries has increased beyond UN Security Council permanent members to include India,…
Be Afraid. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Lord Hutton's Eyebrows. Economist, September 4th, 2003
Brecher, Gary. Bezerkers with Red Stars: North Korean Scenarios. The Exile, June 2, 2003.
If there are people, of whatever nationality, who will be found guilty of creating and scattering MD, will be subjected to penalties and/or punishment which will be imposed by the overall leader o the UN itself. More so, countries which will be proven allowing the research and development and eventual use of MD should also be asked to answer from the call of the UN.
The entire populace can also share their efforts to controlling the use of any form of MD, thereby preventing any possibility of massive deaths or environment destruction. People must voice out their concern. The people should be activist enough in letting their leaders know how they want the use of MD to be abolished. The media can play a detrimental role in airing and showing how the people, across all nations, are against any form of MD. Newspapers, magazines, TV programs, radio stations, are good…
Collins, Robin, 2005. A step in the right direction: the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Ploughshares Monitor
Everett, R 2004. Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction - Radiological, Chemical and Biological. Langford Chichester: John Wiley & Sons
Kalyadin, Alexander 2003. A strategy for active Non-Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Publication: Military Thought
Against Nuclear Power
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of international relations and business today, all nations and their respective economies must be able to effectively globalize their energy operations in order to reach a greater potential resource base and sustain fiscal durability in the long-term. In accomplishing the aforementioned tasks, many nations have placed environmental considerations at the bottom of the ladder of priority. However, with countless new environmental initiatives cropping up each day, it behooves any and all government and big business personnel to gain a greater respect for the fragile environment in which we live. Terms like "emissions," "energy consumption," "fossil fuel depletion" and "carbon footprint" are increasingly becoming a part of the average global citizen's vocabulary. The future of all nations lies in the hands of those who seriously embrace the importance of such rhetoric. Accordingly, several energy-producing options have been considered and…
Bodansky, D. (2004). Nuclear Energy: Principles, Practices, and Prospects (2nd Edition ed.). New York, NY: Springer-Verlag LLC.
Hatch, M., Ron, E., Bouville, A., Zablotska, L., & Howe, G. (2005). The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Epidemiol Review, 27 (1), 56-66.
Jo, D.-J., & Gartzke, E. (2007). Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 51 (1), 167-194.
Ryan, V. (2009). Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Power. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from http://www.technologystudent.com/energy1/wind8.htm
One nuclear expert notes, "For countries that think the United States constitutes a threat, how should they react? In effect, there is no way to deter the United States other than by having nuclear weapons. No country can do that conventionally. The United States can overwhelm other countries conventionally."
Clearly, the United States has nuclear capabilities, but they have only used them once, in a time of war. Today, the message is clear. Those countries that have nuclear capabilities do not use them, for they know if they do, they will suffer the same nuclear consequences. Thus, the world stays "safe" because no one is ready to make the first move. Some say Iran is simply attempting to defend itself, while others are not so sure.
In conclusion, the Iranian nuclear development program is becoming increasingly difficult to manage by regulatory organizations, and it seems Iran will do what it…
Editors. Q&a: Iran and the Nuclear Issue. BBC News. 3 Dec. 2007. Newspaper online. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4031603.stm .Internet. Accessed 15 Dec. 2007.
Sadjadpour, Karim. "The Nuclear Players." Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 125+.
Sagan, Scott, Kenneth Waltz, and Richard K. Betts. "A Nuclear Iran: Promoting Stability or Courting Disaster?" Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (2007): 135+.
Schake, Kori. "Dealing with a Nuclear Iran." Policy Review, no. 142 (2007): 3+.
The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.
The Case for Nuclear Energy
In the past few…
Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/
Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.
Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jul/08/nuclearpower.energy
Totty, M. (2008, June 30). The Case For and Against Nuclear Power. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121432182593500119
In addition, problems would also exist outside of the nuclear power plant itself, with the suppliers of the nuclear material also being a possible target of attacks or a source of materials for weapons. This shows that what Ansolabehere suggests as one problem is really a whole range of problems.
Another important point to note is that the possibility of nuclear power plants becoming a source of nuclear weapons and becoming terrorist targets is only a possibility. In contrast, storage of nuclear waste and the safety of nuclear power plants is a current problem that already exists for the power plants in operation. Grossman (p. 206) notes that current nuclear power plants were not designed for more than 40 years of use and are considered hazardous. Grossman (p. 207) also notes that the government is currently planning to store nuclear waste in the Yucca Mountains, an area that is near…
Ansolabehere, S. "The Future of Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 192-204.
Grossman, K. "The Push to Revive Nuclear Power." In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Thomas A Easton. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p. 205-209.
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
Those countries who have developed their own WMD programs and have not signed various non-proliferation agreements, highlights this hypocrisy that is existing in the international community. Where, no one is willing to force new countries that develop their own WMD programs to commit to such standards. This is problematic, because it telling the world that those countries not committing to various non-proliferation efforts, can maintain their programs (in secrecy) despite the international standard that is in place. At which point, other nations will seek to start their own WMD programs, as they see this as a double standard. Where, you are not supposed to have these weapons, yet once you do they may not apply.
When you combine this with the fact, that those countries that have not signed various international accords are also not making such disclosures to the IAEA; will more than likely be inclined to pass this…
Cimbala, S. (2005). Nuclear Weapons and Strategy. New York, NY: Routledge.
Gardner, H. (2007). Risks of Nuclear Proliferation. American Global Strategy and the War on Terrorism. (pp. 81 -94) Aldershot, UA: Ashgate.
Heng, Y. (2009). The Proliferation Security Initiative. Risk, Global Governance and Security. (pp. 87 -- 95). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lia, B. (2004). Weapons of Mass Destruction. Globalization and the Future of Terrorism. (pp. 39 -- 48). New York, NY: Routeledge.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear Weapons in the 21st Century Security Environment
The apparent anti-proliferation approach of the George W. ush Administration to nuclear and other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) seems to coincide with the perspective of Scott Sagan in The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate, as opposed to the deterrence perspective of his co-author, Kenneth Waltz. Security for major nations is currently under greater threat by the destabilizing effects of terrorism than it is by annihilation through conventional warfare. The Cold-War approach of deterrence is not adequate against enemies who are more concerned with their philosophical endurance than their physical survival. The modern landscape of nuclear arms reduction by major world powers, while many quasi-minor countries scramble to attain nuclear status explicitly underscores the delicate problem of securing safety while upholding widely accepted tenets of Just War Theory.
The Spread of Nuclear Weapons is the work of…
1. "Just War Theory." The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Alex Moseley, Ph.D. 2001. 16 Apr. 2003 http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/j/justwar.htm .
2. Review of: The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. Helen E. Purkitt. United States Naval Academy. 16 Apr. 2003 http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/1996/autumn/nuc-a96.htm.
3. Sagan, Scott D., and Kenneth N. Waltz. The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.
The fundamentals of exchange theory are illustrated at Appendix a. This approach to analyzing the current situation in North Korea will help add to the existing body of knowledge by developing fresh insights into the possible motivating factors that have characterized North Korea's negotiations with the West in general and the United States in particular in the past and will help address the hypothesis to be tested which is stated below.
The likelihood that it will be possible to persuade North Korea to dismantle its nuclear capability will be increased if American military forces are removed from South Korea.
This hypothesis will be qualitatively tested based on a preponderance of the evidence that results from the critical review of the literature described above.
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea equires Long-Term Strategic elationship with the U.S."
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the U.S."
International Journal on World Peace 24(1): 37-38.
Catchpole, B. 1998, November. "The Commonwealth in Korea." History Today, 33.
Yes, technology generates problems, and it is shrewd and apt to point out that for every net gain to certain members of society via technology there is a net loss. The hand weavers of the 18th century were put out of business by 19th century factories that could manufacture clothing cheaply, computers have probably collectively caused the art of calligraphy to die, and made even professional writers overly reliant on spell check and less willing to rewrite their work from scratch. However, would any of the authors included in the collection summarized in the essay really wish to go back to a world without antibiotics? Technology has enabled people whose vision would be a blur to see with 20/20 perfection, and made travel financially accessible to millions who would have been relegated to the narrow point-of-view of their homes. hile it is easy to find detriments to these benefits…
Vaidhyanathan, Siva. Rewiring the "Nation": The Place of Technology in American
Studies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2007.
security of the U.S. And Canadian border is in peril. There is an unprotected route allowing the free-flow of terrorists from around the world into Canada and then into the U.S. This is a national security situation that threatens our way of life. hat are our options for eliminating this threat?
By definition a liberal is a man or a woman who believes in liberty. Liberalism as a philosophy has evolved as a defense of individual citizen's liberties against the potential tyranny of his or her ruling state. Liberals such as John Locke have typically maintained that humans are naturally in 'a State of perfect Freedom to order their Actions ... As they think fit ... without asking leave, or depending on the ill of any other Man," In other words, unless the individual's liberty impinges upon the liberty of another individual, than that individual should do as he or…
Gaus, Gerald. "Liberalism." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2001. Available online November 3, 2004 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/liberalism/
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…
Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.
Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]
Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.
Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
Rise of China
THE POWER OF NUMERS - AND OF ARMS
China, a Growing Threat in Southeast Asia?
The appearance or reality of peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region in the 1990s may be drawn from the popular compliance of the countries to the provisions of an agreement (Shuja 1999). This was the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, signed in 1968 and becoming effective in 1970, by the countries or States. Their number increased to 176. They agreed to give up the use of nuclear power for military purposes. Africa, Argentina, razil, Romania and Algeria were examples of such countries. ut this image of peace and unity in the region was shattered and vanished when India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in May 1998. India and Pakistan had a long-time feud and the tests sent the message to the rest in the region that the protagonists could be preparing…
Bernier, J. And Gold, S (2003). China's Closing Window of Opportunity. 20 pages. Naval War College Review: U.S. Naval War College
Bremmer, I. (2005). The Dragon Awakens. 7 pages. The National Interest: The National Interest, Inc.
Gearan, A (2006). China Asks for Calm Amid Signs It Is Cracking Down on North Korea. 2 pages. Deseret News (Salt Lake City): Deseret News Publishing Company
Kyodo News. (2005). Taiwan's Chen Presses for arms Purchase in National Day Speech. 2 pages. Asian Political News: Kyodo News International, Inc.
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…
Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from;
http://amateurpundit.hypermart.net/features107_bushtaxing.htm Accessed on March 5, 2004
Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;
http://ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=22469 Accessed on March 5, 2004
U.S. National Strategy
What three United States national interests do you think will be at great risk over the next five years? Describe those interests and identify which instruments of national power can be leveraged to protect or advance those national interests and how those instruments can be used.
As President Obama stated in his addresses to Congress in February 2009, the most important problem that the country faced was the economy, which was in the worst recession since the 1930s. This affected both domestic and foreign policy, since the country would probably have to reduce military spending and its commitments overseas as it did during the Great Depression, so for the Obama administration economic recovery was the primary goal. He did promise that "the weight of this crisis will not determine the destiny of this nation" (Obama Address, 2009, p. 1). He promised that the government would deal with…
Address to Joint Session of Congress. Remarks of President Barack Obama, As Prepared for Delivery, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Tuesday, February 24th, 2009.
Comprehensive Regional Strategy on Somalia: A Strategy for U.S. Engagement Report to Congress, February 2007.
JP 3-0 Chapter I.
JP 3 Extract Chapter 2.
This is making it difficult for the world community to work together on issues such as nuclear proliferation. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)
The main reason is because China has built several pipelines going from Iran into their country. This is providing them with the resources (i.e. oil and natural gas), which are helping to fuel continuing economic growth and the development of Chinese markets. At the same time, the increased amounts of military spending have meant that China has become increasingly hostile towards any kind of efforts to deal with these issues. (Lewis) (Montgomery) (Zariff)
As a result, other nations throughout the Middle East and Asia have begun their own nuclear weapons programs in response to these threats. In the coming decade, we need to redefine the war on terror away from: simply preventing terrorist attacks themselves to aggressively going after those nations that support these activities. This means directly confronting…
Lewis, Jeffrey. "North Korea -- Iran Nuclear Cooperation." CFR, 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2012
Montgomery, Evan. "Understanding the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism." CSB Online, 2010. Web. 9 Mar. 2012
(Mousavin 141 -- 172)
A second aspect of this changing association (limited amounts of economic opportunity) highlights the choice that China will have to make at some point down the road. Where, the actions of Iran and the relationship that they have with the country could become a liability. This is problematic, because it more than likely will mean that China will have to make a choice between conducting business with the Western nations and working with Iran. Given the fact that the West has greater economic opportunity; means that this underlying relationship could change, if China was forced to choose between the two sides. This is significant, because it shows the overall vulnerability that China will face because of this association. As the West, could force them to choose between: being a member of the world community or supporting an isolated Islamic Republic. (Mousavin 141 -- 172)
Bates, Gill. "Challenges for U.S. Policy." Rising Star. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institute, 2010. 150 -- 160. Print.
Garver, John. "Civilization and Power." China and Iran. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2006. 3 -- 29. Print.
Gernet, Jaques. "Firearms." A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 111- 113. Print.
Mederios, Eric. "China's Nuclear Cooperation with Iran." Reluctant Restraint. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007. 58 -- 97. Print.
Such a strategy, if fully developed, would successfully reduce the risk of a successful terrorist nuclear attack because the system itself would have nuclear-specific elements that could be coordinated with an assortment of other prevention and protection measures. More so, this system would work with the international community to develop similar multi-elemental, layered and cross-departmental approaches there and then coordinate the United States' measures with these international efforts, thus creating a global defense strategy capable of fully defending a way of life against the threat of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction.
This new approach to defense would focus on coordinating improved capabilities of monitoring and controlling both nuclear weapons and nuclear material, thus being able to better evaluate where the risk is and what kind of risk it is. Further, such an internationally coordinated monitoring system would dissuade those in the planning stages of a nuclear attack could defeat…
Bolt, Paul J., Coletta, Damon V., and Collins G. Shackleford. American Defense Policy. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
De Becker, Gavin. Fear Less: Real Truth About Risk, Safety, and Security in a Time of Terrorism. New York: Little Brown & Co., 2005.
Burd, R. "Nuclear Detection to Prevent or Defeat Clandestine Nuclear Attack." Los Alamos Manuscript LA-UR-04-0629, submitted to IEEE Sensors Journal, Special Issue on Sensors for the Prevention of Terrorist Acts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
Department of Defense. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Preventing and Defending Against Clandestine Nuclear Attack. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government, 2004.
Once this takes place, you have a situation that is similar to the time frame before World War I. Where, all of the different world powers assumed that they understood the rationale and actions of each other. At which point, a small regional conflict in Serbia would escalate in a major conflict that would engulf all of the major world powers. (Steward 2003, pp. 6 -- 20) This is significant, because it shows that when you have several major military powers around the globe, a balancing act must take place, as the chances for conflict have increased dramatically. Given the overall destructive nature of nuclear weapons, it is safe to assume that those nations that posses these devices, will more than likely view themselves in this light.
The ability that I have to analyze these kinds of situations, could be influential, in helping to bring a voice of reason to…
Iran's Nuclear Program, 2010, New York Times. Available from:
S., Great Britain and the Soviet Union. However, due to ennedy's assassination in Dallas on November 22, these negotiations stalled, especially when France and China refused to become parties to the new non-nuclear proliferation treaty. Thus, if ennedy had survived, it is clear that this treaty might have served as the foundation for a very early movement against nuclear proliferation and might have signaled the end of the "Cold War" some twenty-seven years before it finally did end in 1989 with the fall of the Soviet Union.
Second, in 1963, many American civil rights leaders, especially Martin Luther ing, Jr., wished to speed up the progress of desegregation in the U.S. which led to a number of important demonstrations. In June of 1963, President ennedy was convinced that the American public was demanding some type of action by Congress to end desegregation in America. As a result, ennedy sent to…
Kennedy, somewhat surprised by this move, quickly accepted Khrushchev's offer and negotiations began on August 5, 1963 which included representatives from the U.S., Great Britain and the Soviet Union. However, due to Kennedy's assassination in Dallas on November 22, these negotiations stalled, especially when France and China refused to become parties to the new non-nuclear proliferation treaty. Thus, if Kennedy had survived, it is clear that this treaty might have served as the foundation for a very early movement against nuclear proliferation and might have signaled the end of the "Cold War" some twenty-seven years before it finally did end in 1989 with the fall of the Soviet Union.
Second, in 1963, many American civil rights leaders, especially Martin Luther King, Jr., wished to speed up the progress of desegregation in the U.S. which led to a number of important demonstrations. In June of 1963, President Kennedy was convinced that the American public was demanding some type of action by Congress to end desegregation in America. As a result, Kennedy sent to Congress a civil rights bill that included provisions designed to expedite the registration of black voters, to guarantee equal access to all public accommodations, to allow the U.S. Attorney General (Robert Kennedy) to institute lawsuits to desegregate the schools and to withhold federal funds from state or local programs in which racial discrimination was evident.
Certainly, if Kennedy had survived, this civil rights bill, the first of its kind in the United States since the days of the Civil War in the 1860's, might have helped to stave off a number of violent protests in some major U.S. cities during the late 1960's. As previously pointed out, this bill was stalled in Congress at the time of Kennedy's assassination, but if he had survived and had been allowed to return to Washington to pressure Congress to pass the bill immediately, the history of the Civil Rights Movement in America might have turned out very different indeed.
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…
Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.
Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554430822300352
Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.beaconreader.com/joshua-foust/throwing-the-intelligence-community-under-the-bus
Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/atomic-escapism
hen a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable.
After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's watch, his Vice President Bush inherited the problem of dealing with a fragmented Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Bush Sr.'s foreign policy toward Moscow was largely passive, arguably much more passive than any of his predecessors were because the Cold ar was over and the threat of nuclear war temporarily set aside. Moreover, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was still taking place and Bush Sr. watched while new nation-states emerged out of the Soviet Bloc. However, Bush Sr. negotiated nuclear disarmament treaties with Gorbachev and his successor Boris Yeltsin and willingly recognized the independence of many formerly Soviet republics.
Relations with Russia again grew tense under President Clinton largely because of the conflicts that arose in the Balkans. The Soviet Union…
Bill Clinton's War in Yugoslavia." Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Yugoslavia/BillClintonsWar_Yugo.html
George Bush Sr. On Foreign Policy." On the Issues. Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at http://www.ontheissues.org/Celeb/George_Bush_Sr__Foreign_Policy.htm
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
S. has unilaterally imposed sanctions to punish ran for its support of these activities. To address the shortages from this embargo, the ranian government has been working on developing nuclear power. They claim that this will help to tackle the nation's current and future energy needs. (Khan, 2010, pp. 77 -- 110)
This has led to the UN imposing another embargo against the slamic Republic for their continuing incompliance with international law. At the heart of the issue, are concerns that ran is using their nuclear energy program as a cover for developing an atomic bomb. The fear is that the ranians will pass on nuclear related materials to terrorist groups or they will use these weapons to attack the U.S. To prevent this from happening, America is leading an international effort to further isolate ran. n response, ran has been defiantly working on their program. This has caused the…
In the case of Iran, they are at the far end of the spectrum by wanting to destroy the U.S. And everything that it stands for. This has increased the amount of covert actions that are taken against the Islamic Republic. At the same time, this helps the U.S. To push its trading partners to isolate Iran (which is causing their economic situation to become even worse). This is showing how America's approach can be used as way to reward or punish a country for their activities. (Sutter, 2012, pp. 37 -- 59)
In the case of China, the fact that they were willing to work with the U.S. And implement many of the economic reforms led to improved relations between both countries. This is when China received favored trading status and was provided with tremendous amounts of foreign direct investment capital (which helped to increase economic development). These changes were occurring despite China's terrible human rights record and lack of political changes. This is showing how efforts to implement at least some of the reforms led to more support in the future from the U.S. (Sutter, 2012, pp. 37 -- 59)
These different approaches are illustrating how the U.S. is rewarding those countries that are in support of international standards with various forms of economic and military aid. While nations that are unwilling to do this, will face the possibility of isolation. This is designed to put pressure on
One example of this is the "famous egg box metaphor of international society (in which states were the eggs, and international society the box), one might see this unevenness as a pan of fried eggs. Although nearly all the states in the system belong to a thin, pluralist interstate society (the layer of egg-white), there are sub-global and/or regional clusters sitting on that common substrate that are both much more thickly developed than the global common, and up to a point developed separately and in different ways from each other (the yolks)" (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6).
For example the EU and North America, for example are "sub-global interstate societies that are more thickly developed within themselves. Lesser attempts to create thicker, liberal, regional interstate/international societies by cultivating joint economic development can be found in...various other regional economic cooperations," such as OPEC (Buzan and Gonzalez-Pelaez, 2005: 6). "Above some of…
Armstrong, David. (2007). Order and Justice in International Society. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/readarmstrong.doc
Bania-Dobyns, Sarah. (2005, Aug). The Contribution of the System Concept to the English School: Clarifying the System Concept by Means of Methodological
Pluralism. Paper for the Panel 'ES Theory Debates' WISC Conference Istanbul. Retrieved 20 Aug 2007 at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/polis/englishschool/papers.htm
Buzan, Barry & Ana Gonzalez-Pelaez. (2005, Aug). The Middle East Through English
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
This is an important issue and a number of commentators and critics have decried this loss of respect for international law. One commentator refers to the words of the politician and sociologist, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who said that, "...there is nothing quite to compare with the falling from the American mind of the idea of the law of nations" (Kinsley). He also stated that,
At the beginning of Gulf ar II, we forgot... international law. e forgot international law once again. hen the U.N. Security Council would not play ball, we declared that our own invasion of Iraq was justified as a sovereign act of long-term self-defense against potential weapons of mass destruction, by the human rights situation within Iraq,
Therefore, this is a cardinal area of international law that is in danger in the present age.
On the other hand, there are areas of international law that have…
Horton, Scott. A Decent Respect: What does international law mean to us today
January 20, 2008. http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/04/horton-20070428vgjt
Kinsley M. Today We Obey. Invoking international law -- when it suits us.2003.
January 20, 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2080777/
Threats to security are seen to come not only from external military aggression but also from a myriad of internal challenges -- separatist movements, social unrest, or the collapse of the political system." -- Anwar 2003,
With the international attention given to "military aggression," especially external military aggression, in recent years, it is easy to allow one's idea of was security means to become clouded with Hobbesian and Machiavellian notions of armed conflict, with "war on terror" images of military and intelligence operations hunting down terrorists, and with the debate on nuclear proliferation in developing (or underdeveloped) nations like Iran and North Korea. What these definitions of security lack, however, is a full understanding of the term; military operations and protection from terrorist attacks are most certainly important factors in a nation's security, however, they are far from being the total measure of peace and stability in a society.
Stockholm Initiative on Global Security and Governance, 1991. Common Responsibility in the 1990s. Stockholm: Prime Minister's Office.
Timothy, K., 2004. "Human Security Discourse at the United Nations," in Peace Review, 16(1), pp. 19-24.
United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report, 1994. http://hrd.undp.org/reports/global/1994/en/.
They're discussing them, talking to people from around the glove where the events unfolded, and then creating chat forums to engage in intellectual debate and sharing of ideas. They are talking about what the news media is reporting, whether or not it is slanted toward a political ideology, and assessing the information. Everyone, it seems, has faster access to broader sources of news and ideas, and they are using that information to form ideas and conclusions about political leaders and how those leaders respond to local, national, and world situations, people, and events.
How the Public Interprets Political Semantics and Use the Internet to Impact Policy and Government
One of the most significant examples of how the internet has facilitated the public's access to information, and how people world-wide have analyzed political semantics and used the information to shape policy and government is the second term of America's former President…
Fisher, F., Miller, G., and Sidney, M. (2007). Handbook of Public Policy Analysis:
Theory, Politics, and Method,
Feldman, O. And Landtsheer, C. (Eds) (1998). Politically Speaking: A Worldwide
Examination of Language Used in the Public Sphere, Praeger Publishers,
And Sellers plays the repressed social engineer Strangelove, the timid Merkin Muffley, and the persevering Mandrake -- all with mechanical precision. Kubrick's unflinching camera acts as a character, too, slyly observing the exposition of humanity in all its grimly humorous glory.
This film belongs to a culture that has rejected the status quo -- the quaint picturesque comedies of the 1940s and 1950s; it belongs to a culture that is bordering on nihilism, anarchy, revolution -- anything that will help it to get away from the culture that has brought us the faceless, nameless idiots running the ar Room in Dr. Strangelove. The film offers no solutions -- it only asks us to present ourselves to world with fresh eyes, a pure soul able and willing to laugh at its human foibles and failings, and begin to meditate upon a new direction, a new solution perhaps to the problem of…
Aristotle. Poetics. Sacred-texts. 13 May 2013. Web. < http://www.sacred-
Bergson, Henri. Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic. NY: MacMillan,
Sixties in America
60s in America
Debating the easons for the U.S. Entry into the Vietnam War
From 1960s to late 1970s, American army experienced the Vietnam War, which was not well understood irrespective of lasting for many years. There were no clear consensus to its purpose, and it divided the country at a time when it most needed to be unified. The war left scars to many Americans that will take long to heal. There are no clear information regarding the reasons behind the war but historical records indicate that the war started with the sending of American advisors to train the South Vietnam army. The intentions were to assist the South Vietnamese army resist aggression from the north. The roles later changed, and it turned out to be an American led and financed war. From the late 1960s, the American government realized the war would be endless and…
Porta, G. Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to war in Vietnam. London:
University of California Press, 2006. Print
Weist, A.A. The Vietnam War. New York: Rosen Publishing Group Inc., 2009. Print
Christopher, R. The Vietnam War / the American War: Images and Representation in Euro-
Strategy that has always been used in regard to foreign policy has somehow left the United State not to be in a position to implement the domestic policy effectively and this has made the citizen feel the effect of this wrong strategy towards foreign policy. Economically, in terms of security, and our relation with other countries have deteriorated because of this. Different scholars and some politician have already voiced their concerns on how the rise of China is slowly shipping away at the United States' preponderance of power, the budget crisis, and involvement into the two long wars that have left the U.S. military as well as the public be exhausted. Hence they have seen the need for United State to minimize its global military presence, shed the security ties it has overseas, and minimize its effort of leading the liberal international order and just concentrate more domestically.…
Barry R. Posen., "The Case for a Less Activist Foreign Policy" Pull Back | Foreign Affairs. (2013). http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138466/barry-r-posen/pull-back
Paul Richter, "Obama's Nuanced Foreign Policy Evident in Libya vs. Syria,"
LA Times, April 1, 2011. http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/01/world/la-fg-us-syria-20110401
Peter Trubowitz, "Regional Shifts and U.S. Foreign Policy," in Michael Cox
Cinema and American Politics
The modern politics of the U.S. and their imperialistic manifestations within the global political economy (GPE) have often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result. For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent ridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity, and democracy). Yet…
Benoit, William; Nill, Dawn. "Oliver Stone's Defense of JFK." Communication
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2 (1998): 127-143.
Cole, David. Republican Party Animal. WA: Feral House, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. "Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence
great wars of the twentieth century can be classified as "total wars" not because of their far-reaching effects, although many of them have been global wars. Rather, the term "total war" refers more to the all-encompassing effect of war on the cultures involved. Total wars alter civilian mentality and ideology in a way traditional wars do not. Patriotism and nationalism are by no means new concepts; nor is taking civilian casualties a new practice. But since World War One, total wars have taken on new meanings and transformed political ideologies.
The term "total war" seems to have originated during World War One, when the idea of a "People's War" gained popularity. As burgeoning nationalism changed the face of European geographical boundaries, national identities fostered a fresh sense of patriotism. The 19th century saw the unification of Germany following a series of battles that incidentally led up to the First World…
However, she is no bloodless female, absent of sexuality, despite her resistance of Apollo. In this respect, Wolf does update her story -- rather than a virgin or a sexless prophetess, Cassandra does have a relationship with Aeneas. She loves this hero with the ardor of a young woman, calling him the soul of Troy. But because he is a man, unlike Cassandra, Aeneas can master history and triumph. The admiration of Aeneas indicates the verisimilitude Wolf brings to her tale -- Cassandra has emotions and feelings, rather than simply spouts words, as in Agamemnon.
Wolf also interjects anecdotes into the story to make it more clearly told with Trojan eyes such as the Trojan's allegation that Helen was abducted because Priam's sister Hesione's eloped with a Spartan. Again, this underlines Wolf's theme of women as pawns and spoils of war -- it does not matter what Helen or Hesione…
Those three activities were: educational and cultural exchange, humanitarian relief, and peace (Lyrie, 2002, 55). Of course, during that time the level, affordability and speed of modern communications was not what it is today. The early efforts in the three categories that actually serve as the basis for the global peace initiative today involved participants of the sciences, political, economic and sociological communities in problem identifying and solving conferences, meetings, and summits held around the world. Today, these same kinds of communications are being held amongst average citizens from nearly every country around the world who are finding that we all have so much in common and that our different cultures and traditions are more interesting than threatening.
It would be fantastical not to acknowledge the forces opposing world peace and the celebration of cultural exchange and traditions. Today, those forces are represented by the acts of terrorism that is…
Works Cited www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105855595
Iriye, Akira. Global Community: The Role of International Organizations in the Making of the Contemporary World. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002. Questia. 8 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105855597 .
Last, Jonathan V. "God on the Internet." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life Dec. 2005: 34+. Questia. 8 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011706096 .
human being is a fickle creature, yet marvelous as well. Many have said in recent times that the human race will die within the next half century. Not of plagues or illness, not from an asteroid hitting the planet. No, rather, people surmise the human race will meet it's end due to international relations and foreign policy. In this world today, thousands of nuclear weapons and bombs exist. More nations have attempted to acquire them. Terrorists have become armed with suicide bombing jackets and vests and thousands end up meeting their fate, appearing on the tragic side of the news.
Along with the terrorist attacks are the bevy of problems experienced by man due to lack of resources and extreme poverty. There are people living in mansions while countless others have no access to clean water. The way the international system works, operates is flawed. In order to potentially fix…
Brocklehurst, M. (2006). Why international relations is the key to all our futures.The Independent. Retrieved 27 November 2015, from http://www.independent.co.uk/student/magazines/why-international-relations-is-the-key-to-all-our-futures-409792.html
Forsythe, D. (2000). Human rights in international relations. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press.
List25.com,. (2015). Retrieved 28 November 2015, from http://list25.com/the-25-most-polluted-places-on-earth/5/
It is necessary to underscore this importance given the current fragility of the international trading system amid a global resurgence of protectionist pressures due to the deepening economic crisis (Bown, 2009).
In 2006, and in response to increased political pressure by the U.S. Congress, Washington initiated the current U.S. strategy of using the judicial forum of the WTO to manage bilateral trade frictions with Beijing. In March 2006, Canada and the European Community (EC) joined the United States in the first dispute by challenging China's discriminatory treatment of imported automobile parts. In 2007, the United States and Mexico disputed China's system of subsidizing domestic industries. Also in 2007, the United States initiated two complementary disputes over China's treatment of imported movies, music, and books, both Beijing's failure to enforce American intellectual property rights protection and its creation of regulatory hurdles that impede Hollywood film studios and other media and publishing…
Bown, Chad P. (2009). U.S. -- China Trade Conflicts and the Future of the WTO. Retrieved April
0, 2010 from Web site: http://fletcher.tufts.edu/forum/archives/pdfs/33-1pdfs/Bown.pdf
Gross, Daniel. (2009). Chicken Feet and Chump Change. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from Newsweek Web site: http://www.newsweek.com/id/216754
Lum, Thomas and Nanto, Dick K. (2007). China's Trade with the United States and the World.
Where, Russia feels that the altic States are having an input on what kind of policy will be used, and how it is applied to the country. This is problematic, because it gives Russia a sense as if they are losing influence.
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats
The different strengths of this relationship are: it allows the EU to be able to use their economic, political and military power collectively. For the Russia, their biggest strength is the natural resources they produce and the fact that they are in between Asia / Europe. As far as the altic States is concerned, their strength would be the ability to embrace the ideas of the West and to become productive members of the EU.
The various weaknesses for the EU are: pushing Russia to embrace changes to fast and not being flexible, in how their policies are applied. In the case of…
Antonenko, C. (2005). Estonian Russian Relations. Russia and the European Union. (pp. 211 -- 212). New York, NY: Routledge.
Buhbe, M. (2005). Russia, the EU and the Baltic States. (pp. 5 -- 27).
Chebakova, A. (2010). Rethinking a Problematic Relationship. University of Victoria.
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In the appendix to his book Certain Trumpets, author Garry ills states, "I was not looking for the greatest or best leaders but those who can be seen, at some point in their career, exemplifying a distinctive kind of leadership," (271). For each of the sixteen leadership styles ills outlines, he puts forth one notable human figure who he feels most aptly demonstrates through their life the essential features of that kind of leader. hat each of these disparate leaders demonstrates, in spite of their differences, is a sphere of influence specific to their lifestyles, cultural context, personality, and talents. Each of these leaders was successful in leaving an impact on the world even though their approaches to leadership differed greatly. Eleanor Roosevelt, an almost reluctant leader who walked solidly between the two poles of radicalism and conservatism, exemplified the ability to execute reform in American political and social…
Wills, Garry. Certain Trumpets: The Call of Leaders. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1994.
Through this there are laws to distinguish combatants from civilians giving each specific rights and responsibilities. International norms pertaining to human rights are becoming stronger and widely accepted (Pearson Education, 2010).
This is the relationship between industrialized countries in the north and developing countries in the south. Most of the world's population is in poverty in the third world and a large number of this have no access to food, water and other necessities therefore cooperation between the south and north countries enable the countries with problems try solve them. This is through institutions like IMF that makes loans to the south conditional on economic and governmental reforms. Foreign assistance from governments in the north plays an important part in the economic development plans of poorer states in the south. The foreign aid consists of bilateral grants and loans from governments from the north .there are also disaster…
Pearson Education, Inc. (2010). North -- South Relations. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://wps.ablongman.com/long_goldstein_irbrief_2/13/3502/896706.cw/index.html
Pearson Education. (2010).International Relations. Retrieved December 10, 2012 from http://wps.pearsonlongman.com/long_goldstein_ir_brief6_cw/193/49504/12673071.cw/index.html
merican history should remind us of the dangers of overzealous interest in foreign affairs. Especially when the United States has a vested financial concern with another country, it should practice an ethical, perhaps hands-off, foreign policy. The lessons of Guatemala, Chile, and Nicaragua (to name but a few) should apply to the current state of affairs in Iraq. When the United States acts with self-serving interests its regime changes usually fail with dramatic and fatal consequences. Mass disenfranchisement is the unfortunate result of forced regime changes, contrary to the government's propaganda. Central and South merica display prime examples of this unfortunate fact. Surely, when the United States has genuinely altruistic motives, interference may be deemed necessary. However, Iraq seems to be more a propaganda war than an actual war of necessity. ny supposed humanitarianism is overshadowed by the United State's oil interest in the region. Saddam Hussain serves as a…
An abuse of power would be the consequence should the United States enforce an Iraqi regime change. Not only would the U.S. acts a world bully; it would abuse the privilege of righteous use of American tax dollars. Too much money is already spent on the military-industrial complex. Perhaps our fair nation should devote these self-same dollars to the eradication of AIDS, to the elimination of poverty, or to the promotion of positive education. Money could be better spent on humanitarian causes instead of on contrived regime changes. A plethora of altruistic organizations need the funding that would be unnecessarily spent on fabricating another puppet world leader.
At the core of the problem with United States-backed and orchestrated regime changes is the illusory connection between the current "war on terrorism" and Saddam Hussain. Fear mongering is an effective tactic to spur the American public into supporting military action in Iraq. Ousting Saddam Hussain is appealing on many levels, especially following the disastrous events of September 11, 2001. The general public still recalls the horrors of that day and the media has done an effective job in promoting the idea that Iraq is involved. Perhaps the Iraqi government was and is connected with Al Qaeda. What then?
There certainly exists a real and present danger. Not only do terrorist groups like Al Qaeda pose a threat to the United States and sister nations, but also enemy regimes like that in Iraq may possess weapons of mass destruction. These weapons can potentially wipe out the entire human race; their presence threatens the globe. The United States does have the responsibility to take action against nuclear proliferation and the possession of biological weapons. But the United States also has the responsibility to act with caution and conscience, always keeping peace and human rights in the forefront. Democracy and peace can be encouraged without an aggressive and forced regime change. The United States should serve as an example to the world without falling into the arrogance trap.
market capitalization of 23.011 billion, oeing is the nation's largest producer of commercial aircraft and the world's leading aerospace company. It operates in four principal segments: Commercial Airplanes, Military Aircraft and Missile Systems, Space and Communications, and oeing Capital Corporation. As the world's market for air travel fluctuates with the risk of war, so do oeing's revenues. However, as the United States moves towards a footing that may include future wars against perceived 'terrorist states,' oeing stands to gain from military aircraft and weapons production. As such, it intrigues investors as its market is a careful reflection of the front pages of the world's newspapers.
To successfully evaluate oeing's stock, we must analyze its fundamentals and the performance of comparables, as well as market performance. A projection of future revenues is necessary, along with an estimation of the cost of capital with which oeing produces. These allow us to provide…
Finance.yahoo.com finace.yahoo.com, March 20th, 2003 www.airbus.com
Boeing SEC 10-Q Filing, 1st Quarter 2003
Patrick J. Buchanan is a conservative political leader in the United States. The article Deconstructing America was published in his 2007 book, Day of Reckoning. Buchanan says "America is today less a nation than an encampment of politics and power.." Although the rhetoric surrounding the creation of the nation did focus on themes such as equality, democracy, and diversity, in practice there were certainly more superficial ideologies at play.
"The United States, the greatest republic since Rome and the British Empire may be said to have risen from that three-cornered for the Jamestown settlers began to build the day they arrived. But that republic and that empire did not rise because the settlers and those who followed believed in diversity, equality, and democracy (Buckanan)."
The settlers were in no way worried about equality within their own groups or especially with the natives. The pilgrim's societies were based…
Buckanan, P. Deconstructing America. 2007. Print.
Renshon, S. "Multiculturalism in the U.S.: Cultural Narcissism and the Politics of Recognition." 8 February 2011. Center for Immagration Studies. Online. 29 July 2014.
Scruton, R. "MULTICULTURALISM, R.I.P." December 2010. The American Spectator. Online. 29 July 2014.
Taylor, S. "The Challenge of 'Multiculturalism' In How Americans View the Past and the Future." The Journal of Historical Review (2013): 159-164. Online.
ersonal Statement: Why NYU
Why NYU: ersonal Statement
Right from high school, I have been passionate about understanding the multifaceted relations among states, and the problems posed by issues of mutual concern such as nuclear proliferation, climate change and terrorism. My geography teacher in high school always said that the last thing she wanted was to see her students living as ignorant teenagers, oblivious of what was going on in the world around them. I am particularly interested in the ongoing Israeli-alestinian war, and would love to understand exactly how states leverage power and engage with each other at the national level. I would also love to expand my knowledge on how international players such as the UN and the EU work in influencing relations between countries. These factors and many more drove my decision to study international relations.
I specifically chose NYU because it offers one of…
Right from high school, I have been passionate about understanding the multifaceted relations among states, and the problems posed by issues of mutual concern such as nuclear proliferation, climate change and terrorism. My geography teacher in high school always said that the last thing she wanted was to see her students living as ignorant teenagers, oblivious of what was going on in the world around them. I am particularly interested in the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian war, and would love to understand exactly how states leverage power and engage with each other at the national level. I would also love to expand my knowledge on how international players such as the UN and the EU work in influencing relations between countries. These factors and many more drove my decision to study international relations.
I specifically chose NYU because it offers one of the best international relations programs in the world, with the School of Arts and Sciences ranking number 7 in the World Report's 2013 list of 'Best International Politics Programs'. I would love to be associated with a university of such recognition and world-class prestige. I also admire the NYU because of its small class size. I understand that the average seminar in the School of Arts and Sciences has only 9 students, which allows lecturers to offer personalized attention and respond to the individual needs of all students. Moreover, one of my siblings who took IR at NYU and currently works at the UNHQ explained to me that the NYU runs some form of partnership with the UN, with majority of the students interning there during their studies and proceeding to work either at the UNHQ or other UN agencies upon graduating. My long-term career goal is to occupy a high profile position at the UN, and the NYU certainly offers better prospects for this goal than any other university. I also admire the fact that IR students at NYU are given opportunities to interact with, and be taught by development workers, intelligence analysts, press secretaries and high-profile diplomats, which basically helps to bring the real world into the classroom. Finally, I chose NYU because of its high-level of diversity. I read from the college website that 59% of students in the School of Arts and Sciences are from outside the U.S. This richness in diversity is the very epitome of international relations, and offers invaluable opportunities for students to interact with people of diverse cultures, and to consequently prosper in the globalized world.
Niu Mountain" By Mengzi
The mountain is clearly a metaphor for the mind. In the metaphor, the mountain and the mind are the same, and each can be groomed in a variety of ways. If nourished, the both the mountain and the mind virtually have no choice but to grow. However, as often the case, if these entities are cut down by axes, or possibly by denying education and/or critical thinking, the mountain will be bare and the mind will be empty. The empty state of mind is devoid of what makes the human species special and different from other forms of life. Our consciousness is what separates us from other forms of life and if we do not nourish it, to the extent it is enough to overcome the "axes" we experience in our lives, then we are no different than the other forms of lives, the irrational animals.…
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
Flight operations by Egyptian pilots using these aircraft have begun; approximately 16 Hawker Hunter jet fighters also arrived in Egypt from Iraq with Iraqi pilots. About 10 Lightning jet fighters were expected from Saudi Arabia;
(3) Movement of TU-16 bombers from Aswan to the Cairo area in the latter part of March which are equipped to carry air-to-surface missiles;
(4) A high state of alert imposed on the Egyptian air force since April 20 had been noted with some air force reservists being recalled on the third of May;
(5) Relocation and reactivation of various Egyptian air squadrons with shuffling to accommodate aircraft from Libya and Iraq;
(6) The evidence suggested that additional commando units may have moved closer to the Suez Canal since the middle of March; and (7) A report that the Egyptian staff had been ordered to prepare a detailed plan for an attack across the Canal…
Burr, William (2003) The October War and U.S. Policy. National Security Archives. 7 Oct 2003. Online available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/
Indications of Arab Intentions to Initiate Hostilities (2001) National Security Council Archives. Declassified. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-01.pdf
Intelligence Memorandum for Secretary Kissinger (1973) National Security Council. From William Quandt and Donald Stukel. WSAG Meeting, Middle East, Saturday October 6, 1973, 3:00 P.M. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-15.pdf
Memorandum of Conversation: Simcha Dinitz, Ambassador of Israel; Mordechai Shalev, Minister; Henry A. Kissinger, Assistant to the President; and Peter W. Rodman, NSC Staff. The White House. National Security Council Archives. Online available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB98/octwar-05.pdf
As a report entitled Politicizing the IAEA against Iran states, "….as the latest report indicates, the IAEA is being transformed from an objective international organization to a politicized one to be used by the United States and its allies to advance their agenda regarding Iran's uranium enrichment program."
In the final analysis there are no realistic options to a negotiated settlement of the problem. A solution will require both sides to renew diplomatic efforts in order to overcome their mutual distrust of one another.
liesner D. " A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything? ( 2010)
http://www.stormingmedia.us/22/2224/A222494.html ( Accessed 5 August, 2010).
Crail Peter, "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue,"
http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Iran_Nuclear_Proposals (accessed August 4, 2010).
"IAEA: Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007),1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran," http://isis-online.org/uploads/isis-reports/documents/IAEA_Report_Iran_18Feb2010.pdf ( Accessed…
Bliesner D. " A Nuclear Iran: Does This Change Everything? ( 2010)
http://www.stormingmedia.us/22/2224/A222494.html ( Accessed 5 August, 2010).
Crail Peter, "History of Official Proposals on the Iranian Nuclear Issue,"
http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/Iran_Nuclear_Proposals (accessed August 4, 2010).
The concept of "work from home" puts great importance to communication technologies as the "bridge" that will make it possible for the worker or employee at home to accomplish his/her tasks and responsibilities to his/her employer or office. Working from home does not require the individual to report for work everyday, and this saves the individual time and money, which would have been spent on commuting to and from work. Through communication technologies, more people are given the chance to create a semblance of a "work-life balance," wherein flexible time from working at home allows them to accomplish their work while at the same time, ensuring that house chores and other personal tasks are accomplished as well. This arrangement can also be applied from an inter-country perspective, wherein an employee from India need not report for work to its U.S. office or headquarters. Instead, deliverables are given through communication technologies,…