Object Relations Theory Essays (Examples)

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Object Relation Attachment Theories and

Words: 26278 Length: 55 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34405449

During the next chapter of this clinical case study dissertation, the Literature eview section, this researcher relates accessed information that contributes a sampling of previous research to begin to enhance the understanding needed to help a patient "grow" not only in therapy, but also in life.

CHAPTE II

LITEATUE EVIEW

The theories and techniques used in psychoanalysis are very diverse; Freudian analysis is only one approach."

Thomas and McGinnis, 1991, ¶ 1)

Diverse Contentions

One recent University of New Hampshire study indicated that 63% of more than 3,000 surveyed American parents surveyed reported experiences of one or more instances of verbal aggression toward children in their homes. A Child Protective Services study, albeit reported that only 6% of child abuse cases involved "emotional maltreatment," form of abuse in which verbal abuse constitutes the most common form of maltreatment. The apparent low number of "official" verbal abuse cases likely relates to…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.

Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic

Books.
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Personality in Psychology the Object-Relations

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18132771

As the individual grows, the extended family becomes an increasing part of his or her life. At a certain age, the individual goes to preschool or primary school, and thus becomes part of society as a whole. This is where the primary relationship with the first family unit plays its most important role.

I believe that object-relations theory has much to offer in terms of ensuring the healthy development of the individual during his or her first years. This development should be seen as the basis of future development, rather than the basis of all other relationships during the individual's life. Furthermore, I also feel that the theory can be used in combination with other theories in order to achieve a balance between the importance of the individual as self, as well as the individual as part of other entities, or "wholes," including the family, school, work, as well as…… [Read More]

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Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81813431

Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)

The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by aggressive and sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory puts forward the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them so as to improve interpersonal performance.

Basic Concepts in Object elations

The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not denote inanimate things but rather, it refers to significant individuals with whom one relates -- often, one's father, mother, or a primary caregiver. This term is also sometimes employed in referring to some part of an individual (e.g., the mental depictions of the important people in life,…… [Read More]

References

Good therapy. (2016, May 9). Who Practices Object Relations? Retrieved from GoodTherapy.org: http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/object-relations

IPI. (2016). Object Relations Therapy. Retrieved from International Psychotherapy Institute: http://www.theipi.org/about-ipi/teaching-philosophy/36-general/about-ipi/82-object-relations-therapy

Scharff, J., & Scharff, D. (1992). Scharff Notes: A Primer of Object Relations Therapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
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Psychoanalytic Model Object Relations

Words: 3548 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18922496

Psychoanalytic Model (Object elations)

In this paper, the object relations psychoanalytic model will be employed for solving a family issue; the family in question is taken from movie. The paper will further delineate key object relations concepts, the theory's assumptions, and its application to the aforementioned movie.

The chosen model

The object relations concept is a variant of the psychoanalytic theory, which deviates from the idea held by Sigmund Freud that mankind is driven by acts of aggression and that of sexual drives. Instead, psychoanalytic theory proposes the notion that man is primarily driven by a need to forge relationships with others (i.e. contact). Object relations therapists aim to aid clients in uncovering early mental pictures that can further any current problems in their associations with other people, and adapt them to improve interpersonal performance.

Basic Concepts in Object elations

The word 'object' in the object relations concept does not…… [Read More]

References

Balk, D. (1996). Models for understanding adolescent coping with bereavement. Death Studies, 20: 367-387.

___. (1990). The self-concepts of bereaved adolescents: Sibling death and its aftermath. Journal of Adolescent Research, 5(1): 112-132.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Daniel, V. (2007, October). Object Relations Theory. Retrieved from Sonoma State University: https://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/objectrelations.html
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Jasmine Dell Object Relations Case

Words: 2475 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12685037

A precursor behavior denotes to actions that happen before the difficulty. For instance, in the circumstance above there are some actions that happen before the setback. First, Jasmine parents are very strict basically forcing her to accept strict religious rules thus becoming very uncomfortable (Murdock, 2008). Also, Jasmine seems to go along with her father strict rules and seems to see everything in black and white thus making her feel as though her mother does not accept her. Jasmine begins not to like her parents because they really do not permit her to make independent decisions that are independent. Another behavior is that Danita is forced to move to America to stay with her parents. She does not agree with her parents strict rules and how they convince her. This really makes her more upset as she believes that her mother is not allowing her to make decisions of her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berman, P.S. (2009). Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning. Atlanta: Penguin.

Harris, N. (2007). Modern Psychotherapy. New York: READ BOOkS.

Kramer, U., Berger, T., & Caspar, F. (2009). Psychotherapeutic case conceptualization using plan analysis for bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(4), 352.

Murdock, N. (2008). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Case Approach. Canada: Peasron.
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Freud's Psycho-Analysis and Psychoanalytic Object

Words: 2209 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87702437

For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.

Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.

Stages of Development

According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds,…… [Read More]

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Freud and His Complete Theory of Grief Bereavement

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942874

Grief

Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement

Grade Course

Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.

Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258

Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
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Culture Freudian Theories Sigmund Freud

Words: 3527 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16801693



When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).

Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…… [Read More]

Reference List

A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:

http://homepage.newschool.edu/~quigleyt/vcs/psychoanalysis-intro.pdf

Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:

http://www.enlightennext.org/magazine/j17/wasist.asp
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Social Work Theory of Attachment

Words: 1898 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90172636



Grohol J. (2005). Attachment heory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory

Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. he site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. his article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. he article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment heory. New York: Routledge.

Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon

District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with…… [Read More]

The web site is an online resource for various definitions and explanation of various terms used in the language. The site contains list of words which are distributed in titles or categories. It is a comprehensive portal of the language.

Pietromonaco P.R. And Barrett L. F, (2000). Attachment Theory as an Organizing Framework: A view from different levels of analysis. Review of General Psychology, 4, No 2,107-110.

Review of General Psychology is a quarterly journal and publishes new theoretical, conceptual, or methodological articles that focus on the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology. It is an approved journal of American Psychological Association (APA). The writers of the article are renowned psychologists. Paula R. Pietrornonaco is teaching at University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Lisa Feldman Barrett at Boston College. The article encompasses most of the aspects of the diverse theory of attachment from its evolution to its present day status.
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Theory the Objective of This

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10371204

I often worry that my partner doesn't really love me or won't want to stay with me. I want to get very close to my partner, and this sometimes scares people away. (Fraley, 2004)

Fraley relates that it was found in the study of Hazan and Shaver "...based on this three-category measure...that the distribution of categories was similar to that observed in infancy. In other words, about 60% of adults classified themselves as secure; about 20% described themselves as avoidant; and about 20% described themselves as anxious-resistant." (2004) While measurement in this manner was "a useful way to study the association between attachment styles and relationship functioning, it didn't allow a full test of the hypothesis in the same kinds of individual differences observed in infants might be manifest among adults." (Fraley, 2004) Fraley states that the findings of rennan "suggested that there are two fundamental dimensions with respect to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borelli, Jessica L.; and David, Daryn H. (2003-2004) Imagination, Cognition and Personality. Volume 23, Number 4 / 2003-2004. Attachment Theory and Research as a Guide to Psychotherapy Practice. Yale University. Online Baywood Publishing Company, Inc. Amityville, NY. Online available at http://baywood.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,2,6;journal,14,102;linkingpublicationresults,1:300311,1

Tuovila, Pirjo (2007)What Are Fathers for? Attachment Theory and the Significance of Fathers. European Centennial Conference to Celebrate the Birth of Dr. John Bowlby, the Founder of Attachment Theory. Tampere Hall, Finland, 1-2 February 2007.

Levine, Robert a. (2002) Attachment Research as an Ideological Movement: Preliminary Statement. Revised from presentation at the ISSBD, 2002, Ottawa. Harvard University.

Blizard, Ruth a. (1997) the origins of Disassociate Identity Disorder from an Object Relations and Attachment Theory Perspective. Journal of Dissociation. Vol. X No. 4, December, 1997.
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Theories What Are the Explanations

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41122908

203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."

This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic

Books, Inc., Publishers.

Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.

Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
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Constructivism Theory in International Politics

Words: 1996 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57479901

Constructivist theory is one of the theories of the international relations emerged in the 1990s posing a challenge to the dominant liberal and realist theoretical paradigms. By taking different theoretical approaches to viewing the international systems, constructivist theory emphasizes on the material objects "rather than the mere existence of the objects themselves". (Cristol, 2011 p 1), for example, nuclear weapons in North Korea, and the United Kingdom may be identical materially, however, they possess different meaning to the US policy makers. Moreover, constructivists place a greater emphasizes on identity, norm development and idealist powers than other theoretical paradigms in international relations.

The objective of this paper is to discuss the theory of constructivism with reference to the international relations.

Statement of Problems

The international relations theory has been dominated by the theory of liberalism, realism, and pluralism for several decades. However, there has been a departure from the neo-classical theory…… [Read More]

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Nurse-Patient Relations the Main Focus of This

Words: 2161 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77240679

Nurse-Patient Relations

The main focus of this essay is going to concern the nurse-patient relationship idea, and why it is important. This was chosen because the researcher desired to achieve a better accepting of how a helpful nurse-patient relationship can be advanced and even from different theorists who have discovered this idea. In this essay, the researcher sets out to demonstrate what they have learnt regarding the nurse-patient relation concept and how this connection can utilized in the clinical practice setting. T The nurse patient connection, according to a study done by Press Gamey Associates Inc., creates the quality of the care experience and generates an influential influence on patient gratification. Nurses will a lot of their time with patients. Patients see nurses' relations with people among the care team and make their own conclusions about the hospital founded on what they are observing. Furthermore, nurses' approaches toward their vocation,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berdes, C. & . (2001). Race relations and caregiving relationships: A qualitative examination of perspectives from residents and nurses aides in three nursing homes. Research on Aging, 23(1), 109-126.

Biering, P. (2002). Caring for the involuntarily hospitalized adolescent: The issue of power in the nurse-patient relationship. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 16(2), 65-74.

Heijkenskjold, K.B. (2010). The patients dignity from the nurses perspective. Nursing Ethics, 6(3), 313-24.

LaSala, C.A.-B. (2007). The role of the clinical nurse specialist in promoting evidence-based practice and effecting positive patient outcomes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 38(6), 262-70.
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Counseling Theories & 8230 THERE Is No

Words: 2699 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41114157

& #8230; in its heyday there was elitism and arrogance among psychoanalysts, a sense of having superior knowledge that set us up for a fall" (Altman, ¶ 3). In a field that claims to possess knowledge of the unconscious, Altman asserts, this constitutes an occupational hazard. To counter the temptation to feel more knowledgeable than others, whether patients or the public in general, therapists who practice psychoanalytic therapy, need to remember that the depths of their own unconscious realms are as unfathomable as those they treat.

Psychoanalysis, nevertheless, possesses particularly valuable offerings, despite numerous attacks on meaning. Due to the fact that people currently, continuing to move faster and faster as they pursue success and security. Consequently, "thoughtfulness and self-reflection get crowded out. People are instrumentalized, working around the clock, on their cell phones and e-mail and Blackberries, allowing themselves to be exploited in the service of the corporate bottom…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Altman. N. (2007). Renewing psychoanalysis for the 21st century. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy. Heldref Publications. Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam

Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-171440479.html

Bacal, H.A. (2007). Discussion of Judy Pickles's case presentation from the perspective of psychoanalytic specificity theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry. The Analytic Press, Inc.

Retrieved October 01, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
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Gender and International Relations International

Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58775378

57).

Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Theory Therapy Levy Meehan Kelly

Words: 4158 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86662734



Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…… [Read More]

References

Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.

Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.

Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.

Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
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Theory Help You to Make Sense of

Words: 3357 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34639519

Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?

Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.

But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…… [Read More]

References

Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.

Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.

Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.

Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
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Theory What Are the Major Concepts of

Words: 1456 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 846924

Theory

What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?

Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…… [Read More]

References

Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.

Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm

Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online:  http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm 

Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
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Theories Which Attest to the

Words: 412 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44994321

Butler believes that gender differences stem from the cultural practice of emulating gender biased acts over a long period of time. Thus, the male may act possessive over the female because that what has been reproduced within his own culture time and time again. This is then a more culturally-based philosophy, with less reliance on the psychology of the isolated individual.

Within the context of social work, both theorists also take individual stances. Chodorow believes that the worker should take a more passive stance to their client, based on Freud's techniques first seen in psychoanalysis. Thus, social workers use empathy to tune into the subconscious of the client, and in a very passive and non-threatening way that the client may not even consciously realize. With threats minimized in the context of the session, the social worker can then get a better and unbiased understanding of the client. Butler presents the…… [Read More]

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Theories of Human Development

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69465517

Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development

Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development

Similarities

Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…… [Read More]

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Relation Between Culture and Dream and Use of Those Element in the Art Work

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98092538

Culture, Dreams, And Artwork

Dreams and artwork are two things that seem to provide an invitation for interpretation, and cultural perspective is almost always going to influence that interpretation. At first blush, this statement may seem to fly in the face of Jungian interpretation, since the collective unconscious and the enduring interpretation of symbols might suggest that symbols would not vary across cultures. However, such an interpretation ignores the fact that Jung acknowledges the impact that individual culture has on the interpreter. While symbols may retain a broader overall meaning across cultures, the details of those symbols are certainly influenced by the surrounding culture. Moreover, some symbols may be culturally specific. In fact, this paper will discuss the veil and its relation to Islam, and how the surrounding culture can color interpretations of the veil in art and in dreams.

Because the symbols in dreams and artwork are influenced by…… [Read More]

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Social Work Antonio Case Study

Words: 2204 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22496961

This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.

If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…… [Read More]

References

"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological

Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html

Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.

Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
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Relationship and Development of Child's Personality --

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21206330

relationship and development of child's personality -- developmental theories in Integrative psychotherapy and their use by working with clients

The foundation of our daily lives is created on the relationships that we have with other people. This contact with others, a feeling of reverence it produces and the relational needs it satisfies are all the requirements for us. Our capability to make complete contact with others is frequently disturbed as we confront the unavoidable sufferings of life, either large or small. Psychological dysfunction will result if contact decreases and relational needs get curtailed. Through a method called Integrative Psychotherapy, people can revive their capability to uphold real relationships and improved psychological health. The integrative psychotherapy is based on oger's client-centered therapy, Berne's transactional analysis, Perls Gestalt therapy, Kohut's self-psychology, and also the contributions of British object-relations theorists. (Erskine; Moursund; Trautmann, 1999)

Integrative Psychotherapy:

Integrative psychotherapy involves a practice of psychotherapy…… [Read More]

References

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet; Trautmann, Rebecca. (1999) "Beyond Empathy - A Therapy of Contact-In Relationship" Brunner/Mazel. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-empathy.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Moursund, Janet. (1998) "Integrative Psychotherapy in Action" Gestalt Journal Press. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/book-integrative.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G. "Introjection, Psychic Presence and Parent Ego States: Considerations for Psychotherapy" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/article-introjection.html  Accessed on May 12, 2005

Erskine, Richard G; Trautmann, Rebecca. "Resolving Intra-psychic Conflict: Psychotherapy of Parent Ego States" Institute for Integrative Psychotherapy. Retrieved from  http://integrativetherapy.com/article-resolving.html
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Munchausen's Syndrome Is There a

Words: 1941 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16916711

1529). Linked to but separate from attachment theory, cognitive theories focus on identifying deficient or distorted cognitive structures and processes that may contribute to a disorder (Mash & Barkley, 2003). Taken together, the foregoing findings suggest that both attachment theory and cognitive theory could be used to help identify internal and external factors that may contribute to the development of Munchausen's syndrome.

eferences

Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Press.

Gomez, J. (1993). Psychological and psychiatric problems in men. London: outledge.

Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and attachment theory. London: outledge.

Jacoby, D.B. & Youngson, .M. (2005). Encyclopedia of family health. New York: Marshall

Cavendish.

Mash, E.J. & Barkley, .A. (2003). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.

Murray, J.B. (1997). Munchausen syndrome/Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Journal of Psychology, 131(3),…… [Read More]

References

Buchanan, G.M. & Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Explanatory style. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

Erlbaum Associates.

Ford, C.V. (1996). Lies!, Lies!! Lies!!! The psychology of deceit. Washington, DC: American

Psychiatric Press.
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Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology

Words: 3161 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16183152



Diversity and Psychology

There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in 2003. The American Psychological Associations' 2002 Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists published in 2003 both stressed the importance of moving from a mono-cultural school of thought to a multicultural perspective and that these 'new rules' acknowledge an appreciation of differences as well as an "understanding of the inherent ambiguity and complexity in psychological practice (Pack-rown & Williams, 2003; Manesse, Saito, & Rodolfa, 2004). Knapp and VandeCreek (2003) said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities. The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologist. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377-402.

Barbour, I. (2000). When science meets religion: Enemies, strangers, partners? San

Francisco: Harper.

Blumenthal, A. (2001). A Wundt primer: The operating characteristics of consciousness.
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LICSW and LP Both Licensed

Words: 3779 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14661736

It is true that a LP is required to have a doctoral degree in order to meet one of the requirements for getting a license to practice psychology, while a LCW only needs to have a MC, but this is not a criterion to distinguish a LP from LCW as the former being more academically suited for a job in a health care setting than the other. "A psychology whose primary rationale is to promote social justice need not throw away its scientific aspirations. Indeed, the things it studies will be more rigorously arrived at. Hence its methods of solution will e more scientific than ever" (Bradley, 2005, p.3).

The globalization world is requiring disciplines to cooperate and help people in the twenty-first century cope with technological advances, scientific breakthroughs and new challenges that changed the pace of our society's development from one century to another. Walls between nations are…… [Read More]

Swann I.A. (1998) Grounded Encounter Therapy: its characteristics and process. Clinical Sociology Review 6, 76-87

Weiner I.B., et alii.2003. Handbook of Psychology: Clinical psychology. Hoboken. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

Weiten, W. 2008. Belmont. Psychology: Themes and Variations. Cengage Learning
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Psychodynamic Coaching in the Workplace

Words: 1632 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63326967

Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching in the Workplace:

Workplace coaching is a term that refers to the process of equipping people in the working environment with necessary tools, opportunities, and knowledge for total development in order to enhance their effectiveness from an individual, organizational, and work perspective. Workplace coaching has emerged as a major concept in modern organizations since leaders, researchers, and organizations have identified it as a crucial competency in leadership and management (Cacioppe, n.d.). The increase in this practice has also been attributed to the fact that employees continue to request for coaching. As an important competency in leadership and management, workplace coaching has assumed different perspectives and approaches because of the existence of various coaching models such as Systemic Psychodynamic Coaching model.

The Concept of Workplace Coaching:

As previously mentioned, the concept of workplace coaching can be defined as the knowledge, skills, and processes through which people engage themselves…… [Read More]

References:

Azmatullah, S. (2013). The coach's mind manual: enhancing coaching practice with neuroscience, psychology and mindfulness. New York, NY: Routledge

Beck, U.C. (2011). Psychodynamic coaching: focus and depth. Great Britain: The Studio

Publishing Services Ltd.

Cacioppe, R. (n.d.). Why Workplace Coaching and Why Now? Retrieved May 19, 2014, from  http://www.integral.org.au/why-coaching-in-the-workplace-and-why-now
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Responding to Clinical and Ethical Dilemmas

Words: 3345 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58255935

MSW college

Addressing internalized oppression as a presenting problem

Understanding and significance

The domain in which social workers practice and the outcomes achieved therein are hence-based essentially on the relationships forged and nurtured, irrespective of any interceding elements or theoretical methodology being followed. Social workers often face queries on ethical and moral grounds, specifically when faced with the power transactions that pervade within communities; that more often than not are in contrast to their own professional ethics. Mullaly (2002) explains this predicament lucidly- oppression, "is the subservience practiced on large groups by more powerful (economically, politically, culturally and socially) class as perceived by the public in general." (p.27). Work in the domain of emancipation of the oppressed class requires an understanding of the cause and effect of the manifestation on the societal as well as personal psyche. The philosophy of oppression and consequent oppression mostly revolve around, predominantly, feminism, radicalism,…… [Read More]

Reference

Birkenmaier, J., Berg-Weger, M., & Dewees, M.P. (2014).The Practice of Generalist Social Work. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Campbell, C. (2003). Anti-oppressive social work. Promoting equity and social justice. Halifax. Author.

Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of race.

Freud, S., & Krug, S. (2002). Beyond the code of ethics, part I: Complexities of ethical decision making in social work practice. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 83(5), 474-482.
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Illuminate the Influence of Parents

Words: 2000 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65384303

36). Thus, such research could also generate results which point to the truths of human words and actions of parents that contribute to healthy and unhealthy relationships with alcohol. In this case, these findings would not be as the result of numbers, but would be as the result of uncovered viewpoints and perspectives verbalized by the participants.

Potential Questions:

Which parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, uninvolved) in the Jewish community (Ashkanas, Hasidic, Sfardy) connects most strongly with college freshman (18-26) alcohol abuse and alcohol maturity?

How do offspring's perspectives on their parents' parenting styles impact their relationship with alcohol as it manifests during college years in the Jewish community?

How do parenting styles characterized by warmth and attentiveness impact children's consumption of alcohol in the college years in the Jewish community?

How do parenting styles characterized by high expectations, structure and rigidity impact children's relationship to alcohol during college years…… [Read More]

References

Balter, L. (2000). Parenthood in America: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Benson, J.B.; Haith, M.M. (2009). Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood. San Diego: Academic Press.

Cohen, D., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting Styles, Adolescent Substance Use, and Academic Achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 199-211.

Houghton, E., & Roche, a. (2001). Learning About Drinking. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
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System Theory the Origin and

Words: 4711 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99908857

However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).

Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.

Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.

Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
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Is the Perception of Objects in Infants Related to IQ During Adolescence

Words: 2240 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19629741

peception of objects in infants elated to IQ duing adolescence?

The tem "social cognition" epesents the fundamental capabilities of childen to peceive an object, categoize, emembe, evaluate, thing and eact appopiately (Dilalla, 2007). This poposal ecognizes the boad definition of the tem, but it emphasizes on the multidisciplinay quality of eseach fo this pape. Nevetheless, scientific disciplines vay in thei emphasis on vaious elements of this sophisticated constuct. In social psychology, the tem illustates a wide ange of happenings including moal easoning, fomation of attitudes and steeotyping. In neuoscience, it defines the tem as the capability to peceive the intentions and dispositions of othe people. On the othe hand, developmental psychology descibes the tem as the theoy of mind, the ecognition that people have beliefs and inteests divegent, and it is possible to explain behavio by efeing to the beliefs and inteests.

This poposal adopts the above definition because acoss…… [Read More]

references for novel and familiar stimuli. Advances in infancy research, 5, 69-95.

McCall, R.B., & Carriger, M. (1993). A meta-analysis of infant habituation and recognition memory performance as predictors of later IQ. Child Development, 64, 57-

79.

Quinn, P.C., & Johnson, M.H. (2000). Global before basic object categorization. Infancy, 1, 31-

46.
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Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation Any Theory

Words: 2664 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53620833

Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation

Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.

Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.

Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html

Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
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Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of Risk

Words: 4457 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67940104

Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk

Definition of isk

The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.

This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…… [Read More]

References

Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s

Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.

Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.

Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
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Military Theory

Words: 5275 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32003274

Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon

The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.

Napoleon's Focus

The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…… [Read More]

References

Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046

Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from:  http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html 

Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453

Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from: http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1
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Bioecological Theory Bioecological Model Differs From Others

Words: 2639 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71801296

Bioecological Theory

Bioecological model differs from others in that it charts and describes the development of the human and the group over the spectrum of the life course, through successive generations both past and present.

The model consists of four principal components and the prime dynamic, interactive element that guides them. The four processes are:

the forms of interaction between organism and environment, usually called 'proximal processes that due to interaction between organism and environment effect human development

Persons -- the individual who is effected by the processes (proximal process)

the environment (socio-geo-historical etc.) in which the proximal processes occur and impact

Time -- the period in which the proximal processes occur.

Characteristics of the person can shape the proximal process and there are three key typologies that are actually predominant. These are:

Dispositions -- these set the processes in motion in a particular direction and sustain their trajectory

2.…… [Read More]

References

Adamsons, K., O'Brien, M., & Pasley, K. (2007). An ecological approach to father involvement in biological and stepfather families. Fathering, 5, 129 -- 147.

Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, PA (2006). The bioecological model of human development, Handbook of Child Psychology, 1, 793-828

Hetherington, D. & Parke, G. (1999) Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill

McAlister AL, Perry CL, & Parcel GS. (2008) How Individuals, Environments, and Health Behaviors Interact: Social Cognitive Theory. In: Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 4th Edition. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Integrated Theory

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89798470

Integrated Theory

Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()

Prevalence

In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2), 222-226.
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Sociological Theory Sociology There Were Several Theories

Words: 1215 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68955335

Sociological Theory

Sociology

There were several theories that I found interesting as a part of the course, yet the theory that I connected with most personally was Symbolic Interaction. This theory was established first by George Herbert Mead, who coined the phrase "symbolic interactionism" first. The theory has been present in the field of sociology for several decades, and after the death of Mead, other sociologists took on the theory in their own works, studies, and theories. This theory is one of my favorites for a few reasons, one of which is because I believe I have seen it at work in my own life and in the interactions of others in their lives.

I also agree with the validity of this theory because I feel that it coincides with other theories in other fields, such as psychology. There are psychologists, such as Freudian psychologists and Lacanian psychologists that have…… [Read More]

References:

Sage Publishing. (nd). Chapter 16: Symbolic Interactionist Theories of Identity. Web, Available from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/50436_ch_16.pdf. 2013 July 08.

Shott, S. (1979). Emotion and Social Life: A Symbolic Interactionist Analysis. The American Journal of Sociology, 84(6), 1317 -- 1334. 2013 July 08.

Smith, Ronald W. And Bugni, Valerie, "Symbolic interaction theory and architecture" (2006). Faculty Publications (S). Paper 5. Available from: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/sociology_pubs/5. 2013 July 08.
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Vgotsky v Piaget's Theory of

Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97080520

Children also gain an insight into the conservation of numbers, mass, and weight; which allows them to understand that just because the image of object changes that does not mean the nature of the object has to change with it. For example, children in this stage can tell that a cup of water is the same amount despite being poured into two different cups. Children also learn to classify objects by several features based on increased schemes from more external stimuli. Finally, the formal operational stage represents the state of the mind from eleven years onward. In this, there is logical abstract thinking, which goes beyond the child's immediate environment and incorporates abstract concepts. Children learn to test hypothesis using reason and the human mind looks forward into the future and the abstract hypothetical. According to Piaget, these stages are universal and occur within every individual.

There is another side…… [Read More]

Daniels, Harry. (2005). An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.

Minick, Norris. (2005). The development of Vygotsky's thought: an introduction to Thinking and Speech. An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.

Piaget, Jean & Inhelder, Barbel. (1999). The Psychology of the Child. Basic Books.
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Plato's Theory of Being and Becoming and

Words: 3170 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35466888

Plato's theory of eing and ecoming, and its relations to the forms, is rooted in the dichotomy between being and not-being. Prior to Socrates the Sophists, from Parminedes to Gorgias, had argued that because it was impossible by definition for Nothing to exist, it was impossible to describe or vocalize a negative state, and therefore also impossible to utter falsehood. "And now arises the greatest difficulty of all. If Not-being is inconceivable, how can Not-being be refuted? (Plato, Sophist) All that could be said must be somehow true, as false speech would not be speech and therefore could not be uttered. eing was arranged across the divide from an incomprehensible and/or impossible Not-eing. In addition, the nature of eing itself was somewhat suspect, as it was seen alternately as a great static or fluctuation One-ness, or as a multitude of ones; either position had flaws.

When Socrates/Plato arrived at a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

McFarlane, Thomas. "Plato's Parmenides." Integral Science. Dec 1998.

Moravcsik, Julius. "Being and Meaning in the Sophist." Acta Philosophica Fennica 14, (1962)

Sayre, Kenneth. Plato's late ontology. A riddle resolved. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1983.

Plato. Sophist. Project Gutenberg Edition.
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Plato's Theory of Forms

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99129174

Plato's theory of forms promotes the belief that two objects can never be equal, regardless of their apparent similarity. Concepts cannot be defined by their appearance, as they actually need to be defined by their nature. People thus come to define objects by trying to associate them with the closest ideas that they can think of and that is similar to these respective objects. The Ancient Greek philosopher practically wanted people to understand that form was a very complex concepts and that it would be wrong for someone to attempt to define an object simply by looking at its appearance.

While a table might be defined by someone as being an idea that cannot be discussed as a result of the rigidity of the concept's form, matters can actually be more complex than someone might be inclined to believe. For example, something like a tree stump might be used by…… [Read More]

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Psychology Concepts of Psychology Theories

Words: 1907 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92469574

It may be necessary to start with continuous conditioning and gradually increase the fixed number of responses necessary for a reinforcer to be delivered. The nature of this schedule "produces a high rate of responding, with a pause after the reinforcer is delivered" (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219), and then another burst of responses.

ith a variable-ratio schedule, responses follow a steady pattern, with few pauses after the reinforcer is delivered. Here, reinforcement follows an average number of responses that is varied between trials (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219). A participant may need to respond 25 times in one trial to receive reinforcement, whereas the second trial will require 20 responses for the delivered reinforcer. hile each trial is unpredictable, more trials bring the ratio of response to reinforcement to a predetermined average (Hockenbury, 2003, p. 219).

Interval schedules use time to determine the delivery of the reinforcer. ith a fixed-interval schedule,…… [Read More]

Wiley & Sons.

Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L., & Kenney, W.L. (2008). Physiology of sports and exercise (4th

ed.). Champaigne, IL: Human Kinetics.
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Boudon 2001 Theories of Social

Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87823124

For example, Tocqueville was able to explain 18th century European aristocrat behavior by looking at social consequences. Like Tocqueville, Marx believed that they could explain individual actions by looking at subconscious class interests. Frey has demonstrated that people will accept individually negative outcomes, if they have positive group benefits.

Nietzsche believed that, while conscious of class interests, individual actions and beliefs should be viewed from an individual perspective, since they are motivated by the positive consequences to the individual actor. In discussing his theory of bounded rationality, Simon seemed to combine elements from the different theorist, by showing how social actions include cognitive dimensions.

3. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?

Again, the author does not make it clear how he feels human actions and other forms of human behavior are different. Instead, he explains how various theorists have attempted to differentiate human…… [Read More]

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Personality Development Most Personality Theories

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77661972

shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.

Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality…… [Read More]

References

AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
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Improving Public Relations between the Police Department and the Citizens

Words: 5895 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22172329

Abstract

In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…… [Read More]

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Aristotle's Theory to a Decsion

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56925868

"(Eliot, 850) She cannot help but comply because she had been humiliated and wounded, and she feels morally guilty. Had Rosamond acted in abidance of Aristotle's Ethics, she would have received Dorothea but she would have done so as a result of her own determination. A person is good if he or she is able to deliberate virtuously, according to the context and the circumstances of a certain situation. Rosamond on the contrary feels compelled to act the way she does, simply because she is in a state of psychological bafflement but she does not actually see the truth of the situation and neither is she able to act virtuously. She merely receives the good Dorothea tensely, endeavoring to guess the reason of her visit.

Catharine's conversion to her own traditional religion is determined by a very different motivation. She determines to become faithful to her own culture because she…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. Trans. David Ross. Rev. By J.L. Ackrill and J.O. Urmson: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. New York: Penguin, 1984.

McNickle, D'Arcy. The Surrounded. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1965.
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Film Theory

Words: 2093 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29431991

Film Theory

The canonical model of the purely cinematic (Eisenstein, Kracauer, Bazin) starts disappearing in contemporary theory. Most film theorists since the 1970s (Baudry, Wollen, Mulvey, Stam/Shohat, or Jameson, etc.) Explain in different ways how the textual (content and form, the film text itself) and institutional have merged together. Choose two theorists for whom the institutional issues are integrally connected to the textual ones, and explain their insights about reading cinema.

Laura Mulvey's piece, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" is divided into three sections. The first section is the introduction, the next section is called "Pleasure in Looking: Fascination with the Human Form." The third section is called "Woman as Image, Man as Bearer of the Look," which is followed by a summary of the entire work. Mulvey makes numerous assertions in her work, but one of her primary intentions of "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" is to call serious,…… [Read More]

References:

Diawara, M. 1993. Noir by Noirs: Towards a New Realism in Black Cinema. African-American Review, 27(4), 525 -- 537.

Hooks, B. 1991. Micheaux: Celebrating Blackness. Black American Literature Forum: Black Film Issue, 25(2), 351 -- 360.

Hooks, B. 1992. The Oppositional Gaze: Black Female Spectators. Black Looks: Race and Representation. South End Press, Boston.

Mulvey, L. 2004. Beyond the Gaze: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms -- Special Issue. Signs, 30(1), 1286 -- 000.
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Rational Choice Theory

Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79002233

ational Choice Theory

History and Development of ational Choice theory

When we are faced with a decision, there are always some options involved. Which path is the correct one, which option would best serve our purpose, which choice appears most suitable are some of the key questions on which we base our decision. Man by nature is interested in maximization of his profits whether professional or personal. No one would deliberately want to take a risk that is bound to go awry. In almost every case, man carefully studies the situation and then chooses the best option available to him. And this is not something limited to money matters but extends itself to almost every area of life including social relationships, religion, politics etc.

ational choice is thus defined as: "A choice of a course of actions is "rational" if it results in a maximization of well-being. In short, rational…… [Read More]

References

Green, Donald, and Ian Shapiro. 1994. Pathologies of Rational Choice. New Haven, CT, and London: Yale University Press.

Selected articles from The Rational Choice Controversy: Economic Models of Politics Reconsidered, edited by Jeffrey Friedman

Mark Johnson, George Lakoff: Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books New York.1999

David Gauthier, Morals by Agreement: Oxford University Press. Oxford, England. 1986
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Bics Cals Linguistic Theories Bics Cals Theory

Words: 1018 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18116867

In "model sheltered instruction courses, language and content objectives are systematically woven into the curriculum of one particular subject area, such as 4th grade language arts, U.S. history, algebra, or life science" (Echevarria & Short 5). Students receive academic support in abstract-level reasoning as well as instruction in ESL. SIOP classrooms are extremely individuated, to take advantage of different levels of academic as well as linguistic proficiency.

Perhaps the most valuable insight of the BICS/CALS model is that it highlights how "problems arise when teachers and administrators think that a child is proficient in a language when they demonstrate good social English" (Hayes 2004, cited by Hernandez). For example, the child of Cambodian immigrants might have great experience in interpreting for their parents, and know how to speak English at a high level to order in a restaurant or to talk to customers at their parent's store, but they may…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hernandez, Myra. ESL Guide for the mainstream teacher. Trenton k-12.

Retrieved March 26, 2009 at http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/robbins/ESL%20Guide%20for%20the%20Mainstream%20Teacher.htm#BICS%20and%20CALP

Ledbetter, Robin & Jin Seo. BICS/CALS. Cross culture Ed.

Retrieved March 26, 2009 at http://www.crosscultured.com/articles/bicscalp.pdf
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Ethical Theories in Nursing

Words: 4777 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74406948

Nursing Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Significance of Moral in Nursing

Deontology vs. Utilitarianism

Deontology

Utilitarianism

Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics

Justice Ethics

Care Ethics

ights Ethics

Conflict of ights

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.

The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…… [Read More]

References

Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange

Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).

Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19

Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
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Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Compared to

Words: 2886 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4005352

Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?

Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

Carl ogers

Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…… [Read More]

References

Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging

Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.

DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.

Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
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U S China Trading Relations the

Words: 3988 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64670750

Fueled by massive inflows of foreign direct investment, rising exports, and one of the highest personal savings rates (around 40% of GNP) in the world, this exceptional economic performance has translated into a tripling of per capita incomes. A better material existence is apparent from the provision of food, clothing, and housing for the vast majority of China's 1.3 billion people to the widespread availability of basic consumer durables such as refrigerators, washing machines, and television sets for an increasingly large number of households.: China's growing prosperity was evident by explosive construction throughout the country (Shanghai reportedly has 20% of the world's high-rise construction cranes currently in operation) and by a proliferation of services such as restaurants, fashionable boutiques, movies, and discos in the cities. For the growing and increasingly consumer-oriented middle class, shopping and dressing fashionably is definitely "in." (Ahearn, 1998)

The businesses of China are managed by people…… [Read More]

Bibliography

China's Post-Tiananmen Windfall (2001) Human Events 23 Apr 2001. ProQuest Information and Learning Company.

Gries, Peter Hays (2005) China Eyes the Hegemon. 2005 Published by Elsevier Limited on behalf of Foreign Policy Research Institute. Summer 2005. Online available at  http://www.ou.edu/uschina/gries/articles/texts/Gries2005ChinaEyesHegemon.pdf 

Larsen, Rick, and Kirk, Mark (2005) Congress and the Updating of the U.S.-China Relationship. The National Bureau of Asian Research. Vol. 16, No. 5 Dec. 2005. Online available at http://www.nbar.org/publications/analysis/pdf/vol16no5.pdf

Boon, Lin, and Tan, Benjamin (2002) Impact of Industrialization on Acculturation of Managers in the Global Marketplace. 1 Jan 2002. Singapore Management Review. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/international-law/102407-1.html
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Nursing & Education Theory This

Words: 5668 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34391212

" (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that it is precisely "this movement along a maturity gradient that Mezirow regards as a form of emancipatory learning..." (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that according to Mezirow "emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control." (Jarvis, nd) Mezirow suggests that there are various levels of reflection which exist over the course of the individual's life and states that seven of these which occur during adult learning are those as follows:

reflectivity;

Affective reflectivity;

Discriminant reflectivity;

Judgmental reflectivity;

Conceptual reflectivity;

Psychic reflectivity; and Theoretical reflectivity. (Jarvis, nd)

II. MARGARET NEWMAN

Newman writes in the work entitled: "Health as Expanding Consciousness" that intuition plays a key role in her life and for example, in the books that she chooses to read, the people she meets, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Benner is Back! (2008) FOUCHE December 2008, Vol. 24, No. 2. Online available at http://www.Fouche.org.za/index.php/FOUCHE/article/viewFile/63/63

Benner P. From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1984.

Boverie, Patricia Eileen, and Kroth, Michael (2001) Transforming Work: The Five Keys to Achieving Trust, Commitment and Passion in the Workplace. 2001 Basic Books.

Dreyfus HL, Dreyfus S. A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. Unpublished study, University of California, Berkeley, 1980.
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Communication Theories in Relationships

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66044508

Dramatism and Theory of Narrative as applied in early stages of a relationship

In understanding the dynamics and nature of human relationships and interaction, two important theories emerge to aptly describe how these processes are conducted: Dramatism and the Theory of Narrative. Dramatism, formulated by Kenneth urke, brings into focus the significance of act or action in communication and interaction. More than a motion or movement, actions are considered as "purposeful, voluntary behaviors" wherein reality and meaning are interpreted and given essence by the communicator. The theory of narrative by Walter Fisher, meanwhile, centers on the importance of narratives as primary determinants in motivating the communicator to interact in a particular manner. While urke's Dramatism involves actions, Fisher's theory includes the role of stories as factors that shape the actions and rational thought of the individual while communicating and interacting.

In understanding the nature of early stages in a relationship,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lindlof, T. (2002). Qualitative Communication Research Methods. CA: Sage Publications.

Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Human Communication. CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
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Epistemology and Meta-Theory of Sound

Words: 1414 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11358809



For instance, according to Slaatte (1968), the "paradox of the paradox per se refers to two opposite properties of the paradox itself: its sheer impertinence to reason, on the one hand, and its profounder pertinence to reason, on the other" (p. 6). From Slaatte's perspective, "Truth is seen in vital relation to the self in his existence-as-he-experiences-it; it is not related as though one object is thrust upon another. If truth is to be known, it must be something in which we are perennially involved as knowing subjects and from which, as persons, we are never exempt" (p. 33). This means that companies today must ensure that mechanisms are in place to ensure that any analysis of their environment takes into account the potential for such bias and constraints, and identify appropriate ways of overcoming these limitations.

Although there are a wide range of tools and techniques available for accomplishing…… [Read More]

References

Baden-Fuller, C., & Volberda, H.W. (1997). Strategic renewal: How large complex organizations prepare for the future. International Studies of Management & Organization, 27(2), 95.

Carper W.B., & Snizek, W.E. (1980). The nature and types of organizational taxonomies: An overview. Academy of Management Review, 5(1), 65-75.

Doherty, N. & Delener, N. (2001). Chaos theory: Marketing and management implications. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9(4), 66-75.

Harcar, T.D., & Khalil, O.E.M. (1999). Relationship marketing and data quality management. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 64(2), 26.
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Complexity Theory Public Sector

Words: 1799 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90380942

Complexity Theory in the Public Sector

The objective of this work is to examine complexity theory in the public sector. According to Paul Cairney in the work entitled "Complexity Theory in Public Policy" the term complexity "has relevance to a wide range of theories in public policy which describe the replacement of the simple "clubby days' of early post-war politics by complex relationships at multiple levels of government and among a huge politically active population." (2010, p.1) The focus on complexity, according to Cairney (2010) is "indirect and vague." (p.l) It is of the nature that indicates that there should be a shift in analysis "from individuals parts of a political system to the system as a whole; as a network of elements that interact and combine to produce systemic behavior that cannot be broken down into the actions of its constituent parts." (Cairney, 2010, p.1)

Defining Complexity Theory

Complexity…… [Read More]

References

Agaard, Peter (nd) The Promise and Facts of Emergent Strategy in Public Management. Retrieved from: http://egpa2010.com/documents/PSG11/Aagaard.pdf

Burren, Arwin van (nd) Knowledge Management for Government: Public-Private Communities of Practice and the Challenge of Co-Evolution. Paper presented at the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. 30 Aug -1 Sept. Retrieved from: http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/7710/BSK-CDMN-2006-002.pdf

Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/121_665.pdf

Mitchell, M. (2009) Complexity (Oxford: Oxford University Press) in: Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/121_665.pdf
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Organization Development and Complexity Theory

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27582047

Businesses constantly face the need to update, the need to innovate. With these businesses come its leaders who feel the same bombardment at all levels. The speed at which change arises causes the lifecycles of typical businesses and the products they sell to last just a short time unless they learn to successfully adapt. As Keen (2000), explains: "Change is seen as necessary merely to survive; transformation is required to thrive and a constant need for reinvention is needed to secure long-term success (Keene, 2000, p. 15). In order to meet those demands, sometimes businesses may use a method or theory to help them.

Complexity science is a recently examined field of study. It is fast-growing, in use across all dimensions of business. Complexity science is a term typically used to signify an increasing body of interdisciplinary studies about the structure, behaviour and dynamics of change in a particular category…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, P. (1999). Perspective: Complexity Theory and Organization Science. Organization Science, 10(3). doi:10.1287/orsc.10.3.216

Dolan, S.L., Garcia, S., & Auerbach, A. (2003). Understanding and Managing Chaos in Organisations. International Journal of Management, 20(1), 23-37.

Griffin, D., Shaw, P., & Stacey, R. (1999). Knowing and Acting in Conditions of Uncertainty: A Complexity Perspective. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 12(3), 295-310. doi:10.1023/A:1022403802302

Keene, A. (2000). Complexity theory: the changing role of leadership. Industrial and Commercial Training, 32(1), 15-18.
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Sociocultural Video Analysis Theory Summary

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37419615

One student comments at the end of the video that the most difficult part of the experiment was setting it up, and that the project mostly proceeded by trial and error. Although trial and error is an important mode of learning, it should not necessarily be the primary one. Perhaps if student learning had better incorporated the "artifacts" of scientific equipment, students would have been better able to focus their work and determine which tools and strategies would have been effective in advance (John-Steiner and Mahn, 1996, p. 199). To combat this, part of the lesson could have been redesigned to include information on the various equipment students could employ, and, for future work, could include a review of this information at the end of the experiment.

Another strategy that could be used to help solidify learning in this community of practice would be to ask the student pairs to…… [Read More]

References

Annenberg Media -- Investigating Crickets. (1999). Retrieved February 27, 2011, from  http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1413 

Ash, D. And Levitt, K. "Working Within the Zone of Proximal Development: Formative Assessment as Professional Development." Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(1): 1-313, 2003.

John-Steiner, V., and Mahn, H. "Sociocultural Approaches to Learning and Development: A Vygotskian Framework." Educational Psychologist. 31(3/4): 191-206. 1996.

Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational psychology: Developing learners (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.