For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.
Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.
Stages of Development
According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds, it leads to psychopathology.
Within the framework of this theory, the process towards the goal of adult autonomy is referred to as separation-individuation. From birth, the infant's first experience of separation-individuation is referred to as "autism" or withdrawal. During the first three years of life, this is followed by symbiosis, which is generally established with the mother or other caregiver. As the child grows to a less dependent state, further separation occurs from the primary caregiver, after which individuation takes place, also from the primary caregiver. After these stages, the chid then achieves "object constancy." This means that the child is able to internalize the primary caregiver and hold the image in his or her memory. At this stage, identity formation also takes place, which means a blueprint is formed for the identity or personality of the individual the child is to become. The healthy formation of object constancy and identity are vital for healthy...
As the childe matures, object constancy and identity continue to strengthen and works along with the separation and individuation processes to provide the growing child with a sense of self as separate from others, but also in relationship with others.
The model proposed by the object relations theory is much more focused upon the development of mental processes than processes that relate to the body. Of course sexual functioning does play a role in cases of sexual abuse, where it could lead to trauma and the halt of development. However, it is primarily a mental model. Freud, on the other hand, uses sexual processes to describe the development stages of the child. From birth to 1 or 2 years old, the child for example focuses upon the mouth as erogenous zone. The physical relationship with the primary caregiver is primarily oral as well. The child derives pleasure from suckling, and also explores his or her environment by chewing and tasting items. The ego and body also develop during this stage.
The second stage, from 1-3 years, is anal, where bowel and bladder elimination are the primary physical concerns of the child. Here toilet training features primarily in the child's physical as well as ego development.
From 3-6 years old, the child's development is the phallic stage, where boys potentially develop the Oedipus complex and girls the Electra complex. The Electra complex did not originate with Freud, but was added only later by Jung. During this stage, the genitals become the primary erogenous zone, although gratification does not take the form of adult sexuality. Children however become increasingly aware of their own bodies, those of other children, and those of their parents as well. This is derived from Freud's observations of children who play "doctor" with each other or asking their parents about their genitals.
Freud's theories therefore appear to focus excessively upon the physical and sexual. As psychoanalysis was in its infancy at the time, one might understand this paradigm based on the fact that Freud could only comment on what he could see. Naturally he related his observations to the physical; not yet having the equipment or knowledge to examine the mental processes behind physical behavior. Nevertheless, both theories contribute significantly to the general understanding of…
The picture is indeed emerging here of Freud as a chauvinist, perhaps (in the opinion of this paper) suffering from some testosterone imbalance himself; and perhaps, as Mahony writes on page 33 of his journal article, Freud was projecting his "male-bound wishes and fantasies" when he imagined that at the moment Mr. K first accosted Dora and "pressed his erection against her" she then experienced "an analogous change" (Freud's quote)
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object Relation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves
Modern civilization required more sublimation and repression of desires, both sexual and destructive aggressive desires, than most people were capable of maintaining for long periods without either physical, or psychological, illnesses developing. 'Civilization', in early twentieth century Europe in particular, required too much renunciation of the release of instinctual desires, from which pleasure could be derived, so that many people became physically, psychologically, or psycho-somatically, ill and discomforted, or,
psychoanalytic as portrayed by H. Segal. It has sources. Psychoanalytic approach to aesthetics can best be understood by understanding the theory/ies that guide us on the study of this particularly complex discipline. The theory and guidelines of psychoanalytic approach enable us to offer some insight into the worlds of literature, art and music, and on the other hand, it also allows us to better understand artists' perception and inner approaches
Super ego. In Freud's model, the final element of personality to develop is the superego. According to Cherry, "The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society -- our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments" (2010, para. 3). Freud believed that the superego first starts to emerge during
Character "Little Miss Sunshine" Case Study of Character "Little Miss Sunshine" Course Code The film that we are going to focus on in this essay is "Little Miss Sunshine." The film was released in 2006. It was directed by Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris and written by Michael Arndt. The film stars Steve Carell, Toni Collette, Greg Kinnear, and Abigail Breslin. Abigail Breslin was the lead character of this film as she played