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ocean pollution, and how it is affecting marine life. It will also look at what is being done to control pollution in the United States and around the world.
OCEAN POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTS
There are numerous pollutants contaminating the world's oceans - they have been building up for hundreds of years, and they are both man-made and natural, although man-made pollutants are much more common than natural pollutants. Over 900,000 gallons of oil spills into the oceans every year, either from leaking tankers, oil spills, or leaks from oil dredging machinery. "In 1997, the 22 oil spills reported worldwide involved a total of 15 million gallons (57 million liters) of oil" ("ater Pollution").
Marine pollution by oil is also extremely harmful to anything the oil touches. It contaminates beaches, rocks, and of course, all the animals it touches. Oil adheres to poisons that are fat-soluble, such as DDT. This…
Editors. "Marine Pollution Control Programs." Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. 9 Nov. 2002. http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/regs/
Fowler, B.A. "Toxics in the Biosphere." The Global Environment: Are we Overreacting. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1989.
Water Pollution." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000.
Woodard, Colin. Ocean's End: Travels Through Endangered Seas. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;
c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.
A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.
A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…
Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…
Hill, Marquita K., 2010, Understanding Environmental Pollution, Cambridge University
Press, New York City, 585
Katsanevakis, Stelios, 2008, Marine Debris, A Growing Problem: Sources, Distribution, Composition, and Impacts, in Hofer, T.N., ed., Marine Pollution: New Research, Nova Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, p. 54-75.
Moore, Charles, 2003, Trashed: Across the Pacific Ocean, Plastics, Plastics, Everywhere,
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…
Anon., n.d. [Online]
Available at: http://www.enesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SC/pdf/interagency_blue_paper_ocean_rioPlus20.pdf
Anonson R., B. B. J. F. P. W. e. a., 2003. Causes of Corol ref degradation.. [Online].
Business Dictionary, n.d. [Online]
Sea around Us
Rachel Carson was a scientist and author who took a topic which had hitherto been only of interest to fellow scientists and opened it up to the masses. During her lifetime, she took up many causes in support of wildlife and the protection of species and protecting the natural landscape from potential molestation from developers and others who would destroy indigenous habitats. Among her many missions was to make people aware of the hazards of certain chemicals on the environment, such as pesticides on vegetation. In Rachel Carson's book The Sea around Us, the author strives to explain the mysteries of the sea. She begins with a discussion of the world of water from before recorded history, all the way up to the book's present which was the early 1950s. Her essential thesis of the piece is that although science has allowed the people of the world…
Cafaro, Philip. "Thoreau, Leopold, and Carson: Toward an Environmental Virtue Ethics." 22.
2001. 3-17. Print.
Carson, Rachel. The Sea Around Us. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 1991. Print.
Pauly, Daniel. "The Sea Around Us Project: Documenting and Communicating Global Fisheries
Coral reefs began declining when more and more large fish, turtles and seals were killed, species which in the past had frequented coral reef systems. The "reduced visits" have led to a reduced number of herbivorous fish and "added nutrients from pollution" all of which result in seaweed overgrowth and destruction of the reef (Houlder, 2003).
Methods for Addressing Over fishing
The government has encouraged many fisheries and local agents to develop strategic plans for combating the problem of deep sea over fishing. In particular much attention has been spent on an 'ecosystem' approach to fishery management which is adaptive, geographically specified and works to balance diverse objectives (Shotton, 2003). An ecosystem approach aims at "conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems and the fishery resource" (Shotton, 2003).
Longlines can be weighted so that bait sinks faster, and hooks can be set at night, thus reducing the impacts on…
Clarke, T. (September, 2003). "North sea fish have shrunk." Nature Science - European
Cetacean Bycatch Campaign. 1, December 2004: http://www.eurocbc.org/northsea_number_small_fish_increased_due_to_overfishing_25sept2003page1290.html
CSI. "Destructive Fishing Practices." Conservation Science Institute. 1, December, 2004 from: http://www.conservationinstitute.org/destructivefishingpractices.htm
Dayton, P.K., Thrush, S.F., Agardy, M.T., & Hofman, R.J. (1995). "Environmental effects of marine fishing." Aquatic Conservation 5: 205-32
Conservation of ocean or marine life has attracted significant attention in recent years given the devastating impacts of human activities on these ecosystems. This paper examines a study conducted to promote conservation of marine or ocean life across the globe. The review demonstrates the significance of combining policy interventions and management interventions to achieve this.
Ocean or marine areas cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Even though the depths of these areas are yet to be fully explored or exploited, they are habitats for a huge portion of the world’s biodiversity and essential in global climate change (Addis, p.5). Ocean or marine biodiversity is recognized across the globe as an essential component of life not only in the oceans, but also on Earth. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development states that ocean or marine areas are key components of the Earth’s ecosystem to an extent that…
Features of the Ocean Floor
As one travels away from the continents, water depths increase in a systematic manner.
Closest to the continents are continental shelves with water depth typically less than 1000 m. Continental shelves were formed as rivers carried tons of particles of sand and soil from the land out to sea. This sand and soil then settled as layers of sediments, or layers of particles of rock and animal remains.
Commonly at the distal edge of the continental shelves, there is a marked continental slope where water depths increase quickly. The continental slope separates the continental shelf from the ocean floor.
The continental rises, located at the base of the continental slopes, mark the beginning of the deep ocean basins.
Submarine canyons commonly occur along continental margins and transport sediment from the margins down into the deep ocean basins.
B. Mid Ocean idges
Loomis, Jennifer. "Observe the origins of some ocean floor sediments. " Exploring Earth.
Exploring Earth. 18 Mar. 2005 < http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2305/es2305page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization>.
"Unit 7: The Ocean Floor." Pass.leon.k12.fl.us. Pass.leon.k12.fl.us. 18 Mar. 2005 <
The NATUNA SEA sinking incident occurred on October 3, 2000 on the rock-strewn outcrop of Batu Berhanti in Indonesia when it was headed to Jinzhou, China. The grounding of the NATUNA SEA took place approximately 6NM from the tanker’s manager’s office (Ferguson, 2002). This incident had devastating effects because of the oil spill into the sea, which was nearly 3 years after the EVOIKOS oil spill. Since the occurrence of this incident, the shipping industries in Singapore and Indonesia have embarked on several initiatives to prevent future accidents and their subsequent oil spills. These industries have also been keen in ensuring oil pollution from such incidents are avoided or mitigated. However, there is need for more initiatives to be undertaken by the shipping industry in order to prevent and deal with such incidents in an effective manner.
Brief Description of the Ship
NATUNA SEA was a Panamanian tanker that was…
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
In the article titled: "Plastic garbage in oceans: Understanding marine pollution from microplastic particles," discussion starts with the danger posed by microplastic particles to numerous marine life that inhabit the oceans and seas. These "large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk." The smallest objects within the range of particles that make up the pollution are microplastic particles which not only pose the greatest risk in harming marine wildlife, but also remain the least investigated pollutant. The article wishes to show how efforts are being undertaken to establish standardized guidelines to help record and characterize microplastic particles in the sea for analysis and measurement of its impact on marine wildlife.
When observing the source of these microplastic particles, the investigators note the water bottles in and around the shorelines and the pieces of plastic floating in the water creating the…
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) Blacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, ' http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Pollution: Smells Like Money." Financial Times, Feb. 18.
Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. (2005). "Too Little, Too Late to Check Pollution." Financial Times, Feb. 17.
Dodson, Stanley I. And Anthony R. Ives. (1998). Ecology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, Rob. (2005). "Study Reveals Cancer Risk to Unborn Babies from City-Center Air Pollution." Sunday Herald, Feb. 20.
Yellow River Pollution
A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)
Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government…
China Invests in Yellow River Tributary Treatment (2012) China Xinhuanet News. Retrieved from: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-04/26/c_131554014.htm
China's Yellow River Choking On Pollution (2006) China.Org.CN. Retrieved from: http://www.china.org.cn/english/environment/192263.htm
China's Yellow River Plagued by Pollution (2005) Environmental News Network. 26 May 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1643
City Governments Fined for Yellow River Pollution (2010) China Daily. 11 Mar 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-03/11/content_9574818.htm
Riding a bike to work or school immediately reduces the carbon footprint that otherwise would be left from the exhaust of your car. Taking a bus, a trolley, carpooling or walking -- any of these modes of transportation is being "green" instead of contributing to pollution and to global climate change. it's true that every mile you drive your car, you produce exhaust waste, and so over a year's time of driving your car to work or school, you are adding thousands of pounds of pollutants to the air that every one breathes.
When shopping for groceries, use a cotton bag or other reusable shopping bag rather than letting the checker fill plastic bags with your purchases. Plastic bags (it is well-known) find their way onto the sidewalks, roadways, in fields and in waterways, and they cause injuries and death to wildlife, and so it is always a good way…
Wilson also believes that the key solution to the problem of plastic in the oceans is to stop producing plastic products in such massive quantities and for consumers to stop using plastic products. The next step according to Wilson is to get involved in cleanups such as beach cleanups and so forth, get involved in campaigns to eliminate products that produce the problem, and demand that companies take responsibility for the issue.
While the notion of actually going out and cleaning up the plastic out of the ocean may be a lot more complicated than the Ocean Cleanup Array proposal suggests, Wilson's solution to the issue is rather simplistic as well. For years environmentalists have been trying to get companies to be responsible for their actions and to get consumers to use biodegradable containers and yet there does not seem to be any end to the increasing number of plastic…
Moreover, this reader found Wilson's skepticism a bit too overarching; Wilson would most likely be skeptical of any program that would attempt to clean up the massive amounts of plastic garbage already in the oceans as opposed to just letting it all wash on the beaches and then picking it up and yet Wilson discusses how ultraviolet light acting on plastic in the ocean causes it to break down and all the issues and dangerous associated with the plastic already out there. He does not really give a time frame as to how long the Gyre Memory effect will take to rid the oceans of a significant amount of plastic; however, the Ocean Cleanup Array proposal claims that a good deal of the plastic could be cleaned out of the ocean within five years. At least that is a target estimate.
It seems to this writer that the real solution is not to be passive about the plastic that is already in the ocean as Wilson is or not to only rely on cleaning up the ocean as the Ocean Cleanup Array proposal suggests. It is very obvious that this is a serious issue and that action needs to be taken on both ends of the spectrum. Wilson's idea of actually getting involved on the consumer and production end is certainly feasible and something needs to be done, but just sitting around passively waiting for all the plastic that is in the ocean to wash up on shore is simply a form of non-action. Likewise, the Ocean Cleanup Array proposal suggests action and even if it is unfeasible there certainly needs to be some direct action to clean up the oceans. It seems of this writer that the solution is to attack the problem from both angles instead of simply concentrating on one of them.
The article is here: http://inhabitat.com/the-fallacy-of-cleaning-the-gyres-of-plastic-with-a-floating-ocean-cleanup-array/
Sea Shipping Services in Europe
The study aims to identify the impact, benefits, and drawback of implementing a short sea shipping policy within Greece. Within the paper, arguments have been made for supporting the adoption of the policy, and there have been clear facts presented. The paper also attempts to make comparisons between the different modes of transport available with an aim to show how cost effective and environmentally friendly short sea shipping is to a country. The results presented are backed by previous research that has shown the impact of marine transportation and made comparisons with road or rail transportation.
Short Sea Shipping is defined as the movement of passengers and cargo by sea, between ports that have a shared coastline without crossing an ocean. Short seas shipping has been at the forefront of the European Union's transport policy mainly because it offers the potential to reduce road congestion…
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…
Emad, AA., Sayed, M.E., and Kassem K.O. (nd) Computer Simulation for Dispersion of Air Pollution Released from a Line Source According to Gaussian Model. Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics, Natural Sciences, Engineering & Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, April 2010. Online available at: http://ampublisher.com/April%202010/CMNSEM-1004-013.pdf.
Hemann, J. And Granger, B. (nd ) Parallel Computing with IPython: An Application to Air Pollution Modeling. Available online at: http://conference.scipy.org/scipy2010/slides/josh_hemann_airpollution_acrobat.pdf
Maringanti, Chetan and Chaubey, Indrajeet (nd ) High Performance Computing Application to Address Non-Point Source Pollution at a Watershed Level. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Purdue University. Online available at: https://engineering.purdue.edu/ecohydrology/Chetan/ASABE2009.pdf
Swarms of Tiny Robots to Monitor Water Pollution (2002) Daily University Science News. UNISCI online available at: http://www.unisci.com/stories/20021/0114026.htm
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…
Colls, J 2002, Air Pollution, Spon Press, London.
Friends of Earth 2009, Briefing Pyrolysis, Gasification and Plasma, Friends of Earth Limited Company, viewed 25 January 2011, < http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf >.
Hill, T 2010, Pyrolysis and Gasification briefing, UK without incineration, viewed 25 January 2011, <
Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.
Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…
Air Pollution in Bahrain: Real-time Air Quality Index Visual Map (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://aqicn.org/map/bahrain/
Bahrain Economic Development Board (2017). Water. Retrieved online: http://www.bahrain.com/en/bi/key-investment-sectors/Pages/Water.aspx#.WQ5rmInyuRs
CIA World Factbook (2016). Bahrain Urbanization. Retrieved online: http://www.indexmundi.com/bahrain/urbanization.html
Fowler, S.W. (1993). Pollution in the Gulf. IAEA Bulletin. Retrieved online: https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/35205980913.pdf
It should not be a difficult question to answer: we must begin reducing ocean pollution and taking steps to prohibit overfishing of our ocean shallows.
The plan that is formulated to address the overfishing and man-made pollutants in the coral reefs must be conducted by authorities in marine and ecological sciences. It must be conducted on two levels: the fishing industry associated with the catches on the coral reefs; and the pollutants that are introduced into the coral reefs through contact with man. This can be done by monitoring commercial tourism and diving industries, which claim there is no residual effect on the coral reefs (Carrier, James, and McLeod, Donald, 2005, p. 315).
The Plan for Preserving the Coral eefs
Action Items in the correct order)
esearch and identify the effects of overfishing of species found in coral reefs.
eview fishing data as it pertains to catches,…
BBC/Discovery Channel (2006). Planet Earth: Shallow Seas, documentary film,
Discovery Channel, 12 October 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009915994
Carrier, J.G., & Macleod, D.V. (2005). Bursting the Bubble: The Socio-Cultural Context of Ecotourism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 11(2), 315+. Retrieved October 26, 2008, from Questia database:
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
Besides the fact that flooding destroys agricultural lands leading to a disruption of food supplies to millions of people, one also has to consider the social impact on areas where there are large population groups. This can lead to forced migration and often to refugee situations, with all the related negative social implications. .
Another important aspect is the increase in serious diseases as a result of global warming. Scientists warn that an increase in temperature also means that infectious diseases could become more widespread. Infectious diseases carried by insects and rodents may also appear in new areas and regions where the population may be unprepared to deal with them. This has already been seen in cases of serious insect -- borne disease, such as Dengue fever, Malaria, West Nile virus, and Yellow Fever.
One also has or bear in mind that in order to understand the devastating effects of…
Climate change responsible for 300,000 deaths a year. Retrieved from http://www.peopleandplanet.net/doc.php?id=3574
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
This is important, because physics has allowed the combustible engine to provide the world with a cost effective solution for traveling long distance. Sadly, the electric car can only be used for short to medium distances. Then, there is another potential problem that could be developing with the lithium batteries that are used, where China control 95% to 100% the resources for these batteries (lithium). This is problematic because they could restrict how much they are exporting (which they already have) to ensure that there is enough supply for the country to meet its own internal demand. (ryce 2010)
Despite this dire news, there are increased effort within the industry to support the use and development of such new technologies, to work in conjunction with the combustible engine. An example of this support for such technologies can be seen by the fact several oil companies hold the patents on several…
2011 Volt, 2010, Chevrolet. Available from: [25 April 2010].
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Fuel Efficiency Standard, 2009, MSNBC. Available from: [25 April 2010].
In Indonesia, this shoreline litter covers about 90% of the upper shore.
How plastic debris affect marine life
There are two major ways in which detrimental effects to marine life occur. One is when these marine animals become snarled up in the marine debris and the other way is when they ingest the plastic wastes. Some of the materials which can cause the snarl up are pieces of fish lines or nets and rings which are used to bind six-pack beverages. These materials can cause the marine animals to drown or suffocate thus killing them. Death can also be an effect of the materials strangling the animals or starvation when the animal is trapped and unable to reach any food. These materials can also cause severe injuries to the animals. Entanglement is especially important to sea lions and seals. These animals are known to have a curious nature like that…
Allsopp, Michelle, et al. Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, 2006. Print.
Arthur, Courtney. Plastic Marine Debris: An in-Depth Look2010. Print.
Dong-Oh, Cho. "The Incentive Program for Fishermen to Collect Marine Debris in Korea." Marine Pollution Bulletin 58.3 (2009): 415-17. Print.
Jose G.B, Derraik. "The Pollution of the Marine Environment by Plastic Debris: A Review." Marine Pollution Bulletin 44.9 (2002): 842-52. Print.
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
"From the junction of the East and West Forks the Trinity River continues southeast, forming all or part of the county lines between Kaufman and Ellis, Ellis and enderson, enderson and Navarro, Freestone and Anderson, Anderson and Leon, Leon and ouston, and ouston and Madison counties. It then cuts across northern Walker County to form a portion of the county line between Walker and Trinity counties and continues as the county line between Trinity and San Jacinto and Polk counties. At the northern line of Liberty County the Trinity turns almost directly south, cutting across Liberty and Chambers counties, to drain into Trinity Bay just west of Anahuac (at 29°45' N, 94°42' W)."
So it is easy to see how complicated any undertaking at revitalization of the river would be. The pollution that plagues the Trinity are not so unlike other rivers across the country that have been successfully revitalized;…
Handbook of Texas Online, s.v.," http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/TT/rnt2.html (Accessed May 8, 2007).
Ingrassia, 2000, p. 20.
United Way 2000-2002 Annual Report to Metropolitan Chicago, p. 6.
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
Flags of Convenience as they pertain to maritime oil pollution. The writer explores UN and MARPOL mandates and discusses the Flags of Convenience. The writer then ties them into maritime oil pollution and presents recommendations for how this might be solved. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.
As the world populations continues to grow and live longer than ever before it has become apparent that natural resources must be guarded with the utmost care and protection. It is those natural resources allow mankind to survive therefore their preservation is paramount to the success of the future. One of the biggest threats to the eco-system today is the threat of oil pollution. Through spills, dumping and other accidents the oil pollution in the world has threatened significant areas of the eco-system that are depended on. In recent decades there have been measurements taken to prevent oil pollution from…
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).
Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.
Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…
Alberts S. Obama boosts hopes of climate deal. 24 November, 2009.
Balaam David N. And Veseth M. Introduction to International Political Economy.
London: Prentice Hall, 1995
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…
Alvarez RA, Pacala SW, Winebrake JJ, Chameides WL, Hamburg SP. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. (2012), ProcNatlAcadSci USA.
Hansen, James, et al. "Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People Future Generations and Nature." PLOS One (2013). Review.
Heinberg R, Fridley D. The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468(7322): 2010, 367 -- 369. DOI: 10.1038/468367a.
International Energy Agency. 2010 Key world energy statistics, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.iea.org / textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key stats 2010.pdf
Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.
Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…
Helmer, Richard and Hespanhol, Ivanildo (eds.). "Water Pollution Control -- a Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles." London: Thomson Professional, 1997.
How the Scheme Works." Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme. New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency. 27 Nov. 2003. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/licensing/hrsts/how_the_scheme_works.htm .
James, David. "Environmental Incentives: Australian Experience with Economic Instruments for Environmental Management." Environmental Economic Research Paper No. 5. Australian Government: Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 1997. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.gov.au/about/publications/economics/incentives/trade.html.
Olifants River Basin, the." International Water Management Institute. 31 Oct. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007 http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Research_Impacts/Benchmark_Basins/Olifants.aspx.
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
For example, the soil in the Loess Plateau area is notoriously erodable and it is difficult to revegetate the steep slopes with a sufficiently dense cover of plantation and grass. Moreover, rainfall in the area is generally insufficient to support the growth of trees and plants even after their plantation; grazing by animals worsens the situation. Silt retention dams and structures in the silt-carrying gullies and valleys have proven more effective and thousands of dams have been built. As these dams are gradually filled up, the dam heights have to be raised. Such high retention dams, however, are a double-edged sword. Heavy once-in-a-century rains or powerful earthquakes could cause dams to break and initiate catastrophic landslides that would create even bigger floods that would do immense damage. Similarly, the Chinese have managed to control floods in the river by periodically raising the levees and the dykes but the unrelenting silt…
Chengrui, Mei, and Harold E. Dregne. "Review Article: Silt and the Future Development of China's Yellow River." The Geographical Journal. 167.1 (2001): 7.
Haihua, Tong. "Yellow River sewage spill spawns fish kill." China Daily. 2004-07-03. October 7, 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/09/content_346769.htm
Hoh, Erling. "Yellow River in Death Throes?" The Washington Times. August 31, 2001: 17.
Liang, Qiuhua. "Yellow River -- China's Sorrow" March, 20, 2002. October 7, 2006. http://users.ox.ac.uk/~wolf1016/yellow_river_flooding.htm
International Safety Management
ISM safety code
Acting as a mandatory regulation, ISM Code usually lays down standards of shipowner's responsibility for safe management of ships and pollution prevention accepted internationally. The obligation of the shipment owner is to establish, maintain as well as implement a Safety Management System that is to meet the ISM Code's requirements.
The aspects of civil liability's impact is to be focused on the impact on liability of shipowner for cargo loss or damage, in addition to shipowner's legal right to limit his liability for claims. Some of the concepts such as seaworthiness, actual fault and privity, crew's negligence, the role of the designated person and recklessness with knowledge are to be considered. There has already been a change in the conditions in terms of policies that meet the requirement of the ISM Code through Hull and Machinery (H & M) underwrites and protection…
Gold, E (1996). 'Lessons in Corporate Responsibility: Learn From Disaster?' The
ISM Code Implementation in Practice- Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses
Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, pg 15-18.
Levy, H (1996). 'The P & I Club -- How do the clubs evaluate the ISM Code'. The ISM Code Implementation in Practice -Corporate Risk: BIMCO Shipping Courses: Copenhagen, Denmark). BIMCO. Copenhagen: BIMCO, 15-18).
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
Two general approaches are used in connection with mangrove restoration. One method only focuses on the replanting of mangroves to replenish those that were lost. The other concentrates on discovering the reason for losses and preventing further loss of mangrove habitat. This philosophy supports natural recovery of the ecosystem, once the sources of destruction have been discovered and eliminated (Lewis & Streever, 2000). Both of these approaches have merit for different reasons.
The first option is to plant mangroves to replenish areas that have been lost. This method is the most costly in terms of capital input. However, it will result in the most rapid recovery of the mangrove forests. Natural recovery of the forests takes between 15-30 years, and that is only if the sources of destruction can be adequately controlled (Lewis & Streever, 2000). However, as mentioned earlier, replanting may be difficult, especially if the area has been…
Coastal Conservancy Association (CCA). (2007). CCA Florida Habitat Restoration Projects. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.ccaflorida.org/habitat.html .
CSIRO Australia (2001, February 14). Storm Surges Increase with Warming Oceans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 10, 2008, at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/02/010212073904.htm
Hill, K. (2001). What is a Lagoon? Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.sms.si.edu/irLspec/Whatsa_lagoon.htm .
Department of Environmental Protection (n.d.). Florida's Mangroves "Walking Trees" Florida Marine Research Institute. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.floridaplants.com/horticulture/mangrove.htm
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…
The plan would be the result of the scientific method, through which the impacts and causes of the current environmental problems would be addressed. Additionally, the scientific method would sit at the basis of the future actions to be taken. These would traditionally include:
The search for alternative sources of energy
The search for renewable sources of energy
The creation of an infrastructure which allowed the propagation and populous use of alternative energies
The education of the population to reduce their levels of consumerism to life necessities
The implementation of stricter regulations which punish economic agents who pollute waters or cut the forests in an unsustainable manner
eplant forests, clean waters and support the sustainable life of the endangered species.
At a smaller size and specific level, the alternative and immediate action to be taken is that of reducing the harvesting of krill by commercial fishermen. This would be achieved…
Leonard, A., The story of stuff, http://www.storyofstuff.com / last accessed on October 13, 2010
Naik, A., 2010, Ozone layer and global warming, Buzzle, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/ozone-layer-and-global-warming.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
Antarctic krill conservation project statement of principles and core goals, Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, http://www.krillcount.org/solutions.html last accessed on October 14, 2010
e. By salving the ship and cargo) (IMO, 1989). This was to acknowledge the need to treat environmental degradation as a global problem and to encourage sustainable practices on the part of all contractual parties involved international shipping.
Damage to the environment is defined as "substantial physical damage to human health or to marine life" and under the Convention the awarded "compensation consists of the salvor's expenses, plus up to 30% of these expenses if, thanks to the efforts of the salvor, environmental damage has been minimized or prevented (SCOPIC, 2007). The salvor's expenses and financial distress are defined as "out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred by the salvor in the salvage operation and a fair rate for equipment and personnel actually and reasonably used" (SCOPIC, 2007). The tribunal or arbitrator between the two parties alleging a breach of contract "may even reward 100% of the agreed upon sum, in light of…
"Chapter 5: Fundamental breach, deviation, quasi-deviation, and rupture of the contract."
July 8, 2009.
"International Convention on Salvage, 1989." International Maritime organization (IMO).
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
Cape Wind Project proposed for Cape Cod, and the political, economic, and social impacts to Cape Cod and Nantucket. The Cape Wind Project is a proposed wind-turbine project off the shoreline of Cape Cod in Massachusetts. Supporters of the project believe it is the right clean-air, renewable energy project for the area, and it will negate the need for an old, outdated fossil fuel electrical generating plant. Opponents believe it is the wrong project for the area, and it will reduce their quality of life, as well as block local fishermen from their livelihoods. Controversial and very public, the project has been debated since 2001, and it still has not begun construction.
I am David McCullough, author and historian, and I live full time on Cape Cod. I am adamantly opposed to the Cape Wind project for a number of compelling reasons. First and foremost, in my mind, is that…
Editors. "Wind Farms." Cape Cod Times. 2009. 19 May 2009.
Editors. "Cape Wind: The Economy." Save Our Sound. 2009. 19 May 2009.
Tehran's geography makes air pollution worse: the Alborz Mountains at its north side trap the increasing volume of pollutants and lead these to remain and hover over Tehran when the wind is not strong enough to blow them away. Furthermore, Tehran's high altitude makes fuel combustion inefficient and adds to the problem. Its altitude is between 3, 300 and 5,000 feet and it is in this space that the pollutants are trapped since the destruction of orchards and other vegetation especially in northern Tehran in the past decades by rapid development and human activity pressures. These natural and man-made factors together have made Tehran one of the most polluted cities in the world. Air pollution reached critical level in December 1999 when high levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants filled Tehran for many weeks. Deaths, diseases and skin conditions are attributed to extreme air pollution. Records say that more…
Energy Information Administration. (2002). Iran: Environmental Issues. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/iranenv.html
2005). Iran. Country Analysis Briefs.
CEFC and the Future of Environmental Finance
The Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) represents the most aggressive environmental finance initiative sponsored by the Australian Government to date. The CEFC is an independent entity established as part of the Clean Energy Future Policy by the Australian government. As of March 2012, funding for the program totaled AUS $10 billion in government backed investments for the commercialization and deployment of clean energy technologies. This research will explore the CEFC and its role in the development and deployment of environmentally friendly energy sources and alternatives.
Governments around the world recognize the need for developing clean and renewable energy sources that reduce their environmental impact. The topic of global warning and climate change has increased the need for the development of less energy intensive and environmentally damaging energy sources. Although the role of human beings in these changes is a topic of debate, it…
Business Innovation & Skills. 2011. The economics of the Green Investment Bank: Costs and Benefits, rationale and value for money. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/docs/e/12-554-economics-of-the-green-investment-bank.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Clean Energy Council. March 2012. Design Features of the Clean Energy Finance Corporation.Deloitte. [online] Available at: http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/...CEFC.../ ... [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Commonwealth of Australia. 2011. Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Expert Review. [online] Available at: http://www.cefcexpertreview.gov.au/content/Content.aspx?doc=report/default.htm [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Department for Business Innovation and Skills. 2012. UK Green Investment Bank. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
Brinkman Grills Analysis
The Brinkman Corporation is among the leading organizations involved in the manufacture of outdoor cookers, outdoor lighting, smokers, lawn, handheld lighting, and garden products. It also engages in the manufacture of pet products, boat covers, camping equipment, and emington hunting and fishing gear. The name of the company provides it with the desired position in the market. For instance, the name is symbolic and represents quality provision of products, selection, innovation, styling, reliability, and performance. Although Brinkman Company began in the past thirty years, it has grown to achieve its desired performance abilities alongside the competitiveness in the global market. Above all, the company strives to achieve the provision of products that meet consumer needs, thereby, realizing its operational objectives (Company, n.d.).
Diagram of the EESC of the Brinkman Corporation
The Extended Enterprise Supply Chain (EESC) of the company comprises of different of various stakeholders, resources, and…
Bernus, P., & Fox, M. (2005). Knowledge sharing in the integrated enterprise: strategies for the enterprise architect. New York: Springer.
Company Info | Brinkmann. (n.d.). Company Info | Brinkmann. Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.brinkmann.net/info/company_info.aspx
Dubbs, C., & Heberle, D. (2008). Smoking food: A beginner's guide. New York: Skyhorse Pub.
Siedel, G.J., & Haapio, H. (2011). Proactive law for managers: A hidden source of competitive advantage. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub. Company.
Transform Unsustainable Organization Into Sustainable One
Land and water management
Energy, carbon and transport management
Supply chain management
Waste, pollution, recycling management
Sustainability performance indicators
Long-term sustainability vision
The final report is prepared in conjunction with the ANW Construction Ltd. The report prepared to demonstrate the level of sustainability is effective in highlighting the key features that the business has implemented in its operations. The following sections are focused to the differences that a sustainable organization can have in comparison with the unsustainable business. The recommendations are made based on the academic and professional literature. The notable areas for sustainability in a business are addressed as land, water management, energy, carbon, transport management, supply chain management, waste, pollution, and recycling management. Furthermore the report also provides insight on the sustainability performance indicators, social sustainability, and long-term sustainability vision for businesses.
According to Bell, and Morse (2008)…
Alcamo, J., & Olesen, J.E. (2012). Life in Europe under climate change. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Bell, S., & Morse, S. (2008). Sustainability indicators: measuring the immeasurable?. USA: Earthscan.
Chang, C.M. (2010). Service Systems Management and Engineering: Creating Strategic Differentiation and Operational Excellence. USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Evans, N., Campbell, D., & Stonehouse, G. (2003). Strategic management for travel and tourism. USA: Routledge.
It is therefore quite important to evaluate each experience on its own merits, as well as to how well each experience is integrated into the overall picture. An evaluation form has been developed for each participant as well as the parents of that participant. The evaluation form will be handed out at the end of each of the camps (whether the attendee stayed for a one-week or the full three-week course will be noted) for completion and return to the directors of the camp.
After the evaluation forms have been returned, the responses contained therein will be analyzed and broken down into categories pertaining to each camp experience and how it (they) were perceived by the campers. Follow-up questionnaires can be sent to each participant on a bi-yearly basis in order to gauge what type of long-term effects the camps continue to have on the participants.
The project is proposed…
I am convinced that Mallin's theories are true. First, he adequately supports them with his own research data. These quantitative statistics are difficult to ignore. In addition, others have made similar relational connections between populations and shellfish bed closure. Bain concurs with Mallin that shellfish beds closures are on the rise. He cites Kevin McAllister, President of Peconic Baykeeper, in noting that one-third of the Great South Bay's shellfish beds were closed for harvesting because of fecal bacteria, in 2006 (1). A report in Columbian notes that aging septic tanks that overflow in the summertime were a primary factor in the 2003 closure of all of the Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe's oyster beds in Dungeness Bay ("Pollution Closes" C6).
There is one primary questions that I think need to be addressed to follow up Mallin's results. What are the effects of increased agriculture in these areas? Is it primarily development of…
Bain, Brandon. (19 May 2006). "Soaking up Harmful Runoff." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. p. 1
Mallin, Michael. (June 2006). "Wading in Waste." Scientific American. 294(6) pp. 53-59.
"Pollution Closes Tribe's Oyster Beds." (21 Sept 2003). Columbian. p. C6.
The Impact of a Borderless Society
Because of technology and the way in which society has evolved, people currently live in a world where there are virtually no geographic boundaries (Time, 2006). Goods and services can be transmitted anywhere, and people from all over the world can talk to one another via the internet and cell phones quickly and easily in real time. Even the food that is consumed by most people comes from places far away from them (Kloppenburg, et al., 1996). They have fresh fruit in cold weather areas of the United States in December, for example, and that fruit has to come from somewhere else. It is not possible to grow peaches in South Dakota in January, so there is no way that fruit is local. It had to be grown somewhere warm, picked, packed up, and shipped elsewhere. While there is nothing actually wrong…
Kloppenburg, J. Jr., Hendrickson, J., & Stevenson, G.W. (1996). Coming in to the foodshed. Agriculture and Human Values 13(3): 33-42
Time (2006). Local-Food Movement: The Lure of the 100-Mile Diet. Retrieved from http://www.time.com /time/magazine/article/0,9171,1200783,00.html#ixzz1wCS2WC46