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Oklahoma City Bombing
On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh detonated a bomb in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, committing the single most destructive act of domestic terrorism in United States history (U.S. Department of Justice, 2012). The Oklahoma City bombing, and particularly McVeigh's process of radicalization, is an ideal case study for understanding how the ideology of the militia movement is conducive to domestic terrorism, because although McVeigh and his co-conspirators were not acting in the name of any particular militia group, McVeigh's stated intentions as well as his personal history prior to the bombing indicate an ideological alignment with the militia movement. The case of the Oklahoma City bombing justifies the classification of militias as terrorist or potential terrorist organizations, because it demonstrates how the extremist ideology of the militia movement encourages the radicalization of individuals, even if the larger organizations themselves…
Kraska, P.B. (1998). Apocalypse in oklahoma: Waco and ruby ridge revenged. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 15(3), 577-581.
McBrearty, J. (2008). Patriots, politics, and the oklahoma city bombing. Choice, 45(9), 1626-
U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Domestic terrorism focus on militia extremism. Retrieved from website:
As far as preparedness for the events that happened on April 19, 1995, the federal government could in fact be cited as negligent. However, it was, as epresentative Key points out, not the desire of the government, or even the governor of Oklahoma at the time, to pursue an investigation as to the lack of preparedness for the events that took the lives of 169 people that day.
It leaves unanswered, too, the question of the man referred to as John Doe who was seen with McVeigh that day, and who was described as "Middle Eastern" by witnesses (Allen, 2008). The federal government has said that there was no such man, and that witnesses are confused in their recollections; witnesses adamantly stand by their recollections (Allen, 2008). Why, then, the question arises, would the government take the position that no such man exists? The only answer could be that the…
Dyer, J. (1998). Harvest of Rage: Why Oklahoma City Is Only the Beginning. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved April 4, 2008, from Questia database:
Moreover, the media plays a significant role as well in recognizing terrorism. Due to the media tendencies of quickly abandoning the story once it had lost its drama, issues on terrorism becomes any other news story that could be just thrown away and be forgotten. Thus, it is not surprising then that people fail to appreciate its context, or see it as one part of a long-running historical struggle. (Jackson, 2002).
Aside from these all, there seems to be wrong allocation of resources and focus of the government. Admittedly, one of the hardest parts in combating any terrorist behaviors like bombings and massive killings is that it had become a part of a political issue. It had been become a political issue because politicians begin to make statements about it, and a national political issue when Presidents make statements about it. Only when there were already men who had been…
Gareau, F. 2004. State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism. Clarity Press, Atlanta. Publication.
Hewitt, C. 2002. Understanding Terrorism in America: From the Klan to Al Qaeda. Routledge, New York. p. 1.
Homeland Security Technology." 2006. http://www.issues.org/18.2/bonvillian.html .
Jackson, R. 2002. The Discourses of Terrorism: Myths and Misconceptions Richard Jackson Discusses the Nature of Terror and Questions the Likelihood of Success in the Present
McVeigh's military background had already taught him all that he needed to know about weapons and explosives. He merely needed to obtain the proper materials and build a bomb. Some of the materials were bought and others were stolen. Then it was time to assemble the bomb. As CNN (2004) reports, co-conspirator "Fortier told the court that McVeigh had written to him in the fall of 1994, 'telling me him and Terry had decided to take some type of positive action, and he wanted to know if I wanted to help them.' Prosecutors contend Nichols and McVeigh began buying the fertilizer that was used in the Oklahoma City bomb during that period" (p. 1).
Many people saw McVeigh assembling the bomb at a nearby lake, but no one reported any suspicious activity. As the Homeland Security Newsletter explains, "McVeigh had pulled his yder moving van loaded with 55-gallon drums up…
Nichols participated in bomb plans, Fortier says (2004, April 21) CNN online. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com /2004/LAW/04/20/nichols.trial/index.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
feared terrorist acts in the history of United States where Oklahoma City was targeted as the place for criminal act. The intention of this paper is to give a brief overview of the event that took place in 1995 and the conspirators behind this criminal act. Their plot and details of attack have been elaborated in a well form, which discuss every aspect of the activity from plotting of the criminals and the after effects of the horrible incidents upon people who survived.
This horrible event of the history took place on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Downtown Oklahoma City scheduled for April 19, 1995 and according to the scheduled conspiracy, the criminal act took place right on time claiming hundreds of innocent lives (Giordano, Pg. 5). It is regarded as the most destructive terrorist attacks in the United States after which soon followed the 9/11 attacks on…
Giordano, Geraldine. The Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2003.
Hinman, Eve E. And David J. Hammond. Lessons from the Oklahoma City Bombing: Defensive Design Techniques. New York, N.Y.: ASCE Publications, 1997.
Hoffman, David. The Oklahoma City bombing and the politics of terror. Venice, Calif: Feral House, 1998.
Israel, Peter and Stephen Jones. Others Unknown Timothy Mcveigh And The Oklahoma City Bombing Conspiracy. New York: PublicAffairs, 2001.
Terror and Counterterrorism
9/11 is one instance of international terrorism because its planning and preparation transcended the national boundaries of the United States, and thus its perpetrators could have been prosecuted as international terrorists (Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code, 2015). Indeed, the counterterrorism activities before and after 9/11 indicate that there was a substantial and major shift in efforts to better comprehend and fight international terrorism post-9/11. A form of domestic terrorism, on the other hand, would be the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City by Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. The methodology involved in this plot was to use homemade items to construct a bomb that would blow up a federal building.
The Oklahoma City bombing occurred in 1995, six years prior to 9/11. Yet counterterrorism had not sufficiently developed in those intervening years to be able to prevent 9/11. Perhaps the…
Collins, J. (1997). Oklahoma City: The Weight of Evidence. Time. Retrieved from http://www.webcitation.org/5wow32pJd
Dawson, R. (2013). War by Deception. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pK6VLFdWJ4I
Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. (2015). FBI.gov. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Gazecki, W. (1997) The Rules of Engagement. Fifth Estate Productions.
McVeigh (Oklahoma City bomber) terms acts violence, childhood background, situational factors,
Timothy McVeigh will long be remembered as the Oklahoma City bomber and as the principle culprit of the bombing of that city's Murrah Federal Building the morning of April 19, 1995. The mass media was quick to vilify the then 26-year-old as an aberration -- someone who was driven by an unprovoked pathology to commit this act that resulted in 168 dead (including approximately 20 children in an on-site day care center) and which was inexplicable. However, a prolonged analysis into the background of McVeigh from his childhood through his days in the Armed Forces to the erratic behavior he exhibited prior to the bombing of the federal building demonstrates that from a psychological perspective, there are certainly explanations for McVeigh's actions. This document attempts to examine the myriad facets of McVeigh's life through the five axes of the…
Brown, B.L. (1999). "Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale (DSM - IV Axis V)." www.facstaff.gpc.edu / Retrieved from http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~bbrown/psyc2621/ch3/gaf.htm
No author. (2001). "Timothy McVeigh: convicted Oklahoma City bomber." CNN. Retrieved from http://archives.cnn.com/2001/U.S./03/29/profile.mcveigh/index.html
Linder, D.O. (2006). "The Oklahoma City Bombing & The Trial of Timothy McVeigh." www.law2umkc.edu. Retrieved from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/mcveighaccount.html
Walsh, D. (2001). "Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh: the making of a mass murderer." International Committee of the Fourth International. Retrieved from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2001/04/mcve-a19.html
There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).
3. Politics and decision making process
In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…
Department of Homeland Security, (2004). Catastrophic Incidence Annex. National Response
Plan. Pp1. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/Catastrophic_Incident_Annex.pdf
Homeland Security, (2005). Catastrophic Incident Supplement to the National Response
Plan. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://publicintelligence.net/catastrophic-incident-supplement-to-the-national-response-plan/
esearch Issues on the Topic of Terrorism
Written into the very word, terrorism is a fascinating social problem worth inquiry. The meaning of terrorism is an act of violence or other that paralyses the individual or society with a feeling of terror. That terror can be a product of the relative infrequency and therefore surprise and seeming senselessness associated with the event, such as in the case of large scale and broad violent acts against larger populations (like 9/11, or the Oklahoma City bombing in the U.S.). The form of terror might also grow out of the expectation of debilitating acts against others as a standard operating procedure during certain circumstances (like the support and at the very least complicity of commanders in times of often ethnic war where women of the "enemy" are frequently and violently raped as an act of aggression and show of power).
Ford, J.D., Adams, M.L., & Dailey, W.F. (2007). Psychological and health problems in a geographically proximate population time-sampled continuously for three months after the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incidents. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 20(2), 126-146. doi:10.1080/10615800701303215
Rothbart, G.S., Fine, M., & Sudman, S. (1982). On finding and interviewing the needles in the haystack: The use of multiplicity sampling. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(3), 408-421. doi:10.1086/268737
Unfortunately, September 11, 2001 was not the first major terrorist attack that took place on U.S. soil. Prior to 9/11, several other bombings really hit American defenses hard, causing emergency response teams to test their logistics plans like no other way possible. The 1995 bombing damaged 324 buildings, injured 680 people, and killed 168 (Giordano 2002). It was a shocker across the nation, and many emergency response agencies were involved in the aftermath that followed.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency was in charge of the federal relief strategy directly after the bombings took place. FEMA worked with local agencies and law enforcement which were the very first on the scene to deal with the carnage. Efforts of local agencies proved incredibly enduring and efficient, with the bomber Timothy McVeigh being apprehended shortly after the bombing took place. The initial response from local authorities and emergency response teams was…
City of Hampton. (2012). Emergency operations plan: Abstract. Emergency Management. The City of Hampton Virginia. Web. September 5, 2012 from http://hampton.gov/eoc/iframe.html?linkfrom=main&bc=Emergency%20Operations%20Plan%20%28abstract%29&url=./pdf/eop_abstract_2011.pdf
FEMA. (2011). FEMA Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2014. Web. September 2, 2012 from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/strategic_plan11.pdf
Giordano, Geraldine. (2002). The Oklahoma City Bombing. Rosen Publication Group.
But this seems to be an assumption athe than an established fact. Jugensmeye late points out that Abouhalima denies his involvement in the Wold Tade Cente bombing. If so, how can one know that Abouhalima was "disappointed" to see little damage? One can also see assumptions in the wods Jugensmeye uses. Fo example, Jugensmeye wites that Abouhalima "felt fee to talk about the subject of teoism in geneal and teoist incidents of which he was not accused, including the Oklahoma City fedeal building bombing."
Instead of witing, he "was not involved," Jugensmeye says he "he was not accused," as if Abouhalima could be accused of the Oklahoma City bombing.
Instead of making assumptions about Abouhalima, Jugensmeye could have focused on the contadictions in the actions and views of the Islamist militant and his appaent lack of knowledge in Islamic law. Jugensmeye povides evidence fo that by telling the stoy…
references to religious doctrines are almost always abstract and vague. As Jurgensmeyer's discussion of Abouhalima's ideological views demonstrates, Islamists like Abouhalima are not well-versed in Qur'anic studies or other Islamic core texts. It is important to critically examine the views of Abouhalima and other Islamist terrorists and expose their lack of Islamic knowledge and contradictions inherent in their views as this may help in discrediting them in the eyes of most Muslims.
Mark Jurgensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2001), p. 60.
Ibid, p. 61.
Ibid, p. 62.
Ibid, p. 61.
" (Lindsey, 2004, p.1) it is interesting to note that one of the young protestors stated: "[the world leaders] are sitting over there on Sea Island having their little party only talking about how to fix things, but we are over here actually doing something to make things better" -- Laurel Paget-Seekins (Lindsey, 2004, p. 1) the U.S.A. Patriot Act has been touted to do just this - or to make things better in terms of security of American citizens and it is certain that the provisions of this Act have served to increase levels of security for American citizens but this security has come with a cost attached and for some Americans the cost is too high and too intrusive upon their basic civil rights. One such instance of the complexity created within the security paradigm are the no-fly lists that have been implemented in U.S. airports since September…
Bohn, Kevin (2003) Patriot Act Reports Documents Civil Rights Complaints. 31 July 2003. CNN Law Center. Online available at http://www.cnn.com /2003/LAW/07/21/justice.civil.liberties/index.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
September 11th shocked and enraged many people, in the United States and around the world. With that shock came a cry for change, a tightening of the open and free society in which we live. September 11th was an unprecedented occurrence, leaving many people personally affected and still others traumatized by the severity of the events and the seemingly senseless act against civilians. "What happened on September 11 is unparalleled by anything we have ever known. The attacks killed more than 5,000 people, injured tens of thousands more, and caused economic hardship and grief to hundreds of thousands more. From the New York attacks alone, more than 10,000 people lost a parent." (O'Brien, 2001, pg. 425)
This research work will attempt to analyze the real circumstances of change in the border between the U.S. And Canada since September 11th. It will answer several questions associated with the potential or real…
Akram, S.M. (2002). The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. 61-87.
Cornelius, W.A. (2001). Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended consequences of U.S. Immigration Control Policy. Population and Development Review, 27(4), 661-680.
Dozier, D. (1998). Employee communications at Kerr-McGee in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. Public Relations Quarterly, 43(2), 13-17.
Dunn, T.J. (2001). Border militarization via drug and immigration enforcement: Human rights implications. Social Justice, 28(2), 7-18.
After exploring both sides of the death penalty argument, it's important to remember that neither side supports executions based on racial or financial bias. And, all want to see the defendant having competent defense and receiving the correct verdict. These issues are related to the application of the death penalty rather than the death penalty itself and they can be fixed. The two real differences between those supporting and opposing the death penalty are whether it actually deters crime and whether it is appropriate punishment. There doesn't appear to be a clear answer regarding crime deterrence to put a stake in the ground for one side or the other. The remaining issue, cruel and unusual punishment is entirely subjective based on personal beliefs. Perhaps adequate alternatives to capital punishment such as life without parole would make the abolition of the death penalty more acceptable to some. However, there…
Carmical, Casey. "The Death Penalty: Morally Defensible?" Available:
Cases of Innocence 1973 - Present." 8 Oct. 2004. Death Penalty Information Center. Available:
The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…
39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from: http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2011/39_say_government_not_focusing_enough_on_threat_of_domestic_islamic_terrorism
Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from: http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/al_shabaab_american_recruits.htm
Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html
Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/p/jose_padilla/index.html
Media on Terrorism
Acts of anti-American terrorism are becoming increasingly common, and more and more are occurring on American soil, according to Columbia political scientist rigitte L. Nacos (Nacos, 1995). According to Nacos, the rise in terrorism is not a matter of flawed national security. It has more to do with the success that terrorists have enjoyed in exploiting the relationships among the media, public opinion and political decision-making (Nacos, 1994).
Nacos believes that the media is "the crucial link in the terrorist's 'calculus of violence,' particularly terrorist spectaculars -- large actions aimed at Americans, like the Iran hostage crisis, the bombing of PanAm Flight 103, and the hanging of hostage Lt. Colonel William Higgins in Lebanon (Nacos, 1994)." In these cases, she says, the terrorists "exploited the free American media. They got an extraordinary amount of attention -- up to two-thirds of the network evening news devoted to the…
News Directors on the Defensive in Nashville." (September 16, 1985). Broadcasting, pp. 76-78.
Cohen, N. (1997). Lessons learned from providing disaster counseling after TWA flight 800. Psychiatric Services, 48, 461-462.
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). (2003). Terrorism and the Media. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.terrorismanswers.com/terrorism/media.html.
DeFleur, M. & Dennis, E. (2002). Understanding mass communication: A liberal arts perspective (7th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
In this case, another category should be defined where the act was intentional, and the long-term eventual outcome was to commit an act of war against the United States, but this effect was not a direct threat to national security. In this case these acts would still be classified as crimes.
In order to be classified as an act of terror, there must be an indication of purpose. The purpose must be a direct threat to national security; for example, flying planes into a building would be an act with a purpose to threat national security. Obtaining passports for those intending on flying planes into a building would also be considered to be an act of terror, because this act has a purpose, and is a direct contributor to the compromise of national security. However, committing forgery on papers to enter the United States would not be considered an act…
Since the days of the Old West, domestic terrorism has dug its roots into the United States. From Timothy McVeigh, whose motivations for the Oklahoma City bombing ranged from his complaints over the governments' dealing with certain political situations to his anger over the violence he witnessed during his stint in the military, to eco-terrorists and animal-rights activists who use violence in order to win others to their cause, the scope of terrorism is the United States is both large and diverse. While FBI agents search large cities for Al Qaeda terrorists in the United States, small town police arrest protestors who threaten to set fire to abortion clinics and make threats to far left and right wing organizations. Because a great deal of domestic terrorism centers around political ideas and activism, targeting domestic terrorism has become a rather controversial subject. Some argue that the demonstrations that often…
Baggett, Jay. (2007). Law Would Make Minutemen Guilty of 'Domestic Terrorism.'
Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=53857 .
Bergen, Peter and Swati Pandey. (2005). The Madrassa Myth. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/14/opinion/14bergen.html .
Cooke, Jeremy. (2001). School trains suicide bombers. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1446003.stm .
Oklahoma has only been a state in the U.S. since 1907, yet Oklahomans were around well before then. Oklahoma is known as the “sooner” state because settlers had arrived in the territory before it had even been declared part of the United States. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was part of Arkansas Territory. The Native Americans were forced on the Trail of Tears and made to settle in Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma. In the latter half of the 19th century, cattle ranchers from Texas drove their cattle through Indian Territory to states up north and out west, paving cattle trails along the way. More and more whites began to settle in the area as a result of these cattle trails and the expansion of the railroad. Then when oil was found, Oklahoma became a major focus for the oil industry and Tulsa became…
Media and Terrorism
Contemporary terrorism relies heavily on the media. The modern media has much to offer terrorist organization. Media coverage is used not only to convey the terrorist's objectives and political messages, but also to intimidate larger populations.
The media provides a relatively inexpensive and efficient method of relaying their goals. Further, it offers a forum to attract supporters, and a means of raising funds in an era of independent fund raising (Introduction).
The Munich Olympics in 1972 marked the true beginning of the exploitation of the modern media by terrorists. In those Olympics, terrorists first exploited the media to gain access to a global audience (Introduction).
However, the potential utility of the media on terrorist activities was well-known long before the events of the 1972 Munich Olympics (Fundamentals of Terrorism).
The first well-documented understanding of the role of the media in terrorism likely has its roots in the…
Fine, Janet. Arabian Knight Woos West. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
Fundamentals of Terrorism. 14 November 2002. http://www.geocities.com/p_enn/a_terrorismengl_02.pdf
Introduction. Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media, p. 103.
Morrow, Lance. The Gleam of a Pearl. In: Unit 7, Terrorism and the Media.
According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."
Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…
1. Article: online
Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online
Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/
2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)
CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…
About FEMA" Available at http://www.fema.gov/about/ . Accessed 7 September, 2005
About FEMA: FEMA History" Available at
terrorists are rational actors. There rationality may not appear so to those who are not adherents of their particular cause (or in some cases, their particular faith). However, for those who share the conviction of terrorists, their actions are rational.
One of the most salient examples that demonstrates the rationality of the actions of terrorists is found within those who embrace the Islamic faith. There are a number of tenets of this religion that pertain to war, particularly when the antagonist is a so-called infidel or non-believer. One of these concepts is that of jihad, which is the Islamic word for holy war (Okon, 2013, p. 173). It is crucial to understanding the rationality of Muslim terrorists to note the fact that Islam states that those who willingly give their life for the cause of the religion or because of religious persecution will be richly rewarded in the afterlife. Thus,…
Linder, D.O. (2006). "The Oklahoma City Bombing & The Trial of Timothy McVeigh." www.law2umkc.edu. Retrieved from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/mcveighaccount.html
Okon, E.E. (2013). "Jihad: warfare and territorial expansion in Islam." Asian Social Science. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=243c74ec-8a90-4366-bc73-e9ccc689c9f3%40sessionmgr14&hid=6
Culturally Competent Trauma Care
Allen, B., Wilson, K., & Armstrong, N. (2014). Changing clinicians' beliefs about treatment for children experiencing trauma: the impact of intensive training in evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, esearch, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.
Despite a recent push towards more structured treatment protocols, many clinicians have taken an unstructured approach to the treatment of trauma in children, based upon a belief that children may be unable to verbalize or otherwise express their feelings about a trauma. This study focuses on whether training can change a clinician's approach in practice and suggests that intensive training can influence clinicians in their choice of therapeutic approach and guide them to use evidence-based therapies (EBT) that are highly structured. This research fails to discuss the impact that cultural upbringing may have on the willingness or ability of children to discuss trauma early in the treatment process. As a result,…
Allen, B., Wilson, K., & Armstrong, N. (2014). Changing clinicians' beliefs about treatment for children experiencing trauma: the impact of intensive training in evidence-based, trauma-focused treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(4), 384-389.
Bernal, G., Jimenez-Chafey, M. & Domenech Rodriguez, M. (2009). Cultural adaptations of treatments: a resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 361-368.
Brady, K. & Back, S. (2012). Childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol dependence. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 34(4), 408-413.
Couineau, A. & Forbes, D. (2011). Using predictive models of behavior change to promote evidence-based treatment for PTSD. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(3), 266-275.
Anti Terrorism Measures
Effective Anti-Terrorism Measures
Effective Anti-Terrorist Tactics
The threat of terrorism involves many variables. The nature and degree of risk posed by a potential attack depends on a number of factors, including the goals of the attackers and their means of inciting terror. There are numerous terrorist organizations with agendas ranging from various political ideologies to animal rights, environmental, and reproductive issues. With so many diverse groups and causes in play, the number and variety of potential targets present an enormous challenge. It is beyond the scope of this thesis to address likely goals and targets of specific terrorist groups. It is important to understand, however, that the risk posed to any company or environment is related to the nature of the particular threat posed by particular terrorist groups (Bauman, 1995). In addition, while local police play a major role in gathering information about likely terrorist attacks, it…
Bauman, Z. (1995) Life in Fragments. Oxford: Blackwell.
Buruma, I. And A. Margalit (2004 Occidentalism: The West in the Eyes of Its Enemies. New York: The Penguin Press.
Cohen, N. (2003) A Kind, Really Nice Boy. The Observer, in Guardian Unlimited (May 4): 1-4.
David, M. (2004) Clash of Civilizations. The New York Times (May 13): A-25.
The other categories of biological weapons which need dispersal devices are regarded as having lower risk due to the sensitivity of the biological agents to heat, light and shock. (Unit 8: Terrorism and CET)
5. Effectiveness of the Training:
The training is effective on the grounds that team learns about (i) Disaster Preparedness: Under this team members are instructed to ready themselves and their neighborhoods for the various hazards which might catch them unaware (ii) Team organization & Disaster Psychology: Dealing with organization and management principles needed for a CET to function effectively covering critical incident stress for the victims as also workers. (Starting a CET Program - Step 7: Delivering Training)
The various reasons are (i) CET Training support a collaborative effort between emergency services and the people inside the community. The CET program equips people with practical knowledge regarding disaster preparedness for hazards which may strike their areas…
Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/12-NuclearPowerPlants-IG-Rev2.doc . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Rimer, Deb. Teamwork Counts; Anticipating the Best, Preparing for the Worst. Sedgwick County Newsletter. 10-12, August, 2004. Retrieved from www.rbcertaa.org/NL%207-03.pdf" http://www.sedgwickcounty.org/cert/CERTIssue%2001.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Starting a CERT Program - Step 7: Delivering Training. Retrieved at http://www.cert-la.com/manuals/Delivering-Training.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005
Unit 8: Terrorism and CERT. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/IG-CERT-Unit8Rev2.doc . Accessed 4 September, 2005
American Foreign Policy
Since September 11, 2001
Over its history, American foreign policy has proven remarkably flexible. Indeed, critics have said it has been too flexible -- "too naive, too calculating, too openhanded, too violent, too isolationist, too unilateral, too multilateral, too moralistic, too immoral" (Mead, 2002). All of these criticisms have been true of U.S. foreign policy at certain points, but its flexibility has made it possible for the nation to grow and thrive in a swiftly changing world. It is often said that the events of September 11, 2001 changed the world. The scale and source of the terrorist attacks on U.S. soil were certainly different from those experienced by any other nation before that time. However, assertions that 9/11 changed U.S. foreign policy permanently are, I believe, based on a shortsighted view of national orientations towards guerilla warfare, preventive attacks, and alliance-building. Below, I will discuss the…
Mead, W.D. (2002) Special providence: American foreign policy and how it changed the world. New York: Routledge.
Barber, B.R. (1995). Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Times Publishing.
Likewise, I believe that statutes of limitations might need to be lengthened or even eliminated so that older sex offence cases can be brought to trial.
In Florida, as in other states, death row inmates spend inordinate amounts of time awaiting their final sentence: execution. The average wait time in the Sunshine State is fourteen years; many inmates will wait even longer than to meet their final day on earth. Remaining in prison for so long is not only costly for taxpayers; it poses an emotional and psychological trauma for any potentially innocent death row inmates. One way that appeals processes can be sped up is by channeling further funds into the public defense system. Monies freed up by housing the innocently convicted in jail could be better spent on improved appeals processes. hen attorneys have all the resources they need, appeals processes will be far faster and more likely…
Becker, Jo. "Limits to death row appeals rejected." St. Petersburg Times. 15 April 2000. http://www.sptimes.com/News/041500/State/Limits_to_death_row_a.shtml .
DNA Technology Will Stop the Clock on Statute of Limitations In Sexual Assault Cases." NYC.gov. http://home.nyc.gov/portal/index.jsp?epi_menuItemID=c0935b9a57bb4ef3daf2f1c701c789a0&epi_menuID=13ecbf46556241d3daf2f1c701c789a0&epi_baseMenuID=27579af732d48f86a62fa24601c789a0&pageID=mayor_press_release&catID=1194&doc_name=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.nyc.gov%2Fhtml%2Fom%2Fhtml%2F2003b%2Fpr217-03.html&cc=unused1978&rc=1194&ndi=1 .
Justices refine rules for old death row appeals." CNN.com. 25 Mar 2003. http://edition.cnn.com/2003/LAW/03/25/scotus.scotus.death.penalty.ap/.
Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. "Supreme Court Upholds Law That Speeds Up Death Row Appeals." New Abolitionist. May 2000. http://www.nodeathpenalty.org/newab015/sCourt.html .
One solution to this problem of incompatibility between different law enforcement agencies is the Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System (DOARS), a wireless communications device that can provide wireless communications interoperability and connect incompatible radio systems. DOARS connects different systems by imitating each radio's functionality in software and hardware modules. It then passes either the voice or data between the different radios and frequencies. DOARS can provide greater frequency band coverage at lower cost and most importantly enhances public safety. (Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System (DOARS), 2006, Justice Technology Information Network)
Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System. (DOARS). (2006). Justice Technology
Information Network. Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.nlectc.org/virlib/InfoDetail.asp?intInfoID=656
hen They Can't Talk, Lives are Lost." (2006). Brochure published by the National
Task Force on Interoperability (NTFI). Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.safecomprogram.gov/NR/rdonlyres/4B5F0FC8-4339-407E-8AD8-08AEBA931068/0/hen_They_Cant_Talk_Lives_are_Lost_NTFI_Brochure.pdf
Dynamic Open Architecture Radio System. (DOARS). (2006). Justice Technology
Information Network. Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.nlectc.org/virlib/InfoDetail.asp?intInfoID=656
When They Can't Talk, Lives are Lost." (2006). Brochure published by the National
Task Force on Interoperability (NTFI). Retrieved 7 Jan 2007 at http://www.safecomprogram.gov/NR/rdonlyres/4B5F0FC8-4339-407E-8AD8-08AEBA931068/0/When_They_Cant_Talk_Lives_are_Lost_NTFI_Brochure.pdf
Evolution of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Out of concern for the lack of a uniform protocol for emergency management, the concept of the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed in combined effort by Federal, State, and local governments during the 1970s (Dudfield, 2008, p. 31). This system was developed in response to the catastrophic wildfires that occurred during 1970 in South California by fire agencies at the federal, state, and local levels (Cardwell, 2000, p. 10). The intent of ICS is to provide an organizational structure to use to coordinate response efforts to incidents of any scope ranging from minor to large-scale incidents such as natural disasters, fires, accidents, or attacks. The original ICS system has evolved into what is known today as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that still utilizes the tenets of ICS.
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
ICS is a standardized, on-scene,…
Beckering, D. (2005). National Incident Management System (NIMS) Update. Minnesota Fire Chief, 41(3), 20. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip , uid&db=f5h&AN=16261367&site=ehost-live
Cardwell, M.D. (2000). Nationwide Application of the Incident Command System. (cover story). FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 69(10), 10.
Emergency preparedness is an important topic in civic planning both in the medical care industry and in community planning. Significant negative effects can occur when a department, institution, city or region fails to respond to an emergency in a manner that has the highest rate of success with regard to loss of life as well as loss of infrastructure and/or important public services. Due in large part to the fact that emergency preparedness is associated with immediate and what by many is seen as a singular event in a time and place much of the research regarding emergency preparedness has to do with immediate response and research is reflective of that. Cross-sectional research is often the result of such research and the research questions that ensue when one is dealing with emergency preparedness issues. This brief work will explore a question regarding emergency preparedness that would be better…
Felton, C.J. (2004). Lessons Learned Since September 11th 2001 Concerning the Mental Health Impact of Terrorism, Appropriate Response Strategies and Future Preparedness. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 67(2), 147-152.
Reissman, D.B. (2004). New Roles for Mental and Behavioral Health Experts to Enhance Emergency Preparedness and Response Readiness. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 67(2), 118-122.
Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)
Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)
Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)
iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…
Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.
Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.
Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
non-for-profit organizations. Specifically it will discuss the American ed Cross and what it is a not-for-profit entity. Nurse Clara Barton founded the American ed Cross in 1881. It has since spread to countries around the globe, and it is often the first relief agency on the scene after natural or man made disasters strike. There are local ed Cross organizations across the country that coordinate their aid with local disaster agencies. For example, it is often the ed Cross that aids victims of house fires in local communities. They find them shelter and offer them food, clothing, and even money to help them get back on their feet. The ed Cross is founded on not-for-profit principles, but they have come under fire for how they handled their donations in the past.
The American ed Cross began as a domestic organization that helped victims of war, and then that spread to…
Eckel, C., Grossman, P.J., & Milano, A. (2007). Is more information always better? Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 388+.
Editors.(2010). About us. Retrieved 11 Feb. 2009 from the American Red Cross Web site: http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.d8aaecf214c576bf971e4cfe43181aa0/?vgnextoid=477859f392ce8110VgnVCM10000030f3870aRCRD&vgnextfmt=default .
Forbes, K.A. (2005). The virtues of volunteering: Never underestimate the absolute necessity of trust. Journal of Accountancy, 200(5), 81+.
Irvine, R. (2002, April 15). Money seems to be motivating factor at American Red Cross. Insight on the News, 18, 45.
They play an enormous role in shaping our thought patterns about what terrorism is. And this is neither good nor bad. Rather it is just the way it is due to the large role the media plays in our lives in this modern day. Most Americans depend on it.
I believe the media to be a powerful influence on American society today. From what we buy, to what we eat, to the kinds of cars we buy, to its impact on violence in our society, media probably has more influence on us than anyone would like to admit. Its influence on my own ideas of terrorism has been significant. When I think about it, I wouldn't know terrorism existed if it weren't for the media. So, it logically follows that they greatly impact my thought process on a subject they defined -- and continue to define -- for me.
The immunities are spying, sedition and drug trafficking in huge quantities. Soon after two years, in reply to the Oklahoma City ombing, President Clinton signed the anti-terrorism and effectual death penalty law in 1996. The acts which have an effect equally on state and federal criminals limited the evaluation in federal courts by setting up even more strict file targets, restraining the chance for evidentiary inquiries and customarily permitting no more than a single habeas numbers of filing in federal court. (Tom Streissguth, October 1, 2002). However, in about 1970s, the National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) represented more then ten million conventional Christians and forty seven denominations. Secondly, the ethical majority were along with the Christian cluster supporting the death penalty. In the present days, fundamentalist and Pentecostal churches give support to the death penalty, mostly on biblical basis, particularly quoting the old testimonies. Even though, typically also a follower…
DPIC, Death Penalty Information Center (2007) Retrieved on December 5, 2007 at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/
Streissguth, Tom (October 1, 2002). The Death Penalty: Debating Capital Punishment. Enslow Publishers.
Though the potential for difficulty with the policy is there the standard is set for the concrete results of removing individuals from positions of physical power who do not have the skills to utilize the power in a safe and effective manner to protect and serve without further victimizing the community.
Though some would argue that such tactics do not take into account anomalous actions, such as in cases where individuals show little sign of abuse potential before incidences occur, but it is clear that these are anomalous and should not be regarded as the most significant risk of the program. Another concern would be that the program will deter officers from performing important tasks as a result of the fear of association with a permanent mark on ones record, as a result of a use of force incident. This may be a real fear, as the system may result…
Up to this point many technology-based systems and programs have been supplemented by federal funding, but even in the face of increased threats such funding may run out and leave the individual, especially small police forces in jeopardy of the loss of technology or the inability to upgrade to meet the demands of the changing face of crime or even quickly communicate between individuals and departments. (Schwabe, Davis & Jackson, 2001, p. 46) the foundational issues with regard to the utilization of technology and its cost to departments have yet to be answered fully, but likely they will, slowly and with many changes.
Lastly the society demands for technological policing, coupled with the collective fear of loss of rights of privacy is a puzzle the law enforcement community has yet to fully respond to. The public wishes for police to rely on servaialnce, both private and public to prevent and solve crimes and yet does not wish to be recorded and watched through the same system. This is an issue that will likely escalate in the coming years, partly as a result of terrorism prevention and response.
Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
In the end, terrorist negotiation is a bit of an oxymoron; however, once they've transformed to a more stable and rational state of mind, then and only then can negotiations occur. To negotiate earlier would not only be ineffective and inefficient, but would also foolishly open the United States up to future attacks by those desperate to garner attention, but without the forethought of what a truly effective solution could be.
Cohen, . "Sanity in the Face of Suicide." The Washington Post. 19 Jul. 2005: p. A21. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 15, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com.
Dzama, P. "No, You Can't 'Negotiate' with Terrorists." Kitsapsun.com. 1 Mar 2006. Community Columnist. December 15, 2006 http://blogs.kitsapsun.com/kitsap/columns/archive/2006/03/no_you_cant_negotiate_with_ter.html.
Jaber, H. "U.S. In Talks with Iraq and Iraq ebels." The Sunday Times. 26 June 2005. The London Times. December 15, 2006 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,2089-1669601_1,00.html.
Krauthammer, C. "Europe's Native-Born Enemy." The Washington Post. 15 Jul.…
Cohen, R. "Sanity in the Face of Suicide." The Washington Post. 19 Jul. 2005: p. A21. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 15, 2006 http://proquest.umi.com .
Dzama, P. "No, You Can't 'Negotiate' with Terrorists." Kitsapsun.com. 1 Mar 2006. Community Columnist. December 15, 2006 http://blogs.kitsapsun.com/kitsap/columns/archive/2006/03/no_you_cant_negotiate_with_ter.html.
Jaber, H. "U.S. In Talks with Iraq and Iraq Rebels." The Sunday Times. 26 June 2005. The London Times. December 15, 2006 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,2089-1669601_1,00.html .
Krauthammer, C. "Europe's Native-Born Enemy." The Washington Post. 15 Jul. 2005: p. A23. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 15, 2006
Terrorism as defined by the FBI is the illegal use of force against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing a government. It is always done to further political or social objectives. Further, according to FMA, there are three elements that constitute terrorism:
(1) Terrorist activities are illegal and involve the use of force. (2) The actions are intended to intimidate or coerce. (3) The actions are committed in support of political or social objectives. (FMA-SS) www.mema.domestic-preparedness.net/glossary.html
Many consider the cultural differences between law enforcement and the fire service to be based in training and training philosophy. According to Dan Jones, editor of Rescue Magazine, "Police officers are taught to function primarily on their own, but firefighters are taught to act as part of a team. It's a little like comparing tennis players to basketball players." Further, the philosophy of fire service personnel is basically one of…
ESF #3 -- Public Works and Engineering
ESF #4 -- Firefighting
ESF #5 -- Information and Planning Energyhttp://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/frp/frpesf.htm FEMA
"It is only by conducting additional evaluations that not only cover these issues, but also involve all stakeholders and address limitations of existing data sources, that policymakers will have the information they need to identify and quantify needs and develop more effective case management programs for future disasters," pointed out the U.S. Government Accountability Office (USGAO) in its 2009 report to Congress after the federal management of hurricanes ita and Katrina (2009a, p. 35). Nonetheless while the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) concurred with the USGAO's recommendations, and despite what appears to be some progress at the time of publication (USGAO, 2009a, p. 35), the overall recommendations appear as yet unaddressed, according at least to an undated USGAO Office of Public Affairs Web site describing the findings (USGAO 2009b). The 2009 report lists a variety of areas where performance could be improved, indicating future evaluation may continue to deliver…
Pelofsky, J. And Palmer, K. (2012). Five arrested in alleged Cleveland plot to blow up bridge.
Reuters U.S. Edition 1 May 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/01/us-usa-security-cleveland-idUSBRE8400UY20120501
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2006). A water security handbook: Planning for and responding to drinking water contamination threats and incidents. EPA Publication No. 817-B-06-001. Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. Washington, D.C.: U.S. EPA. Retrieved from: www.epa.gov/watersecurity
United States Government Accountability Office (2009a). Disaster assistance: Greater
Stress disorders, the stress is so great that it is debilitating and dominates the person and interferes with living one's life. Stress can be good or bad. A skiing champion described how stress helped him perform his best, but a Viet Nam War veteran describes how horrific things he had seen haunted him and intruded into his mind, while awake and while asleep.
Our bodies show clear responses to stress. We perspire, breath quicker, heartbeat rises, and muscles tense for action. WE may also turn pale, or get "goose bumps," or feel sick to the stomach. Stress can trigger anxiety problems. In stressful situations, the brain triggers a variety of body-function changes. The sympathetic nervous system rallies body functions for fight 0r flight; the parasympathetic nervous system restores us to normal functioning.
One of the most devastating of the stress disorders is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It makes sense to…
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
Laws & regulations not adequate enough:
egistration & Licensing
National ifle Association (NA):
Sandy Hook and Colorado:
No need for assault rifles:
Government and Private protection:
Political and Social pressure:
Counter Argument & ebuttal:
Public will not be able to protect itself:
Hand guns and law enforcement enough for public protection:
The possession of guns is considered as a matter of tradition and heritage of the society. However the usage of automatic guns in violent crimes has initiated a concern for society to urge government for imposition of strict gun control laws. The previous laws should be changed to restrict automatic rifles possession and sales. The high powered weapons should also avoided by the public to evade unnecessary violence. United States is country that allowed its citizen to…
Bright, J.C. (2010). Violent Felonies under the Residual Clause of the Armed Career Criminal Act: Whether Carrying a Concealed Handgun without a Permit Should is considered a Violent Felony. Duq. L. Rev., 48, 601.
Carter, G.L. (2006). Gun control in the United States: A reference handbook. USA: Abc-clio, LLC.
Cook, P.J., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A.A. (2007). Underground Gun Markets*. The Economic Journal, 117(524), F588-F618.
Kellner, D. (2008). Guys and guns amok: Domestic terrorism and school shootings from the Oklahoma City bombing to the Virginia Tech massacre. USA: Paradigm Pub.
Law Enforcement Communications
Interoperability of Emergency Service Communications
The number and scope of each individual emergency and public safety agency has resulted in an ad hoc patchwork of communication equipment. Routine daily needs within one agency for clear and concise communication fall short of readiness for large-scale emergencies involving either multiple services or jurisdictions. The current budgeting autonomy of each public service department has resulted in a many agencies with antiquated equipment, while others posses more modern tools, that may sufficiently serve current needs, yet is clearly inadequate for more common emergencies like large fires or traffic pile ups. However, interoperability, the capability to communicate across different gear, radio frequencies, and standardization, both limits and delays the response time, as well as effectiveness, of each individual. hen emergencies entail injuries and danger, timely command and communication of resources may be the difference between life and death.
The video, "hy Can't…
U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6455322945171664950&hl=en
Advice, Not Color Codes
John Stossel, commentator for ABC news shows, is well-known for his TV segments titled "Give Me a Break!" In these short segments, he talks about instances he perceives as government waste.
On March 15 of this year, he talked about the new government agency, the "Office of Homeland Security." This office was created shortly after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.
It seemed like a good idea at the time. e knew we had been incapable of protecting ourselves on September 11. Since we protected our federal buildings with ground barriers after the Oklahoma City bombings, our enemies simply commandeered passenger jets and used them as flying guided missiles.
Since we have had extra security in our airports since the late sixties, when hijackings to Cuba and other countries became common, we were aghast. e didn't know how to protect ourselves. e needed…
Stossel, John. "Homeland Insecurity. abc NEWS.com. Accessed 3/21/02 via the Internet. http://www.abcnews.com
U.S.A. PATRIOT Act Remain in Effect in Its Present Form?
For more than 200 years, the level of civil liberties afforded American citizens has waxed and waned according to the perceived level of threats arrayed against the nation's interests, with the most recent example of curtailment being the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act which was enacted hard on the heels of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Despite the guarantees contained in the Bill of Rights, this law has seriously eroded the civil liberties of all Americans in an overly zealous attempt to ferret out terrorists wherever they may hide. This paper provides a definition of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act's purpose and main powers, following by a review of the relevant literature concerning whether it should be abolished or preserved. An argument in favor of the Act's abolishment is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the…
Bonet, Sally W. (2011, Fall). "Educating Muslim American Youth in a Post-9/11 Era: A Critical
Review of Policy and Practice." High School Journal 95(1): 46-51.
Kerr, Orin. S. (2003, Winter). "Internet Surveillance Law after the U.S.A. Patriot Act: The Big
Brother That Isn't." Northwestern University Law Review 97(2): 607-631.
COUNTE-TEOISM AND THE DEPATMENT OF HOMELAND SECUITY
Counter-terrorism is popular as antiterrorism and incorporates techniques, practices, strategies, and tactics that militaries, governments, corporations and police departments adopt in attacking terrorist threats and acts either real or imputed. Both governments and insurgents use terror tactics. It is clear that some insurgents do not terror as tactics while others opt not to apply as other tactics have better outcomes for their particular contexts. Individuals may engage in acts of terror, as it was the case with Oklahoma City bombing (Katherine, Darmer & osenbaum, 2004). Where the terrorism acts are part of broader insurgencies, counter-terrorism forms an integral element of security doctrines. However, economic, political, and other measures focus on insurgencies as compared to specific terror acts. The United States uses foreign internal defense doctrine in its military programs to support other nations while attempting to suppress lawlessness, insurgency, or subversion and…
Katherine, M.B., Darmer, R.M., & Rosenbaum, S.E. (2004). Civil Liberties vs. National Security in a Post9/11 World. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.
Nacos, B.L. (2012). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. New York: Longman/Pearson.
A lack of local understanding by FEMA and & #8230;. Caused a clear inability for these agencies to exercise their logistics plan during such a catastrophic event.
The first clear weakness was experienced by FEMA, the national organization appointed to deal with supplementing local relief efforts and providing extended services to those in need in an event of a natural disaster or terrorist attack. FEMA is supposed to work as a supplement to local emergency service efforts, and as such it is supposed to be in tune with the capabilities and procedures of the local agencies that were on the front line of Katrina disaster relief. However, the research shows that "there was nobody that even knew FEMA's history, much less understood the profession and the dynamics and the roles and responsibilities of that states and local governments" (University Transportation Centers Program, 2007, p 22). Essentially, FEMA operatives were not…
City of Hampton. (2012). Emergency operations plan: Abstract. Emergency Management. The City of Hampton Virginia. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://hampton.gov/eoc/iframe.html?linkfrom=main&bc=Emergency%20Operations%20Plan%20%28abstract%29&url=./pdf/eop_abstract_2011.pdf
National Response Team. (2004). National Incident Management System. Productions. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from www.nrt.org/Production/NRT/...385aNIMS.../NIMS-90-web.pdf?
University Transportation Centers Program. (2007). Comparison of Disaster Logistics Planning and Execution for 2005 Hurricane Season. Midwest Transportation Consortium. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.intrans.iastate.edu/reports/disaster-management.pdf
In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)
Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…
Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.
Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…
Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.
Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.
Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.
Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…
Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.
Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov
Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.
Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
nomadic tribes wreaking havoc on each other to Zealots of Judea and the original Assassins, terrorism has been a part of human political strategy since the origin of the species. Whether it reflects the innate bellicosity of human beings or simply reveals the effects of class or religious conflict, terrorism is an unfortunate part of life -- even daily life for some people. Advanced weaponry and communications technology has made terrorism more widespread, more sinister, and far deadlier than ever before but terrorism is nothing new. The first recorded use of the word "terrorism" occurred during the French evolution and its eign of Terror ("Early History of Terrorism," n.d.). Yet terrorism precedes the eign of Terror by millennia. Many terrorist groups like the Zealots and the Assassins of the past or Al Qaeda and ISIL of today have some kind of religious ideology wrapped up in their politics, but religion…
"Al Qaeda: Constitutional Charter, Rules and Regulations," (2002). Retrieved online: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Al-Qaida-Constitutional-Charter-Translation.pdf
"Charter of the Syrian Islamic Front," (2013). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved online: http://carnegieendowment.org/syriaincrisis/?fa=50831
"The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement," (1988). Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/hamas.asp
Gray, J.M. (2010). Holy terror. History Net. Retrieved online: http://www.historynet.com/holy-terror-the-rise-of-the-order-of-assassins.htm
errorism has been in existence for a long time, yet the experts are still finding difficulty defining exactly what it is. errorism has been defined as: "Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience." However it is defined, there is agreement that there are certain elements that much be present for an act to be classified as terrorism. Some experts agree that it must be politically motivated and that the targets must be random. It is thought that the intention is to make everyone afraid of being a target. he CIA's Counterterrorist Center adds that it must be premeditated and not just an impulsive act, and aimed at civilians. errorist acts can be considered barbaric because of the extent of the damage that is inflicted, and so it is difficult to understand why anyone would be motivated to…
Terrorism has been in existence for a long time, yet the experts are still finding difficulty defining exactly what it is. Terrorism has been defined as: "Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience." However it is defined, there is agreement that there are certain elements that much be present for an act to be classified as terrorism. Some experts agree that it must be politically motivated and that the targets must be random. It is thought that the intention is to make everyone afraid of being a target. The CIA's Counterterrorist Center adds that it must be premeditated and not just an impulsive act, and aimed at civilians. Terrorist acts can be considered barbaric because of the extent of the damage that is inflicted, and so it is difficult to understand why anyone would be motivated to carry out such an act. In past history there have been many reasons for such terrorist acts such as to produce fear, to harass weaken or embarrass a government security forces, to satisfy vengeance, to steal money and equipment especially weapons, to free prisoners, and to obtain worldwide or local recognition for a cause. In order to be effective on a large scale the common method of terrorism is by bombing. Perhaps the most remembered in recent history is what is now known simply as 9-11. This was an unusual mode of terrorism where planes were simultaneously flown into public buildings in crowded cities. The deadliest was at the World Trade Center in New York city where more than 3,000 lives were lost. But that was not the first time that the World trade Center was the target of terrorism. In February 1993, a truck bomb exploded there, killing six people, and displacing business in the complex for six months. Terrorists acts are not always carried out by groups. Timothy McVeigh killed 168 people by bombing a federal office building in Oklahoma City in 1995.
Despite the war against terrorism which has been intensified since the 9/11 attacks, some think that as long as there is greed and hatred in the world there will continue to be this deliberate use of violence against civilians for political or religious ends.
Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime
This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.
Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.
However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…
Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.
Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.
Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.
Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
For children, going to school, even a new school, provided a sense of order. It also gave parents time to plan for the future. Wealthier parents were able to enroll their children in private schools. Poorer families faced a greater struggle.
In Texas, officials reported enrolling19,000 children displaced by the storm (Katrowitz and reslau, 2005). They were able to waive normal rules, such as proving residency or providing immunization records. The opportunity to start over was critical for thousands of families, including Kathy Jemison and her daughter, Sarah McClelland, 17. The night before the storm hit, they gathered their clothes, keepsakes and important documents (such as birth certificates and Social Security cards). As the storm was destroying their home, they drove 15 hours to a friend's house in San Antonio. Sarah began her senior year at San Antonio's MacArthur High School, and Kathy, who worked for a bank in New…
Abramson, David, and Richard Garfield. (April, 2006). On the Edge: Children and Families Displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Face a Looming Medical and Mental Health Crisis. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, National Center for Disaster Preparedness.
Brown, Donal. (November 16, 2005). 1,000 Katrina Children Still Missing. Mother Jones.
Callimachi, Rukmini. (April 23, 2006). Katrina's Children Struggle With Fears. The Associated Press.
Cass, Julia. (June 13, 2006). For Many of Katrina's Young Victims, the Scars Are More Than Skin Deep. The Washington Post; A01.
egardless, highly possible plans can be devised could result in huge numbers of deaths that range into the thousands for chemical agents and the hundreds of thousands, or maybe millions, with biological ones6. Bioterrorists have successfully utilized agents ranging from the ones that rapidly cause death, such as nerve agents and cyanide, to those that impact hours after exposure, such as mustard gas and pulmonary agents.
John Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies compared potential biological agents to determine which maximum credible event would offer the greatest risk for a public health response. In this case, the "maximum credible event" is defined as an occurrence that could cause significant loss of life, as well as disruption, panic, and a total overwhelming of the civilian health-care resources. 7
To fit this definition of a maximum credible event, the CB must include some of the following properties: be highly lethal, easily produced…
Henderson, Donald a "Smallpox as a biological weapon." Journal of the American Medical Association, 283 (1999), 2127-2137
Kortepeter Mark G. And Gerald W. Parker, "Potential Biological Weapons Threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal. 5 (1999): 523-525
Report No. 2000/02: Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism." Perspectives. http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/en/publications/perspectives/200002.asp. Accessed 2 July 2007
Sidell, Frederick R. And David R. Franz. Introduction to chemical and biological agents. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. Washington, D.C.: Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1997
New Terrorism -- Risk Management
In the aftermath of the carnage created by terrorists on September 11, 2001, in which 2,977 people were killed (in the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and in hijacked commercial jetliners), the United States government initiated a "war on terror." That war has yet to be won, and may never be won because terrorists have found new ways of launching attacks and where there once was just Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda to cope with, now there are numerous jihadist offshoots like ISIS and oko Haram, among others. Some observers call this current era "new terrorism" and in general when a previously unknown terror group makes its bloody mark on innocent people, those actions could also be called new terrorism. However, this paper looks at the concept of what is known as new terrorism, at the realities created by the terrorism witnessed in the news…
Ackerman, S.2015. 'FBI chief wants 'backdoor access' to encrypted communications to fight ISIS'. The Guardian. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
Baranoff, E.G. 2004. 'Risk Management: A Focus on a More Holistic Approach Three Years After September 11. Journal of Insurance Regulation, 22(4), 71-80.
Crenshaw, M. 2007. 'The Debate over "New" vs. "Old" Terrorism'. Center for International Security and Cooperation. Stanford University. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.cisac.fsi.standord.edu.
Lemyre, L., Turner, M.C., Lee, J.E.C., and Krewski, D. 2006. Public Perception of Terrorism Threats and Related Information Sources in Canada: Implications for the Management of Terrorism Risks. Journal of Risk Research, 9(7), 755-774.
The advent of modernity has wrought massive changes in human society. New forms of transportation and communication, for example, have changed the way people work, learn, conduct business and organize into communities. Technological advances in medicine have resulted in new forms of treatment for disease and longer life spans. Upheavals such as the women's movement and the civil rights movement have challenged prevailing norms and transformed social relations.
The field of architecture is no exception. The modern architecture movement is also largely a response to the availability of new technologies and the changing social needs. The first part of this paper looks at the various definitions of what constitutes "modern" architecture. The next part then looks at how the various styles sought to take advantage of new material and to address changing social needs.
In the last part, the paper examines how modern architecture is responding to new concerns,…
Cannon-Brookes, Peter. "Modern architecture, modern materials and modern technology." European Business Review. 14(3). Proquest Database.
Kuipers, Marieke. "The modern movement." The Unesco Courier. September 1997. Proquest Database.
Lacayo, Richard. "Buildings that breathe." Time Magazine. August 26, 2002. Proquest Database.
Larkin, David. Frank Lloyd Wright: The Masterworks. New York: Rizzoli, 1993.
While both domestic and international terrorism pose a threat to America the threat of domestic groups is more serious.
The individuals in the domestic groups already live here and are able to mingle, plot, plan and carry out acts of violence with very little scrutiny until the act occurs.
International groups must deal with visa issues, customs and other things that make it more difficult to get into and attack the U.S.
There will never be a complete eradication of terrorism either on the domestic or the international level.
Each of them will live on and the nation is going to have to learn to live with the fact that they exist. Law enforcement and government will work together to minimize the threat of terrorist groups in America but they will never completely rid the nation of the threat because of the rights the U.S. constitution provides, the fact that…
Domestic terrorist groups (Accessed 4-18-07)
http://www.milnet.com/domestic/Dom-Terror.htm domestic terrorists and internet (Accessed 4-18-07) (http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:ScYT_)VYRcJ:ai.arizona.edu/research/terror/publications/DarkWeb-AMCIS2005_Zhou_Collection.pdf+%22domestic+terrorist+groups%22+internet&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
For a punishment to be fair and equal, it should be implemented in every case, but as the author notes, each case is different, the circumstances and the way they are tried is different, and so, there are irregularities in the way the punishment is handed down.
The argument against abolishing the death penalty is strong and conclusive. The death penalty is a deterrent to crime, and it is a just punishment for some of the most heinous and premeditated crimes. It sends a strong message to the criminal world that violence will not be tolerated, and a majority of the American population supports it. The death penalty should not be used in every violent crime situation, but there are many situations where it is extremely appropriate. Life imprisonment, even without parole, is not nearly as much of a deterrent as death, and in addition, the death penalty ensures that…
Bellisle, Martha. "Darren Mack Pleads Guilty." Reno Gazette Journal. 5 Nov. 2007. 9 Nov. 2007.
A van den Haag, Ernest. "Should the Death Penalty Be Abolished?" "No." Taking Side, Issue 14. 277-303.
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security