The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.
Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.
These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal officials. Meaning, that they may have already executed a strategy to: address these issues, but will not disclose this due to the sensitivity of counter terrorism operations.
A good example of this can be seen with the recent arrest of Khalid Ali-M Aldawsai. He is Saudi Arabian born U.S. citizen. That was attempting to purchase materials, to become a part of a weapon of mass destruction he was building. According the indictment, he attempted to buy them online and had a number of different targets. These include: dams, nuclear plants and the home of former President George W. Bush. However, before he had a chance to implement his plan, federal official arrested Aldawsai. (Orr, 2011) This is significant, because it shows how the suggestions, that we are advocating, could have already been embraced by law enforcement officials. As they want to keep the latest techniques and tools they are using to themselves. So that will have the element of surprise, when going after suspected individuals. One way this can be accomplished is: by allowing the public news stories to circulate, about the lack of focus on domestic terrorism. This will help create a sense of complacency among terrorist cells (even though they are actually being closely watched). Once a suspected is ready to strike, is when they are arrested and charged with: engaging in terrorist related activities.
In this aspect, one could argue that this could be the greatest weakness of the research that is being conducted. as, the available sources, will take more of rearview mirror approach to the problem. This could cause the underlying results and findings to be inaccurate. as, we do not have access to the most sensitive information about: how the government is tackling domestic terrorism. At which point, any kind of conclusions could be flawed due to these realities. This is important, because it shows how the overall scope of the research that is being conducted: will be limited. As we can only use those sources, that talk about information, which are available to the general public. Not, how the strategy has changed and the impact of the current approach that is being taken (utilizing the latest classified documents).
The research is being driven by a theoretical framework, which is: the idea that religion can be used to ferment terrorism. What has happened in the past was: terrorism has been continually taking place (prior to the 20th century). as, this was mainly utilized as tool of: various nation states to control the population. During the Cold War these different ideas were augmented with religious ideals (to: spark anger directed towards a particular group of people).
A good example this can be seen with the West painting the Soviet Union as godless communists, who wanted to destroy religion. At the same time, the Soviets were able to tap into anti-Israeli feelings in the Arab world. As many people were salty about the embarrassing losses they endured in: 1967 and 1973. These two elements are important, because they are highlighting how religions would be used to: ferment violence that is directed towards the other side (based upon religious ideology).
After the Cold War was over, these views about religion began to become twisted. As the ideas of extremism, became a major issue that was influencing a number of different religious philosophers and thinkers. In the Arab world, this meant that this would be augmented with the elements of terrorism to: achieve different political and military objectives. This is important, because our study will look at: this aspect of terrorism and how it is continuing to adapt to changes that are taking place. Once this occurs, it will help us to: understand how these and other ideologies are creating the right environment,...
(Boregeson, 2009, pp. 28 -- 35)
As a result, we have developed the following research hypothesis that will be testing during the process. Below is the hypothesis that we are going to be examining.
The War on Terrorism is continually shifting. To adapt to these changes the federal government must take an approach that will go after domestic terrorism. This is should be a part of the larger strategy in dealing with these challenges from: an international and domestic point-of-view. Once this takes place, it will ensure that the nation is ready for the new threats that they will be facing in the future.
This theory will help us be able to direct our research and concentrate, on how domestic terrorism, is a part of the larger fight in the global War on Terrorism.
Summary of Remaining Chapters
As a result, the different chapters of this thesis will examine a number of elements that will help to support our hypothesis. The most notable include: an introduction to the problem, a literature review, the methodology, the results and the discussion / conclusions / recommendations.
The introduction to the problem was discussed throughout this chapter. As we have detailed how domestic terrorism is: becoming a major threat and the way the study will be conducted. This is important, because it provides the reader with a basic foundation of: the overall scope of the problem and how we are examining it.
The literature review will look at a variety of sources about the overall issue of domestic terrorism. This will be accomplished by looking at the different objectives that were outlined earlier and the hypothesis. Then, we will seek out research that will support or refute the accuracy of the theory that is being presented. This will take place through examining a number of different sources to include: books, journal articles, studies, news articles, magazines, websites and blogs. Once this occurs, it will provide specific insights as to the overall validity of the hypothesis that is being presented.
The methodology will examine the information that was collected and the overall quality of the sources. This will take place through qualitative research. At the same time, we will look at a number of different aspects of the information to include: the setting, a description of the subjects, the research instruments and procedures. These different elements are important, because they will illustrate how we were able to come up with the various conclusions. At which point, the validity of the study will increase, as everyone can see the objectivity of the approach to the problem.
The results section will discuss the research that was examined in the previous chapters. In this particular situation, we will use comparative analysis to: improve our understanding of the situation and identify any kind of anomalies. This will help us to recognize the underlying trends that are taking place. Once this occurs, is when we can begin to make inferences that will: support or refute our hypothesis (based upon the findings and the analysis).
The chapter on: discussions, conclusion and recommendations will talk about a number of different factors. The most notable include: presenting the findings, identifying the limitations of the research and providing recommendations. This will help to improve the reader's understanding of: the scope of the problem and how domestic terrorism is increasingly becoming the front lines in the war on terror.
Once we have conducted an analysis of our hypothesis in these different chapters, the audience will understand how the problem is continuing to change. This is important, because it will provide the greatest insights as to: what are the trends and how they can be tackled. At which point, everyone will have an appreciation for the challenges and the new techniques that are being used.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
In this chapter, we are going to be examining literature from a number of different sources. The idea is to locate, catalogue and discuss what was uncovered during the process. This will be accomplished by looking at: online and offline sources. Once this takes place, it will provide specific insights about the overall scope of the problem. As the reader will be able to see how domestic terrorism is becoming…
Latin America American terrorism issues and possible convergence with drug cartels in Central and South America Terrorism in Latin America Columbia The leftist National Liberation Army (ELN) United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) The leftist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Cuba Venezuela Mexico Iranian Activity and Sponsorship Focus Tri- Boarder area of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay Regional Overview and Criminal Activities and Concerns Parallel developments of Terrorism and Organized Crime Poverty, Discrimination and Relative Denial Interconnections between Terrorism and Organized Crime Groups Abu Nidal organization (ANO) The
Terrorism Final Examination Questions #1, #3, & #5 Bjorgo discusses levels of causation in the introduction of his book. These include structural causes, facilitator (or accelerator) causes, triggering causes, and motivational causes. At a macro level, how does each of these contribute to terrorism? In other words, concentrate on each of these types of causal factors at a general level (e.g. all kinds of structural causes), instead of focusing on individual causes
It is reported that there are two typical organizational structures that terrorist groups use: (1) networked; and (2) hierarchical. (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) the hierarchical structure organizations are those with a "well defined vertical chain of command and responsibility. Information flows up and down organizational channels that correspond to these vertical chains, but may not move horizontally." (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) a network structure is a "variation
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing? Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode,
However, class-based differences in party identification remained prominent and actually grew stronger in the 1970s and 1980s, with upper-class and middle-class individuals identifying more strongly with the Republican Party" (309). Likewise, Pomerantz (1999) notes that, "While people change their party identity only rarely, the significance of that affiliation waxes and wanes over time" (37). Citing the research conducted by Wattenberg based on data collected in the National Election Studies
Terrorism Influences Terrorism has no specific definition and its definition largely depends upon the viewpoint of an individual for example Samuel Adams (a well-known revolutionary fireband) or Thomas Gefferson would have been terrorist from British perspective but they have been Great heroes from American perspective. Take the case of George Washington who was previously fighting with British army against French and was loyalist of British crown but later on he sought