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Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Paper
Organizational psychology involves the settings based on office or workplace psychology. It is a field of psychology that uses scientific methodologies in order to understand individuals' behavior in organizational settings. Organizational psychology can also be defined as the scientific study of group and individual behaviors in a formal organizational setting. Organizational psychology is part of a broader field of industrial and organizational psychology. Organizational polices and job descriptions form the structure for organizations. It should be noted that organizational psychology is mainly concerned with the study of formal organizations and not informal organizations. According to Guion (1965)
organizational psychology is the scientific study of relationships between individuals and their world of work.
Although the main focus of organizational psychology is groups, it also focuses on individual behavior in order to obtain information pertaining what influences individual's in these groups Jex, 2002.
Guion, R.M. (1965). Personnel testing. 2445 McCabe Way: McGraw-Hill.
Jex, S.M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Miner, J.B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice. Armonk, NY 10504: M.E. Sharpe.
Shams, M., & Jackson, P.R. (2006). Developments in Work and Organization Psychology: Implications for International Business. Maryland Heights, MO 63043: Elsevier.
An interesting subfield, organizational psychology is that portion of Industrial/Organizational Psychology which concerns itself with understanding social processes within organizations (Jex, 2002). Further, it is an applied psychology in that organizational psychologists use the information regarding social processes within organizations to improve the effectiveness within those organizations (Jex, 2005). Organizational Psychology has evolved from a variety of related disciplines and as a result of various influences (Koppes and Pickren, No Date). Further, Organizational Psychology shares commonalities with other disciplines including organizational behavior and social psychology (Jex, 2005). To gain a better understanding of Organizational Psychology it is useful to examine the evolution of the discipline. It has a rich history which is beneficial to understanding the sometimes slight nuances between Organizational Psychology and other related disciplines.
The influences giving rise to Organizational Psychology began prior to the 1900's but the focus was primarily on Industrial Psychology. It is…
Christine, J. (2011). History of Organizational Psychology. Retrieved December 21, 2012 from Slideshare.net website: http://www.slideshare.net/jeelchristine/history-of-organizational-psychology
Jex, S. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A scientist-Practitioner Approach. New York:
John Wiley & Sons
Koppes, L. And Pickren, W. ( No date). Industrial and Organizational Psychology: An Evolving
Businesses and organizations represent complex social systems that are susceptible success and failure. The field of Organizational Psychology uses psychological principles to explore the social and organizational behaviors of employees, workplaces, businesses, and companies. Organizational psychologists are concerned with all phases of the work environment, including stigmas in organizations, sexual harassment, the role of personality traits in the hiring process, and workplace culture (SIOP, 2012). Studying the behaviors of employees and members within the work environment allows organizational psychologists to address problem areas, predict the consequences of organizational actions, and promote a healthy work environment. The field of organizational psychology has been evolving since the inception of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1892, and is currently a dominant field in applied psychology (SIOP History, 2012). Organizational psychology is closely related to two disciplines: social psychology and organizational behavior (Landy, & Conte, 2009). esearch and statistics play a…
Jex, S. (2002). Organizational psychology: a scientist-practitioner approach.
New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Landy, F, & Conte, J. (2009). Work in the 21st century an introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. 3rd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Inc. (2012). What are SIOP and I-O
(Work and Organizational Psychology)
What the above quotation points out is that the complexity and dynamic nature of the modern interconnected and networked world has resulted in an increasingly complex organizational structure. This has necessitated professional insight into the way the individual interact and relate to one another in the organization - which is basically the function that the organizational psychologist performs.
Organizational psychology is therefore concerned with aspects such as how people within the organization manage their conflicts and factors that make for good leadership in a complex working environment with many different sections or departments and interactive elements. The area of communications which has become such an important part of modern management and leadership philosophy, is also an areas to which the organizational psychologist contributes.
Another area in which organizational psychology is important is the teaching and development of staff members, as well as in the selection of…
Blum M. And Taylor J. ( 1968) Industrial Psychology; its Theoretical and Social
Foundations. New York: Harper and Row.
Guion, R.M. (1998). Assessment, measurement and prediction for personnel decisions.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
During the post-war era, the principle of organizational psychology were further developed and refined to facilitate maximum production and efficiency throughout American industrial and business organizations (obbins & Judge, 2009).
Comparison to other Psychological Disciplines
The principal difference between organizational psychology and other psychology disciplines is that it pertains mainly to issues involving large groups and the relationship among groups and between individuals and their respective groups whereas most other psychology disciplines relate more to psychology issues that pertain to individuals (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Certain fields of psychology, such as social psychology, also focus on group behavior and the relationship between individuals and groups; however, unlike organizational psychology, social psychology considers a much broader range of issues that have nothing to do with vocational employment or the nature of organizations in particular. The study of cognitive and developmental psychology also differ substantially from organizational psychology: they address issues in…
George JM. And Jones GR. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gerrig RJ and Zimbardo PG. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson.
Robbins SP and Judge TA. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
The recruitment process is essential for each organization and in specific the H departments in a bid to ensure smooth continuation of the employee workforce and a smooth transition from one generation to another.
The recruitment can be approached from two major perspectives; the organizational perspective and the applicant perspective with the later being the less complex part. For the applicant, the process will involve getting to know of job vacancies advertised on various media, sending an application and waiting for a feedback on the job interview. However, the applicant will also have to get background information on the job slot and the required qualifications. The applicant will also get to knowing the terms of employment and the remuneration as well as history concerning the jobs and employment trends of the organization.
The organizational approach is the more complex one with various steps that are mandatory…
Georgia T. Chao et.al, (1994).Organizational Socialization: Its Content and Consequences. Retrieved December 31, 2012 from http://www.fisher.osu.edu/~klein_12/Chao%20et%20al%20JAP%201994.pdf
Jex, S.M. & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley
Katz, D. & Kahn, R.L. (1966). "Organization and the system concept." The Social Psychology of Organizations. Wiley & Sons. Reprinted in Classics of Organization Theory. (2001). J. Shafritz & J.S. Ott. Fort Worth: Harcourt College Publishers
Meredyth Glass, (2012). How the Principles of Organizational Psychology Can Be Used in the Recruitment Process. Retrieved December 31, 2012 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/principles-organizational-psychology-can-used-recruitment-process-15422.html
ecommend at least two strategies to create alliances between your selected virtual organization and its networked internal and external stakeholders.
The best approaches are to focus on various kinds of strategies to include: enhancing communication and conducting community related events. In the case of enhancing communication, this will occur through having different mediums that will allow external stakeholders to speak to anyone inside The Elias Group. This means that the email addresses of employees and decision makers will be listed on the website / organizational literature. (Ihlen, 2011)
At the same time, all telephone calls will be monitored to ensure that there is strong communication between employees and external stakeholders. Periodically, the calls will be evaluated for quality assurance and to ensure that everyone is satisfied with the services which are provided. Moreover, there will be a focus on implementing effective communication into the organizations policies and procedures.…
Ihlen, O. (2011). The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility. Staten Island, NY: Blackwell.
Wal-Mart Stores is a multinational retailer in America. Wal-Mart is one of the world's most famous departmental stores. Wal-Mart is a chain of stores which runs discount and warehouse stores. In 2000, the company managed to get the 18th position as being the world's largest corporation in the Forbes list. Wal-Mart consists of over two million employees, and that makes it the largest privately held employer of the world. The company runs the largest discount departmental stores in America. Wal-Mart stores are divided into three groups, i.e. discount stores, markets and supercentres.
The company shares a fierce competition with many big shots in departmental stores such as KMAT, Giant Tiger, Target and many others. Wal-Mart has its subsidiaries throughout the world. Wal-Mart is famous among its customers due to its business plan which is based on constantly keeping lower prices on all their products. The company has…
Adair, J. (1997). Leadership Skills. United Kingdom: Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire.
Baldoni, J. (2005). Great Motivation Secrets of great leaders: McGraw-Hill Books, United
States of America.
Rahim, A. (2011) Managing Conflicts in Organizations. Transaction Publishers, New
According to Andrew E. Schwartz (2010), participation is an important element of team work, where the goal includes meeting the objectives of the company. Teams and individuals should participate in collective decision-making processes that affect that company as a whole. This will provide teams and employees with a sense of belonging and of being truly part of an effective team that makes a difference in the company and to clients.
Schwartz (2010) also notes the importance of a pleasant, good work environment in order to extract the best work from employees. Employees who enjoy their work environment will function better than those who find their circumstances unpleasant. In order to create such a work environment, the company's managers need to consider issues such as work hours, stress levels, health and safety.
Administrative teams should for example be encouraged to take regular breaks away from their workstations, especially if they are…
Heathfield, Susan M. (2010) Twelve Tips for Team Building: How to Build Successful Work Teams. About.com. http://humanresources.about.com/od/involvementteams/a/twelve_tip_team.htm
Schoonover, Stephen C. (2002). Team Dynamics in Today's Workplace. Schoonover Associates, Inc. http://www.schoonover.com/pdf/PDF_TeamDynamics_TodaysWorkplace.pdf
Schwartz, Andrew E. (2010) Creating a 'Team' Working Environment. AE Schwartz & Associates. http://ezinearticles.com/?Creating-a-Team-Working-Environment&id=52739
There is a link between organization behavior and organization effectiveness. Organizational citizenship behavior is an aspect of an individual activity at work that is discretionary, not formally recognized by the conventional reward system, and promotes efficient and effective functioning of an organization. Organizational citizenship behavior has two main facets namely: OCB altruistic and OCB compliance. The compliance aspect implies that things have to be done in a the right and proper way for the sake of the system as opposed to doing them for specific persons that resonates well with the altruistic aspect. Organization citizenship behavior therefore supports the social and psychological environment in which tasks are performed in an organization (Organ, 1997). In essence, OCB encompasses employees' positive and constructive inputs that supports co-workers and benefit an entire organization.
A number of factors influence job satisfaction. These include pay, job security, social simulation, demographic factors, opportunities for…
Aslam, M. (2012). Factors that Influence Job Satisfaction. Retrieved December 31, 2012 from http://pakistanihr.blogspot.com/2012/02/factors-influences-job-satisfaction.html
Organ, D.W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It's construct cleanup time. Human Performance, 10(2), 85-97.
Area: Organizational Psychology
Jam, F. F., Sheikh, A. R., Iqbal, H., Zaidi, B. H., Anis, Y., & Muzaffar, M. (2011). Combined effects of perception of politics and political skill on employee job outcomes. African Journal of Business Management, 5(23), 9896-9904. Retrieved from http://academicjournals.org/article/article1380363658_Jam%20et%20al.pdf
This review will critically assess the aforementioned paper with regard to subject introduction, intellectual plot, methodology, discussion and outcomes. Further, the article will be summarized followed by an analysis of its structure.
This paper attempted to examine the link of POP (perception of politics) with job outcomes, facilitated by political abilities, in companies within Pakistan. Numerous job outcomes like job stress, affective communication, contextual performance, and turnover intent, have been addressed. The research is grounded in the resource conservation theory (Hobfoll, 2002), which stresses that political capabilities help tackle job stressors. Hence, an examination of its role relative to job outcomes and POP…
Among the challenges faced by Borgata in the months before its opening was the daunting task of hiring 5000 employees. Hiring 5,000 employees in just a few months is a challenge under any circumstance. The massive recruitment process at Borgata was made more difficult since it did not have a physical employee center within Atlantic City, it was hosting the development data center about 100 miles away and therefore they needed to complete the process of hiring through the web. In order for Borgata to find high quality employees enough to fill the required positions they had to engage in a creative recruitment campaign which led to 30,000 well qualified job applicants (Overman, 2004). The Borgata Casino and Spa was a perfect example of an entity that required a large volume of personal that are of high quality within a very short timeframe. Casinos are highly competitive businesses…
Overman, S. (2004). Someplace Different' for 5,000 Workers. Retrieved September 13, 2013 from http://stephenieoverman.com/someplacedifferent.html
Microsoft Corporation. (2007).Borgata Hotel Casino and Spa. Retrieved September 13, 2013 from maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Aamodt (5th)/Case Study Articles/Case Study 4 - Borgata Hotel.pdf
Organizational psychology is a discipline that sets out on understanding some of the facets of organizational performance and organizational behaviors and altitudes held by the organization's members in order to gain a level of understanding which can it turn be used to improve the performance of the organization in pursuit of organizational goals. Researchers apply the scientific method and rigorous methodologies in order to further the understanding of organizations. Some of the focus of this discipline is applied to issues such as leadership, job performance, employee motivation, organizational culture, ethics, group dynamics, and team composition as well as many more courses of research. Since humans are social creatures and are generally social animals and consequently members of one or more groups, the pursuit of understanding how groups operate is an endeavor with implications that affect nearly everyone. This paper will provide an brief overview of the field…
Judge, T., & Bono, J. (2000). Five factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 751-765.
Industrial/organizational psychology, or I-O psychology as it is abbreviated, has gone from being a little known branch of psychology to one that is studied and used by many. Although the concept and the idea of I-O psychology began in the early 1900s, it was not until after World War II that it gained prominence and attention from everyone in the psychology world (Aamond 2009). The idea behind the study of this branch of psychology was to analyze what it was that made people perform in their jobs. In a job market that influenced some to excel, but yet others did not produce results, this branch of psychology was used to understand what it was that caused these problems and how it was that someone could go about fixing them (Spector 2008). These factors were applied to all types of jobs, from factory and office jobs, to professional and military employment.…
Aamod, M.G. (2009). Industrial/organizational psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology: Research and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Landy, F.J., & Conte, J.M. (2009) Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Industrial/organizational Psychology deals with the human component of organizations as well as clarifying primary motivational drives together with implications of people, socially, that work at the same place within a setting of an organization. Its research as well as the way it is being applied tries to put up characteristic human nature to be a way of efficiency and productivity in the process of facilitating environment which is conducive and safe as per their effect to the employee. All through I/Q psychology's rich history, it has applied statistical analysis and scientific researches in determining application of real-world in the work environment in trying to uphold efficiency in the process of offering an environment which is safe and is conducive to the satisfaction and well being of the employees.
Evolution of Industrial/Organizational Psychology
The genesis of I/Q psychology is from the early history of psychology in late 1800s at the time…
Kanfer, R. (2005). Self-Regulation Research in Work and I/O Psychology. Applied Psychology,
54(2), 186-191. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00203.x
Kanfer, R. (2009). Work Motivation: Advancing Theory and Impact. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2(1), 118-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2008.01120.x
Spector, P.E. (2008). Industrial and organizational psychology. Research and practice (5th ed.).
Applying Organizational Psychology
ecruitment is the procedure of seeking out prospects for work and encouraging them to get employment within the organization. ecruitment is the task that connects the companies and the potential candidates. It is a procedure of searching for and drawing in capable candidates for work. The procedure starts when brand-new employees are explored and ends when their applications are given to the company. The outcome is a collection of applications from which brand-new staff members are picked. It is a procedure to find workforce sources to fulfill the current workforce needs and to use efficient measures for drawing new potential recruits in ample numbers to assist the company in making an efficient recruitment choice. ecruitment of prospects is the feature preceding the selection, which assists develop a pool of potential staff members for the organization so that the management can pick the right prospect for…
Borman, W.C., & Motowidlo, S.J. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. In N. Schmitt & W.C. Borman (Eds.), Personnel selection in organizations (pp. 71 -- 98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Campbell, J.P. (1990). Modelling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 687 -- 732). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Conway, J.M. (1999). Distinguishing contextual performance from task performance for managerial jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 3 -- 13.
Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W. (2008). Organizational Psychogy: A Scientist-Practioner Approach. Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
I believe that I would have to point to prior accomplishments, as well, so this is not an assignment I would take directly after becoming a consultant, but one that I would grow to so I could perform it to the very best of my ability.
I would measure my success by reassessing the job after a specific period of time, such as a year, to see what improvements came in the job satisfaction and production of the department, and if the employee turnover rate fell. Just as in the initial job analysis, I would interview current and former employees to discuss the management issues, and then assess the job and performance to see if those issues had cleared up. I would do a thorough assessment and present my findings to the administration, as well.
My issue falls directly into these organizations psychology topics because management is one of the…
" (Ivin, 2005)
The notion of utilizing sevant leadeship to enhance team wokgoups to pefom such as in the case study scenaio is a contempoay viewpoint with empiical evidence to show thee is effectiveness in implementing this fom of leadeship within the oganizational development famewok.
Poblem solving within the oganizational hieachy is often elegated to job specific activity to which one may o may not actual solve the poblem inheently active in thei domain. Often, poblem solving becomes a function of the goup think to which individual identities in the poblem solving pocess ae meged into a collective membane fo joint analysis. The use of motivational methods (Dubin, 2004) to incease the motivation to poblem solve has yielded meitocatic oganizations that focus on delivey of pefomance above all othe vaiables.
Additionally, the use of meta-communication (Dubin, 2004) evolves aound impoving oganizational communication such as teamwok communication and infomal netwok communication.…
references. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(09631798), 315-315-337. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/199345870?accountid=13044
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Moliver, N. (2010). Psychological wellness, physical wellness, and subjective vitality in long-term yoginis over 45.Northcentral University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/506140189?accountid=13044
Petison, P. (2010). Intercultural communication and relationship marketing: A conceptual perspective. The Business Review, Cambridge, 16(2), 127-127-133. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/818338248?accountid=13044
In my area, drug use isn't really a spike, it's been pretty high for a while (no pun intended). There are a number of factors to which this is attributed, but suffice to say that it is a complex issue. A lot of it is just experimentation. Nobody cares about weed, so it's really when things progress to harder drug, and more addictive drugs, that it becomes a real social problem. I feel like a lot of people just want to experiment, and they do not really know the risks. There is a lot of sense that they are invincible. And, arguably, there is a lot of supply, too. If it was just weed, again, no big deal, but there's a lot worse things than that, and those other drugs are basically easy to get. So when you have people who are interested to try things, are not…
From the perspective of the new employee, understanding organizational psychology provides a means of avoiding potentially damaging questions during the process of learning exactly what is expected of employees (Cooper-Thomas & Anderson, 2002);.
Typically, new employees employ a variety of direct and indirect solicitation of fellow employees as well as observational and deductive techniques designed to increase their understanding of the organizational social environment. Examples of the former would include disguising the purpose of conversations to elicit important information indirectly; examples of the latter would include observing how much time colleagues take for lunch and whether they include transit time in a lunch "hour." (Cooper-Thomas & Anderson, 2002; Jex & Britt, 2002).
Bernerth, J.B., and Walker, H.J. (2009). "Propensity to trust and the impact on social
exchange: An empirical investigation" Journal of Leadership and Organizational
Studies, 15, 217-226.
Cooper-Thomas, H., Anderson, N. (2002). "Newcomer adjustment: the relationship between organizational…
Bernerth, J.B., and Walker, H.J. (2009). "Propensity to trust and the impact on social
exchange: An empirical investigation" Journal of Leadership and Organizational
Studies, 15, 217-226.
Cooper-Thomas, H., Anderson, N. (2002). "Newcomer adjustment: the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, information acquisition and attitudes" Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Retrieved September 13, 2009 from HighBeam Research at:
Industrial and Organizational Psychology shares much in common with several related fields, and there are multiple professional partnership opportunities. The field most closely linked to industrial and organizational psychology, and one that is important to my personal career development, is going to be human resources. As Cascio & Silbey (1979) point out, assessment centers have transformed the nature of human resources and the candidate selection process, helping organizations make more educated decisions about crafting the ideal organizational culture. Likewise, Murphy, Dzieweczynski & Yang (2009) show how the field of psychology, and organizational psychology in particular, has contributed to the evolution of assessment measures used at every stage of the human resources process from initial intakes and screening for candidates to ongoing assessments and evaluations. In this sense, human resources depend on organizational and industrial psychology.
The field of industrial and organizational psychology adds complexity to the human resources selection process,…
Cascio, W. & Silbey, V. (1979). Utility of the assessment center as a selection device. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 107-118. (EBSCOhost Accession
Number: AN 5112753).
Murphy, K., Dzieweczynski, J., & Yang, Z. (2009). Positive manifold limits the relevance of content-matching strategies for validating selection test batteries. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1018-1031. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN apl-94-4-1018).
Prins, S. (2006). The psychodynamic perspective in organizational research: Making sense of the dynamics of direction setting in emergent collaborative processes. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 335-355. (EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN 22557999).
In Hartlieb and Jones' study, a company's ethical practices in the workplace are projected onto its products/services, making the products "ethical," resulting to the concept of ethical labeling (583).
Further into the 'trend' of promoting ethical work practices in the company, companies are also promoting their corporate image and improving their relevance to their communities by developing corporate social responsibility (CS) programs. Secchi (2009) explored the 'cognitive side' of CSs, and argued that CS programs act as a "reinforcement mechanism…that, when exercised…works as a social tie between user (communities, recipients) and provider (companies)" (578).
These trends in industrial/organizational psychology are reflected in P&G's corporate practices, through its branding, corporate governance, and CS programs. P&G's corporate governance promotes ethical work behavior by allowing its employees to have a stake in the company -- that is, P&G employees are also its stakeholders. P&G's ethical corporate practices are reflected in its branding efforts,…
Hartlieb, S. And B. Jones. (2009). "Humanising business through ethical labelling: Progress and paradoxes in the UK." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Pastorizo, D., M. Arino, and J. Ricart. (2009). "Creating an Ethical Work Context: A pathway to generate social capital in the firm." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Secchi, D. (2009). "The cognitive side of social responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 88.
Procter & Gamble official website: www.pg.com.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
On a university campus, one of the most active niches is that of student organizations. Perhaps nowhere else do more organizations exist than on a college campus. These student organizations exist because there is a need for students to get involved, interact and stay active. ecause every student has their own needs for joining an organization, there are a diverse array of organizations to meet these needs. For example, there are social organizations for students needing to meet people, there are political organizations for students who want to create change in their community and there are interest organizations for those who want to share their knowledge and enjoyment of a particular hobby with others. If an organization matches the particular students needs, then the organization fulfills the student's needs. This determination is made by the combination of the three above mentioned factors and their application to the integration of the…
Schein, Edgar. Organizational Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1980.
job analysis is a vital part of any organization. It provides not only a clear description of what employees should be doing during their work hours, but also offers a clear guideline when hiring new employees and determining where the organization should be heading in its operations.
A job analysis has various goals, including the writing of a job description, selection of employees, performance evaluation, and training requirements. When the tasks of employees and the condition under which these tasks are performed are clearly analyzed and presented, it enables a company to identify problems and make improvements where necessary. It is also a means for a company to determine its needs and potential redundancies within the organization. Ultimately, job analyses helps a company to maintain the effectiveness of its workforce and its ability to maintain profitable operations.
Conducting a thorough job analysis entails a variety of steps, the first of…
Arnodt, M.G. (2013). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: An Applied Approach. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
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Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
OGANIZATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AT WOK: TECHNOLOGY & ETHICS
Digital and information technology allows for new opportunities for education, including at the professional level. More and more, human resources use technology to assist in the modification and development of company culture. 21st century organizational leadership can be characterized by the realization that a clearly defined and strongly present organizational culture is key to success. Some of the most successful organizations are ones wherein their culture is adaptable and flexible. These same companies understand the importance and value of smooth transition and effective implementation of organizational change as well as promotion of organizational culture. Human esources is a department that is integral in the development and sustainment of the organizational culture. Human esources is additionally a depart that can facilitate organizational change(s). Human esources professionals should take the time to educate themselves and learn the ways in which technology can supplement…
Dewett, T., & Jones, G.R. (2001) The role of information technology in the organization: a review, model, and assessment. Journal of Management, 27, 313 -- 346.
Heracleous, L., & Barrett, M. (2001) Organizational Change as Discourse: Communicative Actions and Deep Structures in the Context of Information Technology Implementation. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(4), 755 -- 778.
Jin, K.G. (2007) Information Technology Professionals' Perceived Organizational Values and Managerial Ethics: An Empirical Study. Journal of Business Ethics, 71(2), 149 -- 159.
Citizen's Hospital is an organization where employees and the organization share common goals. The organization has a personality of confusion. The culture of the organization focused on patient satisfaction where the climate was democratic with an emphasis on interpersonal skills, democratic values and human motivation (Francis, 2012). The structure was hierarchal and operated by departments.
Shared common goals included enabling patients to gain adequate recovery in the fastest, most effective way with safe measures to prevent infection and other illness. The psychological part of the company displayed friendliness with the interview processes that included a peer interview with the department's employees to determine capability. Upon hiring, all new hires were required to go through a socialization process of employee orientation and mentor training. Once the new hired is trained, confusion sets in with unsafe practices.
The organization developed large amounts of back injuries from role stress and a…
Francis, A. (2012, Mar 1). Neoclassical Theories of Organization. Retrieved from MBA Knowledge Base: http://www.mbaknol.com/management-principles/neoclassical-theories-of-organization
Landy, F.J. (2013). The Organization of Work Behavior. In F.J. Landy, Work in the 21st century: An Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.
Assess employee performance.
Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.
Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge and to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.
Facilitate organizational development and change.
Identify training and development needs.
Normal work activities for an Industrial Organizational psychologist might include: getting information, providing consultation and advice to others, interpreting the meaning of information to others, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, making decisions and solving problems.
In addition to those, an I/O psychologist would analyze data, organize, plan and prioritize work, interact with computers, judge…
Industrial psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 18, 2009, from a2zpsychology.com: http://www.a2zpsychology.com/ARTICLES/industrial.htm
McCarthy, P. (2002). Brief outline of the history of I/O psychology. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Middle Tennessee State University: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm
Morris, L. (2000). Careers in industrial organizational psychology. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Westchester university department of education: http://www.wcupa.edu/_Academics/sch_cas.psy/Career_Paths/Industrial/Career06.htm
O-net. (2008). Summary report for industrial organizational psychologists. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from o-net online: http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/19-3032.00
What is an Organizational Theory?
In the organizational sciences (e.g., organizational behavior, organizational psychology), one of the more misunderstood terms is organizational theory. To some, organizational theory is a field of study; to others, it is the process of using metaphorical language to describe organizational processes (e.g., McKenna & Wright, 1992; Morgan, 1986), or it represents an attempt to determine the best way to organize work organizations. The term is used to indicate all of these things, but an organizational theory is really just a way of organizing purposeful human action. Given the diversity of purposeful human endeavors, there are numerous ways to organize them, and, hence, a great many organizational theories.
Major Organizational Theories
Having provided a brief overview of the field of organizational theory, we now move on to a consideration of the major organizational theories themselves. Organizational theories simply represent ideas or models of the form…
McKenna, D.D., & Wright, P.M. (1992). Alternative metaphors for organizational design. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 901 -- 960). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Taylor, F.W. (1911). Principles of scientific management. New York: Harper.
Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization (A. M. Henderson & T. Parsons, Trans.) New York: Free Press.
People come into an organizational culture from vastly different backgrounds and with very different experiences and cultural attitudes towards the right way to view a leader and to do business. Furthermore, mergers are also more common, meaning that different corporate cultures are more frequently being combined. Although a lack of clarity about group goals, leadership, and cultural miscommunication may be the main sources of group conflict, organizations do not exist in a vacuum, and external conflicts about culture, race, gender roles, and conflicts about personal dynamics may create a permanent sense of division and a lack of unity in the workplace that cannot be healed by simply finding a common corporate mission. As workers work more hours and the divide between home and work becomes more and more blurred, personality conflicts may be just as much of factor as uncertainty about power, group rules, and rewards. Thus, although Schein is…
Schein, Edgar. Organizational Psychology. 3rd edition Englewood Cliffs: Prentice
Recruiting and Retaining Talent
In response to the scenario provided, the scenario represents one of the more extreme examples of organizational change. However, there are three months to prepare for the change which provides for some level of planning and facilitation for the change. This analysis will create a guide for attempting to meet the objectives of employee retention throughout the transition. There will undoubtedly be a great deal of employee resistance to change that manifests as soon as the news of change breaks. The leader will have to have all of the available information prepared including the changes impact on each individual's position, job requirements, and compensation among other factors. The leader will have to have an intimate knowledge of the new organization and its culture. The leader will also need to serve as a source of inspiration and provide a vision for the individuals as well…
Argote, L., & Ingram, P. (2000). Knowledge Transfer: A Basis for Competitive Advantage in Firms. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 150-169.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. (1999). Two decasdes in research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-32.
Everyone A Leader. (2009, August). Organizaitonal Development Models. Retrieved from http://everyonealeader.blogspot.com/2009/08/organizational-development-models.html
Organization Change - Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Leveraging Power & Influence in Change Management
Change is the only inevitable factor within any organization in the contemporary society. The changes that take place in line with the Human esources as well as the technology are so rapid that to stay relevant, each organization must of necessity keep up-to-date with the changes that are relevant to the organization. However, to have effective change, amid all the challenges that come with the attempt to effect change, there must be leadership that leverages power and is in a position to influence change and manage it to the conclusive end. It should be noted that change is not a destination but a continuous process, hence change management must also be continuous and not static. Changes in organizations take place all the time and each and every day which in most cases are…
Agguire D., et.al (2013). Culture's Role in Enabling Organizational ChangeSurvey Ties
Transformation Success to Deft Handling of Cultural Issues. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.booz.com/global/home/what-we-think/reports-white-papers/article-display/cultures-role-organizational-change
Beakey, D. (2007). Organizational Design and Implementation. Graziadio Business Review:
Graziadio School of Business and Management, Pepperdine University. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/organizational-design-and-implementation/
Organizational Behavior Analysis
Explored here will be a former employer, whose culture and method of communication in the workplace made it difficult for the organization to work together as a whole. Many organizations struggle with this particular issue, because they are not aware of what they can do to make much-needed changes that will allow for better communication in the workplace. The company in question was domineering in a sense, in that it did not allow for a good mixing of the cultures of the people who worked there. There was some mixing, because that is inevitable when there are a number of people who have different cultural beliefs all working in one spot. However, there was far less mixing and understanding than could have been seen and then could have been expected. This made it very difficult for people to do their jobs properly, because a significant number of…
Barney, J.B. (1986). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? Academy of Management Review, 11(3), pp. 656 -- 665.
Black, R.J. (2003) Organizational culture: Creating the influence needed for strategic success, London, UK.
Jex, S.M. & Britt, T.W. (2008) Organizational psychology, a scientist-practitioner approach. NY: John Wiley & Sons.
O'Donovan, G. (2006). The corporate culture handbook: How to plan, implement and measure a successful culture change programme. NY: The Liffey Press.
Not everyone thinks of a hospital as a business, but it must be operated as such if it is to take proper care of patients and make enough profit to continue to function. One of the best ways in which to be successful in those endeavors is to have good leadership. Proper leadership allows for an overall experience that is the best for everyone involved (van Vugt & Ahuja, 2011). In a medical setting, the leader must be sure to pass important knowledge and information down to those who are caring for the patients, and must take action to correct known problems.
There are resources that can be used to ensure patients are receiving the best care possible. As a nursing shift supervisor, working with the right colleagues and using the proper resources could help the patient and also resolve the ethical issues that are seen in Mr. J.'s case.…
Forsyth, D.R. (2009). Group dynamics (5th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Hackman, M. & Johnson, C. (2009). Leadership: A communication perspective. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Lussier, R.N., & Achua, C.F. (2010). Leadership, theory, application, & skill development.(4th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Schultz, D.P., Schultz, S.E. (2010). Psychology and work today: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Organizational esearch and Theory
Change methods are actions that managers undertake to handle change. There are two types, systematic methods and management methods. Management methods are more involving and broader than systematic methods (Al-Haddad & Kotnour, 2015, p. 248). Many writers have come up with various methods of change management, including:
Steps of the Change Models of Kotter and Lewin
a) Kurt Lewin's model has three phases including the unfreezing stage, the actual change and the refreezing stage. Lewin opined that change involves the opinion that there is need for change, acting towards the intended change and making the change a custom. The stages involve the following:
Step 1-Unfreezing: According to Lewin, human beings behave under the influence of a semi-stationary equilibrium that is surrounded by compound forces. Before getting rid of old habits and adopting new ones, there is need to unfreeze/ destabilize the equilibrium. Lewin thought of the…
Al-Haddad, S. &Kotnour, T. (2015). Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 28(2), 234-262. Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://184.108.40.206:8088/2161333/JOCM-11-2013-0215.pdf
Auguste, J. (2013). Applying Kotter's 8-Step Process for Leading Change to the Digital Transformation of an Orthopedic Surgical Practice Group in Toronto, Canada. Journal of Health &Medical Informatics, 4(3). doi:10.4172/2157-7420.1000129. Retrieved 12 September 2016 from http://www.omicsonline.org/applying-kotter-step-process-for-leading-change-to-digital-transformation-of-an-orthopedic-surgical-practice-2157-7420.1000129.pdf
Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 8(1),Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Kritsonis,%20Alicia%20Comparison%20of%20Change%20theories%20IJMBA%20V8%20N1%202005.pdf
Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 27(4),Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Forces%20For%20and%20Resistance%20to%20Change%20NFEASJ%20V27%20N4%202010.pdf
Benefits and Drawbacks of Formal 360-Degree Assessments
When implemented appropriately in organizations, the formal 360-degree assessment system can offer some benefits, such as in connection with the "full picture" element of your fit into the organization. It allows your performance to be measured more broadly than operational-task-related feedback generated from immediate coworkers. The fact that multiple coworkers contribute feedback can sometimes help organizations identify the source of problems or delays, and determining the optimal resolution to conflicts in the workplace. In ideal situations and applications, 360-degree assessment systems can also help measure whether others consider you to share a mindset or source of motivation that matches the organization's mission and values. A drawback to the 360 approach is that it relies on feedback from others who are not necessarily skilled or experienced giving feedback, and the error rate is usually higher than a direct supervisor's feedback, for example.…
Obedience to Authoity, Confomity, Intellectual Independence, and Ethical Values
Today, ethical issues have become temendously impotant aspects of moden business and business management. One need look no futhe than vey ecent headlines about the deteioation of ethical compliance in the financial sevices and home motgage industies to ealize that unethical pactices ae extemely dangeous to business oganizations as well as to evey component of society capable of being affected by ethical tansgessions. The cuent Ameican economic cisis was caused diectly by the systemic ethical violations within the home motgage and loan industy in conjunction with long-standing unethical pactices thoughout the financial sevices and negotiable secuities makets. In essence, some of the nation's bightest minds spent the last decade o moe devising highly complex methods of violating evey element of the spiit of existing financial sevices industy egulation by inventing motgage-backed secuities and incedibly unethical and dangeous methods of playing both…
references and waking schedule of individuals instead of requiring everyone to keep identical traditional business hours. The same holds true for the value of allowing teleworking opportunities. Even elements such as workstation lighting and layout can play a significant role in promoting maximum output and productivity. That concept would also suggest allowing employees greater flexibility in some of the ways that they perform their work tasks. In addition to maximizing morale and productivity in the workplace, those features would also promote rather than stifle intellectual creativity.
Of great importance is the position of respondents.
On the basis of the questionnaire an experimental design can be drawn, using two groups of subjects: one group consisting of high level positions, maybe people working in Human esource Management, and the other group being composed of university students or people holding different positions, non-managerial. The hypothesis would be aimed at testing gender stereotypes for higher position and lower position employees. A second hypothesis that will be tested is refers to the possibility that Human esources Management employees to be more prejudiced (more affected by) in what concerns gender roles.
Any research study should be very careful in establishing the relationships of cause and effect and should avoid ethical problems (dilemmas). The study suggested should take into consideration cultural differences and individual differences in the respondents in terms of personal beliefs regarding gender roles, but in such way as to be…
Agars, M. (2004), Reconsidering the Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Advancement of Women in Organizations Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 28, P. 103
Cann a., William D.S. (1990), Gender stereotypes and dimensions of effective leader behavior, Journal of Sex Roles, http://www.springerlink.com/content/j64h77642025/" Volume 23, Numbers 7-8 / October,
Campbell a., Shirley L., Candy J. (2004): A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour, Journal of Developmental Science, Volume 7 P. 1
Allen, B., (1995), Sex Roles, a Journal of Research, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n9-10_v32/ai_17589713
Business enterprises and organizations believe that empowering workers develops their self-esteem, which in turn gives them the momentum to take responsibility of their own projects. The significance of the field of psychology on Human Resource Management in the future will be fueled by increased performance expectations and employer branding that characterizes this field. As a result, every personnel in this department will be required to take up a role in coaching, mentoring, and planning, which requires use of psychological tools.
The field of psychology has continued to play a significant role in the development of Human Resource Management across business enterprises and organizations. This is evident in the fact that HRM personnel and professionals are increasingly using psychological concepts in their entire processes, especially the selection process.
Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. eb. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Covella, Linda. "HR Management Concepts & Techniques." EHow. Demand Media, Inc., 10 May 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Cullinane, Niall, and Tony Dundon. "The Psychological Contract: A Critical Review." International Journal of Management Reviews 8.2 (2006): 113-29. School of Business and Public Policy. National University of Ireland, 2006. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Kulshrestha, Sandeep. "Human Resource Management -- Evolving as a Sciencewith Inspiration from Psychology." Hr and Psychology. Scribd, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
Kumar, Suraj. "Role of Psychology in Human Resource Management and Development." All Best Articles. Responsive Website Design, n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2012. .
The Importance of Motivation as a Company Strategy
The literature abounds with evidence supporting the efficacy of employee motivation as a means of stimulating innovation, productivity, and organizational performance. For example, a survey of over 300 employees in one major organization found that employee empowerment in their respective roles was positively correlated with organizational agility, with empowerment being defined in terms of knowledge access, trust, motivation, and communication. Research on the relationship between employee motivation and organizational outcomes therefore begins with operationalization of the definitions of motivation and empowerment, as well as defining the terms of organizational success. Empowerment and motivation will manifest differently for different people, just as different organizations will define their success or outcome objectives differently depending on overall mission and vision.
Communication as a Component in Employee Motivation
If motivation is defined in terms of empowerment via access to pathways of knowledge and information, then employee…
Restructuring of First ank
Family enterprise, First ank, has, for three decades, been the town's only bank. Mr. First, the founder, originally instituted it as a little loaning shop; the small business grew larger, turning into the town's sole financial services organization. It provided small loans and over-the-counter cash facilities to clients. The town's growth, however, has led to a tremendous increase in the bank's client base, challenging the current operational structure of the organization. The problem faced is threat to the organization's existence, owing to the fact that the bank, at present, is not up to the task of meeting the town's growing demands. ank management, comprising chiefly of family members, is unwilling to alter the existing operational structure as well as improving quality and increasing the number of personnel employed. This has been a major factor in the bank's inefficient, stagnated, and outdated structure. Apart from hiring fresh…
Adler, P. S., & Shenbar, A. (1990). Adapting your technological base: the organizational challenge. Sloan Management Review. Fall 1990. p. 25-37.
Argyle, M. (1989). The Social Psychology of Work. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Balogun, J., & Hope, H. V. (2008). Exploring Strategic Change. London: Prentice Hall.
Belbin, R. M. (1993) Team Roles at Work. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Leadership and Change," Burns & By (2012) examine the relationship between leadership ethics and effective organizational change. In "Coping with Job insecurity," Loi, Lam & Chan (2012) examine the relationship between procedural justice (or injustice) and job security (or insecurity). In "Gender Differences in Leadership ole Occupancy," Schuh et al. (2014) examine the relationship between power motivation and being in positions of leadership to show why women are underrepresented in positions of power. Each of these studies examines some aspect of leadership to show how individuals and organizations can approve their overall effectiveness in key measurable or qualitative areas. Each of the studies provides a strong case with reference to prior literature. However, Burns & By (2012) only analyze existing studies, whereas Loi, Lam & Chan (2012) and Schuh, et al. (2014) conduct original research using an experimental design. The studies are all important in their own ways, with Burns…
Ahmed, B., et al. (2012). Organizational ethics and job satisfaction: Evidence from Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management 6(8): 2966-2973.
Burnes, B. & By, R.T. (2012). Leadership and change. Journal of Business Ethics 2012(108): 238-252.
Carter, M.Z., et al. (2013). Transformational leadership, relational quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change. Journal of Organizational Behavior 34(7): 942-958.
Loi, R., Lam, L.W. & Chan, K.W. (2012). Coping with job insecurity. Journal of Business Ethics 2012(108): 361-372.
Midwestern Medical Group's Integration Journey
The communication plan is one of the critical success factors when implementing any project plan. It is common for projects to fail because of poor communication either amongst the project team or with communication with internal or external stakeholders. In the succession planning project, the communication plan will have to include continual communication with the project team, the two merged organizational members, as well as communication with the other stakeholders. MMG apparently has many obstacles to overcome, however it is still deemed to have significant value to the overall organization as well as potential to increase its financial position in the future. New leadership could definitely work to increase the level of collaboration between the two organizations. With Olsen stepping down as interim president, she must work diligently to prepare the organization for the transition.
The succession project and communication plan needs to…
Bass, B. (1998). Transformational Leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 9-17.
Embertson, M. (2006). The Importance of Middle Managers in Healthcare Organizations. Journal of Healthcare Management, 51(4), 223-233.
Floyd, P. (2002). Organizational Change. London: Capstone Publishing.
Fronda, Y., & Moriceau, J. (2008). I am not your hero: change management and culture shocks in a public sector corporation. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 589-609.
RESOLVING ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT
Management Theory and Thought: Identifying and Resolving Organizational Conflict
Understanding Individual Preferences
The modern business environment has become more complex and diverse than ever before. Globalization has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and business networks that span the globe. Employees today expected to handle workloads that push their productivity beyond that of any generation in the past. Furthermore, the complexity and diversity found in this environment often significantly increase the potential for organizational conflict. Teams are now more commonly spread out across geographic locations and often represent individuals from far different backgrounds.
There are many perspectives that can be used to try to build organizational conflict resolution capabilities in an organization and this objective can be viewed from many perspectives. For example, you can try to build conflict resolution skills in the individual,…
Brenner, M., Fairris, D., & Ruser, J. (2004). "Flexible" Work Practices and Occupational Safety and Health: Exploring the Relationship Between Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Workplace Transformation. Industrial Relations, 242-266.
Gherri, B., & Eimer, M. (2011). Active Listening Impairs Visual Perception and Selectivity: An ERP Study of Auditory Dual-task Costs on Visual Attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(4), 832-844.
Hunt, G., & Cusella, L. (1983). A field study of listening needs in organizations. Communication Education, 32(4), 393-401.
Terestre, D. (2004, March 26). Talking him down: the crisis negotiator. Retrieved from Police One: http://www.policeone.com/columnists/PoliceMagazine/articles/82818-Talking-him-down-the-crisis-negotiator/
Psychology of Work
In accordance to iggio (2013), industrial organizational psychology is purposed to improve the level of self-esteem and performance of human beings, and the organizations they operate in, by progressing the knowledge and understanding of human conduct and behavior. Due to globalization, the workforces within organizations have increasingly become more diverse in the recent decade. In accordance to research studies, diverse teams and groups that are well managed outdo standardized and uniform groups as they have a tendency of being more inventive, creative and effective at resolving problems. Nonetheless, when these teams commonly experience problems with regard to communication, which results in lower performance, personnel from different nationalities, cultures, generations, gender and beliefs are presently forced to work together and operate in tandem within the same organization. As a result, these dissimilarities have come to be a current communication issue within organizations. This is for the reason that…
Miller, K. (2014). Organizational communication: Approaches and processes. Cengage Learning.
National Integration Working Group for workplaces (NIWG). (2012). Managing Workplace Diversity: A tool kit for organizations. Retrieved 28 January, 2016 from: http://www.mom.gov.sg/~/media/mom/documents/employment-practices/wdm/workplace%20diversity%20management%20tookit%20and%20managers%20guide.pdf
Riggio, Ronald, E. (2013). Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology, 6th edition.
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership is leadership that creates an organizational environment that facilitates change with a high level of commitment, loyalty, productivity, and commitment (Starcevich, 2008). Transformational leaders have many characteristics that participative leaders may not. Transformational leaders are different from participative leaders in that they inspire employees and direct them from a big picture perspective. They share a vision, build a learning environment, support employees, and encourage them to carry out a vision, while fostering self-expression, persistence and interpersonal communication (Starcevich, 2008). Many refer to transformational leaders as having charismatic traits, although they are not charismatic leaders, because they have more qualities than just passion and fervor.
Bass (1990) describes transformational leaders as those that inspire changes in their organizations by "elevating the interests" of their followers by increasing the awareness and acceptance of the purpose and mission of a group, when they encourage others…
Bass, B.M. (1990 Winter). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision. Organizational Dynamics: 19-31.
Bass, B.M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership.
European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1): 9-32.
Starcevich, Matt M. (2008). The Coach: Creating Partnerships For a Competitive Edge, revised edition. The Center for Coaching and Mentoring.
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…
Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains: http://www.crookedbrains.net/2007/12/creative-ads-by-smirnoff.html
Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/classical-conditioning.html
Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
The ideas of multiculturalism and diversity are often used interchangeably to include the aspects of identity coming from gender, sexual orientation, disability, socioeconomic status, or age. Multiculturalism identifies the wide scope of dimensions of race, religious orientation, ethnicity, language, sexual orientation, disability, gender, age, class status, education and other cultural dimensions. These are all serious features of an individual's ethnic and personal identity, and psychologists are optimistic to be aware of issues related to all of these dimensions of culture. In addition, each cultural aspect has distinctive issues and concerns. Each individual belongs to or identifies with a number of identities and some of those identities interact with each other. In order to efficiently help clients, to effectively train students, to be most effective as agents of change and as scientists, psychologists have to be familiar with issues of these multiple identities within and between individuals (Guidelines on Multicultural Education,…
Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational
Change for Psychologists- American Psychological Association. (2002). Retrieved April
6, 2010, from American Psychological Association Web site:
Psychology -- Erikson and Rogers
Chaim is a Hasidic Jew who hung out in the underground scene and became a very creative underground rock star. However, Chaim was internally conflicted: the underground lifestyle was the polar opposite of his Hasidic lifestyle and he tried to live Hasidic-by-day and underground rock-star-by-night. Chaim left it to God to determine whether he would get a Hasidic wife or a record contract first. Eventually, he chose a Hasidic married lifestyle, moved upstate and would not touch the underground lifestyle again because he cannot have it and would lose everything by trying to get it back. An Ego Psychologist like Erik Erikson and a Humanist Psychologist like Carl Rogers would view Chaim's dilemma differently.
Erik Erikson believed that a person's life has 8 stages and develops by the interplay of the body, mind and culture influences. Erikson would believe that Chaim was in Stage…
Here, testing is an important component. Individuals and institutions who work with older people should implement regular testing procedures to ensure that they continually provide effective care services to the aging population. Such testing procedures should be targeted towards improvement and implementation on an organization-wide scale.
According to Niles-Yokum and Wagner (2011, p. 16), the targeted development and training for the gerontological workforce began as early as the 1970s, where the focus was mainly on researchers and educators in the subject are of gerontology. Today, this has developed to include special skills sets such as mental health interventions. There are also centers of excellence in gerontology to ensure the effective delivery of care services to the older population. This is an important implementation to ensure the quality of care for older people.
In terms of testing, these centers of excellence should be investigated for their scope and reach. If there…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Eldercare Locator. Retrieved from: http://www.eldercare.gov/Eldercare.NET/Public/Index.aspx
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Shame and Doubt, according to Erickson, children develop a sense of self-control as they control their bodily functions. This makes them feel confident and able to handle problems independently. But Tom's mother would not relinquish her control over his bodily functions at this time. Her forcing him to void on her schedule and not his, gave him a sense of shame and the feeling that he was not in control of his world. He therefore felt inadequate and doubtful of his ability to cope with anything. As she continued to control him by denying him food, love and choices of clothing, he became increasingly angry at the world, frustrated at the impression that his body and whole life was under the control of someone other than himself. This created anger and depression.
It is a wonder that Tom was as normal as he was during his teen years. He was…
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Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…
Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…
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During this process is when they could become traumatized, based upon different events surrounding their bodily functions (such as: wetting the bed). At which point, the individual may exhibit a host of behaviors later on life to include: shyness, domination and compulsive disorders. In the phallic stage (which lasts from 3 -- 5 years old), the child becomes aware of their gender. It is at this stage that the personality is fully developed, with the child cultivating a love for their mother or father (commonly called the Electra or Oedipus complexes). Latency is when there is little to no development in the personality during this part of someone's life. The genital stage begins at the age of 12 years old. During this part of an individual's life, is when the person will begin to a have a renewed interest in: their sexual orientation and those who they are attracted to.…
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I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.
According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:
Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.
Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.
Creating a bedtime ritual…
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The results of the experiment were that performance remained consistently good in all subjects until they reached the 8-digit sequence. All four of the subjects successfully remembered the 4-digit, 5-digit, 6-digit, and 7-digit sequences accurately. Three of four subjects remembered the 8-digit sequence and none of the subjects was able to remember the 9-digit or 10-digit numerical sequence.
The results seemed to confirm the experimental hypotheses. Moreover each of the subjects indicated separately that he or she had broken up the numerical sequences to aid memorization. More specifically, each subject responded that he or she had used the familiar form of 7-digit telephone numbers to assist in memorizing all of the sequences.
Even in the case of sequences shorter than 7-digits, the subjects all indicated that they…