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Victims of Intimate Violence: Laci Peterson and Minh Dang
Osteoarthritis refers to the form of arthritis affecting the joints of individuals, especially middle age and elderly members of the society (Walker, 2011). Osteoarthritis is known as 'OA' or wear and tear of the joints. Osteoarthritis is a joint disease or pathology affecting the entire joints, ligaments, linings of the joints, cartilage, and bones of the affected persons within the society. According to the survey of the medical conditions of the United States, approximately 27 million citizens are living with Osteoarthritis. This is the most common aspect or form of the joint diseases. It is one of the leading causes of disabilities in relation to the older people within the society.
The occurrence of the aspect of Osteoarthritis is diagnosed when the cartilage of the joints breaks down due to factors such as mechanical stress and biomedical alterations. These failures…
Hunter DJ, Lo GH. (2009). The management of osteoarthritis: an overview and call to appropriate conservative treatment. Med Clin North Am.;93:127-43, xi.
Richmond J, Hunter D, Irrgang J, et al. (2009). Treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
(nonarthroplasty). J Am Acad Orthop Surg.;17:591-600.
Walker, J. (2011). Management of Osteoarthritis. Nursing Older People, 23(9), 14-19.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis mostly affecting senior citizens progressively with age though trauma-induced osteoarthritis is also observed in younger people. Osteoarthritis occurs at the joints -- elbows, shoulders, knees and the digits of the hand. A projected 20 million people are in the United States are assumed to have osteoarthritis with about 50% of people over the age of 65 suffering, as evidenced by radiology studies. Osteoarthritis affects different people differently. In some cases, it progresses more rapidly than others. Researchers have not specifically identified the cause-effect circumstances for osteoarthritis; however, besides trauma, diet, weight, and work or activity related stress on the joints (long or short-term) are said to be contributory. (Hosie and Dickson 2000; Arthritic Foundation 2002)
The consequences of osteoarthritis are varied -- physical and psychological (Wildner and Sangha 1999). esides the financial costs and loss of wages due to disability, osteoarthritis takes…
Arthritic Foundation. (2002). Osteoarthritis (OA). September 25, 2002 http://www.arthritis.org/conditions/DiseaseCenter/oa.asp
Hammerman, D. (1989). "The biology of osteoarthritis." New England Journal of Medicine 320(20): 1322-30.
Hoaglund, F.T., A.C. Yau, et al. (1973). "Osteoarthritis of the hip and other joints in southern Chinese in Hong Kong." J. Bone Joint Surg Am 55(3): 545-57.
Hosie, G. And J. Dickson (2000). Managing Osteoarthritis in Primary Care. Malden, MA, Blackwell Science.
The higher prevalence of gout in elderly persons may also reflect an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, high rates of diuretic treatment for hypertension and congestive heart failure, and the use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (Miller, Ranatunga, and Francis, 2008).
Gout is managed in 3 stages: (1) treating the acute attack, (2) providing prophylaxis to prevent acute flares, and (3) lowering excess stores of urate to prevent flares of gouty arthritis and to prevent tissue deposition of urate crystals (Miller, Ranatunga, and Francis, 2008)..Asymptomatic hyperuricemia is generally not treated, but acute gout is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine (Miller, Ranatunga, and Francis, 2008).
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals, causing people to have strange sensations and emotions, to behave strangely or to…
Advances in treatment of epilepsy and related seizure disorders help improve quality of life (2007, June 4). Medical News Today. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/72962.php
Bankhead, C. (2008, September 30). Gout tracked to genes that affect urate levels. MedPage Today. http://www.medpagetoday.com/Rheumatology/Arthritis/11122
Epilepsy. MedLine Plus. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/epilepsy.html
Gout. WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/gout-topic-overview
(Osteoarthritis: The most common form, this disease affects 20.7 million Americans (usually over age 45).
Furthermore, if one takes into account that many of these disorders have been attributed to the way that the female body has been adversely manipulated in patriarchic society, then this can also be seen as a determining social factor that impacts women with osteoarthritis.
Psychological factors also play a role in this condition and can reduce the quality of life for the patient. As a study by Fujita et al. (2006) states, "…our study revealed several problems that have not been mentioned to date, such as an inferiority complex related to abnormal posture prior to THA and distress over body image after undergoing THA" (Fujita et al. 2006. p. 81). THA refers to total hip arthroplasty and OA to osteoarthritis.
In conjunction with this aspect is the real problem of coping with pain and disability…
Grotle M. et al.( 2008) Obesity and osteoarthritis in knee, hip and/or hand: An
epidemiological study in the general population with 10 years follow-up.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.rap.ocls.ca/ehost/pdf?vid=1&hid=2&sid=bc149326-393d-4722-9d5a-58b499765d5f%40sessionmgr10
Bliddal, H. An d Christensen, R. ( 2006) the management of osteoarthritis in the obese patient: practical considerations and guidelines for therapy. Obesity Reviews, 7(4).; Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.rap.ocls.ca/ehost/pdf?vid=1&hid=2&sid=e1e70812-0211-4410-be8c-f26542b60d3a%40sessionmgr12
Currently, osteoarthritis afflicts almost 1 out of 10 (9.6%) men and 2 out of 20 (18%) women aged 60 years and older (Woolf & Pfleger, 2003). As a result of increases in longevity, osteoarthritis is projected to become the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020 (Woolf & Pfleger, 2003). According to Brooks (2003), "Genetic factors determining the biochemical constituents of bone and cartilage may place individuals at an increased risk of osteoarthritis. Given the number of cell types in cartilage and bone, there is the potential for many genes to contribute to the predisposition to osteoarthritis" (p. 689). Genetic factors can also help protect people from being afflicted with osteoarthritis. For instance, Barazesh (2009) advises that, "Genes that make bones grow longer can form extra cartilage in joints, protecting them from the ravages of osteoarthritis" (p. 23).
By contrast, rheumatoid arthritis affects between 0.3-1.0% of the general…
Barazesh, S. (2009, May 9). The genetic dimension of height and health. Science News, 175(10),
Brooks, P. (2003, September). Inflammation as an important feature of osteoarthritis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(9), 689-673.
Lee, D-H & Steffes, M. (2007, June). Positive associations of serum concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls or organochlorine pesticides with self-reported arthritis, especially rheumatoid type, in women. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(6), 883-
Arthritis is considered as one of the major health conditions affecting a significant portion of the United States population. Even though the condition currently affects approximately 50 million adults in the country, it is not primarily an adulthood health condition. There are numerous cases of children suffering from arthritis, which implies that this condition is not uncommon among children. As a result of the prevalence of arthritis among children and adults, understanding the pathophysiology and symptoms of this condition has emerged as an important component in proper diagnosis and treatment. This paper examines the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in relation to the similarities and differences between the two conditions. The analysis includes a selection of two patient factors that could impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.
Pathophysiology of Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
Arthritis is an umbrella term that refers to different conditions involving inflammation of…
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…
Bahr, Roald, and Lars Engebretsen. Sports Injury Prevention. Vol. 17. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print.
Chambers, Abigail E.L., and Grant Cooper. "The Role of Sports and Activity in Osteoarthritis." Arthritis MD - Trusted Arthritis MD - Arthritis Information from Doctors Who Care. Arthritis MD. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
Cohen, Bradley. "How Does Playing Sports Affect Your Health?" LIVESTRONG.COM - The Limitless Potential of You. Demand Media, Inc., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2011. .
Gotlin, Robert S. Sports Injuries Guidebook. Illustrated ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. Print.
experts would likely agree with the very general statement that individuals who exercise, or who implement an exercise regime, are much more likely to lose weight and alleviate pain experienced from a variety of diseases and maladies. It would seem that much of the current literature would provide evidence of this hypothesis. This specific study, however, seeks to do more than just ascertain the results from such a general question. This study seeks to determine whether initiating an exercise regime for patients experiencing osteoarthritis can lower the level of the pain they are feeling and increase their mobility through adherence to that regime.
This study will, in essence then, take a two-pronged approach. The first is to determine whether patients with suffering from osteoarthritis can lower the level and incidence of pain they suffer by implementing a basic exercise regime. If so, this study wishes to determine just how much…
Barile, J.; Reeve, B.; Smith, A.; Zack, M.; Mitchell, S.; Kobau, R.; Cella, D.; Luncheon, C.; & Thompson, W.; (2013) Monitoring population health for healthy people 2020: evaluation of the NIH PROMIS GlobalHealth, CDC Healthy Days, and satisfaction with life instruments, Quality of Life Research, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 1201 -- 1211
Cushing, C.C. And Steele, R.G. (2014). Evidence-based obesity management for primary care. Public Interest Directorate. American Psychological Association. Retreived from http://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/primary-care/obesity-management.aspx?item=1
Do, B., Hootman, D., Helmick, C.G., & Brady, T.J. (2011). Monitoring healthy people 2010 arthritis management objectives: education and clinician counseling for weight loss and exercise. American Family Medicine, 9(2), 136-141. doi: 10.1370/afm.1210 Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403140
Edwards, C., Rogers, A., Lynch, S., et al. (2012). The effects of bariatric surgery weight loss on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis, 2012, [Clinical Study]. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/504189
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
health promotion strategies that can be implemented upon the predictive characteristics of the family.
My health promotion strategy program will center around a Cuban-American family called the Garcias whose primary health issues center on hypertension, and the need for greater information about the importance of establishing a healthy lifestyle. This includes the importance of screening, exercise, establishing healthy habits, and monitoring one's lifestyle. Several members of the family indicate stress and hypertension whilst the grandmother also has cardiac disease and osteoarthritis, but is resilient to receiving information on how to alleviate her symptoms. In a similar way, Angelo, an addicted smoker, refuses to stop smoking and to deal with his chronic cough and mild chest pain, stating that, as man of the family, he has to continue working his overwhelming hours. Gerardo, the son, being active homosexually, seems to be vulnerable to AIDS; it is unclear whether or not he…
Boswell, T.D. & Curtis, J.R. (1984) The Cuban-American Experience. Culture, Images and Perspectives. NJ: Rowman & Allanheld Publishers
Cuban Americans http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr./Cuban-Americans.html
Arthritic conditions found within the joints of the body: their causes, treatment, current research, and what effect they have on athletic participation.
Types of Arthritis
Causes of Arthritis
Arthritis and Athletic Activities
Arthritis is said to be the number one cause of disability in the United States, with more individuals disabled with arthritis than by both heart disease and strokes (Lewis 2000).
Arthritis is also a disease that is plagued with misunderstanding. The Center for Disease Control warns that it is these misunderstandings that result in the disease doing so much harm (Lewis 2000).
Some of the common misunderstandings involve recognizing that there are different types of arthritis and that arthritis is not only a disease of the aged. Arthritis is also often not taken seriously enough in its early stages, preventing individuals from seeking medical help that could…
AAOS: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2000). Arthritis. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.
The Arthritis & Glucosamine Resource Center. (2002). Treating and Preventing Sports Injuries & Secondary Arthritis. http://www.arthritis-glucosamine.net/arthritis/sports-injuries-arthritis.html
Arthritis Foundation. (2002). Progress and Opportunities in Rheumatoid Arthritis. http://www.arthritis.org/research/research_program/RA/default.asp
Lewis, C. (May-June 2000). Arthritis: Timely Treatments for an Ageless Disease. FDA Consumer, 34:3.
Weightloss Counseling and Physical Exercise
PHASE II Search Paper
Dana Delatush RN BSN ONC
"I pledge my honor that I have neither given nor received inappropriate aid on this assignment."
Abstract Comment by Patricia: Place the abstract on a separate page for your final search paper
This paper is focused on the literature search related to the PICOT question: Does weight loss counseling and physical exercise improve pain and mobility in obese patients with a BMI >25 suffering from osteoarthritis? To answer this clinical question, six databases were searched including the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied health Literature (CINAHL), The Cochrane Library, PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, PsycInfo®, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source™. The paper describes the search methodology. Keywords: osteoarthritis, obesity, weight loss counseling, pain, mobility
Introduction to Search Strategy
I will be creating a search strategy to help me clarify what information I need, and…
Synovial joints like the knee and hip are qualified by their possessing a liquid that serves as a lubricant; that liquid is called synovia or synovial fluid. The fluid is surrounded by the synovium, which is the soft connective tissue that holds the synovial fluid. Whereas the synovium is actually permeable to water, the synovial fluid is far more viscous. Furthermore, a synovial membrane generates the synovial fluid. The name synovia comes from the words syn (like) and ovium (egg), due to its thick, stringy consistency resembling that of egg white (Laptiou, 2014). With age, the synovial fluid may become thinner, leading to insufficient lubrication and symptoms such as reduced range of motion, painful movements, stiffness, and swelling. Other classes of tissue that comprise the synovial joint system include the bone and cartilage, as well as the surrounding tensile tissues and ligaments. (Lapitou, 2014). epair of synovial joints depends on…
Barry, F. & Murphy, M. (2013). Mesenchymal stem cells in joint disease and repair. Nature Reviews Rheumatology 9, 584-594.
Feingold, D. (2009). Joint reconstruction. Retrieved online: http://www.davidfeingoldmd.com/joint_reconstruction.php
Laptiou, D. (2014). Normal joint structure. Retrieved online: http://www.sportsmed-forum.com/index-1/st_pag_patients-home/sm_pag_normal-joint-structure/sm_pag_normal-muskel.htm
Pavlovich, R.I. (2008). Current concepts in synovial tissue of the knee joint. Orthopedics 31(2). Retrieved online: http://www.healio.com/orthopedics/knee/journals/ortho/2008-2-31-2/%7B06da86cf-3ac6-4fe7-850f-1170c97e9403%7D/current-concepts-in-synovial-tissue-of-the-knee-joint
The following is the assessment of AB case, a first time visitor to the writer. The assessment will include checking the pharmacologic treatment, reactions to the drugs in the medicines consumed, advisory healthcare practices and exercises, and non-pharmacologic treatment. More information to be provided if need be.
AB, an overweight, 52--?year -- ?old, Hispanic, male comes for the first visit to your office for assessment of complaints about tiredness, nocturia x 2 -- ?3, and finding it difficult to do the required paperwork in the office (Masters, 2014). He informs that he is reportedly having diabetes type 2 for about six years when he first experienced same feelings of fatigue and nocturia x 2 -- ?3. The patient informs he has attended infrequent classes on diabetes that emphasized on importance of physical activity and weight loss (Masters, 2014). His was accompanied by his wife to these…
http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/sleep-apnea/sleep-apnea-treatmentsBeckerman , J., MD, FACC. (2014). Sleep Apnea Treatments. from Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Drug Interactions: What You Should Know. from http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/ucm163354
James Beckerman, M., FACC. (2013). An Overview of High Blood Pressure Treatment. from http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/hypertension-treatment-overview
Joel C. Marrs. (2010). Pharmacy Perspectives in Dyslipidemia Management. from http://www.uspharmacist.com/USPExams/107084/PHS1005.pdf
Lozanda, C., J, MD. (2014). Osteoarthritis Treatment & Management. from http://emedicine.medscape.com /article/330487-treatment#aw2aab6b6b2
Therefore, the research offers reliable data supporting the emerging medication.
The sample included 878 patients with low back pain or pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Patients were randomly assigned to Tapentadol or control drug oxycodone and took their medications for 90 days Doses for Tapentadol were flexible with either 50 or 100 mg offered every 4 to 6 hours, up to a maximum of 600 mg/day. Instances of nausea, vomiting, and constipation were significantly lower in the Tapentadol group vs. The oxycodone group. Doses were flexible and mimicked real life administrations of the medications.
However, the control group was given 10 mg or 15 mg of oxycodone IR every four to six hours. The lack of standardization of doses and the flexible administration of the drugs compromise the reliability and validity of the study. Nurses should also take note that rates of other side-effects such as drowsiness…
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
1. Fast Food Nation, Eric Schlosser, 2000
2. Mayo Clinic: Obesity www.cnn.com/mayo
3. BBC Health: Why fast food makes you fat, October 2003
4. Overweight and Obesity, Healthy People 2010: Leading Health Indicators and National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Nanney et al. (2007) state that policies aimed at promoting nutritional awareness in schools and about local healthy food choices would influence the food choices that people make within their own homes, possibly leading to better health outcomes.
Past studies on obesity in Missouri have identified obesity risk factors and nutritional deficiencies in populations of inner city youth, rural elderly, rural poverty-stricken, and rural youth (Kohrs, Wang, Eklund, Paulsen, & O'Neal, 1979; Kohrs, O'Neal, Preston, Eklund, & Abrahams, 1978; (Kohrs, Nordstrom, O'Nea, Eklund, Paulsen, & Hertzler, 1978). Previous measures to address obesity in Missouri have focused on school nutrition programs. However, the obesity rates continue to rise, and Missouri has adopted a program through the establishment of the Missouri Council on the Prevention and Management of Overweight and Obesity aimed at increasing activity levels, improving nutritional intake, creating an effective health care system, and creating effective obesity-related policies (Missouri Department…
Boehmer, T., Lovegreen, S., Haire-Joshu, D., & Brownson, R. (2006). What Constitutes an Obesogenic Environment in Rural Communities. American Journal of Health Promotion, 411-421.
Casey, a., Elliott, M., Glanz, K., Haire-Joshu, D., Lovegreen, S., Saelens, B., et al. (2008). Impact of the food environment and physical activity environment on behaviors and weight status in rural U.S. communities. Preventive Medicine, 600-604.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Obesity and Overweight. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/
Centers for Disease Control. (2010). U.S. Obesity Trends. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Centers for Disease Control:
Alonso, J., Banegas, J.R., Graciani, A., Guallar-Castillon, P., Gutierrez-Fisac, J.L., Lopez-Garcia, E., & Rodriguez-Artalejo, F. (2007). Relationship between obesity, hypertension and diabetes, and health-related quality of life among the elderly. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 14(3): 456-462.
This study examined health-related quality of life among elderly people living with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The results found that obesity in elderly women and diabetes in elderly men are the two factors that were most closely and dramatically related to a reduced health-related quality of life. Obese elderly women with hypertension and diabetes should the greatest decline in health-related quality of life. The researchers conclude by stating that these high-risk groups are in need of special attention and further research.
This article pertains to my research because it discusses the impact obesity has on the elderly population. As well, it discusses the implications of this epidemic for health care professionals.…
Messier, SP. (1994). Osteoarthritis of the knee and associated factors of age and obesity: effects on gait. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(12):1446-1452.
This article is a literature review which examines old age and obesity in relation to osteoarthritis (OA) and how it affects walking mechanics. It was found that there is a strong association between knee OA and obesity among the elderly. It is unclear whether or not the reduced physical function of elderly people living with obesity and OA would improve by treating the obesity; thus, the researchers suggest further study in the area.
This article pertains to my research because it discusses the increased mobility and joint issues faced by obese elderly people.
exhaustively present the personal and professional issues that I have gone through at the moment that I initially started my academic program at the University. I also address fully, my growth experience in the entire period of the course of the study personal competencies. At the end of this essay, one would be able to gain an in-depth understanding of who I am as well as my educational journey and experience with Phoenix University.
A reflection upon where I was in my personal and professional life when I started the University of Phoenix program
Some years ago, I got employed by Bank America as a Consumer Market Manager (CCM). For quite a while, I have been able to be given several awards of excellence as a result of my hard work and devoted service to the bank. As a consumer Market Manager (CMM), I report to the Consumer Market Executive,…
Oily fish contains a particularly important EFA, which provides protection against heart disease. It can also help prevent osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, cyclic breast pain, skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis and help the development of the baby's brain during pregnancy. Another important EFA is found in oily nuts such as almonds, walnuts and razil nuts, which counteracts deposits of harmful cholesterol. Some recent research suggests that EFA's can improve your mood, prevent inflammation, water retention and can help weight loss. Monounsaturated fat remains liquid at room temperature, olive oil being the best known source. it's also found in grape seed oil, avocados and some spreads. Olive oil is rich in fat-soluble vitamin sAD. E and K, vital antioxidants that help to prevent cancer, arthritis and heart disease.
Different people require a different number of calories to lose weight and maintain health, which is dictated by their build, level…
Controlling the global obesity epidemic. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/nut/obs.htm
How to Pick a Nutritional Plan. Retrieved November 21, 2004 from PDR Health. Web site: http://www.pdrhealth.com/content/nutrition_health/chapters/fgnt04.shtml
Koop, C. (2000) Retrieved from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 2. Web site: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/2/503S
Preventing Childhood Obesity. RWJF President and CEO Reflects on Institute of Medicine Action Plan. Retrieved November 22, 2004 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Web site: http://www.rwjf.org/news/special/risaObesityInterview.jhtml
Muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis are complicated conditions. According to the research, muscular dystrophy is a "group of familial disorders that cause degeneration of skeletal muscle fibers" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Many researchers believe that the different types are each caused by different biochemical defects. For example, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is thought t be the result of a single gene defect "thought to be caused by a deletion of a segment of deoxyribonucleic acid" (Carroll, 2008, p 1633). Similarly, Becker Muscular Dystrophy is also caused by deformities in the X-link. Different types of dystrophy affect different muscle groups. There is the example of scapuloperneal Muscular Dystrophy, which affects the facial and shoulder muscles. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular condition, caused by abnormal transmission of nerve impulses to the affected muscle groups. Normal communication is interrupted, where antibodies disrupt the flow of acetylcholine between nerves and muscles. It is also…
Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?
Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.
When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…
references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.
29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.
1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.
2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.
3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.
Incidence rates of obesity are rising globally, with tremendous impacts to the cost and nature of healthcare intervention. As measured as body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over, being overweight affects as many as 67% of all American adults, while up to 40% can be classified as obese with a BMI of 30 or more. About 5% of Americans are classified as morbidly obese with a BMI of 40 or more. Obesity affects persons from all demographic groups, and has been on the rise in all demographic groups, even though some groups have higher rates of obesity than others. As many as 10% of all children worldwide are either obese or overweight. Being overweight and being obese are associated with a number of health conditions including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Moreover, obesity may cause psychological and social issues ranging from depression and anxiety to stigma and prejudice, with…
Camden, S.G. (2009). Obesity: An emerging concern for patients and nurses. OJIN 14(1).
Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system. Neuroplasticity reflects the brain's ability to transform itself. This is an important concept, because it means that the brain is constantly changing, in that there is no constant self. The brain can thus be "re-wired," as a consequence of this neuroplasticity. When considering the brain and its role in our health, this is important because as the brain regenerates, we have the opportunity to change it. We do not need to be who we were, for example. Some of this is fairly common sense -- new experiences can change us -- but neuroscience has allowed this to be proven, that our brains are not set entities but can be transformed. Even more important is the finding that we can change our own brains over time with training (Draganski, et al., 2004).
Stress is one of the major influences on the…
AIS (2016). Stress effects. American Institute of Stress. Retrieved April 5, 2016 from http://www.stress.org/stress-effects/
Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G., Boghdan, U. & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature. Vol. 427 (22 Jan 2004) 311-312.
Pradhan, E., Baumgarten, M., Langenberg, P., Handwerger, B., Gilpin, A., Magyan, T., Hochberg, M. & Berman, B. (2007). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on rheumatoid arthritis patients. Arthritis Care and Research. Vol. 57 (7) 1134-1142.
Zautra, A., Burleson, M., Matt, K., Roth, S. & Burrows, L. (1994). Interpersonal stress, depression and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Health Psychology. Vol. 13 (2) 139-148.
Elderly in Monrovia, CA
The population of people aged 65 years or greater is steadily escalating, as baby boomers come of age. It is estimated that this age bracket accounts for 10% of the total world population, and is statistically increasing. As this sector of the population steadily increases, there are of course, accompanying health care issues: osteoarthritis, cardiac and kidney issues, Alzheimer's or dementia, and an ever-growing problem with depression. For this essay, we will concentrate on several health issues that plague seniors nationally, but will specifically focus on the aging population over 65 in Monrovia, California.
Monrovia is a smallish city located at the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County. Monrovia was settled in the late 1800s as a central hub for the growing orange grove industry, but has now become more of a bedroom community that supports the urban…
Breathe California of Los Angeles County. (2009). Cited in:
California Department of Public Health. (June 2009). "Healthy California -- 2010
Midcourse Review." Executive Summary. Cited in:
In addition, those who are emotionally troubled and who are overweight -- often a contributing factor to emotional difficulties -- do not receive extra counseling time." Seale, Seale & Zhang (2008, p.425) This is a serious concern and one that must be addressed immediately by physicians who are providing care for obese patients.
A lot of revamping has to be done to meet this increased need of obese elderly and this has to be done fast. The numbers are increasing by the day and unless some initiatives are taken right away, it can blow up into a full-fledged catastrophe in the future. The first and foremost step that is required is to change the present healthcare system to make it more effective and efficient. Changes have to be made in the delivery of service as well as payments to make it more accessible to the elderly.
Another important step…
Arterburn, David E. (2004). The Coming Epidemic of Obesity in Elderly Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 52(11). 1907-1912
Odilia I; Bermudez; Tucker, Katherine L. (2001). Total and Central Obesity among Elderly Hispanics and the Association with Type 2 Diabetes. Obesity Research (9), 443 -- 451; doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.58
Thompson, Dennis. (2009, December 31). As U.S. Ages, Health Care May Need to Change. HealthDay Consumer News Service.
Dutton, Drake, D; Engelke. K; McAuliffe, M; Rose, M., (2005). Challenges that nurses face in caring for morbidly obese patients in the acute care setting. Surgery for Obesity and Related
Lipases digest fat and fat soluble vitamins. Enzyme.com reports, "Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out of the cell. For example, diabetics are lipase deficient and cannot get glucose into their cells, and wastes or unwanted substances cannot get out." Heart disease can come from this.
Cellulase deficiency can lead to sugar or gluten intolerance. Enzyme.com writes, "Cellulase deficiency is a malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals from the diet by the lining of the small intestine) with its many symptoms of lower abdominal gas, pain, bloating and problems associated with the jejunum and pancreas as well as nervous system conditions such as ell's Palsy, Tic and facial neuralgia."
Ethnicity can be related to deficiencies of the body. Emedicine.medscape.com (2010) reports, "Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is most common in Canadian Eskimos and natives of Greenland. They cannot…
Enzymes.com. (2010). "Enzyme deficiencies" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.enzymes.com/enzyme_deficiencies.html
Emedicine.medscape.com. (2010). Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
As far as society is concerned, the effects of high obesity rates would include: an increase in health care costs, less productivity and increasing disability rates. This is significant, because the information provides a way of seeing the total impact that obesity is having on the individual and society. Where, the overall long-term costs for the individual will mean the possibility of being exposed to a number of different conditions simultaneously. At the same time, society will have to bear the economic impact that obesity rates will have on the economy, as it will lead to higher costs and less productivity. (Vissche 2010 pp. 355 -- 375)
Describe the Way in which the Issue is being Reported
The issue is being reported as a major health crisis that will have long-term implications on the country. During these reports, the high statistics and the total amounts of obesity are usually highlighted.…
F as in Fat, 2007, American Trails, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,
Doane, S, Battling Obesity in America, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,
Himba, T, 5 Causes of Obesity, 2010, viewed 4 Aug. 2010,
Visscher, T, 2010, 'The Public Health Impact of Obesity', Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 22, pp. 355 -375.
This became more so with the advancement of molecular iology Tests. Subsequently a group of clinicians met in Ghent elgium and came up with the current diagnostic criteria known as the Ghent Nosology. (De Paepe et al. 1996) Similar to the erlin Nosology the Ghent criteria was based on clinical findings in the various organ systems as well as the nature of family history and relationships, a major criteria was classified as which has a high diagnostic specificity because it was less frequent in other conditions and in the general population. A point of divergence from the erlin Nosology was the conversion of minor criteria in the skeletal system into major criteria. For one to be diagnosed with Marfan's the patient must have a first degree relative diagnosed with the disease in addition two systems must be involved with one having a major sign. In the absence of a family…
Beighton, P., de Paepe, a., Danks, D., Finidori, G., Gedde-Dahl, T., Goodman, R., Hall, J.G., Hollister, D.W., Horton, W., McKusick, V.A., Opitz, J.M., Pope, F.M., Pyeritz, R.E., Rimoin, D.L., Sillence, D., Spranger, J.W., Thompson, E., Tsipouras, P., Viljoen, D., Winship, I., Young, I (1988). International nosology of heritable disorders of connective tissue. Am. J. Med. Genet. 29: 581-594,
Borger F (1914): Uber zwei Falle von Arachnodaktylie. Zschr Kinderheilk 12: 161 -1-84.
Baer RW, Taussig HB, Oppenheimer EH (1943): Congenital aneurysmal dilatation of the aorta associated with arachnodactyly. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 72:309-33 1.
De Paepe, a., Devereux, R.B., Dietz, H.C., Hennekam, R.C.M., Pyeritz, R.E.( 1996) Revised diagnostic criteria for the Marfan syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 62: 417-426
The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.
The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…
Changing lifestyles is a vital aspect of making the community healthier -- as well as the world. Sanitary and healthy cooking conditions are, of course, extremely important to observe and to know about, on an individual basis. Increasing the ease of reporting suspected unsafe conditions is also vitally important. But the relative safety of day-in, day-out food choices -- food choices that are often taken for granted -- also cannot be dismissed.
Engber, Daniel (2009). Does poverty make people poor? Slate. Retrieved November 2, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2229523/
Our fund also seeks to raise awareness of the degree to which corporate food culture has infiltrated the school system, and strives to ban vending machines dispensing unhealthy foods, as well as prohibit promotional agreements between schools and companies that sell sugary beverages and snacks. Given the evidence that proximity to fast food restaurants and schools can increase students' body mass index (BMI) our fund also supports zoning legislation to alter the environments near schools to create a healthier attitude towards consumption. Exercise is a critical component of a healthy lifestyle, just as much as any food group. Expanding student physical activity by enabling students to walk to school, maintaining required physical education classes, and supporting afterschool physical education programs (particularly in areas where it is not safe to play outside) is essential.
Our organization recognizes that obesity must be fought on an individual, family, local, and national level. Children…
Brownstein, John. (2009, October 20). New school lunch nutrition. ABC News. Retrieved October 14, 2010 at http://a.abcnews.com/Health/WellnessNews/nutrition-guidelines-school-lunches/story?id=8866065
Childhood obesity. (2010). National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion. Retrieved October 14, 2010 http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/obesity/
A driver came to the house and picked Robert up five days a week at 7:30 and brought him home at around 4:00 P.M. The couple received a grant from United ay to fund the service they received from the Respite Center, which cost around $200 per week. The Respite Center had well-thought-out activities designed for seniors with dementia and Alzheimer's, and those activities "helped slow down his Alzheimer's" (Claunch). Those activities include arts and crafts, chair aerobics, games, socializing, breakfast, lunch and a snack, Claunch explains. On many days a special visitor or group comes to entertain the seniors; among those groups are the Gulf Coast omen's Club, the Garden Club, PAS Ministry, gospel groups, line dancers, pianists and sing-along singers.
hen an Alzheimer's patient is stimulated (by being entertained, walking, or engaging in a game of some kind that challenges the mind but does in minimally) the nerve…
Assist Guide Information Services. (2009). Caregiving. Retrieved November 10, 2009,
From http://www.agis.com .
Claunch, Shannon. (2009). Council on Aging: Respite Center Cares for Community.
News Herald. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from http://www.newsherald.com
While less than a full page is devoted to actual diseases and conditions and specific mention of diagnostic methods and treatments of these conditions, over three pages are given over to a general discussion of assessment and treatment (Judge 2007). Though there are conditions that might not present in ways conducive to these general methods, Judge notes that the bulk of musculoskeletal conditions often have similar complaints, especially with range of motion and pain (Judge 2007). The consistent symptom presentation and other related factors makes this approach most efficient.
The similarities can also make the correct diagnoses of a specific musculoskeletal condition in contrast to another somewhat difficult. Judge lays out a careful yet efficient assessment procedure that quickly determines the underlying cause of the most commonly presented musculoskeletal symptoms, giving the working nurse an excellent and handy practical guide in providing the most help to patients. One of the…
Judge, N.L. (2007). "Assessing and managing patients with musculoskeletal conditions,"
Nursing standard, 22(1), pp. 51-7
Charges are oftentimes leveled that geneticists are playing the role of God. One can only wonder if the geneticists are genetically disposed towards acting that way, and if so, can their behavior be changed through gene manipulation?
Aberg, K.; Sun, G.; Smelser, D.; Indugula, S..; Tsai. H.; Steele, M.S.; Tuitele, J.; Deka, .; McGarvey, S.T.; Weeks, D.E.; (2008) Applying novel genome-wide linkage strategies to search for loci influencing Type 2 Diabetes and adult height in American Samoa, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 99-123
Acosta, M.T.; Castellanos, F.X.; Bolton, K.L.; Balog, J.Z.; Eagen, P.; Nee, L.; Jones, J.; Palacio, L.; Sarampote, C.; ussell, H.F.; Berg, K.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Muenke, M.; (2008) Latent class subtyping of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid conditions, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 797-807
Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, .J.; Czerwinski, S.A.; Chumlea, W.C.; Lee, M.;…
Aberg, K.; Sun, G.; Smelser, D.; Indugula, S.R.; Tsai. H.; Steele, M.S.; Tuitele, J.; Deka, R.; McGarvey, S.T.; Weeks, D.E.; (2008) Applying novel genome-wide linkage strategies to search for loci influencing Type 2 Diabetes and adult height in American Samoa, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 99-123
Acosta, M.T.; Castellanos, F.X.; Bolton, K.L.; Balog, J.Z.; Eagen, P.; Nee, L.; Jones, J.; Palacio, L.; Sarampote, C.; Russell, H.F.; Berg, K.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Muenke, M.; (2008) Latent class subtyping of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid conditions, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 47, No. 7, pp. 797-807
Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, R.J.; Czerwinski, S.A.; Chumlea, W.C.; Lee, M.; Demerath, E.W., Sun, S.S.; Siervogel, R.S.; Townf, B.; (2008) Genetic architecture of knee radiographic joint space in healthy young adults, Human Biology, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 1-9
Harmon, A,; (2008) The DNA age, The Saturday Evening Post, Vol. 280, No. 4, pp. 74-76
" (Klotter, 2001) Additionally, salt functions as an extraction agent for excess acidity in the body which are in the form of "hydrogen ions, and oxidants from ATP production" from cells. (Klotter, 2001; paraphrased) Morris (2008) states that in order for the body to become adequately hydrated the individual should replace fluid lost by perspiration when exercising and should always drink water prior to consuming food. The ideal water intake for someone who exercises is stated to be as follows: "Drink 17 ounces of water 2 hours before the activity and weigh yourself right before you exercise. While you exercise, drink 6-10 oz. every 15-20 minutes." (Morris, 2008)
IV. SIGNS of DEHYDRATION
When the body is in a state of severe lack of water the body becomes dehydrated and this results in the "cell membranes become[ing] less permeable, hampering the flow of hormones and nutrients into the cell and preventing…
Body Effects (2008) Alcohol. Online available at http://www.alcohol.org.nz/BodyEffect.aspx?PostingID=671
Klotter, Jule (2001) Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer. A review of a videotaped lecture of F. Batmanghelidj. Cure Pain & Prevent Cancer. 2001. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_August/ai_78177228
Morris, Whitney (2008) Effects of Dehydration on Performance. Triathelete Magazine Online available at http://www.triathletemag.com/Departments/Training/2007/Effects_of_dehydration_on_performance.htm
Weatherwax, Dawn (nd) NSCA's Performance Training Journal Vol. 4 No. 6. Online available at www.nsca-lift.org/perform.
The effects of obesity are numerous and include both physical and psychological factors. The physical effects of obesity include heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, respiratory issues, and sleep apnea (Health Consequences). Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United Sates. In many cases heart disease is preventable or controllable through weight loss and healthy living. Another major effect of obesity is diabetes. Diabetes is a very detrimental disease because it can affect every organ in the body and it is a major cause of blindness in the United States. In addition, many people with diabetes experience kidney failure and even the amputation of limbs as a result of nerve damage and poor circulation (Health Consequences).
Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are also high amongst people who suffer from obesity. Respiratory problems may lead to dependence on oxygen machines. Sleep apnea is particularly…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/contributing_factors.htm
Health Consequences." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
3. BMR stands for basal metabolic rate. It generally refers to the body's metabolism at stasis: while doing nothing. The BMR is the basic energy level needed to sustain life. A person's basal metabolic rate usually decreases with age. The best way to increase the BMR is to exercise regularly. Eating less does not raise the BMR but rather, usually lowers it. Therefore, exercise is in many ways more important than eating less if a person hopes to lose weight. A higher body fat percentage is also correlated with a lower basal metabolic rate. Therefore, individuals with a lot of muscle mass tend to have higher basal metabolic rates than individuals who do not because muscles are metabolically more active than fat. Fat is burned off when muscles are used, during intensive exercise when the intake of calories is less than the expenditure of energy.
Centers for Disease…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Obesity and Overweight: Health Consequences." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/consequences.htm
Metabolism." Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/weightloss/metabolism.html
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
Fitday.com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec 2006
Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at
Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.
"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
Further, Robinson and Sirard posit that applying a "Litmus Test" helps to identify the specific research questions, study designs, and methods that will most likely contribute to improving individual and overall population health (198). The researchers suggest that a study should only be performed if the researcher(s) knows what the conclusion from each possible result (negative, null, positive) will be, and how the result will incline intervention to address policy, clinical or a public health problem like childhood obesity. If research is conducted as suggested, the authors maintain that studies with a greater possibility of advancing science and directly, not suggestively, improving well being and health, would be the result. Therefore, greater assurance that will be provided that ethical responsibilities of not devaluing the contributions of research participants, and responsibly responding to the need for useful research to the public, particularly if public funds are used for the project,…
Allison, D.B., Pietrobell, A., Faith, M.S., Fontaine, K.R., Gropp, E., & Fernandez, J.R.
(2003). Genetic influences on obesity. In Eckel, R. (ed). Obesity: Mechanisms
and Clinical Management. Elsevier: New York, pp. 1-74.
Ballard, M.B., & Alessi, H.D. (2004). The impact of childhood obesity upon academic.
Citizen Film (2010). Maquilapolis - Promotoras. Retrieved Dec 1, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVWsBVoSGdo [VIDEO
Community Advocacy Program (2009). Beyond Medicine: Removing Legal Barriers to Health. Retrieved Dec 1, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egrm6csKERg&NR=1 [VIDEO]
The basic theme of both programs is a micro view of health care and the ability to see how the environment that surrounds the poor can contribute to healthcare issues. The poor not only cannot afford insurance or it is denied them, the circumstances surrounding the environmental issues the poor are subject to are primary in terms of disease prevention. While this population group needs to take responsibility for healthcare, there should be no reason in the 21st century why factory work is unsafe, the environment toxic, and there be no access to care as needed. Instead, the Promotera model allows work to be done at the grassroots level, where we have seen through the Civil…
Healthy People 2020; Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity
The Healthy People 2020 initiative looks at a n umber of different health issues which face the American population and sets out some goals for improving the current health status of the nation. One of the topics is nutrition, physical activity and obesity.
The consumption of a healthy diet and a sufficient level of activity are for the maintenance of a healthy weight. A major issue in the use is an increasingly level of obesity; with problems leading this is a failure including the consumption of excessive calories, high intakes of saturated and trans fats as well as high intakes of other unhealthy inputs such as sugar, cholesterol, salt and alcohol (Healthy People, 2012). This is further aggravated by lower levels of physical activity to burn off the calories consumed, which leads to the body storing the energy and weight gain taking…
CDC, (2012), U.S. Obesity Trends, retrieved 5th April 2-12 from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/ data/trends.html
Faith MS, Kral TVE. (2006), "Social Environmental and Genetic Influences on Obesity and Obesity-Promoting Behaviors: Fostering Research Integration" In Hernandez LM, Blazer DG, (eds.), (2006), Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (U.S.).
Healthy People, (2012), retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx
Nutrition.gov, (2012), retrieved 6th April 2012 from http://www.nutrition.gov/
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Nursing Case Study
Family nursing diagnosis is a holistic process that involves a thorough and complete family assessment to establish both curative and preventive concerns in a given family. The assessment from the participating family established a number of diagnostic issues. One of the family members suffers from obesity. D.K. who is ten years old and in second grade took two years to complete first grade. Obesity is a condition whereby the Body Mass Index (BM1) is over 30kg/m2. This is because of excess fat accumulation in a person's body. The Body Mass Index BM1, is the measure for obesity, and it is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by his/her height in square meters.
Obesity may be associated with the several of medical conditions like heart attack, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and some types of cancer (Domino, 2007). Major causes of obesity are lack of physical exercises…
Domino, Frank J, (2007). 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Karch. A.M. (2007). Lippincott's Nursing Drug Guide. Philadelphia: New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Katz, David L.; Friedman, Rachel S.C. (2008). Nutrition in Clinical Practice: A Comprehensive, Evidence-Based Manual for the Practitioner. 2nd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.
According to usan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.
Thus, water is unspeakably…
Several physiologic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with old age can interfere in homeostasis and bring a significant contribution to dehydration. Illness, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, infection, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics and laxatives altogether increase the risk for dehydration in elders, and may lead to chronic dehydration in many geriatric individuals. Furthermore, potential complications of dehydration in elders include hypotension, constipation, nausea, vomiting, mucosal dryness, decreased urinary output, elevated body temperature, and mental confusion (Bernstein & Schmidt Luggen, 2011). Moreover, some forms of medication frequently employed by older adults may favor dehydration or require adequate body water for proper metabolism, hence emphasizing the need for a balanced fluid consumption.
In conclusion, it can be asserted that, in the instance where one of the many types and degrees of dehydration affect an individual, his/her metabolism will slow down and begin a chain process meant to gradually depress many of the body's functions, starting with thermoregulation and continuing with heart rate, kidneys, muscles and joints. Finally, pediatric patients have a faster and more sensitive reaction to dehydration than adult individuals due to their fast metabolism and proportionately large body surface area, whereas geriatric patients are similarly vulnerable to the phenomenon through their medication routine and overall complicated health spectrum.
groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F (1, 22) = 9.619,
p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
The researchers were able to conclude that the finding was significant because the Statistical value (F) had a p-value of less than .05, which is the cut-off point for significance. Consequently, they can conclude that there is a significant difference between the control and treatment groups over time.
State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients' mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The null hypothesis is that there are no differences in mean scores. The p…
Why Obesity is so Difficult to Treat
Determination of obesity
Proper definition of obesity
Obesity in perspective of the World Health Organization (WHO)
Health and Economic Costs
Prevalence and Time Trends
Prevalence of obesity among men
Prevalence of obesity among women
Prevalence of obesity among children
Demographic Variations in Overweight and Obesity Prevalence
Economic Costs of Overweight and Obesity (The Evidence eport,1998)
The world market for treating obesity
Causes of obesity
Continuous availability of high-energy foods
a) Imbalance calorie intake and BM requirements (Gayle M. Galletta)
b) Craze of consumption of unhealthy food
c) Quick life style and less determination of hunger satisfaction
d) Other factors associate with weight gain
Way of eating
Unintentionally over eating
Less planning to make and eat healthy meals (A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia, 2012)
Major reduction in the obligatory need for physical activity (Joseph Proietto, 2011)
a) Spending long hours in front of…
1) The Evidence Report, clinical guide lines on the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults, nhlbi.nih.gov, September 1998, pdf. Retrieved 20 October 2012 from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf
2) Joseph Proietto, Why is treating obesity so difficult? Justification for the role of bariatric surgery, mja.com.au, 19 May 2011, web. Retrieved 20 October 2012 from https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2011/195/3/why-treating-obesity-so-difficult-justification-role-bariatric-surgery
3) A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia, Obesity, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 12 May 2012, web. Retrieved 20 October 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004552/
4) Melissa Conrad Stoppler, Obesity, medicinenet.com, 18 July 2012, web. Retrieved 20 October 2012 http://www.medicinenet.com/obesity_weight_loss/article.htm
Role of Nutrition in Health
Nutritional Assessment is a detailed evaluation of objective as well as subjective data, relating to an individual's food intake, along with giving due consideration to factors such as medical history and lifestyle of the said individual. The purpose of a nutritional assessment is to identify the malnourishment and/or undernourishment in an individual's diet and to eradicate the factors that make it unhealthy and unfit. Once the data relating an individual's eating habits has been collected and organized, it can be used to evaluate the nutritional status of that person. The assessment is followed up by a plan to either intervene or to devise a new proper nutritious diet plan to help the individual attain a healthier status (Carol Rees Parrish, August 2003).
In keeping up with the current obesity and overweight statistics, the need for a balanced nutrition profile has increased tenfold. Australia today is…
Ageing, D. o. (1998). Australian Guide to Eating Healthy. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/E384CFA588B74377CA256F190004059B/$File/fd-cons.pdf .
Carol Rees Parrish, M.R. (August 2003). Nutritional Assessment: Current Concepts and Guidelines for the Busy Physician.
Institute, M.O. (June 2012). Obesity in Australia.
Institute, N.H. Obesisty. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf .
Health Sciences 101
The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.
A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.
Mechanisms of APAP Activity
The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…
1. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Tylenol (TN): Substance summary (SID 7847284). PubChem 2011. Accessed 5 Nov 2011 at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7847284
2. Hamza M, Dionne RA. Mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics beyond cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2009; 2(1):1-14.
3. Kaufman G. Basic pharmacology of non-opioid analgesics. Nurs Stand 2010; 24(30):55-61.
4. Chan AT, Manson JE, Albert CM, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Curhan GC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 113(12):1578-1587.
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…
American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20515088/ns/health-forbescom/
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Societal Forces on Education
Childhood obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the United States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. For the purposes of this paper, I have chosen to identify a video game-based learning model in the classroom to combat the effects of childhood obesity. Specifically, this proposal involves implementing a Nintendo motion-based video game, Dance evolution that involves mimicking dance moves provided by onscreen commands.
This paper will first identify the significant issues of childhood obesity…
Gee, J.P. (2003). What Video Games Have To Teach Us About Learning And Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Johnson, S. (1997). Interface culture: How new technology transforms the way we create and communicate. San Francisco: HarperEdge.
Kuroneko (2008). Using Dance Revolution (DDR) in Schools and the Classroom. Retrieved from: http://blog.classroomteacher.ca/59/dance-dance-revolution-ddr/
Lee J., Luchini, K., Michael, B., Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2004). More than just fun and games: Assessing the value of educational video games in the classroom. In Proceedings from Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1375-1378). Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=985921.986068
Obesity can be defined as a state where surplus body fat is accumulated to the point that turns out to create an unfavorable consequence on an individual health. According to Haslam DW, James WP (2005) this situation brings about shortens life expectancy as well as amplified health complications. Individuals are well thought-out to be obese the moment their body mass index goes past 30 kg/m2. This extent is reached at by dividing an individual's heaviness in kg against the square of the individual's height in meters. It has been observed that obesity inflates the probability of a range of diseases, for the most part heart disease, type 2 diabetes, disruptive sleep apnea, particular kind of cancer, as well as osteoarthritis.
This condition (obesity) is usually caused by a mixture of extreme energy foods ingestion, be deficient in physical activity, as well as hereditary defenselessness, even though a small number of…
Adams JP, Murphy PG (July 2000). "Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care." Br J. Anaesth 85 (1): 91 -- 108. doi:10.1093/bja/85.1.91. PMID 10927998 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=47995
Haslam DW, James WP (2005). "Obesity." Lancet 366 (9492): 1197 -- 209. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67483-1. PMID 16198769 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ijser.org/researchpaper%5CA-Review-on-Obesity-and-its-Management.pdf
Imaz I, Martinez-Cervell C, Garcia-Alvarez EE, Sendra-Gutierrez JM, Gonzalez-Enriquez J (July 2008). "Safety and effectiveness of the intragastric balloon for obesity. A meta-analysis." Obes Surg 18 (7): 841 -- 6. doi:10.1007/s11695-007-9331-8. PMID 18459025 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18459025
Kushner, Robert (2007). Treatment of the Obese Patient (Contemporary Endocrinology). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 158. ISBN 1-59745-400-1 Retrieved October 5, 2013 from http://www.webmedcentral.com/wmcpdf/Article_WMC001927.pdf
What do you think the pharmaceutical Industry will look like in 10 years? Why?
What do you think the pharmaceutical industry will look like in ten years? Why?
Despite the sharp upturn in profits over the past twenty years for the pharmaceutical industry, there is grave concern amongst industry insiders that this cannot continue indefinitely. "Increasing price and cost pressure, regulatory changes and expiring patents are leading to shrinking margins in the pharmaceutical industry. Almost three in four companies believe their industry is in a strategic crisis" (Berger 2013). This is despite the fact that "the top 10 pharmaceutical companies were able to increase sales by about 13% between 2009 and 2010" (Berger 2013). Concerns abound that the failure to create a new 'hot' drug will create substantial downward price pressure. "&D costs have risen by more than 80% worldwide over the past 10 years. On the other…
Berger, R. (2013). Global pharmaceutical industry is in a strategic crisis -- business models must be adjusted. Roland Berger. Retrieved: http://www.rolandberger.com/press_releases/513-press_archive2013_sc_content/Pharmaceutical_industry_in_a_strategic_crisis.html
Carroll, J. (2013). Novo Nordisk betting $3.7B on a blockbuster oral diabetes drug market
Fierce Biotech. Retrieved from:
Strategic Management of a Healthcare Facility in St. Louis
In the late 1800's and early 1900's St. Louis was a major center for automotive and other heavy manufacturing but the industrial restructuring of the Midwest during the latter half of the century has resulted in consistent economic decline of the St. Louis region. Today however as the rest of the country faces a slowing economy this region is showing new signs of growth. [Kotkin, 2002] Due to changing socio-demographics, the demand for health care and advanced medical technologies is growing consistently with a concomitant rise in health expenditure. [Zhou 2001] Health expenditure in the U.S. has risen from 7.4% of the GNP in 1970 to 15% of the GNP in 1995.[Zhou, 2001] The Health care sector deals with not only the clinical medical services, but also include methods which finance them, for e.g. insurance, benefit schemes, Medicare and Medicaid. eforms…
1. Kotkin, J, 2002 St. Louis: On the Way to Somewhere? Rebuz Inc.
2. Author not available, 1997, Economic Report of the President. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. [accessed on 4/4/03]: http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/erp/1997/chap3.htm
3.Author not available, 1996, Focus... Non-Elderly Missourians without Health Insurance, March 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1 [accessed on 4/4/03]: http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/MonthlyVitalStatistics/March96Vol30No1.html
4. Author not available, January 1999, Focus... Managed Care (MC+) in Medicaid Population, January 1999 Vol. 32, No. 11[accessed on 4/4/03] at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/MonthlyVitalStatistics/Jan99Vol32No11.html
health issue of obesity is gaining attention from diverse groups in society nowadays. For some years now, the many cases of health problems resulting from obesity have been the focus of research and studies of many scientists from different countries. Today, due to the increasing percentage of obese people in many nations, obesity research is among the major programs considered by health service groups and governments.
Obesity is a health problem that refers to excess fats in the body resulting to being overweight. Usually, obesity is caused by improper diet. Some critical illnesses that toll life are associated with obesity. Studies have shown that being obese causes an individual to lose a few years from his life expectancy.
Currently, countless of health articles, news, and journals regarding obesity are disseminated to bring attention to the public about its consequences. ecause of this, questions have been raised if such exposure of…
Curtis, Tom. Glasgow and Edinburgh Named UK's Fattest Cities.
News Scotsman. 07 June 2003. http://www.news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?id=288892003&tid=677
Josling, Leanne. Obesity: A Curable Epidemic.
World Socialist Web Site. 05 June 2003. http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/apr2000/obes-a29.shtml
Physiological Changes Associated With Aging
Aging is the complex and inevitable process of tissue and organ system degeneration. Though largely influenced by genetics, aging is also dependent upon a number of environmental factors including exercise, diet, childhood personality, and exposure to ionizing radiation, pollutants, or microorganisms. The physiological changes that occur as an individual's age advances can be grouped into three, with the first category encompassing changes in such homeostatic mechanisms as extracellular fluid volumes, blood, and temperature; the second encompassing changes related to decreasing organ mass; and the third, changes in the body's functional reserve systems. Promoting the health of an aging population is crucial not only because it ensures the well-being of ageing individuals, but also because it significantly reduces the burden imposed upon a country's medical system. It is with this in mind that this text collates knowledge and research to examine, in a deeper sense, the…
Bherer, L., Erickson, K.I. & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2013). A Review of the Effects of Physical Activity and Exercise on Cognitive and Brain Functions in Older Adults. Journal of Aging Research, vol. 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014 from [HIDDEN]
Glassock, R.J. (2009). The GFR Decline with Aging: A Sign of Normal Senescence, Not Disease. Nephrology Times, 2(9), 6-8.
Heckman, G., Gray, L.C. & Hirdes, J. (2013). Addressing Healthcare Needs for Frail Seniors in Canada: the Role of InterRAI Instruments. Canadian Geriatrics Society Journal of CME, 3(3), 8-16.
Saber, A. (2013). Perioperative Care of Elderly Surgical Patients. American Medical Journal, 4(1), 63-77.
Program Design on Childhood Obesity
Childhood obesity has become a very serious epidemic today, it is estimated that about 16.3% of children all over the world are obese.in the past four decades the rate of obesity for children that are aged between 6 and 11 years has gone up by more than four times.it is a serious pandemic since obese children are likely to suffer health consequences not only in their childhood and adolescence but also throughout their lives as adults. They are at risk for problems of joints and bones, sleep apnea, psychological and social problems, health diseases, type II diabetes, cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Childhood obesity is an epidemic that cuts across the lines of ethnicity, family income, and race however, there are certain populations that are at a higher risk as compared to others. Some of the populations that are at risk include Latinos, African Americas, Native…
Digate, N.(2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/preventing-childhood-obesity
Segal, E. (2009). Fighting Obesity: What Works, What's Promising. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.sparkpe.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Fighting-Obesity-Report.pdf
Pekruhn, C. (2010). Preventing Childhood Obesity a School Health Policy Guide. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/web-assets/2009/01/preventing-childhood-obesity -
WHO. (2014). What can be Done to Fight the Childhood Obesity Epidemic. Retrieved April 10, 2014 from http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_what_can_be_done/en/
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.