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Pakistan's ISI: 'A Kingdom Within a Kingdom'?
Pakistan is one of the indispensable allies of the United States in the war on terror, especially in the current struggle against Taliban and other extremist movements in Central Asia. ut the American relationship with Pakistan has remained precarious, partly because of the shadowy activities of Pakistan's main intelligence service the Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI). According to Sean Winchell, until the Pakistani general and the President Pervez Musharraf took the organization under control, "the ISI has been a 'kingdom within a kingdom,' answerable to neither the army nor Pakistan's President."
ut the ISI always remained closer to -- and more dependant -- on the Army than on the civilian government. Pakistani leaders with close military ties have greatly increased the ISI mandate, increasing its power and influence within and outside Pakistan. Taking control of the ISI activities therefore will remain a great challenge for…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations." Council on Foreign Relations May 4, 2010 (accessed December 15, 2011).
Moreau, Ron and Barry, John. 2010. "WITH FRIENDS LIKE THESE.." Newsweek 156, no. 6: 24. MAS Ultra - School Edition, EBSCOhost (accessed December 15, 2011).
Rooney, John Jack. 2010. "An Inconvenient Truth: Pakistan's ISI and the Afghan Taliban." New Presence: The Prague Journal Of Central European Affairs 12, no. 2: 37-40. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed December 15, 2011).
WINCHELL, SEAN P. "Pakistan's ISI: The Invisible Government." International Journal Of Intelligence & Counterintelligence 16, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 374. Historical Abstracts with Full Text, EBSCOhost (accessed December 15, 2011).
In addition the continued decline of the fiscal account will affect both debt sustainability and external balances ("Monetary Policy Decision").
As it pertains to medium term fiscal sustainability which must be present to achieve necessary overall macroeconomic stability, the tax-GDP ratio must be increased ("Monetary Policy Decision"). Additionally government expenditures must decrease ("Monetary Policy Decision"). The article also reports that the revenue deficit, which represents the difference between total revenues and current expenditure, has to be reduced to zero as established by the Fiscal esponsibility and Debt Limitation (FDL) Act signed into law in 2005 ("Monetary Policy Decision"). In fiscal year 2009 the revenue deficit was 1.5% of GDP and it is anticipated that the revenue deficit 2% of the expected GDP in FY10 ("Monetary Policy Decision"). The article explains that the reduction of development expenditures may be successful in providing immediate relief but at the same time such reductions…
"Budget deficit to overshoot target." Retrieved from http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/23-Apr-2010/Budget-deficit-to-overshoot-target
Chaudhry S. (2008) "WTO members identify barriers in trade with Pakistan" Retrieved from http://www.naitazi.com/2008/03/23/wto-members-identify-barriers-in-trade-with-pakistan/
"Finance Ministry re-evaluating capital gains tax mechanism." Retrieved from http://www.onepakistan.com/finance/news/pakistan-business-general-news/6173-Finance-Ministry -- evaluating-capital-gains-tax-mechanism.html
Ganguly S . (2001) Conflict unending: India-Pakistan tensions since 1947. Columbia University Press,
S. In Pakistan, especially in the border areas. Any attacks by the U.S. forces inside Pakistan, which would invariably entail "collateral damage," are likely to fuel further anti-Americanism. The current policy of Musharraf to seek co-operation of the local tribal chiefs in the border areas against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda should be supported by the U.S. A political, rather than a purely military solution to the problem, is the only viable option for the Americans.
Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth) is a doomsday cult that released nerve gas in the Tokyo subway system in March 1995, killing 12 and injuring thousands. At its peak, the cult boasted of a membership of over 10,000 in Japan and about 40,000 in ussia. After a crackdown in the wake of the 1995 attacks which included a death sentence for its leader, Shoko Asahara, its membership has understandably declined to about 650 "live-in" members and…
Marshall, Andrew. (July 15, 1999). "It gassed the Tokyo subway, microwaved its enemies and tortured its members. So why is the Aum cult thriving?" The Guardian. Retrieved on June 4, 2007 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,278843,00.html
Although there is an underlying anti-American popular sentiment in the country due to the consistent U.S. support for Israel and its occupation of Iraq
There is a suspicion in the U.S. that Musharraf is "running with the hare and hunting with the hounds;" this is probably untrue because the Pakistan armed forces have suffered considerable casualties in its operations in the border areas against the Taliban and there have been several suicide attacks inside the country by the Islamists
Pakistan ISI and GWOT
Described variously as a U.S. ally in the war against terror, Pakistan's actual commitment to the U.S. As a reliable partner in the global campaign against terror has in the past come under scrutiny with some accusing the South Asian State of aiding militants in the region. Matters have been made worse by the latent support the U.S. has received from the ISI, the state's foremost national security organ. In this text, I explore whether Pakistan can be considered a reliable partner by the U.S. In the war against terror. Further, I discuss the possibility of a political or military rift emerging between Pakistan and the U.S. given the latter's and by extension ISI's alleged support for some militant groups in the region.
According to Bajoria (2011), the ISI has over time been accused by quite a number of U.S. officials of availing support to various…
Bajoria, Jayshree. 2011. "The ISI and Terrorism: Behind the Accusations." Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/pakistan/isi-terrorism-behind-accusations/p11644 (accessed December 2, 2011).
Moreau, Ron. 2010. With Friends Like These….The Afghan Taliban say they have one thing in common with the Americans: they're both getting played by Pakistan. Daily Beast, July 31st. http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/07/31/with-friends-like-these.html (accessed December 2, 2011).
Winchel, Sean P. 2003. Pakistan's ISI: The Invisible Government. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 16: 374- 388
Foreigners wishing to travel in large parts of the country are required to take along a government-appointed armed guard. Pakistan's numerous intelligence agencies are a brooding, malevolent presence in the nation's life. President usharraf has survived a couple of assassination attempts (the first in December of 2003, when usharraf's convoy was attacked twice within two weeks. The second one, on Christmas Day, left 14 people dead and dozens injured). Does this constitute a failed state? aybe not. But it does bespeak a nation whose integrity and unity are-challenged on a daily basis (p. 54)."
usharraf's rule over the military and over the country are in trouble today. Even in the face of usharraf's dictatorship, the people of Pakistan have been able to voice their ideas and to make their support or lack thereof of usharraf known (Alagappa, uthiah, 2004, p. 364).
Despite these periodic setbacks, civil society groups managed to…
Musharraf's rule over the military and over the country are in trouble today. Even in the face of Musharraf's dictatorship, the people of Pakistan have been able to voice their ideas and to make their support or lack thereof of Musharraf known (Alagappa, Muthiah, 2004, p. 364).
Despite these periodic setbacks, civil society groups managed to articulate public interests, mobilize public opinion, and organize for collective action around legal and political issues, including reforms in the legal system, greater public representation for women, accountability in public office, and respect for human rights. Many of these groups were able to forge links, however tenuous, with other social and political actors to resist the government's antidemocratic actions (p. 364)."
Musharraf has been cooperative with the United States in its efforts to eradicate Afghanistan and the border region between Pakistan and Afghanistan of
McQueen's research in 1990 demonstrates just how little progress has been made.
McQueen noted in 1990 that, "Pakistan has had consistent growth averaging 6.7% over the last decade, placing it among the fast-growing third-world economies. Some apprehension exists regarding deterioration in the law and order situation in Sindh Province, where in recent months ethnic and politically motivated violence has claimed a number of lives and slowed industrial activity. Regionalism, ethnic violence, and political uncertainty cloud the economic outlook, but many analysts are sanguine.
Pakistan's economy continues to be dominated by agriculture and agro-based industries. Agriculture employs 50% of the labor force in Pakistan, earns (directly or indirectly) approximately 70% to GDP. Industry contributes apporximately 20% to GDP and has become increasingly important to the country's development and export potential. The public sector share in Pakistani industry has diminished over recent years, and in fiscal year 1986, accounted for less than…
McQueen, Cheryl. 1990. Pakistan; steady growth, increased aid set scene for U.S. Investment. Business America.
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents. 2004. Joint statement between the United States of America and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: September 22, 2004.
Instead of doubting or suspecting employees of intentionally messing up, they tried to be considerate, understanding providing their best advices to solve problems.
The workflow and organizational structure
At InfoTech, the organization structure was hybrid, with departments divided according to product as well as region. (Discussed in detail in structure). The firm focused on decentralizing authority and empowering employees.
Organizational systems and procedures
At InfoTech, employees were given intensive and extensive training programs in customer service. At InfoTech, employees were rewarded every time they achieved their goals in terms of more sales or more clients (wide-space accounts) with commissions and bonuses. Promotion was strictly based on performance.
Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs and retirement of people
ecruitment is done by placing ads in the newspaper, selection was based on merit and regional managers had the authority to recruit people under his span…
1.All information comes from www.InfoTech.com.pk
Primary sources of the firm utilized through email contact.
Pakistan and China
Infrastructural Development and Labor Availability in Pakistan
Pakistan is a third-world predominantly Muslim republic located in the Continent of Asia between longitudes 610 and 75.450E and latitudes 23.30 and 36.450 N. It borders China in the north, Afghanistan in the north-west, India in the east, Iran in the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. It covers a total land area of 796, 096 sq. km, with a population of around 130 million, more than two-thirds of which lives in the rural areas.
Fig 1: the Geographical Location of Pakistan (source: infoplease.com)
Its strategic location:
Makes it a center of the Muslim world -- to the east lies Bangladesh and a stream of other Muslim countries, to the north lies six Muslim countries that gained their independence from ussia in the 1990s, and to the west lies Iran, Afghanistan, and a chain of Muslim republics spreading…
Essakalli, M.D. (2005). Rural Access and Mobility in Pakistan. The World Bank. Retrieved 20 March 2015 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSARREGTOPTRANSPORT/1349790-1131103816279/21206434/Rural_Access_and_Mobility_in_Pakistan.pdf
Infoplease.com. (2000). Map: Pakistan. Infoplease.com. Retrieved 23 March 2015 from http://www.pc.gov.pk/vision2030/Pak21stcentury/Chapter%20Wise/Ch%2010,Rural%20and%20Urban%20Development.pdf
Salman, R. (2011). Pakistan and its Chronic Unemployment. Pakistan Today. Retrieved 23 March 2015 from http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2011/09/23/business/pakistan-and-its-chronic-unemployment
Tao, Z. (2007). Carrefour China: Maintaining its Past Glory or Drowning in the Sea of Competition. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong
On 15 March 2000, for instance, public rallies, demonstration and strikes were banned precisely at the moment when the 18-party opposition Alliance for the estoration of Democracy (AD) demanded national non-rigged elections. Some opposition leaders were arrested, and time and again in preceding and consequent year activists who sought democracy and opposition personnel were arrested on trumped up charges (Talbot, 2002). The first goal of any military regime in Pakistan is to neutralize opposition, and Mussharaf's regime has been no different (Shah, 2007).
Moreover, continuance of sectarian and domestic violence with little concerted attempt to stop it, also prevent Pakistan from failing to consolidate its democracy. Musharraf's promised "liberal and progressive Islam" has failed to replace the "punitive Islam' which, as long as it continues, discourages any democracy from being established (Talbot, 2002). On the contrary: "since independence in 1947, the Pakistani state and political elites generally have sought to…
Shah, A. (2003) Pakistan's 'armored' democracy. Journal of Democracy, 14, 26-39
Talbot, I. (2002). General Pervez Musharraf: savior or destroy of Pakistan's democracy? Cont. S. Asia, 11, 311-328.
history of Pakistan and India and how they have progressed since winning independence.
India and Pakistan elations
History of India and Pakistan relations
There is no doubt about the fact that ever since the partition of the sub-continent that took place more than 50 years ago India and Pakistan have been arch rivals. Their animosity goes back to a long time ago and finds its main causes in religion and history, which has taken a turn towards a deadly arms race. There have been many attempts to resolve the issues, but in spite of these efforts relations remain tense. With the recent changes taking place, there is growing concern about the growing hostility between the two countries, which is predicted could change into a war.
Independence and partition
India gained its independence from Britain on 15 August 1947. This was formation of the Hindu-dominated India and the Muslim state of…
The Saga of Subhas Bose," review of Leonard Gordon's Brothers Against the Raj, Economic and Political Weekly 27, no. 4 (25 January 1992):155-156.
The Incident of the Crawling Lane: Women in the Punjab Disturbances of 1919," Genders, no. 16 (Spring 1993):35-60.
Surat Under the Raj," review of Douglas Haynes, Rhetoric and Ritual in Colonial India,
Economic and Political Weekly 28, no. 18 (1 May 1993):863-865.
Train to Pakistan
Khushwant Singh wrote 'Train to Pakistan' in 1956 when the painful memories of 1947 Partition were still fresh and the wounds hadn't yet healed. For this reason, the book reflects the true emotions that people felt when they were forced to abandon their homes in both India and Pakistan to move north or south according to their religious beliefs. It is true that the main reason behind the partition was religion, which had, for many centuries, remained a contentious social issue. While it would be unfair to say that Muslims and Hindus had never been good friends but the fact remains that their friendship, their neighborly love was all marked by ethnic tension that had reached new heights when British came to India.
Prior to that, however, Muslims and Hindus were more or less content with their lives and co-inhabited the same land harmoniously. This was probably…
Khushwant Singh, Train to Pakistan, 1956
India and Pakistan -- Poverty posing serious threats
The world renowned country, India, growing rapidly at more than 9%, member of BICS block (Brazil, ussia, India, China & South Africa), according to Gold Man Sachs, BICS will produce about 50% of the total world GDP in 2050. But the main threat to India is Poverty which may hurt the sustainable growth. The Indians living in rural part of the country drives their income from agriculture whereas the urban class mostly dependent on scarce jobs. The poverty is nothing new for India; it has been prevailing since independence. In 2010, 1.35 billion (more than 37%) Indians still lives beneath the poverty line. Data revealed that 22% and 15% of the entire rural and urban population of India facing serious financial and physical problems, respectively. There is a huge gap between different states of India owing to bumpy distribution of resources,…
Bhatti, M. (2007). Gap Widens Between Rich and Poor in Pakistan, retrieved May 14, 2011 from http://povertynewsblog.blogspot.com/2007/02/gap-widens-between-rich-and-poor-in.html
Chauhan, C. (2011). 2,500 kids die every day: New Delhi May 10, 2011 Issue, retrieved May 14, 2011 from http://www.hindustantimes.com/2-500-kids-die-every-day/Article1-695904.aspx
Economy Watch, (n.d.). Poverty in India, Economy Watch Website, retrieved May 14, 2011 from http://www.economywatch.com /indianeconomy/poverty-in-india.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
dangerous conflicts threatening to undermine global peace and security is between India and Pakistan. The history of the conflict is described in the article, "On the Brink: Are India and Pakistan Headed for ar?" In 1947, after India gained independence from Great Britain, a substantial Muslim minority cried out for an independent Muslim state. Thus, Pakistan was carved out in the north-western part of the subcontinent and Muslim Indians fled there. However, the disputed region of Jammu-Kashmir was a bone of contention. A cease-fire line was drawn, but the two independent nations have engaged in skirmishes and battles over Kashmir for decades. Although Kashmir is officially considered to be a protectorate of India, Pakistan still claims it as Muslim territory. About sixty percent of Kashmir is Muslim; it is India's only Muslim-majority state. The problem worsened when in 1998, both India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons. The two countries are…
On the Brink: Are India and Pakistan headed for war?" Current Events. 1 Feb 2002. Find Articles. 15 Apr 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EPF/17_101/82472648/p1/article.jhtml?term=india+pakistan+conflict
Realism v. Institutionalism
Realism vs. Institutionalism and the Middle East Crisis
Until fairly recently, the dominant theoretic rubric most analysts of international relations operated under was the theory of realism. The international relations theory of realism holds that each nation-state in the global community operates as a unified, rational actor. Realism as a theory was born and evolved at the same time as the modern conception of the nation-state was coming into its greatest influence in the international community. In contrast, institutionalism, which stresses the need for institutions to broker the peace between warring actors, came into its 'own' as a theory during the second half of the 20th century, well after the end of World War II and the establishment of the United Nations.
According to realism, above all, the nation-state is unified in terms of international affairs and always acts towards its own self-interest. Self-interest, according to realism…
The U.S. govenment will use thei engagement in the economy with othe nations to daw attention on the advantages of policies that fuel a sustained gowing economy and highe poductivity. The fee tade concept came as a moal pinciple way befoe it became a foundation fo economics. When new fims develop valuable poducts that othes can value, it should be able to sell the idea to customes. When Pakistani fims establish a new value idea that the U.S. fims do not have, U.S. citizens will buy thei poducts. This in itself is the feedom of making a living. The United States has established an elaboate stategy to encouage fee tade. These stategies include:
Seizing the global initiative: negotiations of the new global tade that assisted commence in 2001 Novembe in Doha will include an agenda that is ambitious, specifically in agicultue, sevices and manufactuing and its completion is tageted to…
references in the Act of African Growth and Opportunity. This will eventually result in free trade.
Proceed with agreements of bilateral free trade: Advancing with the development of agreement free trade with Jordan that was implemented in 2001. The administration is set to work this year to ensure the completion of the agreements for free trade with Singapore and Chile. The objective of the U.S. government is to be able to develop agreements of free trade including all from developing and developed countries in the entire universe. Evidently, Australia, Morocco, Southern America, Central America, and Pakistan are the areas of focus.
Malala Yousafzai's I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban is a book about the struggle to obtain an education in the deeply corrupted Pakistan state, where radical Islamic extremists oppress people who disagree with them. Inspired by her father, who was passionate about founding his own school, Malala at a very young age took to promoting the cause of education with her father's help. She would read the classical works of literature by Tolstoy and Jane Austen and write a blog for the BBC describing what it was like to grow up in Pakistan under the Taliban and be a girl seeking an education. This paper will describe the book's main point, the major problem that Malala faced in her country, and my own personal evaluation of the book.
Malala's book is a personal look into the nightmare world that is…
Yousafzai, M. (2013). I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood up for Education and was
Shot by the Taliban. UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…
Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318
Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]
Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]
Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…
Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.
Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]
Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.
Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…
Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm
Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007. http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
How Compellence by Indian and Pakistan has Prolonged the Kashmir Question
The partition of British India into the two independent nations in August 1947 was intended to create coexisting, peaceful homelands for the Hindus and Sikhs in India and Moslems in Pakistan. Since that time, however, India and Pakistan have waged three shooting wars over the hotly disputed territories of Kashmir where each nation claims ownership. Today, an uneasy ceasefire exists along the line of control established following the first such war in 1963, but each side accuses the other of inciting new hostilities through armed provocative incursions into disputed regions of Kashmir. With both India and Pakistan possessing a nuclear arsenal with inadequate and unpredictable command and control, it is reasonable to suggest that a conventional war that started between these two belligerents may not end that way. Against this backdrop, determining why Kashmir has remained a major…
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
With the advantage of Afghanistan, the U.S. And Allies will be geographically positioned against Iran, Pakistan, and negative forces in the Southwest Asia and in the Middle East.
U.S. And Allied Objectives in Afghanistan
he first objective for U.S. And allied forces in Afghanistan is to eradicate outside and hostile threats to the country's infrastructure. he threats which currently exist are:
Al Qaeda and aliban terrorists located mainly on the porous border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Iranian military readiness and proliferation of nuclear armament
hese threats might at first be considered minimal in comparison to those threats that exist in Iraq, since Iraq borders with Syria, Iran, and is generally a South Asia-Middle East corridor. Afghanistan, however, bordering Iran and Pakistan, while its threats from Iran, Pakistan, and internal radical insurgent forces cannot be minimized and must be considered seriously, and our objectives for Afghanistan reflect an aggressive and proactive…
The United States and the Allied forces will help bring about an environment of safety and security that will allow the Afghani people to begin to experience a normal way of life. That, in and of itself, will at first be difficult, because it has been decades since they have been able to do that. But it is also something that they will very quickly adapt to, and I know that they will work hard to maintain what has been won for them.
By the spring of 2010, municipal projects will begin being undertaken. Housing is high on the list of the many things that must be accomplished. We will help them in this too, and our U.S Corp of Army Engineers will be working closely with Afghanistan's own artisans and tradesmen on these building projects.
We expect to see great progress in the next year in rebuilding the infrastructure, and in eliminating the threat from outside forces that would see this country remain in dire economic and social straits. We hope that by this time next year, we can begin to share and discuss with you the many accomplishments that have been made in Afghanistan during the year 2010.
Iran Societal Assessment
The RAND document shows that a powerful country is one that is able to take decisions that make it economically productive for many years to come And to gain this productivity the country requires a combination of state and societal strength
Hence this shows the significance of the societal aspect of any country's power in the world
SOCIETAL OVERVIEW: the Iranian population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations At the start of the twentieth century Iranian population was estimated to be around 5 million but the actual numbers showed a figure of 10 million, twice the projected size Each consecutive census shows that this fast paced trend has since continued on its path as it is By 1956 had seen an increase of approximately 9 million while in the next 3 decades the population rise was around 16 million This humungous increase was…
. Unlike Pakistan, where ethnic groups are close in quantity and group loyalty has made it difficult for the people to unite, Iran does not have that issue. Its dominant force is the Shia population that is in control of every administrative department. It was religious unity that had provided support to the two revolutions that have shaped the country's history and its current political system. The overwhelming support that Ayatollah Khomeini got in 1979, to bring about the revolution, characterizes the revolution as 'a society vs. state' conflict. All factions of society had some conflict with the existing government: the farmers were saddened over the monetary losses they had faced; the Ulema (cleric) felt the state was alienated from religion, hence rather unreligious in approach. Lastly, the general public was desirous of more freedom. Therefore all of them united to prepare demonstrations and get rid of the rulers. However, the resultant political form has also failed to satisfy the masses. Writer Farideh Farhi, in her book 'Crafting a National Identity Amidst Contentious Politics in Contemporary Iran,' talks about how the people of Iran are now faced with an identity crisis that has them confused and continuously in search of a religious philosophy that would bring them mental and social peace. They have lost faith in the government and their religious reforms
. The two issues of relationships with U.S. And the nuclear program are great burdens on the public's mind and they have adopted a more modern outlook to life than the government would allow. If the 2009 protests are any indication the people are running out of patience with government and their reforms.
Enterprise: Education is the key to a successful, happy life and a nation's children are its future. If they are not well educated, the society can be expected to be illiterate and inefficient and the nation's economic, social and political demise becomes imminent. Education paves the way towards economic and social progress. Iran has gone through immense development in this sector after the revolution. In the 10 years starting from 1988 overall adult literacy rate rose from 57.1 to 74.5%. The post revolution government understood the value of education and made acquisition of it easier for the public. That is why the average enrolment rate also rose by 10%, from 65.6 to 75. The government enforced laws that made education an absolutely necessity for higher education and employment. However,
While the main bases are still located in the Bangladesh area, there are branches in almost every country (Muktadhara, 2001).
Most of the crimes committed by the Jamaat were done in Bangladesh and surrounding areas. The actual locations vary between Shrines, local businesses, celebrations, airfields, and sporting events. As funding increases, both their crime locations and base of operations continues to increase (Muktadhara, 2001).
The Jamaat organization dislikes the United States and other Western cultures for two main reasons. First, they challenge the western methods to achieve social and industrial reform. According to the Jamaat, their method provides more opportunity for equality and change from within, rather than changing the industry, and leaving the citizens to starve. Secondly, the Jamaat dislikes the capitalistic ways of the Western world. They view the values and methods of the United States and other western nations as actions taken against Islam, and view those…
Jamaat e-Islami Organization. (2002). Vision and Commitment. About Jamaat. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Jamaat e-Islami. Web site: http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/about/visioncommitment.html .
Jamaat e-Islami Organization. (2002b). Objectives, goals, and approach. Organization. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Jamaat e-Islami. Web site: http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/about/objectivesgoalsapproach.html .
Kidwai, R. (Feb 2, 2004). Moderates wait for echo from the majority. The Telegraph, p. C2.
Muktadhara. (2001). Jamat e-Islam. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Muktadhara.net, maintained by the Institute for Humanist Studies, Bangladesh. Web site: http://muktadhara.net/page80.html.
Post Colonial India and South Asian Identity
"Pakistan is often perceived as merely one of those far-away places that serve as breeding grounds for extremism and violence," yet this is not a clear image of the truth (Perner 23). Pakistan is in the midst of an internal conflict, with those who want to embrace globalism and those fighting to get rid of it for a misguided view of life before international influence. In many ways, Hamid's novel Moth Smoke is much different than other post-colonial literature in the idea that the west is not entirely responsible for the divides in cultural identity in regional politics. Rather, the west simply brought with it new tools to help distinguish those with access to the elite social circles and those without. Still, Hamid does show some positive benefits from a globalized identity in the image of a much stronger female role within an…
Hamid, Mohsin. Moth Smoke. Penguin. 2012.
Jay, Paul. "The Post-Post Colonial Condition: Globalization and Historical Allegory in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke."
Perner, Claudia. "Tracing the Fundamentalist in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke and the Reluctant Fundamentalist." Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, 42(3-4), 23-31.
Yaqin, Amina. "Mohsin Hamid in Conversation." Wasafiri. 2008.
Islamic and democracy existing side by side in Pakistan. The research proposal will revolve around factors and evidences which shows connection between the Islam and democracy. Muslims have been denied there democratic rights by their leaders claiming to follow Islamic religion thereby creating public interest of ways in which Muslims democracy in Pakistan can be upheld.
Justification of the research
It has been widely portrayed that Pakistani Islamist parties have since enjoyed widespread support only after joining pro-democracy movements, (Nadeem F. Paracha, 2013). This was evidenced in 1980s when the Jamaat-I Islamic, Maududi's party joined Benazir Bhutto in fighting dictatorship; another case is the recent one when members of the Jamaat joined Imran Khan's Movement for Justice (PTI), (Daniel Jacobius Morgan, 2013). Therefore political parties who advocates for democracy should be given much support by the Muslim and Western democrats in their quest to fight for this democracy in Pakistan…
Daniel Jacobius Morgan, (2013). "The complex relationship between Islamism and democracy"
NewStateman, (2012). http://www.newstatesman.com/blogs/religion/2012/08/complex-relationship-between-islamism-and-democracy
David Bukay, (2007). "Can There Be an Islamic Democracy? Middle East Quarterly"
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation
The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…
. Protests against the government continue and the government keeps arresting activists, rebels and revolutionaries, in an effort to stamp the desire for reform out of the masses
. Ahmadi-Nejad and his people are the Neoconservationists and his era is known as the third revolution in Iran. While Khatami and his followers were intellectuals, he and his people are religious and idealistic. It seems that he knows better than Khatami, how to please the public (Ehteshami, A & Zweiri, M, 2007).
NATIONAL GOALS: The country has become synonymous
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
Malala Yousafzai -- A Girl with a Message
Description of Issues and Problems
The psychosocial review of Malala Yousafzai, a girl who was shot in the face while trying to promote education in a region of the world where girls and women were not permitted to do many of the things that boys and men can do, is a fascinating story of resistance to cruelty and resilience in the face of violence. This is Malala's review, but the story should begin not with her life, but with the political and social structure into which she was born -- in the SAT region of Pakistan (in the town of SAT). The Taliban, a fundamentalist Sunni version of Islam, was in control of the SAT region of Pakistan. Their goal was to create a "puritanical caliphate that neither recognizes nor tolerates forms of Islam divergent from their own" (Tristam, 2011).…
Ahmad, S. (2012). The Taliban and Girls' Education in Pakistan and Afghanistan -- with a Case study of the situation in the SWAT district. Lund University Department of Sociology. Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.lup.lup.se.luur.
Bennett-Jones, O. (2013). The courage of her convictions. The Spectator. Retrieved March 1, 2016, from http://www.spectator.co.uk .
Brumfield, B. (2013). Malala's journey from near death to recovery. CNN. Retrieved
March 1, 2016, from http://www.cnn.com .
hile some of the products of this time orientation, like their emphasis on traditional forms of hospitality and the slow pace of the culture in respect to the dynamic rhythms of nature, are valuable and perhaps superior to our own cold, rushed, and removed values, other aspects of the Balti's past-oriented culture are not. There is great religious intolerance by some members of the society, such as the Taliban and a constant hashing-over of tribal and religious grievances produced very negative results. At one point, Mortenson was kidnapped, beaten and threatened by Islamic extremists for his efforts, simply because he was an outsider and American. Mortenson's founding of schools enabled him to share the future-orientation of American culture in a positive way, just as the Balti's hospitality brought positive aspects of their culture into his life.
These forms of fruitful cultural dialogue show the benefits of cultural interaction, and show…
Beer, Jennifer. (2003). High and low context. Culture at work. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at http://www.culture-at-work.com/highlow.html
Gardener, Marilyn. (2006, September 12). A failed mountaineer becomes a philanthropist after a village saves his life. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at http://www.threecupsoftea.com/2006/09/12/a-failed-mountaineer-becomes-a-philanthropist-after-a-village-without-a-school-saves-his-life/
Kristoff, Nicholas. (2008, July 13). It takes a school. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 Nov 2008. http://www.threecupsoftea.com/2008/07/13/ny-times-school-not-missiles/
Mortenson, Greg & David Oliver Relin. (2007). Three Cups of Tea. New York: Penguin.
International relations studies is the specialization that focuses on the study of foreign affairs and the global events significantly influence the trend of the states that are within the international system. These systems are categorized as governments, countries, organizations and even people who are the main agents of relations and interchange between people within varying geographical locations (WITS University, 2014). There are pertinent issues that are involved in the study of international relations such as war, disease, democracy, poverty, diplomacy, globalization, economics and trade. The significance of continued study of international relations are numerous and important to any organization and governments. From the study of international reactions between two entities in the past, it is possible to predict the future and the significance and possible repercussions of some international decisions that a government or a president or even the organizations may take. International studies a reason geared towards having a…
Business Dictionary, (2014). Constructivism. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/constructivism.html
Donnelly J., (2000). Realism and International Relations. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam032/99053676.pdf
Global Policy Forum, (2014). What is a "State." Retrieved November 21, 2014 from https://www.globalpolicy.org/nations-a-states/what-is-a-state.html
Gul A., (2014). Olson: U.S.-Pakistan Relations Still Challenging, Improving. Retrieved November 21, 2014 from http://www.voanews.com/content/us-pakistan-relations-still-challenging-improving/1843105.html
But by doing so, Zia and ilson gained the most powerful ally one could want when it came to appropriations. ith Doc Long's support, ilson was able to obtain $40 million from the Defense Appropriations subcommittee; a group of eleven elected officials who meet behind closed doors and decide how to spend billions of dollars. And since the recommendations from the committee have to be voted on by the full House without the specifics of where the money is being sent, Charlie ilson was able to appropriate the money without any public knowledge. This was important because the participation of the United States in the arming of Afghan mujahideen had to be kept a secret or else it risked direct war with the Soviet Union.
Part of Charlie ilson's ability to convince the other members of the U.S. House of Representatives to vote for his appropriations was the fact that…
Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert
Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2003. Print.
Grau, Lester, and Michael Gress. The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 2002. Print.
Sperling, Godfrey. "Mondale in '84, He May Run if Jimmy Carter Doesn't." the
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?
In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.
The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…
Gopal & Anand (2009 December 1).Karzai Aides, Tribal Leaders Say Surge is Wrong Strategy.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from online.wsj.com/article/SB125960550353170023.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop.
Robert G, (2009). Rethink Afghanistan. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com /2009/03/23/movies/23gree.html.
Robert, (2008, August, 26). Taliban was "Underestimated." Retrieved April 2, 2010 from www.jihadwatch.org/2008/08/taliban-was-underestimated.html
Pathologists are often called 'the doctor's doctor ' -- when other doctors are experiencing an impasse, they go to a pathologist for advice, to provide clarity. As someone who has always enjoyed working as a teacher and preparing teaching materials, I look forward to this role in relation to my fellow physicians.
pon arriving in the nited States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field,…
Upon arriving in the United States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field, and give me the ability to learn from -- and perhaps to teach -- others who are grappling with issues spanning from cancer to nephrology to infertility to lifestyle-related illnesses.
From birth to death, I have seen the many varied states the human body can take in health and illness. My desire to engage in a pathology rotation is based upon these past, formative experiences and my desire to place this diversity within the uniquely helpful paradigms particular the discipline. By the end of the residency I know I shall not have realized my goal of becoming a 'doctor's doctor' but I am eager to enter upon the path and begin this lifelong journey.
J. Carlos Manivel, "Choosing pathology as a specialty," the University of Minnesota, May 2, 2010, [August 21, 2010] http://residency.pathology.umn.edu/
For us, on the contrary, the Lager is not a punishment; for us, no end is foreseen and the Lager is nothing but a manner of living assigned to us, without limits of time, in the bosom of the Germanic social organism. (82-83)
The personal choice to leave or to stay, despite desperation was given to civilian workers and completely absent for the Jews, due to no act of their own. The only power they had was to live within the confines of Primo's early assertion in the work; "that man is bound to pursue his own ends by all possible means, while he who errs but once pays dearly." (13) ithin each novel there is a clear sense that choice is derived only from the immediate circumstances, which are entirely outside of one's control and yet almost completely determine even their very survival.
Levi, Primo, Survival in…
Levi, Primo, Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
Singh, Khushwant, Train to Pakistan. New York, Grove Press, 1994.
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…
Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html , accessed 11 June 2007.
Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
iddiqui (p.264) defines an 'honor crime' as consisting of:
a range of violent or abusive acts committed in the name of honor, including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and other controlling and coercive behaviors such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation which can end, in some extreme cases, in suicide or murder. (13)
These felonies, it is true, can happened, and do happen, in any civilized country but they are legalized, accepted (sometimes even condoned) and happen to an unimaginable extent in societies that are marked by their Islamic way of living.
The outhall Black isters, for instance, have consistently argued that men from minority cultures have often used religion and culture to justify the range of violence and humiliation that they impose upon women. We do find many cultures that have extreme views perpetuating misogyny. This includes cultures such as Mormonism, fundamentalists Judaism, fundamentalist Christianity, and…
Aslam, N. (2005) Maps for Lost Lovers Knopf, UK
Lynn Welchman and Sara Hossain (2005) Honour: Crimes, Paradigms and Violence Against Women Zed Books: UK
Siddiqui, H. There Is No Honour
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…
Peace Treat between India and Pakistan:
The primary objective of the peace process is 1) to expand and intensify people to people contact, 2) broaden and consolidate the peace process by encouraging new associations as well as those groups who have been operating for enduring peace in South Asia for the preceding 58 years, and 3) give enhanced ethical, academic, community and cultural resources to assist in maintaining long-lasting peace.
The peace treaty should read:
Both governments should welcome and support the peace process by engaging in a composite dialogue between directed towards creating righteous and long-lasting peace in South Asia.
The ultimate settlement on issues, of Kashmir, international terrorism and nuclear weapons, between, both, India and Pakistan, ought to be founded on the Doctrine of Peaceful Co-Existence, that is, autonomous parity, non-violence, non-intrusion, mutual and shared advantage, and nonviolent co-existence
Both governments should agree that the ultimate settlement ought…
I like facing new challenges and being involved with decision-making situations.
More important, I wished to become involved in a field of healthcare that could help people in a natural way. Too often, traditional medical doctors quickly give their patients medicine prescriptions to cure their problems. Many do not look at the larger overall picture, only one piece of the puzzle. Helping a patient in a holistic manner is essential to their continued well-being. I want to do much more than put a bandage, or a short-term treatment. ather, I want to find the actual cause of the problem and cure it. If that is not possible, then at least provide the right treatment that can greatly reduce any pain.
My grandfather in Pakistan passed away in 2005 because of knee and back problems, since the Pakistani doctors do not have the Chiropractic tools and experience needed to help people…
Rather than go into one of the medical areas being practiced by my family member, I wanted to strike out in a different direction. It knew it was important that I choose an area that would be continually growing and becoming more advanced. I like facing new challenges and being involved with decision-making situations.
More important, I wished to become involved in a field of healthcare that could help people in a natural way. Too often, traditional medical doctors quickly give their patients medicine prescriptions to cure their problems. Many do not look at the larger overall picture, only one piece of the puzzle. Helping a patient in a holistic manner is essential to their continued well-being. I want to do much more than put a bandage, or a short-term treatment. Rather, I want to find the actual cause of the problem and cure it. If that is not possible, then at least provide the right treatment that can greatly reduce any pain.
My grandfather in Pakistan passed away in 2005 because of knee and back problems, since the Pakistani doctors do not have the Chiropractic tools and experience needed to help people in this way. I hope one day to go back to Pakistan and practice. I was not able to help my grandfather, but I can put my personal efforts toward helping to cure and save others. I will gain the knowledge and experience needed at the long-established Texas Chiropractic College, which is well-known for its high-quality graduates, and become a thoroughly trained Doctor of Chiropractic. I want to be a Chiropractor because these professionals believe in the natural way for the mind, body, and soul to heal. They do not want to only eliminate the problem, but rather the actual cause of the problem. In this way, I can help my patients improve their lives physically and emotionally in the natural way.
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't block Skype." (August 14 -- 2006).
Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Spike Lee demonstrates his filmmaking prowess in his 1989 film Do the Right Thing. As with most of Lee's work, race relations are central to the story. With Do the Right Thing, Lee presents a bleak view of the nature and future of cross-cultural relationships in urban America. Mookie (played by Spike Lee) is a twenty-something African-American pizza delivery man. He works for Sal's Pizzeria, an establishment in the Bedford-Stuyvesant area of Brooklyn, which is a predominantly black neighborhood. Mookie and Sal, despite their differences, reveal a remarkably similar worldview as the film progresses, and especially in their inability to resolve the racial tension that emerges in the film. Mookie and Sal develop a decent professional relationship, yet both retain lingering feelings of resentment toward the "other." Spike Lee does a remarkable job portraying mutual feelings of "otherness" in Do the Right Thing. The writer/director/actor shows that racism exists on…
Typically, Japanese marry before a Shinto altar and are buried, after cremation, in a Buddhist funeral. Many people, young and old, pay a New Years visit to a Shinto shrine and visit family graves once or twice a year. Young couples take their children to a Shinto shrine at the shichi-go-san festival to celebrate the ages 3, 5, and 7. For funeral and periodic memorial services, a family invites a priest from a Buddhist temple that belongs to the same Buddhist sect with which the family ancestors were affiliated.
The Japanese, both officially and unofficially resisted the influence of the western religions, while at the same time conglomerating the traditional faiths of the region into an amalgamated faith of sorts.
In the past, every family in Japan had to be registered at a Buddhist temple to comply with the antiChristian policy of the Tokugawa government (1600-1868). After the…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=14315057' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Jamil, who had supported me financially and emotionally during these tough times, persuaded me to continue my studies when I felt ready.
For nearly a decade I struggled to redefine myself in a completely foreign culture. It has been difficult but after we had our first son a year ago, my perspective shifted and life situation has become more stable. Now that I have also become more proficient in English and rooted in my community, I am well-prepared to meet the challenges of university-level courses here in the United States. I am therefore applying for admission to the Doctor of Pharmacy program, to complete the education I started years ago in my home country.
My academic background will illustrate that I am nothing but focused and dedicated and that I will make an ideal candidate for the program. Because I have already taken many of the prerequisite courses here and…
As scientist come up with new technology for the welfare of mankind in this world they end up producing luxuries. The attitude of the people towards the environment is changing due to the fact that they need more and more luxuries and this makes them destroy the environment, and this make environment to be polluted in different forms.
In the act of mankind living luxuriously, they sometime use instruments such as air conditioners, fridges and others that do release C.F.Cs in the environment leading to deplete of the ozone layer, Paul Kennard (2006). According to researches the depletion of ozone layer during 19th century when there was no much use of such things, is compared with for 20th century, it has been found that there is 50% increase of the depletion. Deforestation uncontrollable for the purpose of building with the aim of accommodation tends to raise the content of…
Reference and Education: Science
Tania Branigan (25 November 2008). "One-third of China's Yellow river 'unfit for drinking or agriculture' Factory waste and sewage from growing cities has severely polluted major waterway, according to Chinese research." London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…
Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.
23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.
Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
The social impact of the Islamic revival, however, produced a third alternative that is both modern and firmly rooted in Islamic faith, identity, and values. Muslim women, both modernists and Islamists, have argued on Islamic grounds for an expanded role in the society (Iqbal)."
In a political sense, "most of the regimes in the Islamic world are authoritarian, undemocratic and lack legitimacy. These governments must divert public attention from the human development gap to other more unworldly matters. This is especially the case in the Arab/Muslim Middle East (Alvi-Aziz)."
hen referring to the religious aspects of its citizens, the "establishment clearly prefers to keep the masses obedient and faithful. This allows the male-dominated religious institutions to maintain the status quo and their authority (Alvi-Aziz)."
Buddhism receives much of its funding from followers who are extremely "wealthy and influential. In some cases, this has led critics to charge that certain monks…
Alvi-Aziz, Hayat. "Sinful Arab neglect." The Jerusalem Post. (2005): 01 April.
Iqbal, Anwar. "Women in Mosque and Society." World & I. (2004): 01 November.
The Religion of India: The Sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism. (accessed 20 April 2005). http://wikipedia.lotsofinformation.com/wiki/index.php/The_Religion_of_India:_The_
Wearing Guru Jacket
Sikhism is a religion that was formed by Guru Nanak who was born in 1469 in a village in Pakistan. The teaching of this founder Guru and the successive ten Gurus are the basis for the faith in this religion. The tenth Guru is actually a holy (sacred) book called the Guru Granth Sahib. A unique feature of Sikhism is the fact that they do not have a definitive God but they believe their God to be shapeless, timeless and sightless, which means there a possibility they would interpret even the universe to be God. Sometimes this religion is misunderstood to the extent of being taken as branch of other religions that are well established because they have been around for a longer time. However, looking deeply into its doctrines the differences and similarities that can be seen in all the other religions are evident.
Juss, S.S. (2010). The Secular Tradition In Sikhism . Rutgers Journal Of Law & Religion, 271-349.
Singh, G. (1976). The Religion of the Sikhs. Delhi: Sikh Gurdwara Management Committee.
Reflection activity: Ashoka
hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?
Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.
Discussion activity: Stupas
To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)
The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…
British Museum. (N.d.). Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha. Retrieved from British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/s/sandstone_figure_of_the_seated.aspx
Dhejia, V. (1990). On Modes of Visual narration in Early Buddhist Art. The Art Bulletin, 374-392.
Smart History. (N.d.). The Stupa. Retrieved from Smart History: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-stupa.html
Groundwork and Initial Steps
For this research and analytical paper, we have chosen to work as the members of a small NGO and conduct a research as an executive director of a small non-governmental organization that would utilize its funding of one million dollar donation by establishing its branch in Pakistan, a third world country in order to improve and strengthen the country's educational arena. In this phase, we first had to decide a third world country that actually deserved a good financial aid in the form of a million dollar donation to improve its educational facilities. I came up with Pakistan, because this is one country that unfortunately has one of the most appalling literacy rates and percentages. So, in order to solve the problem at hand that is to answer the question as to where invest the donation, I chose Pakistan. Since, we have twenty years…
Bryson, J.M. (1995). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
State of Education in Pakistan, Care. Retrieved September 6, 2003 at http://www.care.org.pk/pakistan_facts/state_of_education.htm
Coffman J. (1997). Private Higher Education in Pakistan: The Need for Order. Centre for International Higher Education, Boston College. Retrieved September 6, 2003 at http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/newsletter/News09/text2.html
Ecotourism Society Pakistan (1999). Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Pakistan.
" (IST, 1)
Nonetheless, India holds that Pakistan has both a significant motive to see attacks on Indian soil carried out without proper retribution and that its commitment to eroding the forces of terrorism generated by its own people may be regarded as nominal at best. Quite indeed, the political pressure imposed by the United States may be matched or even overshadowed by the political pressures instigated by its own populace. One may deduce in fact that there are substantial sectors of the population which if not supportive of extremism or participating and funding in any such activities, may nonetheless find some sympathy for the idea that political and economic causes are the primary impetuses for acts of 'terrorism.'
Nonetheless, Pakistan's opportunity for growth and improvement does hinge on these efforts, at least according to the United States. Even under new leadership, the U.S. has continued to make its Pakistan…
Associated Press of Pakistan (APP). (2009). Pakistan Dealing With Challenges Courageously: Governor Sindh. Associated Press of Pakistan Corporation. Online at Dawn Media Group (DMG). (2009). 'U.S. Forces Not to Be Allowed to Operate Inside Pakistan. Dawn.com.
Hitti, P. (1943). History of the Arab People. Princeton University Press.
IST. (2009). Pakistan wants Unconditional Talks With India. The Times of India. Online at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/india/Pakistan-wants-unconditional-talks-with-India-Qureshi/articleshow/5022368.cms
Kronstadt, K. Alan. (Jan. 2005). Pakistan-U.S. Relations. CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Online at < http://www.fas.org/man/crs/IB94041.pdf >
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
A Foreign Intelligence Entity (FIE) can be delineated as any identified or suspected foreign organization, individual, or group, whether private, public, or governmental, that undertakes intelligence activities to obtain United States information, block or damage U.S. intelligence gathering, impact U.S. policy, or mess up U.S. systems and programs. In particular, this term takes into account an international terrorist organization and also a foreign intelligence and security service.[footnoteef:1] The FIE considered in this essay is Pakistani's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the nation's biggest of its five intelligence services. Pakistan is deemed to be one of the fast-paced and rapidly developing nations in the [1: Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE, 2017.]
South Asian expanse. Owing to the country's strategic positioning in the core of all the nuclear adversaries, it had grown and develop to become of the best intelligence services…
Capriz, Marco, and Kelly George. "Pakistan Inter Services Intelligence Directorate." (2014).
Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE. (2017). Retrieved from: http://www.cdse.edu/documents/toolkits-fsos/ci-definitions.pdf
Pakistan Defence. "ISI Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence". (2006). Retrieved from: https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/isi-pakistan-inter-services-intelligence.551/
Roberts, Mark J. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: A State within a State?. NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV WASHINGTON DC INST FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES, 2008.
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…
Ahmad, I. (2010). The U.S. Af-Pak Strategy: Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 37(4), 191-209.
Bacevich, a. (2010) Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Bacevich, a., (November 6, 2005) the Realist Persuasion. The Boston Globe, retrieved on March 13, 2011, from http://rempost.blogspot.com/2006/04/realist-persuasion.html
Baker, J.A., & Hamilton, L.H. (2006) the Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward -- a New Approach. New York: Vintage Books.
TV news channels and online media for breaking the latest and hottest news first and taking the credit of being more alert and efficient. This paper compares the news delivered by different news channel websites regarding an important incident of this year "Killing of Osama Bin Laden" which took place on 1st May 2011 in Pakistan. Following paragraphs will compare how different news channel websites portrayed this story:
CNN declared Osama's killing news by calling Osama the "most prominent face of terror in America" was killed as said by the U.S. officials and they confirm to have his dead body.
The later part of the new article explains bin Laden's story; from his birth in Saudi Arabia to his leading of Al-Qaeda, which is a terrorist network behind the September 11, 2001 attacks. The news also states the destruction that was caused by the four hijacked planes and…
Al-Jazeera Staff. (2011). Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan. Al- Jazeera News. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2011/05/2011522132275789.html . Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Baker, P., Cooer, H., Mazzetti, M. (2011). Bin Ladin Is Dead, Osama Says. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com /2011/05/02/world/asia/osama-bin-laden-is-killed.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
CNN Staff Wire. (2011). Osama bin Laden, the face of terror, killed in Pakistan, CNN World. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-05-01/world/bin.laden.obit_1_bin-terrorist-network-uss-cole?_s=PM:WORLD, Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
Dawn Staff. (2011). Osama bin Laden killed in Pakistan, says Obama. Dawn News. http://www.dawn.com/2011/05/02/osama-bin-laden-killed-in-pakistan-says-obama.html . Retrieved Dec 18, 2011.
India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold ar foreign policy strategy. "The Cold ar officially ended almost two decades ago,"
Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).
Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):
Works Cited / Bibliography
Gilpin, Robert, 1983, War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Mearsheimer, John J. 2003, the Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W.W. Norton & Company: New York.
Pant, Harsh V., 2008, Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy: India Negotiates Its Rise in the International System. Palgrave / Macmillan: New York.
Pant, Harsh V. 2009, 'A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy', Orbis, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 250-265.