Pakistan's ISI: 'A Kingdom Within a Kingdom'?
Pakistan is one of the indispensable allies of the United States in the war on terror, especially in the current struggle against Taliban and other extremist movements in Central Asia. ut the American relationship with Pakistan has remained precarious, partly because of the shadowy activities of Pakistan's main intelligence service the Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI). According to Sean Winchell, until the Pakistani general and the President Pervez Musharraf took the organization under control, "the ISI has been a 'kingdom within a kingdom,' answerable to neither the army nor Pakistan's President."
ut the ISI always remained closer to -- and more dependant -- on the Army than on the civilian government. Pakistani leaders with close military ties have greatly increased the ISI mandate, increasing its power and influence within and outside Pakistan. Taking control of the ISI activities therefore will remain a great challenge for…… [Read More]
In addition the continued decline of the fiscal account will affect both debt sustainability and external balances ("Monetary Policy Decision").
As it pertains to medium term fiscal sustainability which must be present to achieve necessary overall macroeconomic stability, the tax-GDP ratio must be increased ("Monetary Policy Decision"). Additionally government expenditures must decrease ("Monetary Policy Decision"). The article also reports that the revenue deficit, which represents the difference between total revenues and current expenditure, has to be reduced to zero as established by the Fiscal esponsibility and Debt Limitation (FDL) Act signed into law in 2005 ("Monetary Policy Decision"). In fiscal year 2009 the revenue deficit was 1.5% of GDP and it is anticipated that the revenue deficit 2% of the expected GDP in FY10 ("Monetary Policy Decision"). The article explains that the reduction of development expenditures may be successful in providing immediate relief but at the same time such reductions…… [Read More]
S. In Pakistan, especially in the border areas. Any attacks by the U.S. forces inside Pakistan, which would invariably entail "collateral damage," are likely to fuel further anti-Americanism. The current policy of Musharraf to seek co-operation of the local tribal chiefs in the border areas against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda should be supported by the U.S. A political, rather than a purely military solution to the problem, is the only viable option for the Americans.
Aum Shinrikyo (Supreme Truth) is a doomsday cult that released nerve gas in the Tokyo subway system in March 1995, killing 12 and injuring thousands. At its peak, the cult boasted of a membership of over 10,000 in Japan and about 40,000 in ussia. After a crackdown in the wake of the 1995 attacks which included a death sentence for its leader, Shoko Asahara, its membership has understandably declined to about 650 "live-in" members and…… [Read More]
Pakistan ISI and GWOT
Described variously as a U.S. ally in the war against terror, Pakistan's actual commitment to the U.S. As a reliable partner in the global campaign against terror has in the past come under scrutiny with some accusing the South Asian State of aiding militants in the region. Matters have been made worse by the latent support the U.S. has received from the ISI, the state's foremost national security organ. In this text, I explore whether Pakistan can be considered a reliable partner by the U.S. In the war against terror. Further, I discuss the possibility of a political or military rift emerging between Pakistan and the U.S. given the latter's and by extension ISI's alleged support for some militant groups in the region.
According to Bajoria (2011), the ISI has over time been accused by quite a number of U.S. officials of availing support to various…… [Read More]
Foreigners wishing to travel in large parts of the country are required to take along a government-appointed armed guard. Pakistan's numerous intelligence agencies are a brooding, malevolent presence in the nation's life. President usharraf has survived a couple of assassination attempts (the first in December of 2003, when usharraf's convoy was attacked twice within two weeks. The second one, on Christmas Day, left 14 people dead and dozens injured). Does this constitute a failed state? aybe not. But it does bespeak a nation whose integrity and unity are-challenged on a daily basis (p. 54)."
usharraf's rule over the military and over the country are in trouble today. Even in the face of usharraf's dictatorship, the people of Pakistan have been able to voice their ideas and to make their support or lack thereof of usharraf known (Alagappa, uthiah, 2004, p. 364).
Despite these periodic setbacks, civil society groups managed to…… [Read More]
McQueen's research in 1990 demonstrates just how little progress has been made.
McQueen noted in 1990 that, "Pakistan has had consistent growth averaging 6.7% over the last decade, placing it among the fast-growing third-world economies. Some apprehension exists regarding deterioration in the law and order situation in Sindh Province, where in recent months ethnic and politically motivated violence has claimed a number of lives and slowed industrial activity. Regionalism, ethnic violence, and political uncertainty cloud the economic outlook, but many analysts are sanguine.
Pakistan's economy continues to be dominated by agriculture and agro-based industries. Agriculture employs 50% of the labor force in Pakistan, earns (directly or indirectly) approximately 70% to GDP. Industry contributes apporximately 20% to GDP and has become increasingly important to the country's development and export potential. The public sector share in Pakistani industry has diminished over recent years, and in fiscal year 1986, accounted for less than…… [Read More]
Instead of doubting or suspecting employees of intentionally messing up, they tried to be considerate, understanding providing their best advices to solve problems.
The workflow and organizational structure
At InfoTech, the organization structure was hybrid, with departments divided according to product as well as region. (Discussed in detail in structure). The firm focused on decentralizing authority and empowering employees.
Organizational systems and procedures
At InfoTech, employees were given intensive and extensive training programs in customer service. At InfoTech, employees were rewarded every time they achieved their goals in terms of more sales or more clients (wide-space accounts) with commissions and bonuses. Promotion was strictly based on performance.
Organizational goals and the associated criteria used for recruitment, selection, development, promotion, layoffs and retirement of people
ecruitment is done by placing ads in the newspaper, selection was based on merit and regional managers had the authority to recruit people under his span…… [Read More]
Pakistan and China
Infrastructural Development and Labor Availability in Pakistan
Pakistan is a third-world predominantly Muslim republic located in the Continent of Asia between longitudes 610 and 75.450E and latitudes 23.30 and 36.450 N. It borders China in the north, Afghanistan in the north-west, India in the east, Iran in the west, and the Arabian Sea in the south. It covers a total land area of 796, 096 sq. km, with a population of around 130 million, more than two-thirds of which lives in the rural areas.
Fig 1: the Geographical Location of Pakistan (source: infoplease.com)
Its strategic location:
Makes it a center of the Muslim world -- to the east lies Bangladesh and a stream of other Muslim countries, to the north lies six Muslim countries that gained their independence from ussia in the 1990s, and to the west lies Iran, Afghanistan, and a chain of Muslim republics spreading…… [Read More]
On 15 March 2000, for instance, public rallies, demonstration and strikes were banned precisely at the moment when the 18-party opposition Alliance for the estoration of Democracy (AD) demanded national non-rigged elections. Some opposition leaders were arrested, and time and again in preceding and consequent year activists who sought democracy and opposition personnel were arrested on trumped up charges (Talbot, 2002). The first goal of any military regime in Pakistan is to neutralize opposition, and Mussharaf's regime has been no different (Shah, 2007).
Moreover, continuance of sectarian and domestic violence with little concerted attempt to stop it, also prevent Pakistan from failing to consolidate its democracy. Musharraf's promised "liberal and progressive Islam" has failed to replace the "punitive Islam' which, as long as it continues, discourages any democracy from being established (Talbot, 2002). On the contrary: "since independence in 1947, the Pakistani state and political elites generally have sought to…… [Read More]
history of Pakistan and India and how they have progressed since winning independence.
India and Pakistan elations
History of India and Pakistan relations
There is no doubt about the fact that ever since the partition of the sub-continent that took place more than 50 years ago India and Pakistan have been arch rivals. Their animosity goes back to a long time ago and finds its main causes in religion and history, which has taken a turn towards a deadly arms race. There have been many attempts to resolve the issues, but in spite of these efforts relations remain tense. With the recent changes taking place, there is growing concern about the growing hostility between the two countries, which is predicted could change into a war.
Independence and partition
India gained its independence from Britain on 15 August 1947. This was formation of the Hindu-dominated India and the Muslim state of…… [Read More]
Train to Pakistan
Khushwant Singh wrote 'Train to Pakistan' in 1956 when the painful memories of 1947 Partition were still fresh and the wounds hadn't yet healed. For this reason, the book reflects the true emotions that people felt when they were forced to abandon their homes in both India and Pakistan to move north or south according to their religious beliefs. It is true that the main reason behind the partition was religion, which had, for many centuries, remained a contentious social issue. While it would be unfair to say that Muslims and Hindus had never been good friends but the fact remains that their friendship, their neighborly love was all marked by ethnic tension that had reached new heights when British came to India.
Prior to that, however, Muslims and Hindus were more or less content with their lives and co-inhabited the same land harmoniously. This was probably…… [Read More]
India and Pakistan -- Poverty posing serious threats
The world renowned country, India, growing rapidly at more than 9%, member of BICS block (Brazil, ussia, India, China & South Africa), according to Gold Man Sachs, BICS will produce about 50% of the total world GDP in 2050. But the main threat to India is Poverty which may hurt the sustainable growth. The Indians living in rural part of the country drives their income from agriculture whereas the urban class mostly dependent on scarce jobs. The poverty is nothing new for India; it has been prevailing since independence. In 2010, 1.35 billion (more than 37%) Indians still lives beneath the poverty line. Data revealed that 22% and 15% of the entire rural and urban population of India facing serious financial and physical problems, respectively. There is a huge gap between different states of India owing to bumpy distribution of resources,…… [Read More]
dangerous conflicts threatening to undermine global peace and security is between India and Pakistan. The history of the conflict is described in the article, "On the Brink: Are India and Pakistan Headed for ar?" In 1947, after India gained independence from Great Britain, a substantial Muslim minority cried out for an independent Muslim state. Thus, Pakistan was carved out in the north-western part of the subcontinent and Muslim Indians fled there. However, the disputed region of Jammu-Kashmir was a bone of contention. A cease-fire line was drawn, but the two independent nations have engaged in skirmishes and battles over Kashmir for decades. Although Kashmir is officially considered to be a protectorate of India, Pakistan still claims it as Muslim territory. About sixty percent of Kashmir is Muslim; it is India's only Muslim-majority state. The problem worsened when in 1998, both India and Pakistan tested nuclear weapons. The two countries are…… [Read More]
Realism v. Institutionalism
Realism vs. Institutionalism and the Middle East Crisis
Until fairly recently, the dominant theoretic rubric most analysts of international relations operated under was the theory of realism. The international relations theory of realism holds that each nation-state in the global community operates as a unified, rational actor. Realism as a theory was born and evolved at the same time as the modern conception of the nation-state was coming into its greatest influence in the international community. In contrast, institutionalism, which stresses the need for institutions to broker the peace between warring actors, came into its 'own' as a theory during the second half of the 20th century, well after the end of World War II and the establishment of the United Nations.
According to realism, above all, the nation-state is unified in terms of international affairs and always acts towards its own self-interest. Self-interest, according to realism…… [Read More]
The U.S. govenment will use thei engagement in the economy with othe nations to daw attention on the advantages of policies that fuel a sustained gowing economy and highe poductivity. The fee tade concept came as a moal pinciple way befoe it became a foundation fo economics. When new fims develop valuable poducts that othes can value, it should be able to sell the idea to customes. When Pakistani fims establish a new value idea that the U.S. fims do not have, U.S. citizens will buy thei poducts. This in itself is the feedom of making a living. The United States has established an elaboate stategy to encouage fee tade. These stategies include:
Seizing the global initiative: negotiations of the new global tade that assisted commence in 2001 Novembe in Doha will include an agenda that is ambitious, specifically in agicultue, sevices and manufactuing and its completion is tageted to…… [Read More]
Malala Yousafzai's I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban is a book about the struggle to obtain an education in the deeply corrupted Pakistan state, where radical Islamic extremists oppress people who disagree with them. Inspired by her father, who was passionate about founding his own school, Malala at a very young age took to promoting the cause of education with her father's help. She would read the classical works of literature by Tolstoy and Jane Austen and write a blog for the BBC describing what it was like to grow up in Pakistan under the Taliban and be a girl seeking an education. This paper will describe the book's main point, the major problem that Malala faced in her country, and my own personal evaluation of the book.
Malala's book is a personal look into the nightmare world that is…… [Read More]
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…… [Read More]
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…… [Read More]
The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…… [Read More]
How Compellence by Indian and Pakistan has Prolonged the Kashmir Question
The partition of British India into the two independent nations in August 1947 was intended to create coexisting, peaceful homelands for the Hindus and Sikhs in India and Moslems in Pakistan. Since that time, however, India and Pakistan have waged three shooting wars over the hotly disputed territories of Kashmir where each nation claims ownership. Today, an uneasy ceasefire exists along the line of control established following the first such war in 1963, but each side accuses the other of inciting new hostilities through armed provocative incursions into disputed regions of Kashmir. With both India and Pakistan possessing a nuclear arsenal with inadequate and unpredictable command and control, it is reasonable to suggest that a conventional war that started between these two belligerents may not end that way. Against this backdrop, determining why Kashmir has remained a major…… [Read More]
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]
All that Ms. Chang would do is to apply for the patent protection and then franchise a local company to manufacture the CAD system with full assurance that the product will be right protected and the business will still have the same business profits as it is in Singapore.
As a matter of fact, the machine, being so sophisticated will require importation of skills and manpower from the Singapore mother company since they are the ones who are familiar with its operations and can set it up within the licensed company in Pakistan. This makes it easier to have control over the operations of the machine and the levels of output as the technicians will have to be always around to supervise the smooth operation of the system.
Even though the levels of manufacturing in Singapore is above the levels of manufacturing in Pakistan, it still remains to be slightly…… [Read More]
With the advantage of Afghanistan, the U.S. And Allies will be geographically positioned against Iran, Pakistan, and negative forces in the Southwest Asia and in the Middle East.
U.S. And Allied Objectives in Afghanistan
he first objective for U.S. And allied forces in Afghanistan is to eradicate outside and hostile threats to the country's infrastructure. he threats which currently exist are:
Al Qaeda and aliban terrorists located mainly on the porous border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Iranian military readiness and proliferation of nuclear armament
hese threats might at first be considered minimal in comparison to those threats that exist in Iraq, since Iraq borders with Syria, Iran, and is generally a South Asia-Middle East corridor. Afghanistan, however, bordering Iran and Pakistan, while its threats from Iran, Pakistan, and internal radical insurgent forces cannot be minimized and must be considered seriously, and our objectives for Afghanistan reflect an aggressive and proactive…… [Read More]
Iran Societal Assessment
The RAND document shows that a powerful country is one that is able to take decisions that make it economically productive for many years to come And to gain this productivity the country requires a combination of state and societal strength
Hence this shows the significance of the societal aspect of any country's power in the world
SOCIETAL OVERVIEW: the Iranian population is one of the most rapidly increasing populations At the start of the twentieth century Iranian population was estimated to be around 5 million but the actual numbers showed a figure of 10 million, twice the projected size Each consecutive census shows that this fast paced trend has since continued on its path as it is By 1956 had seen an increase of approximately 9 million while in the next 3 decades the population rise was around 16 million This humungous increase was…… [Read More]
While the main bases are still located in the Bangladesh area, there are branches in almost every country (Muktadhara, 2001).
Most of the crimes committed by the Jamaat were done in Bangladesh and surrounding areas. The actual locations vary between Shrines, local businesses, celebrations, airfields, and sporting events. As funding increases, both their crime locations and base of operations continues to increase (Muktadhara, 2001).
The Jamaat organization dislikes the United States and other Western cultures for two main reasons. First, they challenge the western methods to achieve social and industrial reform. According to the Jamaat, their method provides more opportunity for equality and change from within, rather than changing the industry, and leaving the citizens to starve. Secondly, the Jamaat dislikes the capitalistic ways of the Western world. They view the values and methods of the United States and other western nations as actions taken against Islam, and view those…… [Read More]
Post Colonial India and South Asian Identity
"Pakistan is often perceived as merely one of those far-away places that serve as breeding grounds for extremism and violence," yet this is not a clear image of the truth (Perner 23). Pakistan is in the midst of an internal conflict, with those who want to embrace globalism and those fighting to get rid of it for a misguided view of life before international influence. In many ways, Hamid's novel Moth Smoke is much different than other post-colonial literature in the idea that the west is not entirely responsible for the divides in cultural identity in regional politics. Rather, the west simply brought with it new tools to help distinguish those with access to the elite social circles and those without. Still, Hamid does show some positive benefits from a globalized identity in the image of a much stronger female role within an…… [Read More]
Islamic and democracy existing side by side in Pakistan. The research proposal will revolve around factors and evidences which shows connection between the Islam and democracy. Muslims have been denied there democratic rights by their leaders claiming to follow Islamic religion thereby creating public interest of ways in which Muslims democracy in Pakistan can be upheld.
Justification of the research
It has been widely portrayed that Pakistani Islamist parties have since enjoyed widespread support only after joining pro-democracy movements, (Nadeem F. Paracha, 2013). This was evidenced in 1980s when the Jamaat-I Islamic, Maududi's party joined Benazir Bhutto in fighting dictatorship; another case is the recent one when members of the Jamaat joined Imran Khan's Movement for Justice (PTI), (Daniel Jacobius Morgan, 2013). Therefore political parties who advocates for democracy should be given much support by the Muslim and Western democrats in their quest to fight for this democracy in Pakistan…… [Read More]
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…… [Read More]
POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation
The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…… [Read More]
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…… [Read More]
Malala Yousafzai -- A Girl with a Message
Description of Issues and Problems
The psychosocial review of Malala Yousafzai, a girl who was shot in the face while trying to promote education in a region of the world where girls and women were not permitted to do many of the things that boys and men can do, is a fascinating story of resistance to cruelty and resilience in the face of violence. This is Malala's review, but the story should begin not with her life, but with the political and social structure into which she was born -- in the SAT region of Pakistan (in the town of SAT). The Taliban, a fundamentalist Sunni version of Islam, was in control of the SAT region of Pakistan. Their goal was to create a "puritanical caliphate that neither recognizes nor tolerates forms of Islam divergent from their own" (Tristam, 2011).…… [Read More]
hile some of the products of this time orientation, like their emphasis on traditional forms of hospitality and the slow pace of the culture in respect to the dynamic rhythms of nature, are valuable and perhaps superior to our own cold, rushed, and removed values, other aspects of the Balti's past-oriented culture are not. There is great religious intolerance by some members of the society, such as the Taliban and a constant hashing-over of tribal and religious grievances produced very negative results. At one point, Mortenson was kidnapped, beaten and threatened by Islamic extremists for his efforts, simply because he was an outsider and American. Mortenson's founding of schools enabled him to share the future-orientation of American culture in a positive way, just as the Balti's hospitality brought positive aspects of their culture into his life.
These forms of fruitful cultural dialogue show the benefits of cultural interaction, and show…… [Read More]
International relations studies is the specialization that focuses on the study of foreign affairs and the global events significantly influence the trend of the states that are within the international system. These systems are categorized as governments, countries, organizations and even people who are the main agents of relations and interchange between people within varying geographical locations (WITS University, 2014). There are pertinent issues that are involved in the study of international relations such as war, disease, democracy, poverty, diplomacy, globalization, economics and trade. The significance of continued study of international relations are numerous and important to any organization and governments. From the study of international reactions between two entities in the past, it is possible to predict the future and the significance and possible repercussions of some international decisions that a government or a president or even the organizations may take. International studies a reason geared towards having a…… [Read More]
But by doing so, Zia and ilson gained the most powerful ally one could want when it came to appropriations. ith Doc Long's support, ilson was able to obtain $40 million from the Defense Appropriations subcommittee; a group of eleven elected officials who meet behind closed doors and decide how to spend billions of dollars. And since the recommendations from the committee have to be voted on by the full House without the specifics of where the money is being sent, Charlie ilson was able to appropriate the money without any public knowledge. This was important because the participation of the United States in the arming of Afghan mujahideen had to be kept a secret or else it risked direct war with the Soviet Union.
Part of Charlie ilson's ability to convince the other members of the U.S. House of Representatives to vote for his appropriations was the fact that…… [Read More]
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…… [Read More]
How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?
In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.
The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…… [Read More]
Pathologists are often called 'the doctor's doctor ' -- when other doctors are experiencing an impasse, they go to a pathologist for advice, to provide clarity. As someone who has always enjoyed working as a teacher and preparing teaching materials, I look forward to this role in relation to my fellow physicians.
pon arriving in the nited States to practice medicine, I gained experience in the field of pathology-related research, collecting data about survival rates of patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. I came to learn how pathology touches all fields of medicine. Even in my work with patients suffering substance abuse and psychiatric problems, I saw how the progression of the addiction created a pathology in terms of the way that the body responded to the patient's negative behaviors. I hope that this residency program will expose me to the laboratory and clinical aspects of the field,…… [Read More]
For us, on the contrary, the Lager is not a punishment; for us, no end is foreseen and the Lager is nothing but a manner of living assigned to us, without limits of time, in the bosom of the Germanic social organism. (82-83)
The personal choice to leave or to stay, despite desperation was given to civilian workers and completely absent for the Jews, due to no act of their own. The only power they had was to live within the confines of Primo's early assertion in the work; "that man is bound to pursue his own ends by all possible means, while he who errs but once pays dearly." (13) ithin each novel there is a clear sense that choice is derived only from the immediate circumstances, which are entirely outside of one's control and yet almost completely determine even their very survival.
Levi, Primo, Survival in…… [Read More]
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…… [Read More]
iddiqui (p.264) defines an 'honor crime' as consisting of:
a range of violent or abusive acts committed in the name of honor, including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and other controlling and coercive behaviors such as forced marriage and female genital mutilation which can end, in some extreme cases, in suicide or murder. (13)
These felonies, it is true, can happened, and do happen, in any civilized country but they are legalized, accepted (sometimes even condoned) and happen to an unimaginable extent in societies that are marked by their Islamic way of living.
The outhall Black isters, for instance, have consistently argued that men from minority cultures have often used religion and culture to justify the range of violence and humiliation that they impose upon women. We do find many cultures that have extreme views perpetuating misogyny. This includes cultures such as Mormonism, fundamentalists Judaism, fundamentalist Christianity, and…… [Read More]
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…… [Read More]
Peace Treat between India and Pakistan:
The primary objective of the peace process is 1) to expand and intensify people to people contact, 2) broaden and consolidate the peace process by encouraging new associations as well as those groups who have been operating for enduring peace in South Asia for the preceding 58 years, and 3) give enhanced ethical, academic, community and cultural resources to assist in maintaining long-lasting peace.
The peace treaty should read:
Both governments should welcome and support the peace process by engaging in a composite dialogue between directed towards creating righteous and long-lasting peace in South Asia.
The ultimate settlement on issues, of Kashmir, international terrorism and nuclear weapons, between, both, India and Pakistan, ought to be founded on the Doctrine of Peaceful Co-Existence, that is, autonomous parity, non-violence, non-intrusion, mutual and shared advantage, and nonviolent co-existence
Both governments should agree that the ultimate settlement ought…… [Read More]
I like facing new challenges and being involved with decision-making situations.
More important, I wished to become involved in a field of healthcare that could help people in a natural way. Too often, traditional medical doctors quickly give their patients medicine prescriptions to cure their problems. Many do not look at the larger overall picture, only one piece of the puzzle. Helping a patient in a holistic manner is essential to their continued well-being. I want to do much more than put a bandage, or a short-term treatment. ather, I want to find the actual cause of the problem and cure it. If that is not possible, then at least provide the right treatment that can greatly reduce any pain.
My grandfather in Pakistan passed away in 2005 because of knee and back problems, since the Pakistani doctors do not have the Chiropractic tools and experience needed to help people…… [Read More]
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…… [Read More]
Spike Lee demonstrates his filmmaking prowess in his 1989 film Do the Right Thing. As with most of Lee's work, race relations are central to the story. With Do the Right Thing, Lee presents a bleak view of the nature and future of cross-cultural relationships in urban America. Mookie (played by Spike Lee) is a twenty-something African-American pizza delivery man. He works for Sal's Pizzeria, an establishment in the Bedford-Stuyvesant area of Brooklyn, which is a predominantly black neighborhood. Mookie and Sal, despite their differences, reveal a remarkably similar worldview as the film progresses, and especially in their inability to resolve the racial tension that emerges in the film. Mookie and Sal develop a decent professional relationship, yet both retain lingering feelings of resentment toward the "other." Spike Lee does a remarkable job portraying mutual feelings of "otherness" in Do the Right Thing. The writer/director/actor shows that racism exists on…… [Read More]
Typically, Japanese marry before a Shinto altar and are buried, after cremation, in a Buddhist funeral. Many people, young and old, pay a New Years visit to a Shinto shrine and visit family graves once or twice a year. Young couples take their children to a Shinto shrine at the shichi-go-san festival to celebrate the ages 3, 5, and 7. For funeral and periodic memorial services, a family invites a priest from a Buddhist temple that belongs to the same Buddhist sect with which the family ancestors were affiliated.
The Japanese, both officially and unofficially resisted the influence of the western religions, while at the same time conglomerating the traditional faiths of the region into an amalgamated faith of sorts.
In the past, every family in Japan had to be registered at a Buddhist temple to comply with the antiChristian policy of the Tokugawa government (1600-1868). After the…… [Read More]
Jamil, who had supported me financially and emotionally during these tough times, persuaded me to continue my studies when I felt ready.
For nearly a decade I struggled to redefine myself in a completely foreign culture. It has been difficult but after we had our first son a year ago, my perspective shifted and life situation has become more stable. Now that I have also become more proficient in English and rooted in my community, I am well-prepared to meet the challenges of university-level courses here in the United States. I am therefore applying for admission to the Doctor of Pharmacy program, to complete the education I started years ago in my home country.
My academic background will illustrate that I am nothing but focused and dedicated and that I will make an ideal candidate for the program. Because I have already taken many of the prerequisite courses here and…… [Read More]
As scientist come up with new technology for the welfare of mankind in this world they end up producing luxuries. The attitude of the people towards the environment is changing due to the fact that they need more and more luxuries and this makes them destroy the environment, and this make environment to be polluted in different forms.
In the act of mankind living luxuriously, they sometime use instruments such as air conditioners, fridges and others that do release C.F.Cs in the environment leading to deplete of the ozone layer, Paul Kennard (2006). According to researches the depletion of ozone layer during 19th century when there was no much use of such things, is compared with for 20th century, it has been found that there is 50% increase of the depletion. Deforestation uncontrollable for the purpose of building with the aim of accommodation tends to raise the content of…… [Read More]
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…… [Read More]
The social impact of the Islamic revival, however, produced a third alternative that is both modern and firmly rooted in Islamic faith, identity, and values. Muslim women, both modernists and Islamists, have argued on Islamic grounds for an expanded role in the society (Iqbal)."
In a political sense, "most of the regimes in the Islamic world are authoritarian, undemocratic and lack legitimacy. These governments must divert public attention from the human development gap to other more unworldly matters. This is especially the case in the Arab/Muslim Middle East (Alvi-Aziz)."
hen referring to the religious aspects of its citizens, the "establishment clearly prefers to keep the masses obedient and faithful. This allows the male-dominated religious institutions to maintain the status quo and their authority (Alvi-Aziz)."
Buddhism receives much of its funding from followers who are extremely "wealthy and influential. In some cases, this has led critics to charge that certain monks…… [Read More]
Wearing Guru Jacket
Sikhism is a religion that was formed by Guru Nanak who was born in 1469 in a village in Pakistan. The teaching of this founder Guru and the successive ten Gurus are the basis for the faith in this religion. The tenth Guru is actually a holy (sacred) book called the Guru Granth Sahib. A unique feature of Sikhism is the fact that they do not have a definitive God but they believe their God to be shapeless, timeless and sightless, which means there a possibility they would interpret even the universe to be God. Sometimes this religion is misunderstood to the extent of being taken as branch of other religions that are well established because they have been around for a longer time. However, looking deeply into its doctrines the differences and similarities that can be seen in all the other religions are evident.
Discussion 1:…… [Read More]
Reflection activity: Ashoka
hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?
Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.
Discussion activity: Stupas
To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)
The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…… [Read More]
Groundwork and Initial Steps
For this research and analytical paper, we have chosen to work as the members of a small NGO and conduct a research as an executive director of a small non-governmental organization that would utilize its funding of one million dollar donation by establishing its branch in Pakistan, a third world country in order to improve and strengthen the country's educational arena. In this phase, we first had to decide a third world country that actually deserved a good financial aid in the form of a million dollar donation to improve its educational facilities. I came up with Pakistan, because this is one country that unfortunately has one of the most appalling literacy rates and percentages. So, in order to solve the problem at hand that is to answer the question as to where invest the donation, I chose Pakistan. Since, we have twenty years…… [Read More]
" (IST, 1)
Nonetheless, India holds that Pakistan has both a significant motive to see attacks on Indian soil carried out without proper retribution and that its commitment to eroding the forces of terrorism generated by its own people may be regarded as nominal at best. Quite indeed, the political pressure imposed by the United States may be matched or even overshadowed by the political pressures instigated by its own populace. One may deduce in fact that there are substantial sectors of the population which if not supportive of extremism or participating and funding in any such activities, may nonetheless find some sympathy for the idea that political and economic causes are the primary impetuses for acts of 'terrorism.'
Nonetheless, Pakistan's opportunity for growth and improvement does hinge on these efforts, at least according to the United States. Even under new leadership, the U.S. has continued to make its Pakistan…… [Read More]
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…… [Read More]
A Foreign Intelligence Entity (FIE) can be delineated as any identified or suspected foreign organization, individual, or group, whether private, public, or governmental, that undertakes intelligence activities to obtain United States information, block or damage U.S. intelligence gathering, impact U.S. policy, or mess up U.S. systems and programs. In particular, this term takes into account an international terrorist organization and also a foreign intelligence and security service.[footnoteef:1] The FIE considered in this essay is Pakistani's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the nation's biggest of its five intelligence services. Pakistan is deemed to be one of the fast-paced and rapidly developing nations in the [1: Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE, 2017.]
South Asian expanse. Owing to the country's strategic positioning in the core of all the nuclear adversaries, it had grown and develop to become of the best intelligence services…… [Read More]
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…… [Read More]
TV news channels and online media for breaking the latest and hottest news first and taking the credit of being more alert and efficient. This paper compares the news delivered by different news channel websites regarding an important incident of this year "Killing of Osama Bin Laden" which took place on 1st May 2011 in Pakistan. Following paragraphs will compare how different news channel websites portrayed this story:
CNN declared Osama's killing news by calling Osama the "most prominent face of terror in America" was killed as said by the U.S. officials and they confirm to have his dead body.
The later part of the new article explains bin Laden's story; from his birth in Saudi Arabia to his leading of Al-Qaeda, which is a terrorist network behind the September 11, 2001 attacks. The news also states the destruction that was caused by the four hijacked planes and…… [Read More]