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Pearl Harbor & 911
Similarities and Differences: Pearl Harbor and 9/11
Sixty years separate two of the most infamous events in American history. Both the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor were defining moments that altered the course of history. Both caught the country by surprise, rallied its people against their attackers and engendered a long and difficult war against tyranny.
The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 resulted in more than 2,400 American deaths. Within hours after the incident five of the eight battleships at the U.S. naval base were either sunk or sinking, and many other ships as well as combat planes were heavily damaged or destroyed. The Japanese hoped that by crippling the U.S. Pacific Fleet they could eliminate it as a threat to the Empire's desire to expand south. The attacks of September 11, 2001 were more symbolic…
Collins, M. (2011, Septmber 9). 9/11 and Pearl Harbor are simular but the impacts are different. Vctar.com. Ventura County Star. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.vcstar.com/news/2011/sep/09/911-and-pearl-harbor-are-similar-but-impacts-are/
McAvoy, A. (2011, Septmber 6). Comparing 9/11 to Pearl Harbor. kyPost.com. Associated Press. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.kypost.com/dpps/news/national/comparing-9_11-to-pearl-harbor_6707923
Miles, D. (2006, December 7). Pearl Harbor parallells 9-11. Military.com. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://www.military.com/NewsContent/0,13319,120133,00.html
Smith, P. (2011, December 3). Comparing Pearl Harbor to 9-11 on three levels of warfare. The Augusta chronicle. Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://chronicle.augusta.com/opinion/opinion-columns/2011-12-03/comparing-pearl-harbor-9-11-three-levels-warfare
Though Kimmel himself states that there had been submarine activity around the Islands, there were no actions taken against them as he was waiting for approval from Department of Navy, in the ten days preceding the attack to act decisively. "For some time there had been reports of submarines in the operating areas around Hawaii.... The files of the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, contain records of at least three suspicious contacts during the 5 weeks preceding Pearl Harbor." () Yet, actions were not taken by Kimmel and Short to act on a suspicion of overt operations, by Japan in their immediate vicinity. Kimmel and Short waited to take action, to a point where the attack came as a complete shock, to the men at work that morning in the harbor.
On November 3, 1941, a patrol plane observed an oil slick area in latitude 20-10, longtiude 157-41. The patrol…
Ben-Zvi, Abraham. Prelude to Pearl Harbor: A Study of American Images
Toward Japan, 1940-41. New York: Vintage Press, 1979.
Brcak, Nancy, and John R. Pavia. "Racism in Japanese and U.S. Wartime Propaganda." The Historian 56.4 (1994): 671.
Conroy, Hilary, and Harry Wray, eds. Pearl Harbor Reexamined: Prologue to the Pacific War. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
S. was that non-interference of the U.S. In the war, leaving it to the Europeans was the best thing to do. Thus there was no urgency felt in creating armaments. Thus in 1940 the armed strength was "only 150,000 men" (Gailey, 1995) and the generals believed that any future war could be fought and won with artillery and infantry and providing air support and they argued that "tanks and airplanes were fads." (Gailey, 1995)
Thus airpower was given the go by and this development made America really weak. America entirely ignored the power of air attacks. This was the cause of the debacle at Pearl Harbor. It can be easily seen from the pages of history that Germany took advantage of air power with the blitzkrieg concept and Japan used it with telling effect at Pearl Harbor.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was the result of the changing times.…
Beasley, W.G. (1963) "The Modern History of Japan"
Frederick A. Praeger: New York.
Gailey, Harry A. (1995) "The War in the Pacific: From Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay."
Presidio Press: Novato, CA.
CUAN MISSILE CRISIS
The Cuban Missile Crisis (CMC) presented a different type of military intelligence than Pearl Harbor did. In the case of CMC, military intelligence provided tremendous amounts of valuable and incontrovertible evidence. However, that information has to be viewed in the larger context of the times to understand why the United States government viewed the situation as seriously as they did.
The United States had been actively but covertly working to prevent the spread of Communism to the Western Hemisphere. Many in America believed that the U.S.S.R. intended to spread Communism to every corner of the world, while the United States was determined to bring democracy to every country possible. This ideological face-off was known as the "Cold War." oth the United States and the U.S.S.R. feared that this ideological conflict might escalate to nuclear war.
The United States had clung steadfastly to the Monroe Doctrine, established in…
Kennedy, Robert. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. 1969 W.W. Norton & Company, New York.
Morgenstern, George. Pearl Harbor: The Story of the Secret War. Devin-Adair, 1947.
Spencer, Warren. 1991. "Why America slept. National Review; December 16.
Wright, Mike. What They Didn't Teach You About the Sixties. 2001: Presidio Press, Novato, CA.
Pearl Harbor as an Intelligence Failure
Several writers and intellectuals express that the shock the Japanese got in their attack on Pearl Harbor was a result from a failure of the United States intelligence community that were unsuccessful to give sufficient, correct information to government as well as to the military decision-makers. As presumed by these historians the intelligence community contained very important information that was misconstrue or in other words was not properly and correctly circulated earlier to the attack.
Furthermore, few of the revisionist historians pledge to conspiracy theories and had the judgment that main members of the United States government deliberately suspended this crucial information from the military command in order to bring the United States into orld ar II against the Alliance powers. Thus, both groups referred to accessible studies and since 1978 classified information formerly released has now been as the evidence for their statement…
Ameriger, Charles D.U.S. Foreign Intelligence (Lexington, M.A: D.C.) Health & Company. 1990.
Betrayal at Pearl Harbor: A Television Documentary aired on the History Channel (USA), December 7th, 1998.
Gordon Prange, Donald M. Goldstein, Katherine V. Dillon. Warning and Decision. Stanford,
Pearl Harbor attack had a number of significant implications for the course of the Second World War. The attack was initiated by the Japanese, who had imperial ambitions for the entire Pacific. The U.S. had enacted an embargo on Japanese goods in response to Japanese aggression in Indochina and by 1941 it was evident that Japan was anticipating the possibility of war with either Britain or the U.S. The U.S. was still a non-participant in World War Two at the time. Japan saw war as a likely event because the embargo cut off oil supplies, forcing Japan to take Indochina. Their war plan left little doubt that the Allies would become engaged, if not the U.S. However, Japan rightly felt that the U.S. was its biggest threat in the region. For its part, the U.S. had moved the headquarters of its naval fleet from San Diego to Oahu, a reflection…
Goldfield, David; Abbott, Carl; Anderson, Virginia; Argersinger, Jo; Argersinger, Peter & Barney, William. The American Journey: A History of the United States. Pearson: online.
NPS.gov. Setting the stage., 2015. Web. 8 April 2015.
PearlHarbor.org. What happened?, 2015. Web. 8 April 2015.
Roosevelt, Franklin. Pearl Harbor Address. YouTube. Web. 8 April 2015.
attacks on Pearl Harbor and the World Trade Center had similar historical events surrounding each attack. Franklin Delano Roosevelt and George W. ush used similar policies to combat further attacks and unite the nation
The paper highlights the entwined American reactions to the September 11 attacks and the Pearl Harbor attacks. The paper illustrates the similarities in which the over-prevailing backgrounds of each event created reactions to the devastating measures that promptly gave escalation to the Wars that have been fought. The paper also looks at the integration of the memory of Pearl Harbor in American reactions to September 11 attacks. Subsequently, the paper reflects on the similarities in repercussions of the attacks on the Pearl Harbor, as well as, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11.
It is quite apparent that the global society in which we live has become so much inter-connected that almost all events…
1) Achcar, Gilbert. The Clash of Barbarisms: September 11 and the Making of the New World Disorder. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2002.
2) Bradley, James, and Ron Powers. Flags of our fathers. New York: Bantam Books. 2000.
3)Boulden, Jane, and Thomas George Weiss. Terrorism and the UN: Before and After September 11. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004
4)Crotty, William J. The Politics of Terror: The U.S. Response to 9/11. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004.
Yamamoto noted that "the war would continue for several years, our supplies would be exhausted, our ships and arms would be damaged and ultimately we would not be able to escape defeat." (Akira, 1990, pp.133-134).
Masaru (1990) added that another difficulty between the two nations was America's attitude during the U.S.-Japanese negotiations on the eve of the outbreak of war. In particular, Masaru points to the hard line position of Secretary of State Cordell Hull. Hull turned down Japan's proposal for summit meeting between Prime Minister Konoe and President oosevelt. Then Hull presented the Hull note which included a demand for immediate and unconditional withdrawal of all Japanese troops from China. This demand was met with considerable opposition by Japan. Masaru stressed the worsening communication between Washington and Tokyo. Masaru reiterated that although Ambassador Joseph Grew had a good grasp of the situation in Japan, his views were not seriously…
Masaru, I. (1990) "Mismanagement in the U.S. Policy towards Japan" in Pearl Harbor Re-examined: Prologue to the Pacific War edited by Hilary Conroy and Harry Wray. Honolulu: University of the Hawaii Press.
Gaynor, E. And Esler, a. (2003) World History: Connections to the World. Upper Saddle River New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Stearns, P., Schwartz, D. And Beyer, B. (1991) World History: Traditions and New Directions. New York: Addison and Wesley Publishing Company.
Akira, F. (1990) "Road to Pearl Harbor" in Pearl Harbor Re-examined: Prologue to the Pacific War edited by Hilary Conroy and Harry Wray. Honolulu: University of the Hawaii Press.
But the U.S. demanded that it withdraw from both China and Manchuria in exchange for a reestablishment of trade for oil.
Japan's other major source of oil had been the Netherlands, but the Dutch followed the American's oil embargo in August of 1941. The Japanese resolved to take control of Dutch East India's oil fields. If it did so, it knew war with America was inevitable. "The oil stock Japan had was only for a year and half, and time was running out…if the war was unavoidable and they chose to fight, the longer they would wait the lesser the chance for victory would be because of the limited oil stock, which would be spent even during the peacetime" (Arima 2003). To speed up the course of the war, and to buy time for its oil supply, on December 7th in 1941, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Pearl…
Arima, Yuichi. "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies. Number 118,
December 2003. April 14, 2010.
"Pearl Harbor Raid, 7 December 1941." Naval History. April 14, 2010.
It was an unfortunate and tragic event in the history of the United States, regardless of the reasons that it took place.
The book itself was very interesting, but Layton makes both commanders that he served under - Kimmel and Short - out to be scapegoats that had absolutely no idea of what was happening. While they were denied the benefits of some important pieces of intelligence information, it does seem plausible that they could have figured some of this out on their own. The book makes strong counter-arguments to other works on Pearl Harbor, however, and there are many areas of the book that are particularly well done, such as the description and story of the activities that were used for code-breaking, and the information regarding the Battle of Midway. ll in all, Layton's book is a fascinating look into Pearl Harbor, war, and the sacrifices that so many…
And I Was There by Edwin T. Layton
The author of this book, Edwin T. Layton, was a Fleet Intelligence Officer. Along with others, he was tasked with breaking into the secret codes used by Japan. Finally, they were able to get through and have an idea of what the Japanese Navy was generally planning to do. However, Pearl Harbor had no decoding machine of the type that was needed and therefore intercepted information had to be sent elsewhere, decoded, and sent back. The main thesis in Layton's book is that Pearl Harbor was denied important intelligence. If it had been received in a timely manner, the attack that took place on December 7, 1941 could have been avoided. Whether or not this is completely accurate, however, remains a topic of debate. There were other alleged errors made at Pearl Harbor as well, and because of those errors it is very difficult to say with certainty whether Layton is 100% correct or whether the lack of intelligence information only contributed to what happened at Pearl Harbor on that fateful day. It was an unfortunate and tragic event in the history of the United States, regardless of the reasons that it took place.
The book itself was very interesting, but Layton makes both commanders that he served under - Kimmel and Short - out to be scapegoats that had absolutely no idea of what was happening. While they were denied the benefits of some important pieces of intelligence information, it does seem plausible that they could have figured some of this out on their own. The book makes strong counter-arguments to other works on Pearl Harbor, however, and there are many areas of the book that are particularly well done, such as the description and story of the activities that were used for code-breaking, and the information regarding the Battle of Midway. All in all, Layton's book is a fascinating look into Pearl Harbor, war, and the sacrifices that so many people make for their countries.
owever, this is not to discount the fact that there were many human and bureaucratic errors that resulted in the American lack of preparedness, many of which seem quite surprising in light of the fact that the Americans were able to decipher Japanese codes and the Japanese engaged in such militant anti-American rhetoric and military shows of force (170). According to Wohlstetter, because the signals came from such diverse sources and because of the structural lack of communication between different government channels, it was often difficult to make coherent sense of the data that was being received. It was difficult to see the patterns in the intelligence that were emerging regarding the Japanese military movements, and thus the failure to do so was partially the result of human error, partly because of the poor intelligence gathering of the military, and partly because of the accepted fact that hostile enemy movements…
How could American intelligence failed so consistently? This was a common question in the American news media after 9/11. The answers of Roberta Wohlstetter's 1962 book Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision may provide some insight for modern readers, in answer to this question. Of course, Wohlstetter's analysis is applicable to a much older historical problem, namely how could America have failed to anticipate the threat of the Japanese bombings on Pearl Harbor. But her approach and answers provides an important warning to conspiracy theorists and intelligence apologists alike.
According to Wohlstetter, the intelligence clues that an attack on Pearl Harbor would take place only seem certain with the foresight of history. Many of the clues were "not merely ambiguous but occasionally inconsistent with such an attack" and only later did the mounting "dangerous" hints seem add up to the incontrovertible fact that there would be a surprise air attack on the naval base (388). Wohlstetter writes in response to those who state that the attack was obvious and a foregone conclusion, or worse that Franklin Delano Roosevelt knew about the planned bombing, but decided to ignore this to motivate Congress to allow him to declare war against Japan and Germany.
However, this is not to discount the fact that there were many human and bureaucratic errors that resulted in the American lack of preparedness, many of which seem quite surprising in light of the fact that the Americans were able to decipher Japanese codes and the Japanese engaged in such militant anti-American rhetoric and military shows of force (170). According to Wohlstetter, because the signals came from such diverse sources and because of the structural lack of communication between different government channels, it was often difficult to make coherent sense of the data that was being received. It was difficult to see the patterns in the intelligence that were emerging regarding the Japanese military movements, and thus the failure to do so was partially the result of human error, partly because of the poor intelligence gathering of the military, and partly because of the accepted fact that hostile enemy movements were often prone to reversal and designed to provoke panic, rather than true harbingers of future attacks.
A Day That Will Live in Infamy: The Attack on Pearl Harbor
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt famously called the attack on Pearl Harbor a day that would live in infamy. The Japanese bombing of the American naval base of Pearl Harbor was the event that ultimately precipitated US entry into World War II. Of course, for many years, the US had shown sympathy to the Allied powers. But the bombing of Pearl Harbor ultimately drove America to choose sides and formally end its neutrality. Supporting the Allied powers was not as popular a stance as might have been believed with hindsight, and isolationist sentiment was still a factor Roosevelt had to overcome.
The Where of Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise attack, and an attack on a nation which was still officially neutral despite growing Japanese resentment of perceived and real American bias against the Axis…
Chang, I. (2012). The rape of Nanking. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Prange, G. (1982). At dawn we slept: The untold story of Pearl Harbor. New York, NY: Penguin.
“President Roosevelt’s ‘Day of Infamy’ speech.” (1941). US Capital. Retrieved from: https://www.visitthecapitol.gov/exhibitions/artifact/president-roosevelts-day-infamy- speech-december-8-1941
Pruitt, P. (2018). Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor? History.com. Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/news/why-did-japan-attack-pearl-harbor
Robinson, B. (2011). Pearl Harbor: A rude awakening. BBC. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/pearl_harbour_01.shtml
The significance of Pearl Harbour to America and the Second World War. (2009). The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/sep/07/pearl- harbour-america-at-war
What was the significance of Pearl Harbor? (2019). Churchill for Schools. Retrieved from: http://www.churchillarchiveforschools.com/themes/the-themes/key-events-and- developments-in-world-history/what-was-the-significance-of-pearl-harbor/background- information
Nursing during World War II
Pearl Harbor, and the United States' subsequent involvement in World War II, had a lasting impact on the country, much as the events of September 11, 2001, had, and will continue to have, a lasting impact on this nation. In particular, this paper will focus on the impact that Pearl Harbor and World War II had on the nursing profession.
The events of Pearl Harbor and other events during the course of World War II played a large role in helping to change the country's perception of nurses. These dedicated women were now taken more seriously and, as a result, the environment in which nurses learned and worked changed. At the time Pearl Harbor was attacked, the United States was facing a serious shortage of nurses. President Franklin oosevelt issued a call for more nurses, and the military, in an effort to help fulfill the…
Condon-Roll, M.E. And Cowdrey, A.E. (1998), The Medical Department: Medical
Service in the War against Japan. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History United States Army.
Cosmas, G.A. And Cowdrey, A.E. (1992). The Medical Department: Medical Service in the European Theater of Operations. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Feller, C.M. And Moore, C.J., Eds. (1996. Highlights in the History of the Army Nurse
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor
hat events led to the attack on Pearl Harbor? hy was Japan willing to engage in a bold, highly secretive raid on the main American Navy base in the Pacific? How was Japan able to pull off this dramatic, deadly strike on a cloudless Sunday morning in Hawaii? hat did the United States do in retaliation? And how did the Pacific Theatre of orld ar II impact the United States and its people? These questions will be reviewed and answers provided for them in this paper.
hat were the reasons behind the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
hy did Japan attack the United States, a nation far more powerful, with vast resources available to build the weaponry that could defeat a much smaller nation like Japan? There are many reasons for the hostility that grew between the two nations, but it is widely recognized that…
Dowswell, Paul. 2003. Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941. Mankato, MN: Heinemann-Raintree
EyeWitnesstoHistory.com. (1957). "Attack At Pearl Harbor, 1941 / The Japanese View."
Retrieved August 26, 2011, from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/pfperarl2.htm.
U.S. Entering WWII: Pearl Harbor
The job of any newspaper is to make sure that truth as they get to know about it reaches all individuals in the form of their subscribers at the earliest possible time. It does not matter whether the newspaper is big or small; the task is to make sure that the news reaches at the earliest.
The definition of truth for a newspaper is very difficult to agree on and this is what gives newspapers the opportunity to keep writing on a matter where they feel readers still have interest, even though it may not have any news value.
Let us first remember that the incident we are referring to happened more than 63 years ago. At that time the relative position among different media for newspapers was much stronger. There was no Internet or satellite TV for news to spread at the speed that…
Biesecker, Michael. Haunted Heroes. Retrieved from http://extras.journalnow.com/pearlharbor/
Accessed 11 August, 2005
Front page. Winston Stalen Journal. Retrieved from http://extras.journalnow.com/pearlharbor/frontpage.html Accessed 11 August, 2005
O'Neill, Brendan. Why are we surprised by war lies? 18 September 2003. Retrieved from http://www.spiked-online.com/Printable/00000006DF23.htm Accessed 11 August, 2005
THE WHITE HOUSE
T O P S E C R E T – E Y E S O N L Y
Date: December 7, 1941
To Members of the Cabinet and Secretaries of the Army and Navy
From: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Commander-in-Chief
Subject: Japanese Empire Attack on Pearl Harbor
As you are keenly aware, the Empire of Japan attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii Territory earlier this morning, killing and injuring thousands of American soldiers and sailors as well as numerous civilians; however, the casualties continue to be counted at this point but I will keep you apprised of any new developments. In sum, much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet has been devastated, with many ships sank outright or seriously damaged. The attack did spare our now-priceless aircraft carriers which happened to be at sea when the attack occurred. The sneak attack…
Hopkins, J. (2014, Fall). The Hopkins touch: Harry Hopkins and the forging of the Alliance to defeat Hitler. The Historian, 76(3), 603-605.
Kaplan, M. A. (2000, October). Why Roosevelt wanted Japan to attack Pearl Harbor. The World and I, 15(10, 288.
McInerney, T. J. (2012, Winter). FDR goes to war: How expanded executive power, spiraling national debt, and restricted civil liberties shaped wartime America. The Historian, 74(4), 831-835.
Okerstrom, D. R. (2017, Summer). Target Tokyo: Jimmy Doolittle and the raid that avenged Pearl Harbor. The Historian, 79(2), 353-355.
Rearden, S. L. (2012). Council of war: A history of the joint chiefs of staff. Washington, DC: Office of the Director, Joints Chiefs of Staff.
ashington knew there was tension but there was no way of knowing just how far this country would go. Bailey states that no one in ashington believed the "Japanese were either strong enough or foolhardy enough to strike Hawaii" (843). In fact, just days before the attack, it was reported that war would be "sad for Japan to contemplate" (Army History) because she is the "most vulnerable nation in the world to attack and blockade" (Army History). However, it was a planned attack because Japan was "deliberately prolonging negotiations in ashington" (843). Another reason the attack was successful was the route the fighter pilots flew was rarely used and practically unnoticed. The attack also took place on a Sunday morning, with many crewmembers ashore. It is also worth noting that the weather was such that the fleet was simply not visible until it was just a few hundred miles from…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations: Combined Edition. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall. 20002.
The Pearl Harbor Attack. Center of Military History. Information Retrieved 12 April 2010.
Short to military dances. The book is riddled with anecdotes such as these that indicate the military was ill prepared for a surprise attack, and in fact were arrogant in their ignorance.
In fact, Clausen's investigation showed the American military knew Japanese codes but ignored them in seeking intelligence; the agencies were unprepared for war or a surprise attack. As the author notes, "Although vested with high commands and responsibilities, they were surprised by the attack. They were unprepared for war. Thus, they were really guilty of criminal neglect of duty" (Clausen & Lee, 1992, p. 228). There was little joint action between the services during and after the attack, and that had a midnight message been decoded, it might have prevented the attack. In short, Pearl Harbor was a series of bungles that resulted in the most horrific naval losses the U.S. has ever endured.
Clausen, H.C. And…
Clausen, H.C. And Lee, B. (1992). Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
In addition, Lord does not attempt to sway people's emotions or feelings about the event; he simply reports what happened in chronological order. Another reviewer notes, "Ignoring all of the controversies and avoiding any finger pointing, Lord simply reconstructs, as best anyone can, what happened on that fateful day" (Judd). The book is an unemotional account that becomes emotional and memorable in the reader's eyes, because it is so eloquent in its simplicity and meaning. It is also deeply personal, because of all the personal account, making it abundantly clear this happened to real people who experienced pain, suffering, and emotional damage because of this horrific and unexpected attack. This book is very readable because of the way the author has structured the book, and because it is so personal. It seems to be suitable to a variety of audiences, partly because of its readability, and partly because it is…
Editors. "Day of Infamy." Think to Learn.org. 2001 27 Feb. 2008. http://www.2think.org/infamy.shtml
Greene, Jack. The Midway Campaign, December 7, 1941-June 6, 1942. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1995.
Judd, Orrin. "Day of Infamy." BrothersJudd.com. 2001. 27 Feb. 2008. http://brothersjudd.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/reviews.detail/book_id/827
Lord, Walter. Day of Infamy: 60th Anniversary: The Classic Account of the Bombing of Pearl Harbor. New York: Henry Holt Company, 2001.
Undeclared War in the Atlantic
America's move to escort convoys into the Atlantic meant America was ready to enter undeclared naval war with Germany during World War II, and yet these very actions have been subject of many criticisms. That is, many claimed it happened because during the time of this war, the oosevelt administration did not establish clear defense tactics that would have defended the U.S. during war. The United States may have been a sitting duck until a time when it was attacked. Some claim the U.S. security was deeply influenced by what was going on elsewhere in the world. For example, if Britain were to crumble under the weight of war, then the Axis powers would essential control the resources of the entire Old World. The New World would then be living in war. This paper discusses more about the United States' undeclared war against…
Bailey, Thomas A. & Ryan, Paul B. 1979. Hitler vs. Roosevelt: The Undeclared Naval War.
New York: Penguin.
Kershaw, Ian. 2007. Fateful choices: Ten decisions that changed the world. 1940-41. New York:
Penguin, p. 624.
Julie Otsuka's novel hen the Emperor was Divine explores the realities of life in the Japanese internment camps in the American southwest during orld ar Two. The novel's historical accuracy can be proven by comparing the details in the lives of those who actually did live in the internment camps, as well as with the actual executive orders and decrees used to institutionalize racism in America. The state-sanctioned racism against Asian-Americans during the internment camp phase was of course not an isolated incident, as it paralleled other types of institutionalized racism including the treatment of African-Americans and Native Americans. Moreover, the internment camps represented a culmination of anti-Asian measures. There was historical precedent for the internment camps as a specific manifestation of anti-Asian fears.
One of the earliest legalized forms of racism against Asians was the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was a…
Heller, Steven. "The Artistic History of American Anti-Asian Racism." The Atlantic, 20 Feb, 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2014/02/the-artistic-history-of-american-anti-asian-racism/283962/
History Matters. "Executive Order 9066: The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Accessed 8 Dec, 2014, http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154
OCA National Office. "The Chinese Exclusion Acts: A Racist Chapter in U.S. Civil Rights History." Accessed 8 Dec, 2014, http://ocaseattle.org/2012/05/21/the-chinese-exclusion-acts-a-racist-chapter-in-u-s-civil-rights-history/
Otsuka, Julie. When the Emperor Was Divine. New York: Random House, 2002.
Japanese-Americans in the West Coast lived peacefully before President Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 that condemned them to misery in internment camps in the deserts of California. Those who owned property had to sell them. Some had to give up their belongings. The Japanese-Americans could not wage any form of resistance because this would be suppressed by brute military force. Nobody would be foolhardy enough to contemplate that. The 20-year-olds were adversely affected despite the fact that some of them were later allowed to go to college, work in factories, and serve in the United States military. Life in the camps was heart-wrenching.
The young Japanese-Americans conscripted into the military had divided loyalty especially after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour. America was their country of birth and Japan was the country of their parents and ancestors. The anti-Japanese sentiments that were aired after the Pearl Harbour…
African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II
African-Americans and Non- Combat Jobs
First General: enjamin O. Davis, Sr.
Doris Miller: "The Hero"
Phyllis Mae Daliey
African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II
History shows very well that African-American soldiers were a group of men that played a significant role in World War II. Furthermore, it actually shows that more than half a million had actually served in Europe. In spite of the numbers they still encountered racial discrimination: prior to the war the military maintained a racially segregated force. In recent that have been done by studies from the military, blacks were most of the time classified as not being the best fit but being very unfit for combat and were not permitted on the front lines. It is also important to note that they were typically given support duties, and were not permitted…
Bennie J. McRae, Jr. African-Americans in World War II. December 9, 2013. http://www.lwfaam.net/ww2 / (accessed April 18, 2014).
Charleen E. Mcgee, Ph.D. Smith. "Tuskegee Airman: The Biography of Charles E. McGee, Air Force Fighter Combat Record Holder ." 1-204. New York: Branden Pub Co; 2nd edition, 2014.
Miles, Johnnie H. "Educator's Sourcebook of African-American Heritage (Book of Lists)." 1-456. New York: Jossey-Bass; 1 edition, 2005.
Nalty, Bernard C. THE RIGHT TO FIGHT: African-American Marines in World War II. October 8, 2013. http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/npswapa/extContent/usmc/pcn-190-003132-00/sec1.htm (accessed April 18, 2014).
violation of the student's Constitutional rights
The issue is whether there has been a possible violation of a student's "constitutional right to education" due to the fact that during the time she had to stay in the cage based on Mr. Billups' order she had to miss all of her other classes for that day. R: The rule is that unlike various state constitutions the federal Constitution does not contain a "right to education." The U.S. Supreme Court addressed itself to this issue in 1973 in San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez. In this decision the U.S. Supreme Court held that education is neither explicitly nor impliedly guaranteed as a "fundamental right" in the U.S. Constitution (Constitutional Requirements Governing American Education -- Federal constitutional Requirements, State Constitutional Issues, Conclusion, p. 1). Therefore, a constitutional right to education of student Li could not have been violated by Mr. Billups. I:…
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…
Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:
Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
America react to the Japanese seizure of Manchuria in 1931?
To begin with we have to analyze the situation around China and international relations between the U.S. And Japan as they were two major powers of the Pacific region for a long time after ussian Empire had collapsed. There is no doubt that China was a desirable region both for the U.S. And Japan as it had extremely rich natural resources and huge market for foreign goods (Chinese industry was not developed at all). Japanese imperialists and owners of leading American corporations dreamed of strengthening their positions in the region and gaining unlimited access to the huge Chinese markets and resources. Japan was a new superpower of the region after it rose from feudal country to developed industrial state and became a dangerous rival both for the United States and ussian Empire. After ussian evolution, United States and Japan became…
1. 1. Lafeber, W. The Clash: U.S.-Japanese Relations Throughout History Norton & Company; 1998
2. Rosenfeld, Michael Japanese aggression Chesterfield publishing, 1972
3. Tomine, T. Manchurian Crisis JTR, 1967.
4. Rana, M. The Manchurian Myth: Nationalism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Modern China by University of California Press2000p.
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
True Meaning of Snow
David Guterson is the young, American author of Snow Falling on Cedars which heavily consists of human nature and human emotions. Snow Falling on Cedars, narrates the trial of a Japanese man accused of murdering a white man in the post-orld ar II era. Throughout this literary work, Guterson uses elements of nature: land, trees, water and especially snow, as literal and metaphorical tools to develop and resolve conflicts.
David Guterson uses the same aspects and characteristics of nature in two different ways. First he describes in visual detail the literal or actual effects that elements of nature have on the characters in the novel. But more importantly Guterson uses nature to convey substantial and symbolic meaning in the lives of the characters in the story.
One of the elements of nature that Guterson uses as a tool to develop the conflicts in Snow Falling on…
Guterson, David. Snow Falling on Cedars. New York: Vintage Books, 1994. 75-428.
"Snow Falling on Cedars." Kirkus Reviews. 24 Mar. 2005 < .
Snow Falling on Cedars. Sparknotes. 24 Mar. 2005 .
World War II -- Battle of Midway
The Battle of Midway was fully intended by the Japanese to be a key to Japanese military domination in the Pacific and a further crippling blow to merican naval forces merely six months after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. However, Midway ultimately exposed and deepened the weaknesses of the Japanese war effort. More than a mere defeat, the Midway had far broader effects on the Japanese war effort.
The Implications of the Battle of Midway to the Japanese War Effort
The Battle of Midway's destruction of Japan's offensive capability in the Pacific had far-reaching implications for the Japanese war effort. somewhat surprising result of research is the lack of emphasis on the Japanese Navy's specific losses at Midway. Legend has it that the losses of ships and trained personnel at Midway crippled the Japanese for the duration of the War. However, John…
All three sources agree that the Japanese deemed the Battle of Midway a key to domination of the Pacific. According to Weinberg, the Japanese Navy's intended landing on Hawaii required victory at Midway; consequently, the loss of Midway rendered an invasion of Hawaii impossible.[footnoteRef:6] Keegan agrees that Midway was Japan's strategic objective in mid-1942[footnoteRef:7] and Overy calls the Battle of Midway "The most significant fleet engagement of the War."[footnoteRef:8] Weinberg concludes that if Japan had won at Midway, "the course of the War could have proceeded very differently."[footnoteRef:9] [6: Ibid., p. 330.] [7: Keegan, p.88.] [8: Overy, p. 43.] [9: Weinberg, p. 339.]
The assertions about the importance of Midway for Japanese expansion are supported by the authors' explanations of the Japanese adjustments after Midway. After Midway, the Japanese could not expand their domination of the Pacific. Weinberg maintains that the Japanese expansion to the East, South and in the Indian Ocean ended with the loss at Midway.[footnoteRef:10] According to Weinberg, Japanese expansion into the Indian Ocean, which the Japanese had promised to the Germans and wished to pursue, was decisively crippled by the American counterattack on the Solomon Islands that kept the Japanese preoccupied.[footnoteRef:11] Consequently, the Japanese defeat at Midway did not merely result in a stalemate; rather, it forced the halt of Japanese efforts to expand their domination of the Pacific Ocean. [10: Ibid., pp. 329, 339.] [11: Ibid., p. 339.]
Japan's loss at Midway also meant that the U.S. could take an offensive position in the Pacific, forcing the Japanese into a defensive position. As mentioned previously, Japan's initial plans to push further into the Indian Ocean were crippled by preoccupation with the American counter-attack on the Solomon Islands.[footnoteRef:12] According to Weinberg, that very American offensive, that
"Robert Frost the famous poet received four Pulitzer prizes for poetry." "There is small difference between a dramatist and a poet." "Shake spear is known more for his work as a dramatist, not as a poet"
Intention and Intensional definitions
Absurd is used to describe something irrational or illogical. Absurd is something which does not make sense, something which borders insanity.
Buffoon is a stupid person or a fool. A person who does things in an amusing way, e.g a clown.
Cemetery is a place where dead people are buried. A cemetery is a modern graveyard.
Dictator is a ruler who has complete power over a nation, mostly acquired through force. A person who behaves in an autocratic way in regards to other people.
Egotism is being obsessed with one's sense of importance making someone to think and act only in regards to one's importance. Egotism is to be utterly…
Termed "the forgotten battle," the Battle for the Aleutians represented the only instance during World War II when the Japanese occupied American soil and the campaign exacted a significant toll of American lives and treasure. The Aleutians became strategically significant during World War II for the Japanese as well as the United States, but the American preparations in anticipation of this attack were woefully inadequate. Despite a U.S. naval base was being established at Dutch Harbor in 1942, the Japanese bombed the base and later occupied Attu, Kiska, and Agattu islands. Although a U.S. counterattack from bases on Adak and Amchitka retook these islands in 1943, several thousand of American lives were lost in the process and many more were injured. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive and critical analysis of the primary and secondary juried and scholarly literature concerning the Battle of the Aleutians to…
'Aleutian Islands,' 2012, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.
'Battle of the Aleutian Islands,' (n..d). History. Retrieved online: http://www.history.com/topics / battle-of-the-aleutian-islands.
Breslin, CB 1994, June 18, 'World War II in the Aleutians: The Fundamentals of a Joint
Campaign,' Newport, RI: Naval War College.
While many argued that it was a mistake the attack happened anyway and the result was a punishment that had never been experienced before in the history of the world. The dropping of an atomic bomb changed the strategic thinking of Japan for the rest of history. Today, and for the past five decades the nation has spent its energies trying to be a friendly ally to America and Great Britain instead of trying to become more powerful than they are. It has focused its attention on technological development and assisting the world in moving forward and not on which nation has the most power, the most money or the best military forces. The strategy behind the attack on Pearl Harbor was founded in the fear of economic and trade threats. Now the nation addresses those fears through advances in technology and the sharing of those advances with the nations…
Alperovitz, Gar (1995) Hiroshima: historians reassess. (atomic bombing)
Honan, William (1991) Who Planned Pearl Harbor?;a British Expert Warned the World, but Only Japan Remembered.The Washington Post
Fallows, James (1991) the mind of Japan. (Japanese history) (Special Report: Pearl Harbor: 50 Years) (Cover Story) U.S. News & World Report
Tora Tora Tora
Tora! Tora! Tora! is a 1970 war film directed by Richard Fleischer, Toshio Masuda, and Kinji Fukasaku. The film is a dramatization of the preparations taken by the Japanese Imperial Navy as they planned their attack on Pearl Harbor, and the lack of preparations on behalf of the United States. Tora! Tora! Tora! presents the events leading up to the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 from two distinct perspectives, the Japanese and the United States.
The film begins by explaining what prompted the Japanese to begin preparing an attack on the United States, an embargo that prevented the United States from exporting raw materials to Japan and adversely affected the country. The film also illustrates that it was during this time that Japan began negotiations with Germany and subsequently signed the Tri-Partite Pact with Germany and Italy and formally became a member of the…
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…
Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.
Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554430822300352
Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.beaconreader.com/joshua-foust/throwing-the-intelligence-community-under-the-bus
Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/atomic-escapism
On December 7, 1941, Japan launched an assault on the U.S. Naval Headquarters for the Pacific Fleet, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This assault led directly to the open war between the U.S. And Japan, which several years later would culminate in the U.S. invaded Japan in the Okinawa archipelago and dropping two atomic bombs on Japan. The events that led to the U.S. invasion of Japan are therefore discussed on the macro, meso and micro levels.
If the U.S. invasion of Japan was spurred by Pearl Harbor, then one has to look at the causes of that attack to understand how the U.S. invasion came about. Japan was one of the world's great imperial powers during the decades prior to World War Two. After the rise of Emperor Hirohito in the 1920s, Japan embarked on a mission, believing that it could and should control "Asia,…
History. (2014). Imperial Japan. History.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-ww2/imperial-japan
History Learning (2014). Operation Downfall. History Learning Site. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_downfall.htm
Rosenberg, J. (2014). Pearl Harbor. About.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/Attack-Pearl-Harbor.htm
Tsukiyama, T. (2006). Battle of Okinawa. The Hawai'i Nisei Story. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://nisei.hawaii.edu/object/io_1149316185200.html
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
Bias of Authors Regarding America Dropping the Atom Bomb on Japan
This paper examines what has been written about the dropping of the atom bomb on Japan, following the attack on Pearl Harbor. The writer details several articles and explores where the writer is coming from and what may have led to a particular slant on a story regarding the bomb. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
THE BIAS OF AUTHORS REGARDING THE ATOM BOMB AND JAPAN
The atom bomb was dropped on Japan to make a statement to the world. It was not just that the U.S. wanted Japan to understand attacking Pearl Harbor was wrong, but Japan was the example the United States made for the world. The message was loud and clear that if the U.S. is attacked the enemy will be hit back ten fold and then some. In addition to it being…
Davis, Raymond. Clear Conscience: The Atom Bomb Vs. The Super Holocaust by Raymond Davis, Dan Winn (Preface)
Roleff, Tamara. The Atom Bomb (Turning Points in World History (Greenhaven Press).)
CREAN Mike, No hate after Hiroshima., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 02-19-2002, pp 4.
Allan H. 'Bud' Selig, U.S. owes world apology for dropping atomic bombs., USA Today, 08-05-1994, pp 12.
Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II
hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…
Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American
Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.
Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,
Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
orld ar II as a great triumph in American history. The United States forces were victorious in both the Pacific and European Theatres of war. Two military aggressive regimes were destroyed, and peace was restored, due in large part to America's involvement. hat many people do not realize is that some of the actions of the United States were just as morally corrupt as those of the Axis powers. Similar to the Nazi's imprisonment of Jews in Europe, the U.S. government imprisoned Japanese-Americans on the est Coast. orst of all, the internment of Japanese was more of an act of racism than actual perceived threat. The premise of this paper is to prove that the internment of Japanese in 1942 was a decision motivated by race rather than defensive strategy. I will chronicle the events leading up to the internment, the presence of racism before and after the bombing of…
Daniels, Roger. Prisoners Without Trial. New York: Hill and Wang. 1993.
While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.
America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…
Author "Chapter 10: Japanese-Americans."
Chapter 11: "Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, and Asian-Indian-Americans."
In the White Man's Image. Prod. Christine Lesiak and Matthew Jones. American Experience, 1993.
Ly, Kuong C. "Asian: Just a Simple Word." Human Architecutre: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge. Vol. II, Issue 2, Fall 2003/Spring 2004. 119-124.
U.S. Intelligence Stategy Histoy
The United States has always been a county that pided itself on the excellence of its militay excellenc and pecision. The defense and national foces have been at the heat of militay intelligence thoughout the yeas stating with 2001, in Septembe. Many govenment agencies, fo example, have joined foces with moe taditional militay foces to help combat both mino cime foces with those of a moe sophisticated body of cime thoughtout the United States and the wold. A histoical examination of the vaious elements elated to U.S. intelligence duing militay intense times eveal that moe attention to social o human concens duing the times involved might have ceated a geate dive towads caing fo those left destitute by a focus on militay o social concens duing Wold Wa II, the militay inquiies of the 1970s, and the invasion of Iaq stated in 2003. When examining the…
r, intelligence analysts had grossly underestimated Japanese capabilities and intentions, revealing a tendency to misunderstand Japanese actions by looking at them with American cultural biases. After the war, the resolve of America's leaders "never again" to permit another Pearl Harbor largely prompted the establishment of a centralized intelligence structure.
America's entrance into World War II created an immediate need for intelligence to support the warfighter. While the Army and the Navy maintained their own intelligence capabilities, none were prepared to provide the kind of support needed.1 To bolster this effort, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was created in June 1942, under the recently established Joint Chiefs of Staff to succeed the Coordinator of Information. William Donovan remained in charge of the reorganized unit. In addition to assuming the analytical role of its predecessor, the OSS was chartered to carry out clandestine operations against the Axis powers on a worldwide scale. It was not, however, readily accepted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), who remained skeptical of the value of OSS activities, and the new unit faced strong competition from the FBI and the Army's intelligence organization.
Usually glamorized as the dashing operations arm of the U.S. Army (with its well-known espionage exploits with the Resistance in Europe), the OSS' contribution to intelligence production has gone largely unnoticed. It was, however, one of the seven major intelligence producers and was an important training ground for a generation of intelligence analysts, as well as operatives. Decidedly different than the British system, the OSS established the tradition of putting analysts and operatives in the same organization. The difficulties, however, that the OSS had in establishing itself within the JCS structure reaffirmed
September 11, 2001 changed everything. We hear sentiments such as this one often; what do they really mean? Other than the obvious -- stricter security at airports, increased demand for Middle East experts -- what really changed? Are Americans fundamentally different people than we were on September 10? Perhaps as a nation our priorities changed, but has our personality been altered? The 9/11 Commission Report emphasizes national unity: "remember how we all felt on September 11...not only the unspeakable horror but how we came together as a nation -- one nation. Unity of purpose and unity of effort are how we will defeat this enemy." (National Commission 2004, executive summary 34)
The raw freshness of the attacks on September 11 inspires amnesia regarding other national security crises: the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis. America has never been without military involvement in the world, at…
Spanier, John and Steven Hook. American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press, 2004.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the U.S., The 9/11 Commission Report. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2004,
Many renowned military analysts argue that concentration or mass is the most important principle of war. This is primarily because the combat tactic involves the concentration of an extremely huge quantity of military manpower and material as well as the development of military power with complete superiority over the enemy in relation to quantity. This principle of war is regarded as superior to other tactical approaches in battle such as combination of inferior mass with tactical opportunities for victory. Generally, the concentration of soldiers entails the decisive, harmonized use of superior fighting power for victory over an enemy. Given the significance of this principle in war, there are arguments that the U.S. committed a strategic mistake through breaching this principle of war through dividing its forces between Southwest Pacific and Central Pacific battles against Japan between 1943 and 1944. An analysis of the approaches employed by the U.S. Army…
Handel, M.I. (2001). Masters of war: classical strategic thought. London: Cass.
Marston, D. (2005). The pacific war companion. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
Millett, A.R. (1996). Assault from the Sea: The Development of Amphibious Warfare between the Wars: The American, British, and Japanese Experiences. In Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett, eds. Military innovation in the interwar period. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, S.P. (1991). Winning the next war: innovation and the modern military (pp. 130-147).
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
On December 7, 1941, the nation of Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This began the official participation of the United States in orld ar II. hile armed forces were overseas fighting the nation's enemies, the United States government was trying to decide whether or not any group of people within America itself could be working for the other side. Out of this fear came one of the most atrocious acts the United States have ever perpetrated against its own citizens. Fearing internal enemies, the American government signed an order wherein anyone of Japanese descent could be questioned, arrested, detained, and interred at several camps throughout the American est. It was a policy of legal racism that served no good for the government but to instill in the people the knowledge that the government can make mistakes and it is possible to lose one's civil rights…
Burton, J., Farrell, M. And R. Lord. Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II
Japanese-American Relocation Sites. 2000. Print.
Okubo, Mine. Citizen 13660. Seattle: University of Washington, 1983. Print.
9-11 and Mass Commumications
Three years after the tragedy of 9-11, the city of new York has cleared the rubbish our of the footprint of the two towers, but they are still a long way from clearing the wreckage out of their collective, and individual hearts. Never before has the nation been struck in an act of war as was seen on national television on 9-11-2001. Even when the Japanese planes swarmed into Pearl Harbor, American's saw only the pictures which were released in print, and the events of the day had time to settle before the images of war were digested. ut even the attack on Pearl Harbor was fundamentally different than what occurred in New York. Military forces struck a military target. This does not reduce the shock of the event, but it was easier to digest as the nation ramped up for war in the European theater…
Aron, Raymond. The Imperial Republic. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1974
Baktiari, B, and Al-Sayyid, M.Kk. The impact of 9/11 on the Middle East. Middle East Policy. 12/1/2002
Cohen, David. Out of a clear blue sky; 9.11 Where were you? The Evening Standard (London, England); 9/11/2002.
Herert, Chantal. How 9/11 affected our parties The Toronto Star; 9/12/2003.
In these terms alone, the case played to the prejudices of both sides and obscured the truth about what had happened, though as Stannard shows, there was likely no rape at all and Thalia was covering a meeting with a white man. This event is reminiscent of the charge by Susan Smith that a black man had stolen her car and killed her children, when in fact she had done it herself. Numerous cases can be cited where whites in different parts of the country blame4d blacks for certain crimes that never happened because they thought that stereotype would be believed. In a different way, the same idea empowered Lincoln Steffens to claim that Hawaii was now beset by a crime wave, which was not true:
As Steffens confessed in his book, the crime wave that he had proudly created was entirely invented, although technically all the "crimes" had been…
Stannard, David E. Honor Killing Race, Rape and Clarence Darrow's Spectacular Last Case. New York: Viking, 2005.
com. 2007. February 26, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/open-door-policy-1
Stueck, illiam hitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Tsou, Tang. America's Failure in China, 1941-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.
Although most countries did not formally agree with the "Open Door Policy," John Hay went on to unilaterally declare that they had endorsed the policy.
This consisted of an oil embargo and freezing of Japanese assets in the months preceding the Pearl Harbor attacks
The Americans had also misjudged the ideological commitment of the Chinese communists and over-estimated the pro-American among the Chinese masses, believing that any Chinese government (even a Communist one) would remain friendly with the Americans. Such misplaced optimism continues to be the Achilles heel of the U.S. foreign office:…
Open Door Policy." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy: Answers.com. 2007. February 26, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/open-door-policy-1
Stueck, William Whitney. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, 1947-1950. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.
Tsou, Tang. America's Failure in China, 1941-50. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.
The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Should we get the religion that did this? Consider that the people who conducted the attacks were all united members of a single religious sect -- Moslems. The question then must be asked, was this a religious attack or jihad? I do not believe that because the attackers were Moslems and claimed to be motivated by religious beliefs that from this point forward it is fair to assume all Muslims or Islam as a religion is violence driven.
It is important that we as a nation do not single out Moslems or any other group as the only source needing suspicion for future acts. Consider Timothy McVey and what he did in Oklahoma. For several days after that explosion, Americans and the Media were looking for some Muslim or religious sect in the Middle East to attack. The shock that one of our own perpetrated this horrific act blindsided the…
Johnson, Denis. "War at Home." The New Yorker September (2001):.
Morrow, Lance. "The Case for Rage and Retribution." Time September (2001):.
Saghiyeh, Hazem. "It's Not All Americans Fault." al-Hayat October (2001):.
If you need to type anything after the Reference List then start it on this page
History of World War II: American Involvement and Social Effects of the War on America
Many people think that the United States' involvement in World War II did not actually begin until Japan infamously attacked the American navy base at Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941. However, in truth, even before the Pearl Harbor attack by the Japanese, the American President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) and other U.S. military, industrial, and economic leaders had taken initial steps to mobilize the nation into a wartime economy. In terms of both mobilization at home and social effects of the war, the onset of World War II contributed greatly to changes, many of them permanent, in American society and the American way of life.
In the build-up to the war, American factories were offered economic rewards by the government for adopting wartime production modes and practices. Consequently, United States industry focused increasingly on…
[footnoteRef:32] This lack of forces for other Pacific struggles generally weakened the Japanese war effort, as the Japanese were forced to fight those battles with insufficient men, weapons, ammunition and other related materiel. [27: Eric Hammel. Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval attle of Guadalcanal, November 13-15, 1942. Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Military History, 1999, p. 346.] [28: Colin G. Jameson. "attle of Guadalcanal: 11-15 November, 1942." www.history.navy.mil Web site. 1944. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/battleguadalcanal1942.htm (accessed March 18, 2013), p. 78.] [29: Robert Leckie. Challenge for the Pacific: Guadalcanal: The Turning Point of the War (Paperback). New York, NY: antam ooks, 2010, pp. 127-128.] [30: Mark Stille. USN Cruiser vs. IJN Cruiser: Guadalcanal 1942. New York, NY: Osprey Publishing, 2009, pp. 19-20.] [31: Leckie, p. 306.] [32: Ibid.]
The Allied victory at the Naval attle of Guadalcanal through the leadership of Vice Admiral William F. Halsey, the Southwest Pacific Theater commander, was also a…
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.
Frank, Richard B. Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle. New York, NY: Penguin Books USA, Inc., 1992.
Hammel, Eric. Carrier Clash: The Invasion of Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Eastern Solomons: August, 1942. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, an imprint of MBI Publishing Company, 2004.
-- . Guadalcanal: Decision at Sea: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, November 13-15, 1942. Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Military History, 1999.
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…
Best, R.A. And A. Cumming. (2011). "Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals." Congressional Research Service. 7-7500, January 12, 2011.
Fingar, T. (2008). "Analytic Transformation: Unleashing the Potential of a Community of Analysts." Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 1, 2008.
Hearing of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. (2007). Progress on Intelligence Reform, January 23, 2007.
Progress on Intelligence Reform. (2007). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January 23, 2007.
Patriot Act and Constitutional Freedom
Thomas Jefferson said: 'The price of freedom is constant vigilance.' Unfortunately in a large nation dedicated to the individual freedom and liberty of all its citizens, the only time when the nation learns that is has not been vigilant enough is when a person, or group of persons take advantage of that freedom, and abuse the liberty of others in order to further their own destructive purposes. The tragedy of 9-11 is the most recent case in point of how a nation can take its freedom and liberty for granted, which ultimately makes a doorway for others to tear down that which has taken over 200 years to build, protect, and defend.
When our country endured similar acts of threat or war, such as the bombing of Pearl Harbor, or the expansion of communism into the Western Hemisphere in Cuba, the government has oven reacted…
The Alien and Sedtion acts. (2001) Folwells Laws of the U.S. Early America.com Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available from http://earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sedition/ .
Dempsey, Jim. (2003, Jan 3) Cyber Security. Center for Democracy and Security. Accessed 1 Jan 2004. Available at http://www.cdt.org/security/000404amending.shtml
Henderson, N. (2002) The Patriot Act's impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52.
Japanese-Americans Internment Camps During World War II. Special Collections Department, J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah. Accessed 1 Jan 2003. Available from http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
The story of The Divine ind is one that is both poignantly sad and achingly beautiful. The book is both historical fiction and doomed romance in the vein of Romeo and Juliet where although the two youths are obviously very much in love, circumstances beyond their control conspire to keep the boy and girl apart. In Gary Disher's novel, the Second orld ar forces the lovers apart because the girl is sent to an internment camp while her Caucasian love is allowed to remain free. Even before their official separation, the prejudices of those around them were forcing a wedge between the two young people. In 1946 in the city of Broome, Australia young Hart Penrose is reflecting on his past relationship with Mitsy Senosuke, the daughter of Japanese immigrants. In his youth, Hart fell in love with Mitsy, whose father worked for Hart's father as a pearl…
Disher, Gary 2003, The Divine Wind. Scholastic.
Battles of World War II
Battle of Britain:
When Hitler conquered France in June of 1940, he acquired a forward base to launch his attack against England. Had England fallen in the Battle of Britain, the Nazis would have, at the very least, conquered the entire continent of Europe. The fall of Britain would have allowed Hitler to concentrate his forces on one front in Operation Barbarosa, the invasion of ussia, which he launched in 1941. Most
historians believe that, more than any other single fact, Hitler's decision to fight a war on two fronts, simultaneously, accounted for the eventual defeat of Germany at the hands of the Allies.
The Battle of Britain was won by the heroes of the British oyal Air Force,
flying Spitfire fighters who handed the German Luftwaffe its first defeat of the war in a savage, month-long battle over the skies of Britain in the…
1. Ambrose, S. The Good Fight: How World War II Was Won (2001)
2. Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
3. Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
4. Lucas, J. The Last European War (1976)
Jeanne records her personal feelings and impressions, but also interweaves historical facts with her reconstructed internal monologue so the reader learns about the home front during World War II as well more about Jeanne's adolescence. Seeing the Japanese internment camps through the eyes of a child highlights the sweeping and irrational nature of President Roosevelt's dictate, and knowing that Jeanne's stories are true, not a fictionalized account of the camps, forces the reader to confront this episode in American history without denial or excuses. The camps were closed after the Supreme Court declared them illegal in 1944, but the camps lived on in the hearts of the interned -- the spoiled food, the constant sickness from the filthy latrines, and most of all, the reminder that the American government had declared Japanese-Americans lesser citizens, solely because of their race. They were seen a lesser immigrants in a land…
" The Great Society initiative included policies concerning increased education assistance, fundamental protections of civil rights and the right of all Americans to vote, urban renewal, Medicare, conservation, beautification, control and prevention of crime and delinquency, promotion of the arts, and consumer protection (President Lyndon B. Johnson's Biography 2009).
The contributions made by President Johnson were both numerous and significant. In this regard, Firestone and Vogt (1988) report that, "As LBJ led Congress to the completion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, to a major tax bill, the first significant federal aid to education, and the program of medical care for the aged that had been pending since Harry Truman's day, surely confidence and optimism were not unwarranted" (1). Following his reelection to the presidency in 1964, Johnson was not content to rest on his laurels but continued his quest for improved civil rights in the country. For…
Abbott, Philip. 2005. "Accidental Presidents: Death, Assassination, Resignation, and Democratic
Succession." Presidential Studies Quarterly 35(4): 627-628.
Blight, James G. And Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S.
McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.