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Not only did the fall of Athens indicate the end of progress and philosophical thought, but also ended Greece's contribution to the world as a whole. One must remember, however, knowing that Greece was the center of democracy, it was not as selective as some claim. In its claim of spreading democracy Athens was able to justify the coercion of various outlying territories and spread the image of the city-state as being the only universal benefactor of all mankind. Sparta had conceivably attacked Athens because she extended his need for expansion too far and Sparta feared that she would eventually become an Athenian colony and known to all historians is that Sparta leads but is not a follower (Strassler, 1996).
That which politicians and nations can learn form the Peloponnesian Greek tragedy may rightfully be applied to the present day and age. hether or not history repeats itself is not…
Kagan, Donald. 1995. On the Origins of War and the Preservation of Peace. New York:
Kaminer D, Stein D, Mbanga I, Zungu-Dirwayi N. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa: Relation to Psychiatric Status and Forgiveness Among Survivors of Human Rights Abuses. Br J. Psych 178 (2001): 373-377
Thucydides / Rex Warner, (Translator, 1954) the History of the Peloponnesian War: Revised
Athens counseled parta to use caution and care, to find arbitration, to find a way to mitigate the circumstances prior to giving into the fear paradigm, and resultant war.
Make your decision with the slow deliberate care due to important matters, and don't bring trouble on yourselves by giving in to other people's opinions and complaints. Before you go to war, you must realize how unpredictable war is. The longer it lasts, the more it is likely to turn on chance. The odds of disaster are the same for both sides, and no one can see where the dangers lie…. o, while it is still possible for both sides to use good judgment, we ask you not to dissolve the treaty or breathe your oaths, but to submit our differences to arbitration according to the agreement. If not, the Gods who heard the oaths are our witnesses, and once you…
Thucydides, trans. with notes by Paul Woodruff. (1993). On Justice, Power, and Human Nature: The Essence of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War.
Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publications.
Athens lost the Peloponnesian War for two main reasons. The first was the drain of fighting Sparta, Sparta's allies, Corinth, and Thebes. The protracted, atrocious, and murderous war lasted nearly three decades, gnawing away at the agrarian infrastructure, wrecking the social progress of civic traditions, and consuming an impoverished Athens. The second reason was the effect of the invasion of Syracuse. The invasion lost Alcibiades, all of the army and navy, and Athens' morale. Though the war dragged on for another decade, the combined effects of those two problems lost the Peloponnesian War for Athens.
According to Hansen in A War Like No Other, one reason Athens lost was because it fought not just Sparta, but also Sparta's Peloponnesian alliance, as well as Corinth and Thebes.[footnoteRef:1] The Peloponnesian League consisted of small states like Phlius and Orneae, as well as stronger or more distant (from Sparta) states like Megara, Elis,…
Bagnall, Nigel. The Peloponnesian War: Athens, Sparta, and the Struggle for Greece. New York: Thomas Dunne, 2006.
Cawkwell, George. Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2002.
Hansen, Victor Davis. A War Like No Other: How the Athenians and Spartans Fought the Peloponnesian War. New York: Random House, 2005.
Hanson, Victor Davis. Warfare and Agriculture in Classical Greece, Revised edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1998.
How do we know about this war?
Thucydides may be counted among the foremost historians of the West to utilize a rigorous chronological standard. He recorded events based on their year of occurrence, and every year was divided into two seasons: a campaign-filled summer and a relatively inactive winter. The historian documented the Peloponnesian War in great detail.
In spite of hailing from Athens and having taken part in the war, Thucydides is commonly believed to have provided an overall neutral narrative of it with regard to the parties involved.
The foremost volume in Thucydides 'History of the Peloponnesian War covers a summary of Greece's early history, a programmatic historiographical note, and an explanation for why the War was waged. With the exception of some brief excursuses (particularly 6.54-58 on Tyrant Slayers), its remaining volumes (2-8) concentrate strictly on the War and nothing else.
Though Thucydides' book focuses on the…
Thucydides Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War history is based on the historical account of Peloponnesian War between 431 and 404 C. The war was led by Athens (the Delian League), and the other led by Sparta within the Peloponnesian League. Thucydides (an Athenian historian) serving as a general in the war developed the focus of the battle.
Together with a lack of trust in Thucydides' information, the narration is not a firsthand experience as Homer's did. However, he uses poet's epics in inferring facts about Trojan War. For example, while Thucydides valued the amount of Greek ships to be over 1,000 towards Troy as poetic exaggeration, he engages Homer's ships catalog when approximating the presence of Greek soldiers. In addition, Thucydides claims that Homer refuses reference for United Greek states for pre-Hellenic nations through disjointed while organizing the launch of effective campaigns. Thucydides adds that Troy was to be conquered…
1. Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. New York: Free Press, 1998.
Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 502.
Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 231.
Thucydides, Robert B. Strassler, and Richard Crawley. The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War. (New York: Free Press, 1998), 132.
trategy -- Rulers, tates and War
It is very difficult to look at the history of humanity and define a number of common, yet intangible philosophies of action that seem to be part of the overall human condition. One of these intangibles is the human capacity to produce both incredible beauty and horrific evil -- both of which occur during war. In fact, we may ask -- what is war? Every historical period from Ancient Mesopotamia to the present has added a new meaning to the word, but the very essence remains the same. War is a conflict between groups, a way to solve a political or social disagreement through force. Because war has been part of the human condition for millennia, however, we can look at it from both a theoretical and practical aspect of a way to use violence as a solution to problems. One of the most…
Clausewitz, C. On War. Edited by M. Howard. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage, 1994.
Murray, W., et al., eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and War. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996.
Theatres of War," Daniel Mendelsohn points out how political Conservatives Donald Kagan and Victor David Hanson find in Greek history, especially Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, an argument on behalf of "plain hawkishness, a distaste for compromise and negotiation when armed conflict is possible." These present-day views on Greece demand a certain degree of rewriting of Thucydides. Mendelsohn explains how Kagan recognizes the opportunities presented by the new world order for revisionism or rereading the Peloponnesian War to shed light on current events. At the beginning of his book, Peloponnesian War (2003), Kagan informs readers that he wants Thucydides' work to "meet the needs of readers in the 21st century" and will refrain from drawing parallels between the ancient event and any modern counterpart because "an uninterrupted account will better allow readers to draw their own conclusions."
Unfortunately, notes Mendelsohn, Kagan's report may be "uninterrupted," but it does not…
Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Mendelsohn, D. "Theatres of War." New Yorker, January 12, 2004.
Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian Wars. New York: Penguin, 1954.
Zinn, H. Politics of History. Urbana, IL: First Illinois Paperback, 1990.
Kenneth Waltz's Man, the State, and War - a Theoretical Analysis
The purpose of Man, the State and War is to debunk theories that do not locate the causes of war in the system. Unlike Morgenthau who does not believe international relations can change (because human nature cannot change), Waltz believes that by changing the nature of the system, changes can be made in international relations.
To make his case, Waltz presents three hypotheses or "images." The first image is that human nature is the cause of war. If human nature is evil, corrupt, power-hungry then the same must be true of state behavior since states are made up of and governed by people. ad people do bad things; because human nature cannot be changed, war cannot be eliminated and the best we can do is manage conflict and war through a proper understanding of the balance of power.
Waltz, K. Man, the State, and War - A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…
Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.
Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.
Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
It made no "long speech no one would believe, of fine moral arguments" (oodruff 103). However, Pericles' claim that Athens did not need support to uphold its borders falls completely flat in the face of Athenian desperation to hold onto its empire.
Thucydides, writing with the benefit of hindsight and the knowledge of the outcome of the war shows the Athenians in a far more ambiguous light than Pericles the politician, who was speaking to memorialize the dead. Thucydides shows the cowardice of the Athenians during the plague, as Athenians even turned against one another, in fear -- another example of might making right. Thucydides somewhat disenchanted view of Athens is partially due to his status as an exile -- he was deprived of his command due to no real fault of his own (he was unable to reach a critical strategic location in time to prevent it falling to…
Thucydides. On justice, power, and human nature: the essence of Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. Paul Woodruff (Ed.) Hackett, 1993.
Athens over several hundred years moved from rule by kings to full peasant democracy. Did aristocrats ever really lose power or did they find new ways to keep it?
In Athens, the aristocrats did lose a certain amount of power with the advent of democracy. This is because there was a focus on providing everyone with some kind of voice in matters of public affairs. Yet, at the same time many of the ruling elite and philosophers were from the aristocracy. This meant that they were able to maintain positions of power. Despite the fact, that they lost a certain amount of influence. The combination of these factors is illustrating how the ruling class used their education and intellect to make themselves relevant during the process. As a result, they were able to use democracy as a way to change the perceptions of the citizens of Athens. In this case,…
Athens Constitution. (n.d.).
Elis, W. (1989). Alcibiades. New York, NY: Routledge.
Rustin, J. (1989). The Peloponnesian War. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
This basically means that the criticism to feminist political theories resembles more the substance of other I theories.
6. First off, we should discuss the differences between system level theories and state level theories. What are the benefits to studying international relations at the state level? What are the drawbacks?
In its most basic formulation, state level theories of international politics refer to those ideas which place the country at the core of political actions and decisions. Examples of this sense include the previously discussed realism and transnationalism schools of thought, which argue that the state places itself based on its particular interests. The relevant example of system level theories refers to the class system theories, and they are characterized by the fact that decisions and actions in international politics are not established based on national interests, but relative to the desires and power of specific groups -- generally those…
Camestaro, N.A., Realism and Transnationalism: Competing Visions International Security, Boston University, Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/law/central/jd/organizations/journals/international/volume25n1/documents/113-162.pdf on October 5, 2009
Hobson, J.M., the State and International Relations, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521643910
Kemos, a., the Influence of Thucydides in the Modern World, Hellenic Resources Network, http://www.hri.org/por/thucydides.html last accessed on October 5, 2009
Sayre, B., 2003, Peace Studies' War Against America, Canadian Center for Teaching Peace, http://www.peace.ca/peacestudiescriticism.htm last accessed on October 5, 2009
New findings show that the spouses of veterans also experience mental health disorders, and the prevalence increases with the length of deployment (Mansfield, Kaufman, Marshall, Gaynes, Morrissey & Engel, 2010). When spouses are considered to be clients of health services, the need for improved and more robust resources becomes apparent. Moreover, spouses with mental health disorders present unique issues and questions for treatment. eturning soldiers may find that they have supportive partners who can lead to a mutually beneficial treatment relationship, via couples or family therapy. On the other hand, the mental health problems of the spouse can exacerbate those of the soldier, and vice-versa. Thus, a family systems approach can be extremely helpful when addressing the multifaceted mental health concerns among veterans.
Veteran health services are at a critical juncture. The need for targeted mental health interventions, ranging from screenings and assessments to therapies and treatments, has been proven…
Britt, T.W., Greene-Shortridge, T.M. & Castro, C.A. (2007). The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military. Military Medicine 172(2), February 2007, pp. 157-161(5)
Bliese, P.D., Wright, K.M., Adler, a.B., Thomas, J.L. & Hoge, C.W. (2007). Timing of postcombat mental health assessments. Psychological Services 4(3), Aug 2007, 141-148.
Hoge, C.W., Auchterlonie, J.L. & Milliken, C.S. (2006). Mental Health Problems, Use of Mental Health Services, and Attrition From Military Service After Returning From Deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1023-1032. doi:10.1001/jama.295.9.1023.
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer, S.C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care. N Engl J. Med 2004; 351:13-22July 1, 2004 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa040603
Mystery of the Propylaea
The Propylaea (ca.437-432 BCE) is considered one of the mysteries of Ancient Greece. The structure was the gate to the Acropolis which was built during the Periclean building endeavor, the rebuilding program for Athens which began in 437 BCE. The Propylaea were designed as a means of creating a massive and monumental entrance to the plateau of the acropolis, particularly the complex of shrines and sanctuaries there. The gateway itself is truly stunning, as it is indeed tremendous and thundering with precise details carved in dark Elysian marble, but it was never finished. The fact that this dramatic and stunning gateway was never finished is indeed a mysterious prospect, and in the academic field of archeology, a range of theories abound as to why it was never finished. This paper will examine the most dominant theories regarding this fact, and attempt to determine why this was…
Goette, H.R. Athens, Attica and the Megarid. New York: Routledge Press, 2012.
Hurwit, J.M. The Acropolis in the Age of Pericles. London: Cambridge Press, 2004.
Leonard, J. The Erechtheion: A jewel in the Acropolis crown. 2010.
Peace Possible in the Modern World?
Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?
THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…
Brown, Chris, Nardin, Terry, and Rengger, Nicholas. International Relations in Political
Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Thucydides, "History of the Peloponnesian War," in International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Ancient Greeks to the First World War, ed. Chris Brown, Terry Nardin, Nicholas Rengger (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 38.
Trojan Wars and Culture
The three epic stories namely, The Iliad, the Trojan Women, Pericle's Funeral Oration are powerfully written master pieces of work, that illustrate the element of horridness of war beautifully.
The story of Homer's Iliad focuses on the "rage of Achilles." eading this epic poem makes one believe that it is based entirely on the totality and gruesomeness of war. However, it tells us about the details of war with full description and information. Though war is an important aspect of the tale, but the real story is based on the remarkable fighter and hero-that man is none other than Achilles.
Achilles possesses the greatest military expertise of any of the Achaean ranks and also the greatest fighting ability out of all of the warriors, Trojan or Achaean. At the beginning of the epic, Achilles becomes liberated from his fellow warriors and retreats back to…
Homer, The Iliad
McLaren, The Trojan Women
Thucydides, Pericles's Funeral Oration
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…
1. "Athens and Sparta: Different Yet the Same." Social Studies for Kids. [database online]; available from http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/athenssparta.htm ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
2. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Athens, City, Greece" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117004302 ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
3. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Sparta" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117046808 ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
4. Solanki, P. 2012. "Sparta Vs. Athens." Buzzle. [database online]; available from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/sparta-vs.-athens.html ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
In Ancient Israel, the use of fire is also part of the tradition of warfare. For example, we are not sure whether the prophet Elijah is stating that the fire hurled against the Moabites is divine, or simply falls down upon the enemy from Israelite war machines: "If I am a man of God," Elijah replied, "may fired come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men!" Then the fire of God fell from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men (2 Kings 1:12, New International Version).
Similarly, since most ancient gates were nothing but fortified wood, when the armies of Israel set out to use siege warfare, the rules for such are outlined in Deuteronomy 20: 10-20; however, use of flaming arrows, lit pots of oil shot from frames arranged on the outsides of walls -- more like a slingshot than a catapult, in fact,…
Bradford, a. (2000). With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Praeger.
Crosby, a. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge De Vaux, R. (1997). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Erdmans.
Partington, J. (1998). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Johns Hopkins University
This led to the development of different techniques such as ramming. As the presence of the Athenian navy, meant that there was a focus on those tactics that will benefit everyone the most in battle.
Once they disabled the enemy's ships, is the point when they had a significant advantage. This gives them the element of surprise by utilizing tactics that no one else is expecting. Furthermore, the Athenians continually were drilling for a variety of scenarios and exercises. This helped to better coordinate their fleet and prepare them for different situations they encountered.
These tactics were used in the Second Peloponnesian War to defeat the Corinthian fleet. In this particular case the Athenians deceived them; into thinking that they were retreating. However, after they were chased to a certain point, is when the Athenian navy turned around and attacked. This resulted in the Corinthians experiencing significant losses. These elements…
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996.
Starr, Chester G. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Turabian Format http://www.libs.uga.edu/ref/turabian2009.pdf
Baer, George. One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990. (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1996).1-9.
theorists regarding political stability, the ideas and opinions of Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides will be mentioned by thoroughly analyzing the viewpoints of these theorists in their books such as: Aristotle's "The Politics" And "Nicomachean Ethics," Plato's "The Republic," and Thucydides "The
Peloponnesian War." The analysis and observations of the viewpoints of these theorists will be included in the paper. The question on which the analysis will be based is as under:
What is the key to political stability, according to Aristotle? Why? Compare Plato or Thucydides' answers to this question.
Political stability is one of the most difficult problem on which many attempts have been made by the government to gain a stable political system so that the people living in the country can have an independent and free life. History and researches show that despite of many attempts the leaders have failed to maintain stable and under controlled political…
Thucydides is known as one of the greatest historians of ancient Greece. This paper focuses on the life, work and philosophy of Thucydides. The paper also discusses the influence and significance of his theories and principles in the field of education.
Thucydides was one of the greatest Greek historians who is known for his Magnus opus, "History of Peloponnesian War." This account of the great Peloponnesian War is not exactly complete as it only presents the events that took place during 431 to 411 B.C. But the reason why it is remembered and read as one of the most perfect Greek literatures is because it reflects Thucydides' genuinely original style interspersed with wisdom and objectivity which most other historians of that period lacked. There is still some confusion about the exact year of his birth as some ancient historians have given dates, which clash with dates provided by modern…
Ancient History Sourcebook: 11th Brittanica: Thucydides
Benjamin Jowett, Thucydides first edition (London: Oxford University Press, 1881), pages 125-135
Thucydides, Works of Thucydides: Sample Essay Questions And Answers. Monarch Notes, 01-01-1963.
The Athenians have no dislike of the Melians, and are happy to let the islanders live and let live within the Athenian sphere of influence, but they will retaliate without mercy if they oppose Athenian self-interest in the region. The Melians offer Athens neutrality, which Athens says would be just as detrimental to Athenian interests in the region as an open Melian alliance with Sparta, as it would set a bad example to other Athenian colonies: "is rather islanders like yourselves, outside our empire, and subjects smarting under the yoke, who would be the most likely to take a rash step and lead themselves and us into obvious danger" (Chapter XVII). The Melians say it would be cowardice to not resist, even if it seems foolish.
Does this dialogue prove the rational actor theory of statehood that holds that states always act in their own self-interest? On one hand, the…
Thucydides. "The Melian Dialogue." From "The History of the Peloponnesian War."
26 Jan 2006] http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/melian.htm
To wit, in Socrates' day, there were no official government prosecutors (commonly referred to in modern America as "District Attorneys"); in effect, any citizen could bring an indictment against any other citizen, and call for a trial. And that's basically what happened to Socrates.
Here in America, in 2006, notwithstanding what Vice President Cheney said, President George . Bush stated, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me." Bush was responding to a reporter's question on August 21; Bush was asked if he believed, according to http://mediamatters.org, that the "Democrats advocating for U.S. withdrawal from Iraq 'embolden Al Qaeda types' as...Cheney similarly stated. Bush's answer was, "I will never question the patriotism of somebody who disagrees with me... [although] leaving [Iraq] before the job would be done would be to send a signal to our troops that the sacrifices they made were not worth it...this has…
Allen, R.E. (1980). Socrates and Legal Obligation. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis
American Sociological Association. (2006). "Statement...on Creationism and Related Religious
Doctrines in U.S. Science Education." Retrieved 18 Oct. 2006 at http://www.asanet.org .
As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of the body. Extreme agility and presence of mind are required to every hoplite in the exhausting close combat.
The defeated phalanx has only two choices to survive: The first option would be is to drop their weapons and flee hastily without being pursued by the victorious opponent which is normal in Greek Warfare. The second option is to retreat in the same formation in an orderly manner. However, this situation based on historical events often happens. After which, 5. victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the "custom of the Greeks"(Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2005).
History: Development and Downfall
As the economy of Ancient Greece developed, city states have focused their attention in developing a much reliable armies…
Athenian Daily Life; Roger Dunkle, Brooklyn College (2005) Extracted September 25, 2006: Website:
The Development of the Greek World 800-500 BC; Jeffery Lumb; HSC Online (2006) Extracted September 25, 2006 Website:
He argues that there is a duty resting on convention, which he considers in a deep and morally weighty sense, based on an implied but nonetheless binding contract between the individual and the state:
It is a fact, then," they would say, "that you are breaking covenants and undertakings made with us, although you mad them under no compulsion of misunderstanding, and were not compelled to decide in a limited time; you had seventy years in which you could have left the country, if you were not satisfied with us of felt that the agreements were unjust (Plato, 1993, p. 89).
In other words, Socrates has enjoyed the benefit of the laws all his life and cannot now break them without breaking an implicit agreement he has made with the state based on his acceptance of the law over his lifetime.
Plato's ideal state is not a democracy, and…
Burn, a.R. (1949). Pericles and Athens. New York: Macmillan.
Kimball, R. (2002). Freedom and Duty: Pericles and Our Times. The National Interest, 81-85.
Lakoff, S.A. (1996). Democracy: History, Theory, Practice. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Plutarch (1909). Plutarch's Lives: Volume 12. New York: P.F. Collier & Son.
RITUALISTIC, RELIGIOUS, AND PRACTICAL USES OF PULIC SPACE AT THE ATHENIAN ACROPOLIS AND TRAJAN'S FORUM
Acropolis is renowned as a fortified natural stronghold or citadel in ancient Greece. Greeks built their towns in plains near or around a rocky hill that could easily be fortified and defended. Nearly every Greek city had its acropolis, which provided a safe place of refuge for townspeople during times of turmoil or war. Rulers of the town often lived within the walls of this stronghold. In many cases the acropolis became the site of temples and public buildings and thus served as the town's religious center, focal point of its public life, and as a place of refuge.
The Athenian Acropolis is the most well-known acropolis of the ancient world. Ruins of its temples and their sculptures are widely regarded as the finest examples of ancient Greek art and architecture. uilt on a limestone…
Allen, J.T. "On the Athenian Theater Before 441 B.C." University of California Publishers in Classical Archaeology, Berkley: University of California Press 1.no.6 (1937) 169-172
Andronicos, Manolis. The Acropolis. Athens, Greece: Ekdotike Athenon S.A., 1975.
Bennett, J., Trajan Optimus Princeps. A Life and Times (London and New York, 1997)
Bieber, M. History of the Greek and Roman Theater New Jersey: Princeton University Press (1961)
Thucydides was an Athenian, but had very little reason for offering a distorted view of the war that was eventually won by Sparta.
Jackson states, "Thucydides was an active participant in Athens for a time, he had a network of contacts, while banished to Thrace he observed the war there first hand, and as an Athenian exile he traveled along the Peloponnese" (Jackson, p.175). Thucydides wrote of a Sparta that used an eight deep fighting stance against the Athenians who could not, or did not, adapt to a style that would lead to victory when battling against that type of tactic.
Other army tactics began to be used after the Peloponnesian ar, many of which were introduced by the Spartans in order to maintain their military might. One such tactic would play a key role in the battle of Leuctra.
Of particular relevance to Leuctra, however, was the battle of…
Cawkwell, G.L. (1983) the Decline of Sparta, Classical Quarterly, Vol. 33, Issue ii, pp. 385-400
Hind, a. (2006) Weaponry: It took a humiliating major defeat to convince the Spartans to adopt the bow and arrow, Military History, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pp. 12-14
Jackson, M.W., (2007) Cracking the Thucydides code, Antioch Review, Vol. 65, Number 1, pp. 173-184
Walker, M., (2001) Bush's Choice: Athens or Sparta, World Policy, Vol. 18, Number 2, pp. 1-9
As an historian and a citizen of that democratic city, Thucydides was faced with a task no less daunting -- how to make the saga of a losing war seem like a triumph, or at least seem interesting and relevant, rather than something Athens wished to forget.
hen reading Thucydides, one does not read about an ancient war, rather one is witness to the process of historical story, of a history of narrative being created, even the first citing of 'spin' if you like. Unlike the Spartans, for the Athenians in Pericles' oration, "advancement in public life falls to reputation for capacity," and the freedom enjoyed "in our government extends also to our ordinary life. There, far from exercising a jealous surveillance over each other, we do not feel called upon to be angry with our neighbor for doing what he likes, or even to indulge in those injurious looks…
Thucydides. "The Histories: The History of the Peloponnesian War." MIT Classical Archive. 2004. 6 Dec 2004 http://classics.mit.edu/Thucydides/pelopwar.2.second.html
institute such strict military controls?
Sparta's militarism and commitment to maintaining a standing army was no accident. "Sparta seems to have developed gradually as a practical response to unusual circumstances," ("History of Sparta," n.d.). "The evolution of the Spartan army began during the heroic Mycenaean age (1600 BCE to 1100 BCE), a time in Greek history when tactics were simple and warriors sought individual glory (and fought out of formation)," ("The Spartan Military," 2010). Moreover, the Dorians staged frequent invasions into the area. Sparta needed to protect its borders. By the 8th century B.C.E., Spartan leaders realized the value of a standing army and implemented one in the interests of what can be called national security. Later, Spartan militarism would threaten Athenian dominance. Sparta found itself in the situation of needing to institute strict military controls as a matter of self-preservation.
One reason why Sparta instituted strict military controls was…
Gill, N.H. (n.d.). Sparta: A Military State. Retrieved online: http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/sparta/a/spartamilitstat.htm
"History of Sparta," (n.d.). History World. Retrieved online: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac44
Sekunda, N. (1998). The Spartan Army. Osprey.
"The Spartan Military," (2010). Ancient Military.com. Retrieved online: http://www.ancientmilitary.com/spartan-military.htm
Salvaging Democracy consent of the governed) then one is not in a democracy, though democratic elements may exist. America, for example, was founded as a republic and not as a democracy (though with time it has shifted towards being more ogliarchical in some aspects and more democratic in others). The more traditional definition of democracy needs to be understood if one is to approach the philosophy of the classical Greek philosophers. Ancient Greece, one must understand, is one of the few places in the world or in history where democracy has actually been practiced in a state setting. The polises of Greece such as Athens were frequently democratic, and all citizens had a right to vote on issues ranging from laws to criminal trials. True Democracy has only thrived in classical Greece, yet the greatest Greek philosophers condemned it in favor of a more Republican or even Aristocratic regime that…
Aristotle. Politics. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. New York: Dover Publications, 2000.
Plato. The Republic. Trans. G.M. Grube. New York: Hackett Publishing Company, 1992.
Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War (excerpt). Trans. Richard Crawley. Archived at http://ancienthistory.about.com/library/bl/bl_thucydides_funeral.htm
Thucydides and Plato had conflicting methods in their attitudes toward the good life. Thucydides demonstrates empirical thinking in his readings of human nature and comportment throughout the Peloponnesian War and Plato demonstrates normative thinking in the writing within his books and discourses in particular Gorigia. Plato's interpretations of a good life revolve on principles that an individual has reached contentment. What contentment means to Plato is a person who has no desires because that person possesses all-encompassing love in his/her life.
Plato understood this to be equal for everyone and that displaying entire virtue is accessible by everyone. Virtue is accessed by everyone when one has all love and none of the desires. This is how Plato views access to virtue which is markedly different from Thucydides' perspective. Plato's understanding of love more so involves a mythological comprehension of the world.
The Greek Historian, Thucydides, however, demonstrated his imperialistic methodology…
Benardete, S. (2009). The rhetoric of morality and philosophy: Plato's Gorgias and Phaedrus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mara, G.M. (2008). The civic conversations of Thucydides and Plato: Classical political philosophy and the limits of democracy. Albany: SUNY Press.
Van, P.R., & Westfall, C.W. (1993). Architectural principles in the age of historicism. New Haven: Yale University Press.
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…
Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.
Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/
Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.
Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…
UFI.(2009). The Trade Fair Industry in Asia, 5th edition: A UFI report researched and compiled by Business Strategies Group Executive Summary -- for UFI members only." Business Strategies Group Ltd. [online] Available at http://www.ufi.org/media/membersarea/studies_reports/2009_bsg_report_summary_andorder_form.pdf [Accessed 10 May, 2012].
Viardot, E. (2004). Successful Marketing Strategy for High-Tech Firms. Volume 5. NY: Artech House
Yeshin, T. (2006). Sales Promotion. NY:Cengage Learning
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…
Works Cited, continued
Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on November 25, 2009 from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.htmlWallerstein , Immanuel. (1983): "Historical Capitalism." Thetford Press, Limited: Norfolk.
White, Michael (2007). "Machiavelli, A Man Misunderstood." Abacus.
Overall, Philip's main goal was to create a united Macedonia and thus instill in his people the desire to bring about the collapse of the Persian Empire which in his eyes would bring about much-needed economic changes in Macedonian society, all for the good of its citizens and its king.
One of Philip's most important triumphs as king of Macedonia prior to the rise of Alexander the Great was the creation of the League of Corinth which came about after the battle of Chaeronea in oeotia in 338 .C.E. Although the defeated Greek states were allowed to keep their internal freedoms, they were compelled by Philip to join his alliance with himself as its undisputed leader. The creation of this league was a decisive turning point in the history of ancient Greece, for never again would Greek states be allowed to make their own foreign policies without considering the wishes…
Ginouves, Rene. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman Conquest. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,
Philip II of Macedon Biography." History of Macedonia. 2003. Internet. Retrieved November 10, 2008 at http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedoniaPhilipofMacedon.html.
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.
In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…
Bruno, Vincent. The Parthenon. NY W.W. Norton & Company, 1996. Print.
Fergusson, James. The Parthenon. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1883.
"The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization." PBS. Web. 28 Nov 2011.
This essay examines the meaning of culture and provides several possible titles and topics that may be used as starting points for developing a paper on culture. It discusses the definition of culture, how culture is developed, and how cultures change. It shows how cultural identity and cultural differences are formed and how culture diversity is a fact of life. It also explains why in spite of diverse cultures commonly existing in one group there is usually a dominant culture that comes to the fore and is promoted by the leaders of the group. The essay closes with recommendations for other ways in which a paper on culture can be written.
Culture is the heart and soul of a society, group or organization: it is the manifestation of what a particular set of people thinks, feels, believes in, and holds as ideal. It is the communication of what a people…
Abraham to Jesus with other Major Historical Events
2100 BC: Abraham moves to Canaan under a direct order from God. Canaan later becomes Israel.
2000 BC: Jacob, grandson of Abraham, is born in Canaan. Jacob is later renamed Israel. His 12 sons become the heads of the 12 Tribes of Israel.
Hammurabi builds up Babylon in the Fertile Crescent.
The Minoan Bronze Age in Crete.
1900 BC: One of Jacob's sons (Joseph) is sold into slavery. Joseph rises to power in Egypt.
1500 BC: The Indian Hindu Scriptures the Rig-Veda are completed.
1400 BC: The Israelites (after being enslaved for four centuries by Pharaoh) are led by Moses out of Egypt. Joshua takes the lead after Moses dies. It is to Moses that the first five books of the Old Testament are attributed.
1200 BC: The Trojan War.
1000 BC: Saul becomes king of the Israelites. David is anointed. David…
Roman Empire and the Athenian Empire were alike in many ways. oth developed a culture based on the same mythology in order to unite their people in belief (the Romans Latinized the Greek gods and goddesses but the narratives remained largely the same). Individuals like Socrates in Athens or the early Christians in Rome were persecuted for teaching a faith that opposed the native mythology (Haaren, 2010). oth empires expanded their influence through war: the Romans conquered lands as far away as England, while the Athenians kept mainly to Greece but did repel invaders (like the Persians) and war against other city-states (as in the Peloponnesian Wars) in order to secure their own routes, borders and dominance in the region (Rome similarly destroyed Carthage multiple times so as to maintain its dominance). oth Rome and Athens were culturally and militarily suited to dominate, and this paper will describe how both…
Haaren, J. (2010). Famous Men of Greece. NY: ReadaClassic.
This classic work by Haaren is certainly a scholarly source, as Haaren was a highly respected classics professor and president of the department of pedagogy at Brooklyn Institute. His Famous Men series has been used by educators for decades to inform students about the history of the ancient civilizations. In this book, Haaren describes the lives and times of various important Grecian figures, including Pericles and Socrates. I plan on using this source to provide information on Athens and what it achieved during its height of empire as well as how it achieved it.
Homer. (2004). The Iliad. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Homer's epic poem is a classic of literature that has been respected, admired, taught and read for centuries. It provides insight into the Grecian mind as well as how the Greeks used mythology in their own lives. I plan to use this source in order to support the argument that Athens used culture to maintain its empire -- by building temples to the gods and goddesses, by celebrating art (drama), and by memorializing the heroic deeds of its ancestors.
Specifically, Caesar masterfully showed how through building alliances one may achieve power and rise to the top of the leadership tier even in a group or society as vast as the Ancient Roman Empire (Abbott, 1901, p.385).
The Roman Empire also provides an example of organizational systems within the public domain through the Republican system. In the Roman Republican system of government, one man did not have the power to make law. Instead, power was balanced amongst three different branches of government: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial ("The Roman Empire"). In fact, this form of government introduced the concept of a senatorial body to the public. In Rome, the Senate was designed as a separate body of government from that of the Emperor so as to avoid the tyranny of one leader. Through the advent of the Senate, the Romans laid the groundwork for leadership structure of Britain…
Particularly post war era women entered the workforce in huge numbers but there were many hindrances in their way as they tried to secure their credit. They had to found for the ownership of property as well as equal right to employment opportunities and salary. The idea of women being spender in the house also strengthened. As a result of reforms in the society women became powerful economically and socially.
eligious leaders were of the opinion that "religious principles should be broadened so as to include 'all useful social theories' lest Christianity be left behind in the onward march of society." (Charles Howard Hopkins, 1940. P.32)
As envisaged by the Christian religious leaders, the office of deaconess declared that women can a deaconess, with the provision that she holds right spirit and the appropriate training (Golder, 1908) yet the best role for her lies under the institution of marriage.
Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.
Charles Howard Hopkins, "The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism 1865-1915" New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1940, p. 32.
Chatman, S.. "Discourse: Non-narrated stories. In S. Chatman (Ed.), Story and discourse: Narrative structure in fiction and film" (pp. 146-195). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1978
Christian Golder, "History of the Deaconess Movement in the Christian Church" Cincinnati, OH: Jennings and Pye, 1908. pp. 527-528.
Socrates as Not an Enemy to the State
as Socrates an enemy of the state? There are two appropriate answers -- "yes" and "no." But first a definition of "enemy" is needed. In Mark Twain's short story "The Mysterious Stranger," Satan explains why there will always be war. It is because "a loud little handful" at first instigates it then, "…the great, big, dull bulk of the nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war… [and later] statesmen… [will] blame…the nation that is attacked" -- in other words, as long as the "enemy" is identified, there will always be war. Therefore, an "enemy" is not just someone to distrust or despise, or someone who threatens the peace and safety of a community, but someone to blame. In the case of Socrates and his trial, the court apparently found Socrates to be…
Works Cited (In addition to Dr. Urban)
Ahbel-Rappe, Sara. Socrates: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Continuum International
Publishing Group, 2009.
Cooper, John Madison. The Trial and Death of Socrates: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Death
Scene from Phaedo. Cambridge, MA: Hackett Publishing, 2000.
The temple itself was built to embody Athena's presence, both in its intention and in its physical construction.
For example, the columns used in Greek temples were the Doric, Ionic, and the Corinthian. The Doric was "not only a type of column, but an 'order'; this means that the temples of the Doric order not only have this type of column, but also have a certain structure at the upper levels" (Silverman). Furthermore, there were other stylistic elements of the Parthenon that demonstrated its religious significance. The Metopes were a series of small structures on the sides of the Parthenon. The Metopes depicted various battles between order and chaos. The Pediments on the Parthenon, which are relief sculptures that are larger than the Metopes, depict events in the life of Athena. In addition, there is a frieze running along the upper edge of the wall of the Parthenon. The frieze…
Parthenon." Wikipedia. 2005. Wikipedia. 12 Mar. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon .
Parthenon, Athens, Greece." Places of Peace and Power. 2005. Sacredsites. 12 Mar. 2005 http://www.sacredsites.com/europe/greece/parthenon.html .
Silverman, David. "The Parthenon." Humanities. 2005. Reed College. 12 Mar. 2005 http://academic.reed.edu/humanities/110Tech/Parthenon.html .
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…
History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides
Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt
Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:
Everyman's Library, 1973.
Naturally, the ruins of Cuzco and Machu Pichu of which some monuments and constructions are intact tells us that the Ican were master masons and builders. Large slabs of stone were put together to design these complex and beautiful structures. (Kleiner and Mamiya, 2006) What is also interesting is that there was no cement or mortar put between the stones to hold them in place. The massive stones fit together so well, that they could not be dislodged. It has also stood the test of time. There has been a significant scientific effort to find out (using computers and simulations) how the Incas built these monuments without the benefit of advances of science. Various theories have been advanced, but modern science cannot explain Incan architecture. (Hemmings and anney, 1982)
The End of the Incan Civilization
It is said that the end of the civilization happens from within. The weight…
Bauer, Brian S. The Sacred Landscape of the Inca: The Cusco Ceque System. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1998.
Hemmings, John, and Edward Ranney. Monuments of the Incas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982.
Julien, Catherine. Reading Inca History. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2000.
Kleiner, Fred S., and Christin J. Mamiya. Gardner's Art through Teh Ages: Non-Western Perspectives. New York: Thomson and Wadsworth, 2006.
repeatedly, and indeed many of us believe to be true, that there is nothing new under the sun, it is nevertheless always a little startling to find that issues that we consider to be thoroughly modern have in fact been being discussed for thousands of years. This is the case when one reads Aristophanes's The Clouds, which is a very witty indictment of new educational ideas in vogue during his lifetime in Athens.
hat makes this work so entertaining - other than the language itself, which we can appreciate even in translation - is the fact Aristophanes has a gift for allowing us to see the real silliness of the ways in which education and pedagogy are politicized. This play is not simply a debate about the best way in which to teach the youth of Athens. Rather, it is about how different groups holding power in Athenian society can…
Aristophanes. The Clouds. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.
Jepsen, L. The Art of Aeschylus. Berkeley: UC Press, 1983. http://classics.mit.edu/Aristophanes/clouds.html
Plato: Life, Philosophies, And Influence
Time Period Plato Lived in.
Plato was born in 428 BC and grew up in a time of major political change in Ancient Greece. The Peloponnesian ar began a few years after he was born and continued until he was twenty. Plato would have been liable to serve in the military after 407 BC and it is thought that he probably served in the final years of the war (Luce 94).
During the final years of the war, open disloyalty to democracy grew. This led to a period where the group known as the Thirty Tyrants ruled Athens. This group included two of Plato's relatives, Critias and Charmides. hile Plato was tied to the group through family, it is believed that he was against their beliefs and actions. These actions included confiscating goods from wealthy citizens and putting many individuals to death (Irwin 85). At…
Appiah, A. Necessary Questions: An Introduction to Philosophy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.
Irwin, T. A History of Western Philosophy: Classical Thought. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Luce, J.V. An Introduction to Greek Philosophy. London: Thomas and Hudson, 1992.
Plato." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001. Retrieved October 23, 2002. URL: http://www.bartleby.com/65/pl/Plato.html
" Pericles said that Athenians did not have to be forced to chose the lot of the soldier, they loved the land that gave them the freedom to chose to live the way they wanted, rather than to fulfill a predetermined ideal and thus, when necessary: "They resigned to hope their unknown chance of happiness; but in the face of death they resolved to rely upon themselves alone." In a democracy, the citizen's sense of self-reliance is its life-blood. Values are created and chosen by consensus and the consent of the governed, not by a single, 'philosophical' intelligence and thus the values are more enthusiastically believed, and because they exercise choice from birth, people more able to undertake creative intellectual change, as they did in ancient Athens. The limits of Yahoo society, although it seems to be more socially stable than most democracies, is that people will not believe in…
Socrates' speech in Plato's Apology. It is this author's opinion that Socrates' position that the unexamined life is not worth living has validity. We will see that this is the case as we examine Socrates' spontaneous oration regarding virtue and how it can not be learned. Obviously, if the lives of these youths had been virtuous, then it might have been possible for them to learn this character trait and to prove Socrates wrong. This is the case because only when someone examines their life do they shake off their bigotry and raise their awareness to a higher level.
As alluded to in the introduction, Socrates is correct that the unexamined life is not worth living. This is because only those people who struggle to resolve the contradictions in their life have an existence that is real. Those who do not are at best ignorant and at worst bigots who…
Bloom, Allan, narr. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 1 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23
Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .
Bloom, Allan, narr.. "Allan Bloom on Plato's Apology of Socrates 2 ." Mr. Allan Bloom. You Tube, 23
Feb. 2009. web. 22 Feb 2012. .
Q2. Plato believed that, just as skilled craftsman should confine themselves to making shoes and warriors should confine themselves to fighting, only 'the best' should rule. Individuals with great aptitudes to be philosophers should be selected and taught to lead the people, and leadership by the majority was dangerous. The Platonic 'Guardians' would be taken away from their family at birth and given special training by other philosophers, so they would know how to govern. This reflects Socrates' notion of philosophy and leadership as specialized skills rather than something that can be practiced by all individuals equally effectively, as the concept of Athenian democracy would suggest. For Socrates, justice is not based in the concept of giving each citizen equal opportunities; justice means creating a perfect society. Making sure that the 'perfect' cobblers make shoes, the perfect warriors defend the city, and the best minds rule on earth makes society…
Another aspect that the search engines use to line up web pages, besides the frequency of the characters, is the appropriateness of the topic i.e. A search on "elephants" will not yield the same results as a search on "elephants in Africa" or "animal rights: elephants (Valenza, 1997). This difference has to be explained by the librarian-teachers to the students in the initial stages of their online research endeavors so that when they conduct research on a more vast topic, they have to ability to break own the topic and concentrate on the words and areas that will yield the most relevant information at the quickest pace. It is important to note here that the accuracy of a the use of words is also part of knowledge management as it requires an individual to first manage the little knowledge he has on the topic, i.e. distinguishing the important aspects for…
Agosto, D.E. (2002). Bounded rationality and satisfying in young people's web-based decision making. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(1), 16-27.
Chen, S.-H. L. (2003). Searching the online catalog and the World Wide Web. Journal of Educational Media and Library Sciences, 47(1), 29-43.
Gadzella B.M. And Baloglu. (2003). M. High and Low Achieving Education Students on Processing, Retaining and Retrieval of Information. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30:2.
Hirsh, S.G. (1997). How do children find information on different types of tasks? Children's use of the Science Library Catalog. Library Trends, 45(4), 725-746.
Given that Christianity tended to view history as progressive, and Christ's sacrifice and the event of Christendom being the ultimate apex of earlier civilization, the past was often seen as an inferior precursor to the present in a particularly judgmental light -- hence the persecution of certain groups as infidels and outsiders. It is the historian and the anthropologist's duty to unpack such cultural assumptions and to view the world through a less morally-clouded and self-justifying lens.
Episode 2: Conquest. (2005). Guns, Germs & Steel. PBS. Retrieved May 31, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/gunsgermssteel/show/episode2.html
Anthropological research project: Celebrating women anthropologists
his website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa,…
This website catalogues the research of famous women anthropologists throughout the ages. It has a specifically feminist slant, and details the research these women engaged in, along with their personal struggles for recognition in the field. While most people are familiar with the work of Margaret Mead in Samoa, Zora Neale Hurston's cataloging of African-American folklore and Dian Fosse and her work with primates, the accomplishments of other pioneering female anthropologists have often been forgotten.
Even during the 19th century, women such as Alice Cunningham Fletcher studied other cultures from an objective anthropological lens. Fletcher acted as a consultant to President Grover Cleveland on the 'Indian Problem,' studied and recorded Native American music, customs, and language, and also acted as an advocate for the restoration of Native American land. Ellen Irene Diggs, an anthropologist who studied with W.E.B. DuBois researched, proofread and footnoted DuBois' work Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. She was one of the first anthropologists to study the relationship of African and Cuban history and heritage.
Mary Nichol Douglas Leakey, a biological anthropologist, had no formal university training. Yet she discovered the skull of Proconsul africanus in Kenya 1947-48, the skull of an early human prototype Zinjanthropus in Olduvai Gorge in 1959, and 3.5 million-year-old footprints in Laetoli in 1976. These discoveries made major contributions to the understanding of the development of humanity. Leakey's work and the work of other women is testimony to the fact that even when denied a full range of opportunities to practice their craft, female anthropologists have used the opportunities they have been given to shine and make major contributions to the advancement of knowledge. Women anthropologists, as reflective of their marginalized place in society, have also been apt to fuse social activism with their discipline. They have used knowledge as a method of advocacy, and made education of the public a means to restore dignity and justice to the social perceptions of marginalized peoples.
role of deities in "The Iliad," by Homer, the poetry of Sappho, and "Pericles Funeral Oration," by Thucydides. Specifically it will discuss how significant the deities are in the three pieces, and why deities played such an important part in ancient literature.
IMPORTANCE of the DEITIES
The Gods (deities) play an extremely important part throughout these three pieces, and through much of ancient literature. The gods were extremely important to the Greeks, who believed they lived atop Mount Olympus, ruled by Zeus, the father and leader of the Gods. In "The Iliad," Achilles often turns to the Gods to aid him in battle and in his personal life. People believed the Gods could influence everything in their lives, and so often asked them for help and advice, as Achilles does. "I came to see if I could check this temper of yours, / Sent from heaven by the white-armed goddess…
Homer. The Iliad. Translated by Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis, in:, 1997.
Robinson, David M. Sappho and Her Influence. Boston: Marshall Jones Company, 1924.
Thucydides. Pericles Funeral Oration [book online]. 6 June 1999, accessed 16 Oct. 2002;
Truths by Mortimer Adler.
Review current literature.
Mortimer Adler was a man who made significant contributions to the field of education
The following information is provided to create a better understanding of the man and his writing. Mortimer Adler is known for his many contributions to the field of education and philosophy. Throughout his professional and personal life, he was consumed with the desire to learn and to teach others. His approach to education became instrumental in advancing the idea that philosophy is integrated with other disciplines such as Literature, cience, and Religion.
He was the author of numerous books and articles and played a significant role in American educational reform in the twentieth century. He is best known for his efforts in promoting the Great Books of the Western World for reflection and systematic study. He was ultimately responsible for publishing the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Great Books of the Western…
Steven Puro, Political Science Dept., St. Louis Univ.Copyright 1987 Reed Business Information, Inc.
Mortimer Jerome Adler. http://www.education.miami.edu
Mortimer J. Adler: Reforming Education. http://www.classicalhomeschooling.com.Summer 2000.
From this point-of-view, Aeneas can be viewed as having failed also from the role of hero because he did not succeed in averting the danger. Even so, it is important to note the fact that Berlioz portrayed him still as a chosen individual. The fact that Aeneas had a premonition in a dream of the falling Troy made him a particular actor in the scene. The symbolism in this sense is related to the dream and the warning. However, the warning came too late and Aeneas failed as the head of his men and as the potential defender of Troy.
There are two feminine characters in Les Troyens. One is Dido, Queen of Carthage, and Cassandra, the Trojan prophetess and Priam's daughter. Cassandra's role however is very important because it draws the attention on the Shakespearian influences of the opera. In most of Shakespeare's works there is such a present.…
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…
Kagan, D., S. Ozment, and F. Turner. (1995). The Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
Moreover, the empire was politically as well as geographically fragmented. Macedonian rule was tolerated only as long as Alexander remained alive.
3. The reasons civilizations developed with particular robustness in the Near East can be narrowed down to geography and the migratory patterns of early humans. Known as the Fertile Crescent, the Eastern Mediterranean offered arable land complete with a plethora of indigenous flora and fauna for domestication and cultivation. Moreover, animal domestication flourished in the Near East. Agriculture and animal husbandry necessitated the rise of early cities, whereas in less fertile regions hunting and gathering remained more productive means to procure food. Early humans, traveling from the African subcontinent, naturally found the Fertile Crescent a suitable place for developing permanent settlements. As disparate groups settled throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, geography also permitted the ready trade of goods, people, and ideas. The sea and a location close to East Asia…
Ancient History Timeline." Thinkquest. Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/10805/timeline.html
Hooker, R. (1996). "Sparta." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/SPARTA.htm
Hooker, R. (1996). "Athens." Retrieved Feb 11, 2007 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/ATHENS.htm
Kings Rulers Emperors Dictators Tyrants and Military Leaders" About.com http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/rulersleaderskings/Kings_Rulers_Emperors_Dictators_Tyrants_and_Military_Leaders.htm
For Aristotle, true freedom and liberty consists in ruling and being ruled in turn and not always insisting on fulfilling one's own personal desires at the cost of others. Thus, for dysseus, true freedom can only come about when one is allowed to contribute to society for the betterment of everyone involved, a sure sign of moral correctness and rational thinking.
In addition, Aristotle stressed the importance of justice and goodness, for he believed that people possess a sort of inborn knowledge concerning what is right and what is wrong; however, irrational desires often overrule such knowledge and leads people to commit wrong acts or behave inappropriately. This conflict of desires in human beings could be overcome by achieving self-control via training the mind to win out over primitive instincts and passions. Thus, intelligence is the finest human quality and the mind is the true self, the god-like aspect of…
One special dramatic festival was devoted to Dionysus, the Greek god of wine, and featured what were known as satyr plays, so-called because the actors portrayed half-human, half-animal roles, often in the form of a goat. The term tragedy is derived from the words "goat" and "song" and refers to plays with plots involving fierce conflicts and characters which symbolized powerful human and divine forces. Certainly, Homer's Odyssey could be viewed as one of these types of plays, due to the conflicts encountered by Odysseus on his way home to Ithaca and the will of the gods who often attempted to complicate his journeys through sorcery and magic, such as Odysseus and his troubles with Circe, the beautiful female witch that turned his men into pigs as a form of punishment.
A the ultimate example of a democratic social system with freedom, personal responsibilities and moral direction. However, although Odysseus the man was not without his faults and failures, he does symbolize the true Greek hero and citizen elite, due to his unfaltering goal to return home to his wife Penelope and to bring peace and tranquillity to Ithaca.
Connolly, Peter. The Ancient Greece of Odysseus. UK: Oxford University Press, 2003.