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The most critical aspect of these systems is the ability to create a highly collaborative, communicative, trusting environment for workers (Bert, 2009). It is not the software that matters the most; it is the ability of a leader to bring lasting change into an organization and lead it to a transformational state over the long-term (Krishnan, 2004). That is the role of an excellent leader implementing these social network tools and propagating them throughout the company.
The statement that social network style tools may prove to be more effective in bringing out the performance of a boss is also predicated on how well they are aligned to the specific needs of the company, and more specifically, the employees. The focus needs to be on using these tools to increase the transparency and information velocity throughout a business if it is to be effective over the long-term. No amount of orders…
Bert, R. (2009). Driving results through social networks: How top organizations leverage networks for performance and growth. Civil Engineering, 79(6), 70.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Krishnan, V.R. (2004). Impact of transformational leadership on followers influence strategies. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(1), 58-72.
Mead, S.P. (2001). Using social network analysis to visualize project teams. Project Management Journal, 32(4), 32-38.
The benefits of performance appraisals for both employers and employees
Performance management has become endemic to virtually all large organizations world-wide. "An estimated 80-90 per cent of organisations in the U.S.A. And UK use appraisals, and there has been an increase from 69 per cent to 87 per cent of organisations between 1998 and 2004 using formal performance management systems" (Prowse & Prowse 2009). The benefits for performance appraisal are fairly obvious for organizations: they enable managers to give feedback to employees so employees can align their behaviors better with desired organizational objectives. They also provide a 'paper trail' in case an employee is upset about his or her treatment regarding wages and benefits. However, performance appraisals can also be beneficial from the employee's point-of-view. They can help the employee identify and remedy both positive and negative behaviors and enable him or her to enhance aspects of his…
Akdere, M. (2006). Quality management through human resources: An integrated approach to performance improvement. The Business Review, Cambridge, 5(2), 233-238.
Chan, C., & Wai-ming Mak. (2012). High performance human resource practices and organizational performance. Journal of Chinese Human Resources Management, 3(2),
136-150. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20408001211279238
Fesharaki, M.S.H., Fesharaki, S.H.H., & Allameh, S.M. (2012). The influence of employees' involvement in performance assessment system on employees' creativity. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 2(11), 310-320.
Performance Analysis and Intervention at ork
An entire field of study has grown up around the issue of job performance. It is called various names, workplace engineering, quality control, human performance technology, performance technology, and performance engineering, among others. Obviously, performance only becomes an issue when there is a gap between the desired objective and the current output. There are numerous models used to analyze job performance and productive intervention methodology. One thing they all have in common is that all attempts to correct insufficient job performance must start with a complete analysis of the current job performance compared to the desired job performance. Further, in order to formulate en effective correction technique, one must thoroughly understand the problem. Only by completing a thorough analysis can one implement an effective fix.
The means of analysis vary widely. There is a multitude of literature regarding performance analysis. The first step in…
Rosenberg, Marc. Human Performance Technology. In R. Craig (Ed.), The ASTD Training & Development Handbook (4th ed.) ( pp. 370-393). New York: McGraw- Hill, 1996.
"Types of Work Performance Problems." University of Minnesota Office of Human Resources.
Last Revised April 28, 2008. Web. 31 Jan. 2012.
Rossett, Allison. Analysis for Human Performance Technology. In H. Stolovich & E. Keeps
shares (which can only be purchased by foreign investors in foreign currencies (Cao 2000). In addition, Chinese law classifies shares by reference to the status of the shareholders: state shares, legal person shares, and individual shares. State shares are purchased with state assets by governmental departments and usually constitute fifty percent or more of all issued shares, which means that the state is a majority shareholder in most instances. Legal person shares are owned by entities such as companies and institutions -- usually other state enterprises (Cao 2000).
By contrast, individual shares are held by employees or individual investors from the general public. Only individual shares of listed companies can be traded on the stock exchanges. State shares and legal person shares, on the other hand, are nontransferable, thus ensuring that the state and its agencies retain their respective dominance. For example, in 1996, when the Shanghai-listed Beijing Light Bus…
Cao, L. (2000). 'Chinese Privatization: Between Plan and Market.' Law and Contemporary
Problems, vol. 63, no. 4, p. 13.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-Business. London: Routledge.
Lin, K-C. (2008). 'Macroeconomic Disequilibria and Enterprise Reform: Restructuring the Chinese Oil and Petrochemical Industries in the 1990s.' The China Journal, vol. 60, pp.
I totally agree with the statement that managers who have regular conversions with their employees will definitely know where their employees stand hence performance evaluation maybe unnecessary. Through such regular conversions, their subordinates would appreciate their essential functions in that particular organization. They will list their major responsibilities beginning with the most important one going down to the least important. Through the conversation the manager will gauge whether an employee understands the job duties and responsibilities; whether they posses sufficient skills and knowledge required to perform given responsibilities effectively; whether they understand and promote that particular organization's mission and values; and whether they are making some deliberate effort to stay abreast with new developments. With regard to organizational skills, the interaction between an organization's management and their employees will make the management be in a position to gauge the employees' ability to prioritize workload and manage information flow.…
Columbia Theological Seminary. (2007). Employee Performance Evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.ctsnet.edu/files/forms/bf_hrperformanceevaluation.pdf
LaManna, L. (2012). An Inside Look at How Gen Y, Gen X, and Baby Boomers View the Workplace. Retrieved from http://www.business2community.com/human-resources/an-inside-look-at-how-gen-y-gen-x-and-baby-boomers-view-the-workplace-0332587
McGregor, J. (2007). Performance Review Takes a Page from Facebook. Bloomberg Businessweek. http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2009-03-11/performance-review-takes-a-page-from-facebook
United Nations Joint Staff Pension Fund. (n.d.).Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X,
In the presentational approach information is not intended to play a role in the decision making and does not do so (OECD. March 2008). The performance-informed approach utilizes information however, the information does not determine the amount of resources allocated and does not have a predefined weight in the decisions (OECD. March 2008). Lastly, direct performance involves allocating resources based on results achieved (OECD. March 2008). Clearly the direct performance approach provides the greatest utility for determining future funding levels yet, according to the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), performance budgeting is used to identify potential impacts of a proposed policy change, make policy decisions that reduce cost while maintaining effectiveness, and make changes to improve program effectiveness. However, when determining funding levels and defining desired levels of service relative to funding, legislators currently rely on workload and output measures. (OECD. March 2008)
A fundamental attribute of…
"Performance-driven budgeting is the process by which states use appropriate performance metrics to decide where and how they should spend their money to achieve desired results" (the Pew Center. N.D.). The trend in governmental policy making has been toward a comprehensive approach which utilizes informational metrics and incorporates the data "into the budget documents, but simply including information on performance in budget documents is a long way from performance budgeting" (OECD. March 2008). Of the advantages of performance budgeting is its flexibility of incorporation into budgetary considerations. In analyzing the use of performance budgeting, the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development emphasized three approaches which "link funds allocated to measureable results: presentational, performance informed, and direct performance" (OECD. March 2008).
In the presentational approach "information is not intended to play a role in the decision making and does not do so" (OECD. March 2008). The performance-informed approach utilizes information however, the information "does not determine the amount of resources allocated and does not have a predefined weight in the decisions" (OECD. March 2008). Lastly, direct performance "involves allocating resources based on results achieved" (OECD. March 2008). Clearly the direct performance approach provides the greatest utility for determining future funding levels yet, according to the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), performance budgeting is used to identify potential impacts of a proposed policy change, make policy decisions that reduce cost while maintaining effectiveness, and make changes to improve program effectiveness. However, when determining funding levels and defining desired levels of service relative to funding, legislators currently rely on workload and output measures. (OECD. March 2008)
A fundamental attribute of performance budgeting is the manner in which it is used to achieve a desired result. The GAO study which analyzed the states of: Arizona, Washington, Maryland, Virginia, and Texas "found that performance information has influenced legislative budget deliberations" (U.S. GAO. February 2005). The extent to which policy is impacted by performance information is correlated with the desire of legislators to achieve substantive change. As an example it is important to consider the effect and efficacy of performance budgeting on funding levels. As the OECD policy brief articulates "it is a very tall order to expect agencies to provide objective information if it will be used to cut back their programs" (OECD. March 2008). The performance budget provides an opportunity to streamline operations and promote efficiency yet, the obverse pitfall is that
Performance Improvement Analysis
Coaching is a skill, which people who manage or teach others realize the best and possible potential. There is a growing need for people to better their skills. This need is subject to grow in the future business world. Coaching can be defined as a tool, which managers can use in various different situations such as delegating, planning, and problem solving. Coaching provides the manager with a different perspective of persons. This is a more optimistic way than people are accustomed to doing. Not all managers can be great coaches from the start of their career. Just like any other new skill, it will take time and practice before it flows in a natural manner. Coaching appears to be simple for a few managers while for some it is not. However, the manager finds his own strategy to succeed as a coach to his followers with due…
Houldsworth, E., & Jirasinghe, D. (2010). Managing and measuring employee performance. London [u.a.: Kogan Page.
Raguenaud, V. (2009). Bilingual by choice: Raising kids in two (or more!) languages. Boston: Nicholas Brealey Pub.
Silverman, P. & Cober, A., B. (2005). "When Employees at Work Don't Get It: A Model for Enhancing Individual Employee Change in Response to Performance Feedback."
Wilson, C. (2007). Best practice in performance coaching: A handbook for leaders, coaches, HR professionals and organizations. London: Kogan Page.
In addition, the system-based reasons of functioning are the duties of management to rectify. No quantity of concern or talent in workmanship can conquer fundamental errors in the system. TQM proponents have been swift to censure performance assessment methods which are based on the supposition that the individual employee is chiefly in control of his or her own performance level. (Designing Performance Management Systems for Total Quality Implementation)
Hence Deming would assert that a mean performance level merely reveals a system's complete ability. Differences on that performance level within plus or minus three standard variations are system-based and haphazard in nature. It follows that a second primary theme of total quality to attain a stable process is that first recognizing and removing the special reasons of variation can only enhance a process. Then centering the concentration on the general, system-based factors that affect performance can enhance the whole system. One…
CastaA±eda-Mendez, Kicab. (1999) Performance Measurement in Health Care. Retrieved at http://www.qualitydigest.com/may99/html/body_health.html [Accessed 11 December, 2004]
Chapman, O' Mara; Karayan, Hyland. (1998) Performance Measures: The Link with Organizational Strategy. Fall. Retrieved from www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1998/omara.pdf[Accessed 11 December, 2004]
Daniel, Meade. The Art and Science of Measurement: The Nature of Indicators on the Balanced Scorecard. Retrieved at http://www.bettermanagement.com/library/library.aspx?libraryid=10970&pagenumber=1 [Accessed 11 December, 2004]
Measurement. Retrieved at http://www.dti.gov.uk/quality/pdfs/sections/Performance.pdf[Accessed 11 December, 2004]
Although this is time-consuming and costly, it generally has high employee involvement and creditability, the strongest impact on behavior and performance and a positive influence on communication and goal sharing. Yet others believe that technology can be used as a tool to eliminate biases (Dutton, 2001). Software-based performance appraisals focus on results and actions rather than personality traits. Thus, they can provide more objective facts that can be used to create plans for individual development and for achieving the organization's major goals.
A worker's morale is determined by his relative pay status. A contract that rewards only individual performance can thereby adversely affect their productivity. On the other hand, competition for relative pay status tends to boost the productivity of highly skilled workers in the firm. The net effect on productivity depends on the composition of the firm's workforce. If the workforce is sufficiently heterogeneous then the inclusion of a…
Alternative performance reviews. http://www.toolpack.com/performance.html
Bascal, R. Seven stupid things employees do to screw up performance appraisal. http://work911.com/performance/particles/stupemp.htm
Billikopf, G. Performance appraisal. http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/ucce50/ag-labor/7labor/06.htm
Culbert, S.A. (2003, July). Two-sided accountability. Executive Excellence, Vol. 20 Issue 7, p 20.
H professionals are increasingly been invited to attend strategic planning, recognizing the depth of knowledge which we have. At the time while this role is being played, an impact on the outcome on business is being made. Outcomes from the study by Paul . Bernthal, and ichard S. Wellins reveal that hard and oft outcomes are considerably higher when H strategy is remarkably higher when H is strategic, proactive, has a technological bent and is influential. During the recent years, researches connecting human capital to the bottom-line have become very normal. It is the employees who run the corporation and it would be sheer foolishness to think that investments in people do not generate a return. The ploy is to ensure that whatever procedures are employed to leverage employee talent is executed efficiently and to understand the genuine advantage of strong human capital. (H on the Edge- Future Trends you…
Bernthal, Paul R; Wellins, Richard S. HR on the Edge- Future Trends you need to know today. The Human Resources Forum. Retrieved from http://www.peoplesoft.com/media/en/pdf/ihrim_best_practice.pdf " http://www.ddiworld.com/pdf/ddi_HRontheEdge_Report.pdf . Accessed on 25 February, 2005
Chan, Alvin. 2004. The Challenges of Human Resource Management. 28 December. Retrieved at http://www.webpronews.com/ebusiness/management/wpn-36-20041228TheChallengesofHumanResourceManagement.html . Accessed on 25 February, 2005
Henson, Row. HR in the 21st century: Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved at
(Jabal Omar Development Corporation 2010)
Since 2008, the real estate market in Kuwait has been continually declining. The reason why is because the economy was largely depending upon oil revenues. However, in 2010 the sector began witnessing an increase in prices. This is because of the Kuwaiti government was aggressively promoting the tourism industry. As developers are expecting a strong increase in foreign direct investment, due to the governments push to expand the sector. As a result, holiday and residential areas in Kuwait are continuing to boom. (Finkelstein)
In the housing industry, there are large numbers of shortages that are affecting prices. What has been happening is the residential sector has been facing restrictions over the last several years, surrounding building permits. As the government was slow to endorse them, which created a rush on new areas that were approved for development. At the same time, the government has…
Alexandria Real Estate, 2010.
Egypt Property, 2010, Select Property. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011].
Egypt Real Estate Attracts Interest From Foreign Investors, 2010, New Investors. Available from: [19 Mar. 2011]
Jabal Omar Development Corporation, 2010
A survey will be developed as a part of implementation of the BSC system in this hospital to track customer satisfaction with the services that they receive here.
A positive image of the organization translates into repeat business and a more positive reputation in the neighborhood, Patient satisfaction translates into increased future revenues. It also has some positive impact on risk assessment as well. The more satisfied the customer is, the less likely they will file an adverse lawsuit against the hospital. Patient satisfaction has a direct impact on the profitability of the organization. The number of complains that the facility receives can also be an important measure of the overall customer satisfaction. However, this number alone may not tell the entire story. A customer survey is the best method for addressing overall satisfaction with the facility.
Patient involvement was another important indicator of BSC technologies. Patient involvement means providing…
National Health Foundation of California. 2004. Survey of Hospital Performance Measurement Activities in California. National Health Foundation of California. Available at http://www.nhfca.org/reports/PMSCAExecutiveSummary.pdf [Accessed 30 April 2008].
Walker, K. & Dunn, L. 2006. Improving hospital performance and productivity with the balanced scorecard. Academy of Health Care Management Journal. Annual. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1TOQ/is_2/ai_n25009491 [Accessed 30 April 2008].
Performance reviews, even from the organization's point-of-view, allow the organization to engage in some soul-searching as to what areas of employee performance are valued. They may even help the organization identify star performers that may not shine and glitter, but have made a measurable contribution to the organization by helping it meet its benchmarks. It can be an education and a valuable form of self-scrutiny for the organization as well as for the employee. Sadly, in today's litigious climate, performance reviews may also be a necessity simply from the point-of-view of demonstrating to a court of law, if the employer lets go a particular individual, that the employee was performing below 'par' on a consistent basis, review after review. It also helps the organization, if the appraisals are oral, gain feedback from both good and bad employees about what makes them perform at an optimal or sub-optimal level.
By the nature of their work, they have access to a lot of valuable information that can be used to provide measures in performance assessment systems. Additionally, management accountants are already oriented towards many actions that focus on improving efficient, productivity and profitability. Management accountants therefore have the expertise needed to understand what measures are best aligned with the company's objectives. If they are involved in the development of assessment systems, the systems will be stronger.
For the most part, the measures in performance assessment systems are reliable and accurate. The emphasis that these systems has on quantitative analysis means that most measure are not subject to much subjectivity. The systems are, however, only as good as the quality of the measurement processes. If there are faults in the measurement process then there will also be faults in the data, and ultimately in the interpretation of that data. It is…
Gjerde, K. & Hughes, S. (2007). Tracking performance: When less is more. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_1_9/ai_n31141879/?tag=co%20ntent;col1
Mudde, P. & Sopariwala, P. (2008). Examining Southwest Airlines' strategic execution: A strategic variance analysis. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_4_9/ai_n31151644/pg_2/?tag=content;col1
Performance Gap Policing
A performance gap exists when the police department's performance does not meet organizational expectations or citizens expectations. Management is a critical success factor for managing a performance gap when it exists. Many police administrators are contemplating community policing projects due to performance gaps. In order to solve the problem of a performance gap, police agencies must look internally and externally for solutions. They must develop an action plan that includes organizational goals and community goals in order to narrow the gap and foster a collaborative and successful work environment.
Many view community policing as an answer, as a means of "developing communication with the public and interest groups" and encouraging active participation from community members and police agents to further the best interests of the community as a whole (Fielding, 1995). Community policing strategies are being widely adopted in many police agencies as a means of improving…
Bouckaert, G. & Halachmi, A. "Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector: Toward service, effort and accomplishment reporting." Westport: Quorum: 1996.
De Vries, M.S. & Van Der Zijl, V.DH "The implications of community policing for police-citizen relationships." International Journal of Public Administration 26(8-9), 2003:1017.
Fielding, N.C. "Community Policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press:1995
Reiner, R. The Politics of the Police; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
Together these metrics will help the firm understand where the project stands and how has it really impacted the performance of both the firm as a whole and the employees as part of its system. The firm is a major manufacturer of cosmetic products. It can measure its brand equity by comparing it with other brands in the same category. Higher sales on their own are important but when compared to rival's growth, they make more sense and can be explained more easily to senior management.
The impact of this performance improvement project
The impact can be assessed from the benefits that would accrue to the firm. Greater impact will be felt in employee efficiency and productivity. More coordinated research will bring about better results in all areas including marketing and sales.
Strategies and approaches could be used to "sell" the project to Management
The management may not understand the…
Senge, Peter, The Fifth Discipline NY: Currency/Doubleday, 1990
Kofman, Fred and Peter M. Senge "Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations." Organization Dynamics.
Daniel Aronson, Introduction to Systems Thinking, http://www.thinking.net/Systems_Thinking/Intro_to_ST/intro_to_st.html[Accessed 14th September 2005]
Since federal contracting began, the federal government has continuously sought ways to manage and more efficiently execute the contracting process. The enduring goal is to achieve maximum effectiveness and ensuring the desired contract outcomes are reached by the contracted party. One tool to achieve this end is the Performance-Based Contract introduced in the early 1990's as a child of Performance Based Acquisition (PBA). This paper will discuss the history of Performance-Based Contracting as well as the benefits, goals and outcomes of this relatively new and innovative contracting initiative.
History of Performance-Based Contracts
Performance-Based Contracts stemmed from reforms made in 1993-1994 as a result of the President's Management Agenda. The President's Management Agenda gave birth to the Government Performance and Results of Act of 1993 as well as the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act of 1994. Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) is the materialization of the reforms mandated in the above mentioned…
Daly, Donna, Jennifer Tucker-Tatlow, and Carrie Gibson. "Innovations in Performance-Based Contracting." Southern Area Consortium of Human Services. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2012. < heacademy.sdsu.edu/Documents/InnovationPBCReport9-14-04.pdf>.
"PBA - Overview." Installation Management E-Time Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2012. .
Given the need to improve organizational productivity through increasing employee performance, develop a performance management program that focuses on linking the organizations strategic objective with the individual effort outlining the benefits of improved performance, the consequences for lack of performance as well as the employee and managerial training that will be needed for implementation.
Purpose of the performance management program (PMP)
The purpose of the PMP is to align the motives of the employee with that of the organization so that the employee is encouraged to work for the good of the organization. Objectives are formulated that are in line with those of the employee, a system of rewards and consequences are established that attract the employee, and a system of monitoring and work appraisal, formalized together with employee, is established.
The PMP is strategic so that the organization's goals are clearly aligned with that of the…
Furthermore, the customer is most likely not to be biased hence the credibility of the feedback. The sources of information will be integrated by analyzing the data and comparing the feedbacks to determine if they show consistency; before drafting the final report.
The performance appraisal method of evaluating the behavior for rating has a critical technique of analyzing information incorporated. Therefore, in developing the tool, the first approach is to establish the information that is required (Flynn, 2010). Once determined, the questioned are phrased and documented into questionnaires and interviews, which will then be administered to the supervisors, the co-workers and customers for feedback purposes. Additionally, the previous reports on the company's trends will be incorporated to show how the behavioral changes in the department affect the returns of the company. The information gathered is then consolidated into a report for the final scaling which is the report of…
Josiane Fahed-Sreih, (2009) "The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance,"
Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 3, pp.297-299
Maurer, S.D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 307-327.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220142693?accountid=35812
S. have tried to govern themselves. You can use the Internet, but don't use the Internet exclusively. Also, try to research different nations, not just the U.S. I've given a brief overview of the Bill of ights, one of the most important and contested aspects of the Constitution, but look into the British system of government as well (which influenced the creation of our own) and France. And ask why have some constitutions and nations failed, while the U.S. system has remained intact. Bring your research to class with you.
Step 3: Come to an agreement about what rights to include
On Wednesday, we'll have our own Constitutional Congress. I will observe the unstructured debate, which will revolve around how Freedonia will govern itself and what rights will be included in the new constitution and government. Some things you may want to think about: what rights don't Americans have? What…
Linder, Douglas. (201). The right of privacy. Exploring constitutional conflicts. Retrieved July 8,
2010 at http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/rightofprivacy.html
Slater, Timothy. (2010). Performance assessment. Department of Physics. Montana State
University. Retrieved July 8, 2010 at http://www.flaguide.org/extra/download/cat/perfass/perfass.pdf
In this text, I concern myself with performance measurement. In addition to a performance measure of my choice, some of the other performance measures I will discuss include EVA, OI, and operating leverage. In so doing, I will not only compute the said performance measures but also reflect on their advantages and disadvantages. My companies of choice for this discussion are Apple Inc. And Google Inc.
Performance Measures: Computations
Degree of Operating Leverage
% Change in EBIT/
%Change in Sales
eturn on Investment
Operating Profit / Total Assets
Economic Value Added
NOPAT -- (WACC * Investment)
Gross Profit Margin
Sales -- COGS / Sales
Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL)
Operating leverage in the words of Stickney and Weil (2007) "refers to the tendency of net income to rise at a faster rate than sales in the presence of fixed costs" (p. 792). In that regard…
Albrecht, W.S., Stice, E.K., Stice, F.D. & Swain, M.R. (2010). Accounting: Concepts and Applications (11th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Maher, M.W., Stickney, C.P. & Weil, R.L. (2007). Managerial Accounting: An Introduction to Concepts, Methods and Uses (10th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Leaning.
Stickney, C.P. & Weil, R.L. (2007). Financial Accounting: An Introduction to Concepts, Methods and Uses (12th ed). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Performance Management through the Lens of Keys v. Humana (2012)
Kathryn Keys, former employee of Humana Incorporated, filed a claim of racial discrimination under the Civil ights Acts of 1964 and 1991 (Keys v. Humana, 2012). The U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky sided with the defendant, Humana Inc., in January 2010 and dismissed the case on the grounds that the facts were insufficient to support a claim of racial discrimination under the McDonnell Douglass framework. The McDonnell Douglas framework requires the plaintiff to show that they are a member of a protected class, were qualified to hold the job in question, were treated differently than others not belonging to a protected class or were replaced by an unprotected person, and were harmed by an employment decision. Specifically, the lower court found that Keys failed to show that Caucasian employees who were not fired were indeed performing…
Human Inc. (2012). Well-being starts with us. 2010 & 2011 Corporate Social Responsibility Report. Retrieved 26 Feb. 2014 from http://apps.humana.com/marketing/documents.asp?file=1853059 .
Keys v. Humana Inc., No. 11-5472 F.6th (Fed. Cir. 2012).
Littler Learning Group. (2009). Performance management and corrective action: A resource guide for managers & supervisors. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://www.csus.edu/hr/docs/professional/perfmgmtandcorrectiveaction050109.pdf .
Van Bogaert, D.A. (n.d.). New legal battlegrounds for performance evaluations. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://myweb.lmu.edu/dbogaert/newlegalbattlegroundspedvb.pdf .
Do not penalize strong performers for being members of strong teams. Lackluster employees would be penalized because no one would want them on their 'team.' Now, there is an incentive to work with weak employees, to boost one's own relative performance rating. This idea seems strong, and although it world reduce competition on work teams, as there would be less jockeying for power and the chance to win the highest team ranking, on the other hand, such a system would seem to be more in keeping with Microsoft's emphasis on company cohesiveness, a company committed to driving its mission of innovation forward and boasts that its greatest reward is allowing its employees to work together "with great people," and have an impact" as a member of a team not merely as an individual ("Employee Profile: David -- HR General Manager," 2006, Careers -- United States Microsoft ebsite).
Employee Profile: David -- HR General Manager." (2006). Careers -- United States
Microsoft Website. Retrieved 28 Jan 2006 at http://members.microsoft.com/careers/epdb/profileDetailPage.aspx?profileID=107
Microsoft's 3.0 (or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Curve." (2005)
Mini-Microsoft Blog. Retrieved 28 Jan 2006 at http://minimsft.blogspot.com/2005/06/microsofts-30-or-how-i-learned-to-stop.html
This was accomplished by: breaking down into small teams and having everyone work directly with some of the top executives at the firm (i.e. Steve Jobs). This created an atmosphere that encouraged employees to discuss their ideas and the impact they are having on consumers. It is at this point, that Apple was able to integrate these different ideas into their performance evaluation procedures. (Stone 38 -- 40) (Snell 143 -- 179)
Clearly, the performance evaluation system that Apple is using is helping the firm to attract and retain the best employees. This is because there is a focus on ensuring that all candidates for a position meet: the basic educational and experience qualifications. During the next stage, is when they will be subject to: a series of interviews, a practical exam and other criteria. This allows the company to decide which individuals would be the best choice for…
Griffin, Ricky. Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print.
Herbold, Robert. What's Holding You Back. San Francisco: Josey Bass, 2011. Print.
Highhouse, Scott. Stubborn Reliance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1:3 (2008): 333 -- 342
Snell, Scott. Managing Human Resources. Mason: South -- Western, 2012. Print.
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…
Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.
Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
Performance Measurement for Project Management
Every enterprise which employs a diverse and multifaceted workforce to facilitate organization, production, and service, from major international corporations to local community churches, utilizes a concept known as performance management to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness. The field of performance management has been defined by managerial researchers as a "strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors" (Armstrong and Baron, 1998), and the technique has been used since the 1970's by businesses seeking to improve their organizational results. For the sake of the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino's proposed luxury tour bus renovation project, it is essential to examine the complex issue of performance management from the varying perspectives of the different stakeholders involved, including the project's sponsors (MGM Grand Hotel and…
Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (1998). Performance management: The new realities. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.
Dudek-Burlikowska, M., Szewieczek, D. The Poka-Yoke method as an improving quality tool of operations in the process. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 36/1 (2009) 95-102.
Schwalbe, K. (2011). Information technology project management. (6th ed.). Boston: Course Technology Ptr.
Person Being Assessed: Jane Doe
Person ompleting Assessment: Jason Marshall
Position of Person Being Assessed: Administrative Assistant
Date of Performance Evaluation: 6/23/2014
Rating Scale to be Used:
Excels in Performance
Does Not Meet Expectations
Fails to Meet Performance Standards
The employee has a sufficient understanding of his/her job duties and when they should be completed
Employee is willing to help out internal employees when assistance is needed
Employee is willing to help clients and other external parties that need assistance as needed
Employee retains a positive attitude as a general habit
Employee is cool under pressure even when situations or deadlines created stress or tension
Employee is consistent in completing required job duties in a timely manner
Employee only needs to be told something once, or maybe twice, before something is learned and perfected
8) Employee maintains a positive attitude regardless of…
Confirmation of Completion by Manager
Date of Next Review -- 6/24/2015
Feedback regarding review from employee: ____
All of these are admittedly challenging problems and the key to lasting change is that employees must first identify and internalize the need and desire for change for these strategies to succeed.
Yuen H. Chan, obert . Taylor, Scott Markham. "The ole of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process. " Journal of Managerial Issues 20.4 (2008): 444-467,421-422. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest, 1 Mar. 2009
Fulkerson, John ., and andall S. Schuler.. "Managing worldwide diversity at Pepsi-Cola International." Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. 248-276. New York, NY U.S.: Guilford Press, 1992. PsycINFO. EBSCO. [2 Mar. 2009
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley, Heather S. McMillan. "Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. " Performance Improvement Quarterly 21.4 (2009): 75. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest. 1 Mar. 2009
Edward Martin. "Employers boost perks to build workforce loyalty. " the Business Journal 22 Sep. 1997: 30. ABI/INFOM Dateline. ProQuest. 2 Mar.…
Yuen H. Chan, Robert R. Taylor, Scott Markham. "The Role of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process. " Journal of Managerial Issues 20.4 (2008): 444-467,421-422. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest, 1 Mar. 2009
Fulkerson, John R., and Randall S. Schuler.. "Managing worldwide diversity at Pepsi-Cola International." Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. 248-276. New York, NY U.S.: Guilford Press, 1992. PsycINFO. EBSCO. [2 Mar. 2009
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley, Heather S. McMillan. "Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. " Performance Improvement Quarterly 21.4 (2009): 75. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 1 Mar. 2009
Edward Martin. "Employers boost perks to build workforce loyalty. " the Business Journal 22 Sep. 1997: 30. ABI/INFORM Dateline. ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2009
I would want to be evaluated through a form that would reveal whether or not I was conducting my assigned duties. Because of its specific nature, figure 11-3 would not only allow the evaluating manager to make an informed representation of my work, but also remind me of specific duties. Thus, as an employer and an employee, figure 11-3 is the superior form. It allows for the accurate and succinct evaluation of workers and the best chance of convincing those workers to continue to strive or make up for what they have lost.
When looking at the performance appraisals in figures 11-1 and 11-3, employers can find many factors on which to evaluate them. The first, job-relatedness, has already been discussed above, noting that the second form was superior in this area. While it may not have been nearly as job-related, the first form was probably less expensive.…
Problems for the key stakeholders -- the mothers and their infants -- should be avoided at all costs in her evaluation. She needs to focus on reducing errors and she should also focus on developing positive outcomes, as these demonstrate a greater degree of respect for the stakeholders (instanley & Stuart-Smith, 1996).
The study should be observational in nature. The clinic may have, or could gather, data from past participants to begin Marjorie's evaluation process. This would allow her to make improvements immediately to the programs. Even if only partial data could be gathered, it may be sufficient for Marjorie to develop stronger hypotheses to test. She currently has little more than hunches to test, so gathering data from past courses would be a good starting point, since many of the participants will have retained their contact information.
Marjorie could also begin her evaluation based on the experiences of other…
Huston, P. (2001). The ethics of placebo-controlled trials -- a middle ground. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 345 (12) 915-919.
Winstanley, D. & Stuart-Smith, K. (1996). Policing performance: The ethics of performance management. Personnel Review. Vol. 25 (6) 66-84.
Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association
The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.
Goals and functions of functional areas
Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.
Security; this functional are…
American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44
David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE
Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.
Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php
Bloodstream Infections in NICU
Bloodstream infections in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) are a serious concern for parents and health care professionals. Exposure to bloodstream infections for most patients will caused delayed hospital stays and higher costs associated with hospital visit (Marschall et. al., 2008). There are many procedural changes that can be made at the hospital to decrease risk of bloodstream infections. ecommendations for decreasing bloodstream infections will be based on the practices of the Connecticut Children's Medical Center (CCMC), which is successful in decreasing bloodstream infections. In this paper I will discuss how to get the employees engaged in their work, how to receive buy-in for quality work, how this will reduce errors and increase the quality of work.
Engaging employees in their Work
It is important to train the employees on the recommended techniques for inserting a catheter since this is main cause of blood…
Buttes et. al. (2006). Drive down infection rates. Nursing Management. October.
Deaver, K. (2010). Preventing Infections in Hemodialysis Fistula and Graft Vascular Accesses. Nephrology Nursing Journal. 37 (5) 503-506
Marschall et. al. (2008). Strategies to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in acute care hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 29 (1) S22-30.
There are three main ways to analyze financial statements. They are ratio analysis, common size analysis and trend analysis. These three forms of analysis allow the firm's financials be compared to industry norms, to the firm's past performance and on a raw basis. By using these techniques, the analyst can gain a sense of where the firm stands today, where the firm has been in the past, and what the current trends of the business are.
Ratio analysis covers a wide range of ground, including liquidity, profitability, solvency and managerial efficiency (Leka, 2007). These ratios outline the financial condition the firm is in, and attempt to derive some understanding of how the firm got into that position. Trend and common-size analysis allow for better year-over-year comparison, while ratio analysis can facilitate analysis across different firms in the same industry.
In addition to performing these basic forms of analysis, it is…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Leka, M. (2007). How to analyze financial statements. E-Articles. Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://e-articles.info/e/a/title/HOW-TO-ANALYZE-FINANCIAL-STATEMENTS/
Kolstad, I. (2007). Why firms should not always maximize profits. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 76, 2, 137-145.
Ribeiro, A. (2009). Understanding financial statements. Mint.com. Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://www.mint.com/blog/finance-core/understanding-financial-statements/
ole-Play a (with Manager a and Employee A)
In this example obert is meeting with Denise to go over her performance appraisal. When Denise is asked to tell obert how she feels she has done over the last year, Denise states that she feels satisfied with her performance and believes she is doing good because she has not received any feedback from obert otherwise. There are two issues to be concerned about with this statement. First, employees should be given regular and systematic feedback on their performance throughout the appraisal period, not just once a year (Ash & Quarry, 2010). Second, a yearly appraisal period is too long. Performance appraisals should be given at least twice per year, if not more often, in order to give equal credit to the good performance and not so good performance (Pardue, 1999). We tend to only remember what has happened recently…
Eve Ash & Peter Quarry (2010) 10 Steps to Flawless Appraisal Interviews. Gower, Training Point: Ash Quarry Productions. [DVD]
Pardue, Howard, 1999. Performance Appraisal as an Employee Development Tool. [Online]. Available at: < http://www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/CMS_000104.aspx > [Accessed December 13, 2010].
Performance Management: Implementing an Effective Performance Management System
Why Performance Management?
Performance management is the organized method that companies use to monitor the results of work activities, to measure and evaluate the performance of the employees, and to ensure that goals are met in an effective and efficient manner. According to Pulakos (2009), performance management is a key process that ensures that work gets done; and it is used by different organizations to communicate expectations and drive behavior towards achievement of important goals. For instance, ABC Company has offices in more than 50 countries across the globe and it employs over 40,000 employees from various cultural backgrounds, and it also deals with a diverse range of customers. It therefore needs to develop a performance management system that fosters an inclusive environment and channels different employees' talents and capabilities towards achievement of the organization's goals.
It is important to implement an…
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance management: A new approach for driving business results. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.-Blackwell Publishing.
Stone, R, D. (2009). Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. 48(5) 37-44. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/AD71C5FFAAEA427APQ/1?accountid=39364
In a good performance management system the manager plays a vital role. He is responsible to not only identify the employee strengths and weaknesses but also to acknowledge good performance and to provide developmental suggestions. The later part is very important, as it does no good to just spot the deficiency of an employee without providing positive suggestions for improvement. The employees for their part must be encouraged to provide their valuable input during every stage of the process. For example, some organizations even collect feedback from employees to evaluate the performance of their superiors. Thus, an appraisal denotes not just the supervisors assessing their subordinates but also rating from team members, rating by employees of their superiors, review by the HR department etc. Once such active and collaborative participation is achieved then the performance appraisal process attains its chosen objective, that of increasing the overall employee performance.
Based on the assessment of the sample features in terms of capital size and value of the property portfolio, an observation is made in the fact that a proportion is kept between the two. In other words, the property companies in Jordan, Egypt and Syria seem to be prudential and correlate their capital sizes with the values of their portfolios.
3. esults and analysis of the Jordanian property companies
The results of the implemented questionnaire are revealed throughout the table below:
c d e f g
x x x
x x x
x x x
Shortage of commercial properties
Availability and choice
2011, the world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on February 21, 2011
Of course, while it is important that an officer be able to inspire confidence in the community, it is also very important for an officer to be able to solve crimes. Therefore, part of the evaluation process should look at the percentage of crimes that an officer is able to clear. In addition, deterrence is a major goal of community policing. While one would expect a temporary upswing in minor crime rates at the beginning of a community policing approach, any effective appraisal system would look at whether minor crime rates eventually declined or continued to rise.
There are several different types of evaluations that would provide a better measure of individual and group performance than traditional performance appraisals. The first type of evaluation is a group evaluation and looks at the long-term changes in crime and crime rates. The primary goal of deterrence is to deter major, violent crime;…
Hence, conflicts are generated only by misunderstanding or mischief (Edwards, 2003). Although unitarism have been proven to represent old-fashioned and unrealistic ideas, many managers nowadays follow this approach. They believe in a harmony of interests between them and their employers. However, practice has proven little resemblance between the employees' desires and interests, and those of their employers. Therefore, with such an approach to the employment relationship, conflict is inevitable. The 1998 Workplace Employee elations Survey revealed that 72% of workplace managers consult directly with the employees, and not with trade unions.
In the pluralist approach conflict is considered to be inevitable because various organizations take part in determining the rules of employment. Given the fact that each of these participating organizations has its distinct bases of authority, the risk of a conflict emerging is inevitable. The radical view is meant to be a critique of pluralism.
Conflicts are inevitable…
Gordon, Judith R. 1996. Organizational Behavior. A Diagnostic Approach. Fifth Edition. Prentice Hall International, Inc., Boston.
Dawson, Patrick. 1995. Troubles with TQM - Pirelli Cables Australia Limited. Managing Service Quality Journal, Volume no. 5, Issue no. 6, (online). Available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=842457 .
Callahan, E.R., Fleenor, C.P. & Knudson, R.H. (1986). Undersanding Organizational Behavior - a managerial view point.
EIRO Thematic Feature of Collective Dispute Resolutions in an enlarged European Union - case of Malta. 2004. (online). Available at http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2005/08/word/nl0508103t.doc
In the final calculation therefore, the hospital will suffer the most, the MO next, and PHOs the least. The entire triad -- hospitals, physicians, and insurers -- is usually comprised of a power struggle revolving around which one ends up dominating a local market. In the Marcus-Welby case, insurers seems to have been the first to 'get its act together', but if a critical band of physicians band together, they could dictate the terms under which they will join the network, and thus preempt or overturn the high level of prices raised by the insurers.
Requirements for success
Clinical care seems to be the most significant variable (Burns et al., 1994; Zuckerman & Kaluzny, 1991). To the extent the more value the service can offer the greater its amount of success. Findings also demonstrate that the greater the degree of perceived physician-system integration, the greater the system's inpatient…
Burns, L.R. (1995) Models of Physician-hospital organization: Possibilities and pitfalls Health Care Systems, 2, 1-4.
Burns, L.R., Chilingerain, J.A., & Wholey, D.A (1994) the effect of physician practice organization on efficient use of hospital resources, Health services research, 29, 583-603.
Burns, L.R., & Thorpe, D.P. (1993). Models in Physician-Hospital Organization, Health Care Management Review, 7-20.
Shortell, S.M., Gillies, R.R., & Anderson, D.A. (1994). The new world of managed care: creating organized delivery systems Health Affairs, Vol 13, Issue 5, 46-64
C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales, 2005). In this case since the first lot was defective the buyer is going to claim that they have the right to refuse both lots. The seller will claim that they buyer should not be capable to refuse the second lot since it conformed to the specifications that had been set forth.
The obligation of a seller is to transport and convey and the obligation of the buyer is to recognize and pay in agreement with the contract. Express warranties by the seller are fashioned when any confirmation of detail or assurance by the seller to the buyer which relates to the goods and becomes part of the foundation of the agreement (U.C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales, 2005). The seller had the responsibility to supply merchandise that conformed to the specifications set down in the contract in two lots.
In this case a…
U.C.C. -- Article 2 -- Sales. (2005). Retrieved November 23, 2010, from Cornell University Law
School Web site: http://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/2/article2.htm#s2-714
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
I will also have the tutor critique the first drafts of documents I prepare and have them review my final versions. I would also like for my tutor/coach to observe me an a couple of meetings and have them offer suggestions for improvement.
Development Plan: Dealing with Operating Problems
I believe the collaborative approach I outlined above will help in identifying operational problems during the planning process and provide an early warning where handoff with in the implementation process may not go smoothly. As part of my discussions with cross-function partners will be the development of contingency plans in case any anticipated problem do arise. I will schedule a weekly meeting with all the cross-function leads, including any important suppliers and vendors, to access how things are going, early identification of any suspected problems, work to determine possible solutions and understand how the solution will impact all functional areas.
Schedule a meeting with tutor/coach for feedback and to determine future plans
To measure my improvement, retake the AccuVision assessment at the end of the spring 2011 semester.
The governance of a corporation is the role of the board of directors and the management has the duty of running the firm on a day to day basis. The board, therefore, oversees the management and ensures the interests of the various shareholders are upheld. The executive department is made up of the top level managers and they are required to work as a team so as to deliver on the company goals. According to Wash (2002), management can only be successful in their work if they have clearly defined work description. CEO or company president is a vital position towards the success of any firm as they must take up the leadership mantle, work closely with the top-management, and ensure clear organizational mission, vision, and operational goals.
As a result of clarity in work description and the responsibilities of members of the board, the Innovations Theater has…
Performance Assessment Systems in Organizations
Many companies conduct performance assessment systems to cope with the current fast-paced global economy. The assessment reflects on companies past outcomes known as lagging indicators as well as the current leading indicators to inform the management on the latest developments. These indicators appropriately analyzed, reported and evaluated, help the companies achieve higher profits.
The use of leading indicators is increasingly getting popular with many companies and businesses today. According to Gjerde and Hughes (2007), computed deviations with standard cost systems give the management timely data on shortfalls of production allowing them to put emphasis on the unfavorable outcomes and take corrective measures to enhance profits.
In the case of South West Airlines, they put in place a performance assessment system that saw it successfully execute a cost leadership strategy. The liner recorded a growth in operating income using the performance assessment system and took advantage…
Gjerde, K.P., & Hughes, S.B. (2007). Tracking performance: when less is more. Retrieved March 25, 2012, from www.findarticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_1_9/ai_n31141879/?tag=co%20ntent;col1 .
McCunn, P. (1998, December). The Balanced Scorecard…the eleventh commandment .
Management Accounting, pp. 34-36.
Mudde, P.A., & Sopariwala, P.Z. (2008). Examining Southwest Airlines' strategic execution: a strategic variance analysis. Retrieved March 25, 2012, from www.findarticles.com: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_4_9/ai_n31151644/?tag=content;col1
performance management that primarily involves investigating variances. Variances may take place because of several reasons such as climate changes that contribute to increase in electrical bills or slower of faster work by some employees. Nonetheless, only some of these factors or reasons are significant and may require management attention. Due to these unpredictable random factors or reasons, it's expected that nearly every category of cost will result in a variance of some kind. The investigation and calculation of variances is carried out to enable managers in the control of a business. However, managers need to make effective decisions on whether to conduct variance analysis for successful control.
As previously mentioned, variances are brought by several reasons that may require the attention of management. Therefore, the decision on when to investigate variances is based on consideration of several factors. These factors include the accuracy and reliability of the figures,…
Barry, J. (2010, June 16). Purchase Price Variance (PPV): the Only Believable Measure of Purchasing Performance. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from https://www.accentureacademy.com/~Blog/Purchase_Price_Variance_PPV_the_Only_Believable_Measure_of_Purchasing_Performance/view.aspx
Jay, S. (2006, October). Variance Investigation. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from http://www2.accaglobal.com/pubs/students/publications/student_accountant/archive/jay1006.pdf
Mohr, A. (n.d.). Reasons to Investigate a Budget Variance. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/reasons-investigate-budget-variance-47924.html
It can occasionally become difficult to find projects that truly engage students and that reinforce didactic principles as well. Other challenges that are associated with performance based assessment include the pecuniary costs, as well as significant amounts of time, that are associated with coming up with alternative assessment measure. Creating and designing tests for students to complete are cost-effective, fairly quick ways of measuring a student's knowledge at a given moment in time regarding a particular subject. Consequently, many administrative officials and state level educational personnel whose jobs it is to measure the most effective usage of monetary resources for schools prefer such assessment methods, and claim that alternative methods are more costly and not necessarily even worth the time and money to create or implement.
It is difficult to say whether or not these criticisms of performance based assessment are valid or if they are simply excuses to continue…
Measures should be developed at every level of the organisation as this will help in the measurement of performance at those levels. Again all services and teams will have action plans that they will have to meet which will make sure that the organisation reaches its goal. There has also got to be indicators for individuals as this will determine their performance for their teams and the organisation. (Measures of performance) the total service plan has to focus on the corporate and service objectives, highlight the important matters to the customers and staff, and the decision about the ultimate user of the information and their purpose for getting the information. (Key steps to effective performance measurement)
The measurement of the task done is against the information and there details that one has indicators for the objectives and also decides whether the task done will be meaningful and robust. The total…
Foundations of performance management. Retrieved at http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=76249
Glick, Bryan. 2005. Trudy Norris-Grey, Sun Microsystems UK managing director. 13 April. Retrieved at http://www.computing.co.uk/analysis/1162459
Hats Off to Communicators a Great Success in Denver. 2001. Spring, Volume: 9; No: 3.
Retrieved at http://www.nagc.com/newnewsletter.pdf
ANNUAL PEFOMANCE EVIEW
The supervisor and employee meet at the beginning of the review period and together identify and prioritize three to five primary job responsibilities from the employee's job description. Goals, objectives, and special projects may be identified at any time throughout the review period.
At the end of the review period, the employee self-evaluates his or her performance (job responsibilities, performance factors, and goals/objectives) using the rating scale, completes Part I of the Career Development section, and returns the form to the supervisor.
The supervisor evaluates the employee's performance of job responsibilities, performance factors, and goals/objectives using the rating scale. Supervisor comments are EQUIED for any evaluation of "Exceeds Expectations," "Improvement Needed," "Fails to Meet Expectations," and for the OVEALL rating.
The supervisor then meets with the employee and together they discuss the ratings, complete Part II of the Career Development section, and sign and date the…
Edmondson Bell, E.(2003) Your job-performance review: make your boss your partner in getting ahead. Advance preparation can help. Essence 34(2), 120-121.
Nowack, K.M., Hartley, J., & Bradley, W. (1999) How to evaluate your 360 feedback efforts Training & Development 53(4), 48-54.
Nowack, K. (2005). "Longitudinal evaluation of a 360 degree feedback program:
Implications for best practices." Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles.
Nankervis, .A., & Compton, .L. (2006) 'Performance management: theory practice?' Asia Pacific Journal Human esources, 44 (1), pp. 83 -- 101. Evaluate findings authors design, implementation, effectiveness performance management systems earlier studies conducted.
Performance management systems
Performance management systems have been defended as being advantageous to both employees and businesses alike by providing workers with feedback about how to improve their output. They have been criticized, however, because the use of performance reviews is said to be implicated in a focus on "short-term performance, annihilating long-term planning, building fear, demolishing teamwork and nourishing rivalry and politics" (Nankervis & Compton 2006: 84). However, flatter organizations and increased self-management have caused many managers to defend such reviews as necessities, given the lack of everyday direction many workers experience in their day-to-day existence (Nankervis & Compton 2006: 84-85).
According to Nankervis & Compton in their study of 992 Australian companies, performance reviews are…
What issues might arise as they attempt to merge their respective performance management systems?
Performance management systems play a significant part in the everyday operational success of an organization. When a firm acquires another firm, there are fundamental issues that might emanate as they try to merge their corresponding performance management systems. One of the key issues is that some of the metrics being employed by one company may not be suitable or efficacious for the other company. Majority of the organizations have a performance management practice and procedure that they utilize to measure and assess personnel on objectives delineated by human resources and ascertain bonus payments and compensation. Therefore, the lack of compatibility of the performance management systems of the companies whilst merging implies that the companies may fail to properly assess and manage the performance of the new set of employees and therefore give them the wrong set…
What questions does Performance Management see to answer?
Performance Management sees to answer questions relating to employee work objectives and overall role within an organization. The performance manager will develop, assess and monitor a plan by which an employee's contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management will attempt to answer, therefore, are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting the objective? What could be done to help the employee meet the objective more effectively?
What assumptions are necessary to implement performance-based management?
The assumptions necessary to implement performance-based management are those that the employee has no control over but that might affect the outcome of his or her work. For instance, if an employee must travel to achieve a work-related objective, it would be assumed…
performance indicators and internal budget controls like reviewing staff hours can be used to assess individual and organizational accountability. Strict AICPA standards are required for the peer-review process. In addition, internal budget controls are also effective performance indicators.
The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has published extensive and strict guidelines regarding the CPA peer review process (AICPA). The standards for membership in the AICPA are strict, "to retain their membership in the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) members of the AICPA who are engaged in the practice of public accounting in the United States or its territories are required to be practicing as partners or employees of firms enrolled in an approved practice-monitoring program..."
In accordance with the AICPA standards, the firm will chose a single, qualified CPA from a list provided by the AICPA to conduct a peer review. This person will review working conditions,…
IACPA. Standards for Performing and Reporting on Peer Reviews. 23 October 2003. http://www.aicpa.org/members/div/practmon/stdstitle.htm
performance of Joe Schmoe was improved upon significantly. However, in some ways this was easy because Mr. Schmoe made a number of glaring errors in his analysis. Much of the success of the past four years is attributed to simply rectifying those mistakes. The next four years will be more challenging. There is still room for improvement, however. To analyze the performance of the past four years and decide on a strategy for the next four years, the same basic tools will be used as before.
The X5 is the safest performer. It is in the maturity stage of the product life cycle at the beginning of 2006 and will head into maturity for 2008. This product does make a few million in 2008, so as long as that slim margin of success is maintained, there is no reason to discontinue the X5 prematurely. Indeed, because the R&D allocation is…
Marketing Teacher.com (2011). The product life cycle. Marketing Teacher. Retrieved July 30, 2011 from http://www.marketingteacher.com/lesson-store/lesson-plc.html
eNotes (2011). Cost-Volume-Profit analysis. eNotes. Retrieved July 30, 2011 from
Disruptive behavior impacts students' ability to learn. In both the regular and special education classrooms, teachers must manage disruptive behavior and help students stay on task. It is especially critical with reading instruction in the beginning of a student's academic career. Struggling readers, without intervention, often struggle throughout their school years. Peer-assisted learning strategies (PALS) have been shown to be effective in keeping students on task and thus enabling them to achieve more success.
Special Education Standard 5 states: "The special education teacher understands and applies knowledge of procedures for planning instruction and managing teaching and learning environments. Students do not always come to school ready and willing to learn. When students are disruptive, they compound other learning issues they may have. As Lerner and Johns (2009, in Haydon et al., 2010, p. 222) point out, students with mild to moderate learning and behavior challenges do not do as…
Calhoon, M.B., Al Otaiba, S., Greenberg, D., King, A., and Avalos, A. (2006). Improved
Reading skills in predominantly Hispanic Title I first-grade classrooms: The promise of peer-assisted learning strategies. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice 21(4), pp. 261-272.
Haydon, T., Maheady, L, and Hunter, W. (2010). Effects of numbered heads together on the daily quiz scores and on-task behavior of students with disabilities. Journal of Behavioral Education 19(3), pp. 222-238.
Rafdal, B.H., McMaster, K.L., McConnell, S.R., Fuchs, D., and Fuchs, L.S. (2011). The
Performance Management System in the Organization
The objective of this study is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management system in the organization in which the writer of this work is employed and to make recommendations to improve this system.
The writer of this study is employed in a government organization that is aligned with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) hiring standards and selections. Each separate government organization is required to develop their own hiring and onboarding procedures therefore, these are unique to each individual agency. A 45-day model is used to recruiting and hiring of new employees.
Assessment of Organization Processes
Day One and Two
Noted as a weakness in attracting the best talent is the many steps involved in the process since the first ten steps in the hiring process are redundant and seemingly ambiguous and little excitement is present until the candidate…
Onboarding and Engaging New Employees (nd) Dartmouth. Retrieved from: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~hrs/manager/toolkit/hiringonboarding/onboarding_engaging.pdf
Pimentel, R. (nd) Peer Mentoring for the New Employee: Making a Difference One Employee At A Time. Retrieved from: http://www.miltwright.com/articles/PeerMentoring-NewEmployee.pdf
Schooley, Claire (2010) Drive Employee Talent Development Through Business Mentoring Programs. 6 Aug 2010. Forrester. Retrieved from: http://www.3creek.com/research/Forrester_Business_Mentoring_Aug10.pdf
Performance Management Plan task decribed email Traci Atwood Allen Consulting page
Performance management plan
In order to experience best results with the company, the employer needs to consider the value of employees for the firm as a whole. Through being able to assess each employee and the degree to which he or she is essential for the institution, Bradley can effectively direct finances with the purpose of providing valuable employees with bonuses. In order to obtain best results from his relationship with employees, he would have to devise a job plan in order to emphasize the expectations he has from each of his employees.
All employees need to be well-acquainted with the company's goals in general and with the tools it needs to use in order to achieve them. This means that Bradley would have to produce a strategy that would instruct each person about his or her role in…
Daniels, L.M. "Business Information Sources," (University of California Press, 1993)
Lee-Ross, D., & Lashley, C. "Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management in the Hospitality Industry," (Routledge, 4 May 2010)
Stewart, J., Beaver G., "Human Resource Development in Small Organisations: Research and Practice," (Routledge, 2 Aug 2004)
This brings us to the costs that both employees and JVA Corp. will face if this strategy is implemented. The employees will lose because, after the economic crisis, they will find themselves at the same professional levels as before the crisis. As no performance management has been undertaken, there have been no training programs etc. And the employees will simply find themselves not adapted to the challenges of the environment. They will find it difficult to move to another organization or be promoted in the near future.
The costs for the organization are even more significant and the previous paragraphs had hinted towards this. The main cost for the organization translates into the decrease in performance, over time, of its human resource and, indeed, of the overall quality of the personnel. At the same time, an additional cost will be the company's inability to make accurate strategic decisions, since the…
1. Richards, Brian. 2010. How to Create an Effective Employee Performance Management System. Accelerated Outcomes. On the Internet at http://acceleratedoutcomes.net/how-to-create-an-effective-employee-performance-management-system / Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
2. Heathfield, Susan. 2011. Performance Management is NOT an Annual Appraisal. On the Internet at http://humanresources.about.com/od/performanceevals/a/performancemgmt_2.htm . Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
Quality Performance Measurement
Public Evaluation Program
In this paper, we are going to be conducting a literature review of public evaluation programs. During the process, there is a focus on misunderstanding the needs of stakeholders and the programs / reforms. Together, these elements will illustrate the overall scope of what is taking place and the long-term effects it is having on everyone.
Misunderstanding the Needs of the Public
One of the biggest challenges with any public performance evaluation is the misuse of data. This is problematic, as officials believe they are effectively delivering a variety of services for a fraction of the costs. Yet, in reality, the lack of competition invites bloated salaries and inefficiency. Administrators will try to correct the situation, through looking at a variety of sources to understand what is happen. They are unable, to gain greater insights, as politics and changing attitudes influence the outcome of…
Cheezum, R. (2013). Building Community Capacity. Journal of Community Practice, 21 (3), 228 -- 247.
Rondileni, D. (2003). Reinventing Government for the 21st Century. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
Sirianni, C. (2009). Investing in Democracy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Stipack, B. (1979). Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services. Public Administration Review, 39 (1), 46 -- 52.
Job Performance Appraisals
There are three basic ways to appraise an employee's job performance: traits, behavior and results. Each of these ways has both advantages and disadvantages. Using an employee's traits to evaluate and appraise job performance can be beneficial because it allows the employer to see how well the person fits the position. Traits, which are qualities such as personality, communication style and background, are factors which cannot be created or faked. In many cases, certain traits are more suitable to a position and an employee showing these traits will demonstrate better performance. The disadvantage to evaluating based on traits is that the employee has no control over these factors and so should not be blamed for having traits that do not match the position. Also, appraising job performance based on traits can lead to illegal discrimination if traits such as gender, race and age are considered.