Performance Management Essays (Examples)

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Management Strategy the Document States the Plan

Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56836479

Management Strategy

The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.

Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.

The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be…… [Read More]

References:

Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19.

Kleiman, Lawrence S. (2010). " Management and Executive Development" Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business

Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2003). The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26

Richard Barrett (2003). Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51
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Performance Measurement for Project Management Every Enterprise

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50340969

Performance Measurement for Project Management

Every enterprise which employs a diverse and multifaceted workforce to facilitate organization, production, and service, from major international corporations to local community churches, utilizes a concept known as performance management to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness. The field of performance management has been defined by managerial researchers as a "strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors" (Armstrong and Baron, 1998), and the technique has been used since the 1970's by businesses seeking to improve their organizational results. For the sake of the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino's proposed luxury tour bus renovation project, it is essential to examine the complex issue of performance management from the varying perspectives of the different stakeholders involved, including the project's sponsors (MGM Grand Hotel and…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (1998). Performance management: The new realities. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.

Dudek-Burlikowska, M., Szewieczek, D. The Poka-Yoke method as an improving quality tool of operations in the process. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 36/1 (2009) 95-102.

Schwalbe, K. (2011). Information technology project management. (6th ed.). Boston: Course Technology Ptr.
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Management Challenges the Role of

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99133228

This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it.

Other literature also stress the role of power and control in helping the "new managers" of the 21st century to further develop their significant positions in the organization. Hill's (2005) study of managers for the century reflects how learning is achieved through experience, backs up theoretical assumptions that management for the 21st century does not demonstrate parallelism between its theories and actual applications. This assertion is mirrored in a theoretical study by Drejer (2004) and Klagge (1998), wherein he found out that training and learning for new…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Balogun, J. (2004). "Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 4.

Callanan, G. (2004). "What would Machiavelli think? An overview of the leadership challenges in team-bases structures." Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 3.

Drejer, a. (2004). "Back to basics and beyond: Strategic management -- an area where theory and practice are poorly-related." Management Decision, Vol. 42, Issue 3.

Hill, L. (2004). "New manager development for the 21st century." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
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Performance Measurement it Has Been

Words: 2302 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14399746

H professionals are increasingly been invited to attend strategic planning, recognizing the depth of knowledge which we have. At the time while this role is being played, an impact on the outcome on business is being made. Outcomes from the study by Paul . Bernthal, and ichard S. Wellins reveal that hard and oft outcomes are considerably higher when H strategy is remarkably higher when H is strategic, proactive, has a technological bent and is influential. During the recent years, researches connecting human capital to the bottom-line have become very normal. It is the employees who run the corporation and it would be sheer foolishness to think that investments in people do not generate a return. The ploy is to ensure that whatever procedures are employed to leverage employee talent is executed efficiently and to understand the genuine advantage of strong human capital. (H on the Edge- Future Trends you…… [Read More]

References

Bernthal, Paul R; Wellins, Richard S. HR on the Edge- Future Trends you need to know today. The Human Resources Forum. Retrieved from http://www.peoplesoft.com/media/en/pdf/ihrim_best_practice.pdf" http://www.ddiworld.com/pdf/ddi_HRontheEdge_Report.pdf. Accessed on 25 February, 2005

Chan, Alvin. 2004. The Challenges of Human Resource Management. 28 December. Retrieved at http://www.webpronews.com/ebusiness/management/wpn-36-20041228TheChallengesofHumanResourceManagement.html. Accessed on 25 February, 2005

Henson, Row. HR in the 21st century: Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved at http://www.peoplesoft.com/media/en/pdf/ihrim_best_practice.pdf. Accessed on 25 February,

Reilly, Gregory P; Reilly, Raymond R. 2001. Improving Corporate Performance Measurement. Journal of Cost Management. July/August. pp: 42-44. Retrieved at http://www.performance-measurement.net/news-detail.asp?nID=34Accessed on 25 February,
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Managing Projects Operations and Information

Words: 2210 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18237536

The performance of each team member depends on the performance of all others, this being a team project. Constraints include time and financial resources; as such improvement requires permanent improvement effort.

isk Management. No risk has been identified related to the project's completion.

Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms. The data analysts will develop a metric system to measure each member's performance on a weekly basis. This weekly performance will be submitted to the project manager for potential adjustments.

V. Operations management plan

Operations Strategy. An easy way to understand the meaning of operations strategy is to break the word into the two separate words: operations and strategy - these words being the opposite of each other (Slack & Lewis, 2002). 'Operations' is about the functions and procedures regarding the day-to-day processes, while 'strategy' is about the direction and scope of an organisation over a long period of time. The operations strategy…… [Read More]

References:

Aberdeen Group. 2008. Operational KPIs and Performance Management -- Are Your Daily Decisions Based on Fact?,  http://www.aberdeen.com/ 

Cooper, M. & Lambert D. 2000. Issues in Supply Chain Management. Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29: pp. 65-83.

Johnson, J. C. And Wood, D.F. 1996. Contemporary Logistics, N.J.: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle Creek.

Keah C.R.K. And Handfield, R.B. 1998 .Supply Chain Management: Supplier Performance and Firm Performance. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management: pp.2-9.
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Managing People and Groups in

Words: 1235 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49953932



5. Concerns Associated with the System

The legal concerns associated with the system are relatively reduced and are included in the same category as all the legal concerns faced by companies all over the world. In other words, the system must focus on being objective and fair; otherwise, the company stands the risks of being sued for discrimination and unfair treatment of the staff members.

The objectivity and fairness of the system is not only a matter for legal concerns, but also for ethical ones. If the employees come into contact with information of biased evaluations, they will lose their trust in the entity. This will lead to reduced performances, low employee morale or even high employee turnover rates, generating additional expenditure. Foremost, all these will negatively impact the company's image and perception on the market.

6. Possible Challenges in a Multicultural Workforce

Generally speaking, the appraisal system is objective…… [Read More]

References

Bowman, J.S., 1999, Performance Appraisal: Verisimilitude Trumps Veracity, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 28

Kovach, R.C., 1994, Matching Assumptions to Environment in the Transfer of Management Practices: Performance Appraisal in Hungary, International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 24

Lonsdale, a., 1998, Performance Appraisal, Performance Management and Quality in Higher Education: Contradictions, Issues and Guiding Principles for the Future, Australian Journal of Education, Vol. 42
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Managing Performance Within Business

Words: 437 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58557612

Performance Management Plan eview

The value of measuring and identifying key skills and attributes is essential to an evolving organization. The following performance management plan is tailored to the Stonefiled Limousine business.

Location: Austin, Texas

Type of Business: Limousine Service

Number of Employees

Current Predicted Annual Net evenue: $50,000

year evenue Growth Objective: 5%

Turnover ate: 10%

The purpose of a performance management plan is to track and guide an organization's employee's contribution to the organization. It is necessary to first identify the problems and objectives of the organization in order to get an appreciation for the industry and type of products and services they offer. The most important aspect of any performance management plan is that the organizational strategy is aligned with other facets of this improvement such as the Human esources and operations aspects of the company. Put simply, the company must understand what is being asked of…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (2000). Performance management. Human resource management, 69-84.

Otley, D. (1999). Performance management: a framework for management control systems research. Management accounting research, 10(4), 363-382.
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Management Principles Explain the Terms

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8020024



3. What are the main developments that have enabled more flexible work arrangements to flourish?

The pervasive adoption of the Internet as a means to collaborate, communicate and accomplished shared objectives has been the single greatest contributor to the development of virtual teams. The many software applications that are used across the Internet, from shared workspaces called groupware and secured portals to real-time chat and collaboration platforms designed to secure connect workers globally, innovation continues to make new levels of productivity (Hayman, 2010). The Internet set the foundation for free services including Skype that can connect virtual teams globally in seconds with both voice and video connections. Cloud computing is also increasing the adoption of shared collaboration and communication platforms, leading to the creation of applications that can enable 24/7 development of complex products and services across virtual teams. There are also advances in performance management applications and tools that…… [Read More]

References

Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3, (March 1): 345-367

Golden, T., and S. Raghuram. 2010. Teleworker knowledge sharing and the role of altered relational and technological interactions. Journal of Organizational Behavior 31, no. 8, (November 1): 1061.

Hayman, J.. 2010. Flexible Work Schedules and Employee Well-Being. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online) 35, no. 2, (May 1): 76-87.

Valerie J. Morganson, Debra A Major, Kurt L. Oborn, Jennifer M. Verive, and Michelle P. Heelan. 2010. Comparing telework locations and traditional work arrangements: Differences in work-life balance support, job satisfaction, and inclusion. Journal of Managerial Psychology 25, no. 6, (August 20): 578-595.
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Management Problems Dealing With Current

Words: 2860 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90369803



The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.

In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, J. (1992). How Would You Handle These Prickly Management Problems? Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n11_v24/ai_13806643

Business Wire. (1999) a.M. Best Company Says Technology Can Solve Insurance Management Problems. Gale Group 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_56542486

Day, CM. (1987). Three Diagnostic Clues to Management Problems. Medical Laboratory Observer: Nelson Publishing. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_v19/ai_5118836

Heisler, DL. (1989). The Wrong Response to Today's Problems. American Metal Market. Reed Business Information. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3MKT/is_n78_v97/ai_7565287
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Managing Diversity in the Workplace

Words: 2551 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52546707

Managing Diversity in the Workplace

The modern business environment is marked by numerous people-oriented variables brought to organizations. These variables include gender, race, age, and religion, and socioeconomic background, regional and national origin. All these factors form the current workforce in the market place. Diversity is widely recognized as one of the world's greatest strengths. Diversity continues to affect the society and the organizational workforce in the process of shaping the 21st century workforce (Konrad, 2006). Organizations appreciate individual sensitivity and differences to enable them discharge the organizational mission. Sensitivity and training on diversity focuses on changing valid standards and expectations of people. This paper gives details on understanding diversity. Although the scope is limited, it highlights how the understanding of diversity is a challenge in managing the current workforce. It remains a fact that the contemporary workforce does not have the same desires as the previous workforce.

Problem statement…… [Read More]

References

Albrecht, M.H. (2011). International HRM: Managing diversity in the workplace. Oxford [u.a.: Blackwell.

Cornelius, N. (2012). Building workplace equality: Ethics, diversity and inclusion. London: Thomson Learning.

Dansby, M.R., Stewart, J.B., & Webb, S.C. (2011). Managing diversity in the military: Research perspectives from the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Jackson, S.E. (2012). Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. New York: Guilford Press.
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Performance Given the Need to Improve Organizational

Words: 1522 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5751689

Performance

Given the need to improve organizational productivity through increasing employee performance, develop a performance management program that focuses on linking the organizations strategic objective with the individual effort outlining the benefits of improved performance, the consequences for lack of performance as well as the employee and managerial training that will be needed for implementation.

Purpose of the performance management program (PMP)

The purpose of the PMP is to align the motives of the employee with that of the organization so that the employee is encouraged to work for the good of the organization. Objectives are formulated that are in line with those of the employee, a system of rewards and consequences are established that attract the employee, and a system of monitoring and work appraisal, formalized together with employee, is established.

a. Strategic

The PMP is strategic so that the organization's goals are clearly aligned with that of the…… [Read More]

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Performance Standards the Imperative for Job Performance

Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39840672

Performance Standards

The Imperative for Job Performance Standards

One of the greatest mistakes that an employer can make is the failure to provide personnel with a clear set of directives on what is expected of them on the job. hile most employees will strive to perform to the best of their abilities, uncertainty over expectations and ways of measuring effectiveness can actually lead to lowered morale and, consequently, declining performance. It is for this reason, our primary text asserts, that job performance standards are an absolute necessity, particularly in companies of larger scope. Clearly defined and effectively communicated performance standards can not only help an employer to evaluate the effectiveness of his personnel both individually and collectively, but these standards can also help employees to gauge their success in attending to their job functions. (p. 604)

One of the best ways to ensure that an employee feels invested in achieving…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

UC Davis. (2008). Performance Management. U.C. Berkley Guide to Managing Human Resources.
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Management Theories as the Supervisor

Words: 4318 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15241304

In fact I sincerely wanted to help them find positions where they could excel. The lack of trust on their part and the acute resistance to change was so strong that structuring for integration to the point of even defining what conditions needed to be changed to overcome shortcomings and design a new position for them was not possible. As trust was not present and despite my best attempts to earn it through being genuinely concerned about them, all attempts were seen more as patronizing and less about attempting to help them. On the occasion that they did ask for pay increases, I told them they would need to get their cumulative customer satisfaction scores up and also call volumes. Not interested in the position or excelling at it, these employees refused to improve and when let go, saw it as very personal given my continual efforts to help them…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Kenneth O. "Worker Ownership and Participation in the Context of Social Change: Progress Is Slow and Difficult, but it Need Not Wait upon Massive Redistribution of Wealth. " the American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44.3 (1985): 337. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 25 Oct. 2008

Timothy Bartram, Gian Casimir. "The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader:the mediating effects of empowerment and trust in the leader. " Leadership & Organization Development Journal 28.1 (2007): 4-19. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008

Douglas Brownlie, Paul Hewer, Beverly Wagner, Gran Svensson. "Management theory and practice: bridging the gap through multidisciplinary lenses. " European Business Review 20.6 (2008): 461-470. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 24 Oct. 2008

Huei-Fang Chen, Yi-Ching Chen. "The Impact of Work Redesign and Psychological Empowerment on Organizational Commitment in a Changing Environment: An Example From Taiwan's State-Owned Enterprises. " Public Personnel Management 37.3 (2008): 279-302. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 27 Oct. 2008
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Performance Appraisal Shaw's Department Stores

Words: 1704 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99665894

In addition, theoretically, the system may not increase personal performance or development of skill sets and can hinder the employee/management relationship. The research however, has established that for Shaw, the performance appraisal system is viewed favorably by the management as well as the female staff respondents.

performance appraisal system for Shaw's Department Stores will enable management to better develop the staff and to facilitate a more comprehensive yet enjoyable shopping experience. The major issue however, remains in the lack of communication between management and staff. Staff respondents to the questionnaire indicate that further communication regarding employee development and feedback is necessary as it is currently lacking. The central theme to this system is the balanced scorecard system that links the initiatives to goals and outcomes.

360 degree appraisal (Bureau, 2011) will provide accountability to the management to ensure that staff is receiving proper training and development, including feedback for growth.…… [Read More]

A performance appraisal system for Shaw's Department Stores will enable management to better develop the staff and to facilitate a more comprehensive yet enjoyable shopping experience. The major issue however, remains in the lack of communication between management and staff. Staff respondents to the questionnaire indicate that further communication regarding employee development and feedback is necessary as it is currently lacking. The central theme to this system is the balanced scorecard system that links the initiatives to goals and outcomes.

360 degree appraisal (Bureau, 2011) will provide accountability to the management to ensure that staff is receiving proper training and development, including feedback for growth. An appraisal system within Shaw's is expected to alleviate issues regarding the motivation of sales staff as this system responds to the employee demand for career growth and responsibility

Finally, Shaw's business management practices requires the identification of employee experience when being evaluated for work performed at Shaw's and to identify good practices for effective performance appraisal relevant to Shaw's needs. The system therefore must be based on an employee assessment that includes specifics regarding employee responses to specific work situations. The psychometric approach will enable management to maximize the information obtained by instituting a performance appraisal system by identifying the variables within each worker that correlates to motivational techniques designed to increase performance.
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Management Account in the Public Sector and

Words: 2226 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99217837

Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review

The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .

Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.

Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml.

Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
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Managing Organizational Change

Words: 1302 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94898942

Managing Organisational Change

Kotter's 8-Step model is one of the most commonly used models in change management. The model provides eight useful guidelines which can be applied to change management within the context of human resource management (HM). This paper explores the applicability of the model to a change initiative aimed at shifting from job-based compensation to knowledge-based compensation at Dataversity. Dataversity provides digital educational and publishing services to business and information technology (IT) professionals concerned with data utilisation and management. The paper specifically demonstrates how each step of Kotter's model can be applied to the identified change situation.

The first step in the model is to create a sense of urgency (Kotter & Schlesinger, 2008). This essentially entails demonstrating to members of the organisation why the change is important as well as what could happen if the change is not implemented. The management and employees of Dataversity must understand…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. (2010). Beyond change management: how to achieve breakthrough results through conscious change management. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2013). Organisation development and change. 10th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Hayes, J. (2014). The theory and practice of change management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kotter, J., & Schlesinger, L. (2008). Choosing strategies of change. Harvard Business Review, 86(7/8), 130-139.
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Management During the Aftermath of Current Corporate

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25487700

Management

During the aftermath of current corporate scandals, administrators and scientists have directed their focus to concerns towards management of ethical values. We determine 3 popular misconceptions about organization integrity and offer responses which are grounded theoretically, groundwork, and organization cases. Even though the study of organization ethics is fairly brand new, theory and groundwork can be found that may direct professionals who're attempting to better handle their workforce and their very own moral conduct (Corina and oxana, 2011). We suggest that moral behavior be handled actively by way of specific honorable leadership as well as informed administration of the company's ethical culture.

The current century has taken business ethics scandals which have damaged countless workers as well as shareholders, and delivered shock waves all through the business community. The scams have created "perp walks" as well as regulation backlash, and company ethical values are yet again a popular subject.…… [Read More]

References

Corina, G., & Roxana, S. (2011). Comparative study on corporate governance. Annals Of The University Of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 20(2), 674-680.

Fouchet, R., & Keramidas, O. (2010). Organizational morality: The ecosystem of public utilities. Journal Of U.S.-China Public Administration, 7(9), 1-14.

Hanford, M.F. (2007). Establishing portfolio management governance: key components. Portfolio management governance, White paper.

Othman, Z., & Rahman, R. (2011). Exploration of Ethics as Moral Substance in the Context of Corporate Governance. Asian Social Science, 7(8), 173-182.
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Performance Measurements There Are Several

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14914243

Problems for the key stakeholders -- the mothers and their infants -- should be avoided at all costs in her evaluation. She needs to focus on reducing errors and she should also focus on developing positive outcomes, as these demonstrate a greater degree of respect for the stakeholders (instanley & Stuart-Smith, 1996).

The study should be observational in nature. The clinic may have, or could gather, data from past participants to begin Marjorie's evaluation process. This would allow her to make improvements immediately to the programs. Even if only partial data could be gathered, it may be sufficient for Marjorie to develop stronger hypotheses to test. She currently has little more than hunches to test, so gathering data from past courses would be a good starting point, since many of the participants will have retained their contact information.

Marjorie could also begin her evaluation based on the experiences of other…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Huston, P. (2001). The ethics of placebo-controlled trials -- a middle ground. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 345 (12) 915-919.

Winstanley, D. & Stuart-Smith, K. (1996). Policing performance: The ethics of performance management. Personnel Review. Vol. 25 (6) 66-84.