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The objective of this study is to critique and article concerning a court case or lawsuit related to discrimination or unjust dismissal by a performance management system.
It is reported in the work of Barrett and Kernan (1987) that in "Nord v. U.S. Steel (1985) the plaintiff successfully demonstrated that she had a record of good performance appraisals before she requested a promotion. After this request her appraisals became negative, which led to her eventual termination. The court reasoned that the downgraded evaluations after her promotion request were evidence of discrimination. Employers in the remaining 37 cases successfully defended their termination decisions." (p. 6) The court emphasized the necessity of "applying performance appraisal standards equally to all employees
Purpose of Performance Management
Miller (2015) writes "A performance appraisal itself may become the target of a lawsuit. Indeed, no evaluation system is completely immune to the risk…
Barrett, GV and Kernan, MC (1987) Performance Appraisal and Terminations: A Review of Court Decisions Since Brito v. Zia with Implications for Personnel Practices. Personnel Psychology, 1987, 40. Retrieved from: http://www.criticall911.com/documents/pa-apco2011/barrett-kernan-1987.pdf
Miller, C. (2015) Performance Appraisals in Legal Contexts. Retrieved from: https://cindymiller.wordpress.com/2008/07/08/performance-appraisals-in-a-legal-contents/
Performance Management System
Executive eport on eturn on Investment
eturn on Investment (OI) is among the outstanding accepted performance measurement as well as evaluation metrics employed in business analysis. When undertaken rightfully, OI analysis has proved to be the most influential instrument for evaluating on hand information systems as well as coming up with well-versed pronouncements on software acquisitions as well as supplementary projects. A number of years ago, eturn on Investment was considered as a financial phrase and described as a model grounded on a meticulous as well as irrefutable scrutiny of financial proceeds as well as costs. Currently, OI has gained a wide recognition as well as acceptance businesswise and also in financial management in both private and public sectors. Extensive propagation of the eturn on Investment method, however, has brought about the current situation where OI is over and over again qualified as a non-rigorous, formless bundle…
Black, Fischer and Robert Litterman,(1992). Global Portfolio Optimization, Financial Analysts Journal. Retrieved Dec 11, 2013, from http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~mkearns/finread/intuition.pdf
Dowling, G.R., & Staelin, R. (1994). A model of perceived risk and intended risk-handling activity. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 119 -- 134. Retrieved Dec 11, 2013, from http://theglobaljournals.com/ijsr/file.php?val=MTE3Ng==
Ducharme, M.J., Singh, P., & Podolsky, M. (2005). Exploring the links between performance appraisals and pay satisfaction. Compensation and Benefits Review, 37(5), 46-52. Retrieved Dec 11, 2013, from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=1477-7282&volume=26&issue=1&articleid=17005026&show=ref&PHPSESSID=g46hei34l5l19gej6817j5bbb0
Mogollon, M., & Raisinghani, M. (2003). Measuring ROI in e-business: a practical approach. Information Systems Management, 20(2), 63-81. Retrieved Dec 11, 2013, from http://www.ijikm.org/Volume6/IJIKMv6p245-269Botchkarev566.pdf
The evaluation of work performance of employees is a technical process which is comprehensively, systematically and continuously carried out by the immediate superiors. The evaluation is conducted to identify attitudes, job performance and behavior of the employee during the performance of their duties and functions.
The evaluation is done at all levels of the organization starting from the top to bottom. One of the most common uses of the performance evaluations of employees is when the employer has to take a decision regarding promotions, layoffs and increment in salaries of employees. The information obtained from the performance evaluation of employees determines the training and development needs of both individuals and organization respectively (Millett & Wiesner, 2000). The performance evaluation approach can be rational or political. The rational approach determines the performance of every employee working in an organization while the political approach determines the performance of employee based on agenda…
Antoni, C. (2005). Management by objectives -- an effective tool for teamwork? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(2), 174-184.
Brett, J.F., & Atwater, L.E. (2001). 360 Feedback: Accuracy, Reactions, and Perceptions of Usefulness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 930-942.
Kovac, J.C. (2006). The Performance Management Process. Workspan, 96-96
Millett, B., & Wiesner, R. (2000). Management and Organizational Behavior: Contemporary challenges and future directions. Milton, Qld.: John Wiley & Sons.
Performance Management Plan - 1600 words develop a performance management framework recommend client. See 2 attachments email message instructions
Performance management plan for Bradley Stonefield's limousine service
Even small enterprises need comprehensive performance management strategies aligned to their stated interests and goals. The organization currently under analysis is a small, Austin-based limousine service with roughly 50 employees. Limousine service companies market themselves primarily upon their ability to cater to customer needs, including the conscientiousness, safety, efficiency, and speed of drivers. Although some vehicles may be fancier than others, limousine services are marketed upon functionality. This makes superior motivation of workers essential for success. The price range between different services is relatively limited but there can be great discrepancies in quality that can effectively 'make or break' a service's ability to be competitive. Given that Bradley Stonefield's limousine service is a relatively new entrant into the crowded Austin-based business…
Chapman, A. (2012). Change management. Business Balls. Retrieved:
Pulakos, E. (2004). Performance management SHRM. Retrieved:
Summary of the Publication
"Performance Management: Integrating Strategy Execution, Methodologies, isk, and Analytics" by Gary Cokins offers a form of map for helping to assess the performance of a company, while maintaining a practical discussion of all the issues which confront an individual in the planning and measuring stage of performance improvement. Cokins is also able to issue a strong message about the necessity of installing predictive metrics in a manner that makes sense to both analytic and non-analytic executives. Cokins is able to very aptly summarize some of the more pressing issues regarding performance management, while offering up the most basic and most fundamental ideas regarding performance management issues that are of pressing concern to the individual. Cokins is able to use his book to offer up more than just a standard conceptual explanation or simply via open questions the sheer benefit of the value in enterprise…
Cokins, G. (2010). Performance Management: Integrating Strategy Execution, Methodologies, Risk, and Analytics. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Again, the performance appraisal instrument will serve as the beginning and the end of the performance management system, providing both instruction and measurement of performance along the lines specifically devised by the management of the Cobran Medical Institute (Heathfield 2010). Such a custom-tailored system cannot help but make the Cobran Medical institute's strategic objectives more easily achievable.
Issues of appraisal instruments, training and development, and remuneration all have significant bearing on the larger issue of performance management. Fro the Cobran Medical Institute, a transition to a more behavior-specific performance appraisal tool is recommended to decrease distortions in appraisal and to increase consistency in performance and perceived standard. This will also allow management to obtain a more comprehensive view of their employees.
Armstrong, M. (2004). Performance management: key strategies and practical guidelines. Sterling, VA: Kogan Publishing.
Bacal, . (1999). Performance management. New York: McGraw Hill.
Heathfield, S. (2010). "Performance…
Armstrong, M. (2004). Performance management: key strategies and practical guidelines. Sterling, VA: Kogan Publishing.
Bacal, R. (1999). Performance management. New York: McGraw Hill.
Heathfield, S. (2010). "Performance management process checklist." Accessed 24 April 2010. http://humanresources.about.com/od/performancemanagement/a/perfmgmt.htm
Kloot, L. & Martin, J. (2000). "Strategic performance management: A balanced approach to performance management issues in local government." Management accounting research 11(2), pp. 231-51.
The other major advantage of the use of a pilot group for conducting evaluations and 360 degree feedback survey is it enables pilot participants to act as champions who promote the process in the rest of the organization.
Using ater Groups:
When conducting evaluations and 360 degree feedback assessments, using small but relevant rater groups is one of the best methods. The consideration of the number of people to participate in providing feedback is critical because providing response is the main aspect of 360 degree appraisals. In addition to using the small rater groups, it's also important manage the rater selection since leaving this to the participants would tempt them to conduct the survey in their own favor. However, the selected raters should have normal interactions with employees being evaluated in order to provide accurate performance feedback.
Aligning Employee Goals with Organizational Goals:
Aligning employee goals with organizational goals is…
"Actionable Business Planning." (n.d.). Think Up College of Management and Technology.
Retrieved from Walden University website: http://thinkup.waldenu.edu/management/business-planning/item/11552-actionable-business-planning
"Aligning Performance Plans with Organizational Goals: OPM's Eight-Step Process." (2005,
September). Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework Resource Center. Retrieved from U.S. Office of Personnel Management website: http://www.opm.gov/hcaaf_resource_center/assets/Ropc_tool1.pdf
Performance Management Systems
The Paradox of Performance Management Systems
And Their Effect on Corporate Performance
Performance Management Systems including annual performance reviews are only as effective as the contextual relevance and insight of a manager or leader into how to create greater alignment of personal and professional goals of an employee. The continued evolution of performance management systems provide a useful index of how management and leadership theories have progressed beyond obvious measures of productivity to the more difficult, nuanced aspects of getting results. The techniques used during the industrial revolution era where output was one of the most prized metrics of performance have today been replaced by more elusive yet very valuable metrics of cognitive and intellectual contributions.
Unitarist approaches to Human Resource Management (HRM) strive to create a highly collaborative work environment that is predicated on a common purpose and shared goals and that there is often an…
Arrowsmith, J., & Parker, J. (2013). The meaning of 'employee engagement' for the values and roles of the HRM function. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(14), 2692.
Boselie, P., Brewster, C., & Paauwe, J. (2009). In search of balance - managing the dualities of HRM: An overview of the issues. Personnel Review, 38(5), 461-471.
Caldwell, D. (1978). Employee motivation under merit systems. Public Personnel Management, 7(1), 65.
Google Investor Relations (2014). Investor Relations. Retrieved January 1, 2014, from Google Investor Relations and Filings with the SEC Web site: http://investor.google.com/
Company officials must stay work alongside with the employees in order to better identify and satisfy their needs. In addition, they should implement several training, benefits and remuneration programs.
Once they have understood the forces that drive their employees (and these are not simply of financial nature), ritish American Tobacco stands a better chance of implementing a more proactive system and of retrieving the most beneficial results.
8. Conclusions and recommendations
ritish American Tobacco was among the first companies that understood the true importance of the role played by the human resource. As a result of this understanding, the international corporation implemented a human resource performance management system which aims to increase employee's satisfaction and increase the chances of reaching the overall objective.
The implementation of the system has already showed results, but it could also use adjustments and improvements. ritish American Tobacco is most likely to reach their maximum…
Cox, H., 2000, the Global Cigarette: Origins and Evolution of British American Tobacco, 1880-1945, Oxford University Press
2007, British American Tobacco Official Website, http://www.bat.com/,last accessed on December 8, 2007
2007, British American Tobacco 2006 Annual Report, Retrieved at http://www.bat.com/servlet/SPMerge?mainurl=/group/sites/uk__3mnfen.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DO52AK34?opendocument%26amp%3BSKN%3D3%26amp%3BTMP%3D1on December 7, 2007
2007, British American Tobacco, the Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/britishamericantobaccobusiness , last accessed on December 8, 2007
Performance Management Systems: Balanced Scorecard vs. 360-Degree Feedback
Performance Management is an essential part of yielding the best possible results from a company's personnel. And as many preferred systems for performance management demonstrate, the results are only possible with effective instruments and metrics for planning objectives, evaluating performances, ways of garnering feedback and providing proper incentives for achievement. To this end, the discussion hereafter considers The Balance Scorecard and 360-Degree Feedback as two systems of performance management that have the capacity to improve performance by providing for all of these functions.
ith respect to the Balanced Scorecard approach to performance management, the text by Torrington et al. (2008) is particularly instructive. This methodology is highly dependent upon the integration of broader performance evaluators with directly quantitative determinants, demonstrating the focus which many firms will place on numerical indicators of the internal environment. According to Torrington et al., a wide range…
Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong Handbook of performance management: an evidence-based guide to delivering high performance. Kogan Page Publishers.
Drucker, P. (1977). People and Performance. Harper Collins.
Torrington, D.; Hall, L. & Taylor, S. (2008) Human resource management, 7th ed. Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Turner, W. (2002). Confidence-Based Organizational Metrics. University de
The employee should be given clear goals, to avoid employee frustration, and to avoid the use of the company for purely self-serving reasons. The employee is to be used as a resource, so he or she can feel involved in a meaningful fashion in the company, but must be appropriately compensated for his or her effort. And the effectiveness of these rewards, such as pay vs. performance, should also be tracked so as to inform future company policies.
Talent development, through mentoring and support, is a continuous process. Just as improving the organization overall is a 'process,' a worker's education is never complete. Learning new skills, perhaps with the support of managers for 'going back to school' or through other development programs, indicates that the company is willing to invest in the employee, and makes the employee willing to work harder to achieve overall organizational goals. Success with…
McNamara, Carter. (1999). Performance management: Overall goal and basic steps.
Management help. Retrieved August 4, 2009 at http://www.managementhelp.org/perf_mng/overview.htm
This was accomplished by: breaking down into small teams and having everyone work directly with some of the top executives at the firm (i.e. Steve Jobs). This created an atmosphere that encouraged employees to discuss their ideas and the impact they are having on consumers. It is at this point, that Apple was able to integrate these different ideas into their performance evaluation procedures. (Stone 38 -- 40) (Snell 143 -- 179)
Clearly, the performance evaluation system that Apple is using is helping the firm to attract and retain the best employees. This is because there is a focus on ensuring that all candidates for a position meet: the basic educational and experience qualifications. During the next stage, is when they will be subject to: a series of interviews, a practical exam and other criteria. This allows the company to decide which individuals would be the best choice for…
Griffin, Ricky. Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print.
Herbold, Robert. What's Holding You Back. San Francisco: Josey Bass, 2011. Print.
Highhouse, Scott. Stubborn Reliance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology 1:3 (2008): 333 -- 342
Snell, Scott. Managing Human Resources. Mason: South -- Western, 2012. Print.
Performance Management: Implementing an Effective Performance Management System
Why Performance Management?
Performance management is the organized method that companies use to monitor the results of work activities, to measure and evaluate the performance of the employees, and to ensure that goals are met in an effective and efficient manner. According to Pulakos (2009), performance management is a key process that ensures that work gets done; and it is used by different organizations to communicate expectations and drive behavior towards achievement of important goals. For instance, ABC Company has offices in more than 50 countries across the globe and it employs over 40,000 employees from various cultural backgrounds, and it also deals with a diverse range of customers. It therefore needs to develop a performance management system that fosters an inclusive environment and channels different employees' talents and capabilities towards achievement of the organization's goals.
It is important to implement an…
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance management: A new approach for driving business results. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.-Blackwell Publishing.
Stone, R, D. (2009). Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. 48(5) 37-44. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/AD71C5FFAAEA427APQ/1?accountid=39364
Performance Management Theories and Practices
Performance management is a continuous process by which an organization identifies, measures, and develops the performance of individuals. It aligns their performance, the resources and systems with the strategic goals of the organization. According to Leeuw and Berg (2011), companies that apply performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not.
The course has covered important performance management theories and practices. One key lesson learnt, for instance, is that for performance management practices to be effective, there must be constant communication between the management team and the employees; and it is imperative for the goals of the individual to be aligned with those of the organization (Pulakos, 2009). The performance management cycle also provided insight on how performance management systems should be implemented in the organization. The elements of this cycle include: setting the objectives; measuring the performance of individuals; providing feedback on…
Leeuw, S. & Berg, P (2011). Improving Operational Performance by Influencing Shopfloor Behavior via Performance Management Practices. Journal of Operations Management, Vol. (29) 3, 224-233. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/866083571/50E9B56B076C4E25PQ/1?accountid=39364
Pulakos, E.D. (2009). Performance Management: A New Approach for Driving Business Results. (1st Ed.). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers.
Furthermore, the customer is most likely not to be biased hence the credibility of the feedback. The sources of information will be integrated by analyzing the data and comparing the feedbacks to determine if they show consistency; before drafting the final report.
The performance appraisal method of evaluating the behavior for rating has a critical technique of analyzing information incorporated. Therefore, in developing the tool, the first approach is to establish the information that is required (Flynn, 2010). Once determined, the questioned are phrased and documented into questionnaires and interviews, which will then be administered to the supervisors, the co-workers and customers for feedback purposes. Additionally, the previous reports on the company's trends will be incorporated to show how the behavioral changes in the department affect the returns of the company. The information gathered is then consolidated into a report for the final scaling which is the report of…
Josiane Fahed-Sreih, (2009) "The HR Scorecard: Linking People, Strategy and Performance,"
Management Research News, Vol. 32 Iss: 3, pp.297-299
Maurer, S.D. (2002). A practitioner-based analysis of interviewer job expertise and scale format as contextual factors in situational interviews. Personnel Psychology, 55(2), 307-327.
Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220142693?accountid=35812
Performance Management through the Lens of Keys v. Humana (2012)
Kathryn Keys, former employee of Humana Incorporated, filed a claim of racial discrimination under the Civil ights Acts of 1964 and 1991 (Keys v. Humana, 2012). The U.S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky sided with the defendant, Humana Inc., in January 2010 and dismissed the case on the grounds that the facts were insufficient to support a claim of racial discrimination under the McDonnell Douglass framework. The McDonnell Douglas framework requires the plaintiff to show that they are a member of a protected class, were qualified to hold the job in question, were treated differently than others not belonging to a protected class or were replaced by an unprotected person, and were harmed by an employment decision. Specifically, the lower court found that Keys failed to show that Caucasian employees who were not fired were indeed performing…
Human Inc. (2012). Well-being starts with us. 2010 & 2011 Corporate Social Responsibility Report. Retrieved 26 Feb. 2014 from http://apps.humana.com/marketing/documents.asp?file=1853059 .
Keys v. Humana Inc., No. 11-5472 F.6th (Fed. Cir. 2012).
Littler Learning Group. (2009). Performance management and corrective action: A resource guide for managers & supervisors. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://www.csus.edu/hr/docs/professional/perfmgmtandcorrectiveaction050109.pdf .
Van Bogaert, D.A. (n.d.). New legal battlegrounds for performance evaluations. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2014 from http://myweb.lmu.edu/dbogaert/newlegalbattlegroundspedvb.pdf .
All of these are admittedly challenging problems and the key to lasting change is that employees must first identify and internalize the need and desire for change for these strategies to succeed.
Yuen H. Chan, obert . Taylor, Scott Markham. "The ole of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process. " Journal of Managerial Issues 20.4 (2008): 444-467,421-422. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest, 1 Mar. 2009
Fulkerson, John ., and andall S. Schuler.. "Managing worldwide diversity at Pepsi-Cola International." Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. 248-276. New York, NY U.S.: Guilford Press, 1992. PsycINFO. EBSCO. [2 Mar. 2009
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley, Heather S. McMillan. "Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. " Performance Improvement Quarterly 21.4 (2009): 75. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest. 1 Mar. 2009
Edward Martin. "Employers boost perks to build workforce loyalty. " the Business Journal 22 Sep. 1997: 30. ABI/INFOM Dateline. ProQuest. 2 Mar.…
Yuen H. Chan, Robert R. Taylor, Scott Markham. "The Role of Subordinates' Trust in a Social Exchange-driven Psychological Empowerment Process. " Journal of Managerial Issues 20.4 (2008): 444-467,421-422. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest, 1 Mar. 2009
Fulkerson, John R., and Randall S. Schuler.. "Managing worldwide diversity at Pepsi-Cola International." Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. 248-276. New York, NY U.S.: Guilford Press, 1992. PsycINFO. EBSCO. [2 Mar. 2009
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley, Heather S. McMillan. "Organizational change: Motivation, communication, and leadership effectiveness. " Performance Improvement Quarterly 21.4 (2009): 75. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 1 Mar. 2009
Edward Martin. "Employers boost perks to build workforce loyalty. " the Business Journal 22 Sep. 1997: 30. ABI/INFORM Dateline. ProQuest. 2 Mar. 2009
In a good performance management system the manager plays a vital role. He is responsible to not only identify the employee strengths and weaknesses but also to acknowledge good performance and to provide developmental suggestions. The later part is very important, as it does no good to just spot the deficiency of an employee without providing positive suggestions for improvement. The employees for their part must be encouraged to provide their valuable input during every stage of the process. For example, some organizations even collect feedback from employees to evaluate the performance of their superiors. Thus, an appraisal denotes not just the supervisors assessing their subordinates but also rating from team members, rating by employees of their superiors, review by the HR department etc. Once such active and collaborative participation is achieved then the performance appraisal process attains its chosen objective, that of increasing the overall employee performance.
Hence, conflicts are generated only by misunderstanding or mischief (Edwards, 2003). Although unitarism have been proven to represent old-fashioned and unrealistic ideas, many managers nowadays follow this approach. They believe in a harmony of interests between them and their employers. However, practice has proven little resemblance between the employees' desires and interests, and those of their employers. Therefore, with such an approach to the employment relationship, conflict is inevitable. The 1998 Workplace Employee elations Survey revealed that 72% of workplace managers consult directly with the employees, and not with trade unions.
In the pluralist approach conflict is considered to be inevitable because various organizations take part in determining the rules of employment. Given the fact that each of these participating organizations has its distinct bases of authority, the risk of a conflict emerging is inevitable. The radical view is meant to be a critique of pluralism.
Conflicts are inevitable…
Gordon, Judith R. 1996. Organizational Behavior. A Diagnostic Approach. Fifth Edition. Prentice Hall International, Inc., Boston.
Dawson, Patrick. 1995. Troubles with TQM - Pirelli Cables Australia Limited. Managing Service Quality Journal, Volume no. 5, Issue no. 6, (online). Available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=842457 .
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EIRO Thematic Feature of Collective Dispute Resolutions in an enlarged European Union - case of Malta. 2004. (online). Available at http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2005/08/word/nl0508103t.doc
The governance of a corporation is the role of the board of directors and the management has the duty of running the firm on a day to day basis. The board, therefore, oversees the management and ensures the interests of the various shareholders are upheld. The executive department is made up of the top level managers and they are required to work as a team so as to deliver on the company goals. According to Wash (2002), management can only be successful in their work if they have clearly defined work description. CEO or company president is a vital position towards the success of any firm as they must take up the leadership mantle, work closely with the top-management, and ensure clear organizational mission, vision, and operational goals.
As a result of clarity in work description and the responsibilities of members of the board, the Innovations Theater has…
What questions does Performance Management see to answer?
Performance Management sees to answer questions relating to employee work objectives and overall role within an organization. The performance manager will develop, assess and monitor a plan by which an employee's contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management will attempt to answer, therefore, are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting the objective? What could be done to help the employee meet the objective more effectively?
What assumptions are necessary to implement performance-based management?
The assumptions necessary to implement performance-based management are those that the employee has no control over but that might affect the outcome of his or her work. For instance, if an employee must travel to achieve a work-related objective, it would be assumed…
performance management? Performance management is the company's goals equal the employee's activities and outputs. Defining performance, it specifies which aspects of employee's performance remain relevant to the business through job examination. Job examination or analysis means getting detailed data concerning jobs. Measuring performance involves measuring said aspects through performance evaluation. Performance evaluation is a method for managing performance. After evaluations, employees gain feedback and learn whether their performance has been effective or not.
Typically, businesses perform the process of performance management annually. Most of the reviews are for individual performance management while others are for pay decisions or establishing training priorities. In recent times, numerous business are moving toward ore streamline, frequent performance reviews. When examining the model of performance management, one may look at organizational strategies, individual attributes, and situation constraints, which all go to individual behaviors. From there it moves on to objective results. The three main purposes…
Sullivan, J. (2015). How Google Is Using People Analytics to Completely Reinvent HR. TLNT. Retrieved 19 February 2015, from http://www.tlnt.com/2013/02/26/how-google-is-using-people-analytics-to-completely-reinvent-hr/
Whatmakesagoodleader.com,. (2015). Job performance appraisal. Retrieved 20 February 2015, from http://www.whatmakesagoodleader.com/Job-Performance-Appraisal.html#Contrast
Measures should be developed at every level of the organisation as this will help in the measurement of performance at those levels. Again all services and teams will have action plans that they will have to meet which will make sure that the organisation reaches its goal. There has also got to be indicators for individuals as this will determine their performance for their teams and the organisation. (Measures of performance) the total service plan has to focus on the corporate and service objectives, highlight the important matters to the customers and staff, and the decision about the ultimate user of the information and their purpose for getting the information. (Key steps to effective performance measurement)
The measurement of the task done is against the information and there details that one has indicators for the objectives and also decides whether the task done will be meaningful and robust. The total…
Foundations of performance management. Retrieved at http://www.idea-knowledge.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=76249
Glick, Bryan. 2005. Trudy Norris-Grey, Sun Microsystems UK managing director. 13 April. Retrieved at http://www.computing.co.uk/analysis/1162459
Hats Off to Communicators a Great Success in Denver. 2001. Spring, Volume: 9; No: 3.
Retrieved at http://www.nagc.com/newnewsletter.pdf
Nankervis, .A., & Compton, .L. (2006) 'Performance management: theory practice?' Asia Pacific Journal Human esources, 44 (1), pp. 83 -- 101. Evaluate findings authors design, implementation, effectiveness performance management systems earlier studies conducted.
Performance management systems
Performance management systems have been defended as being advantageous to both employees and businesses alike by providing workers with feedback about how to improve their output. They have been criticized, however, because the use of performance reviews is said to be implicated in a focus on "short-term performance, annihilating long-term planning, building fear, demolishing teamwork and nourishing rivalry and politics" (Nankervis & Compton 2006: 84). However, flatter organizations and increased self-management have caused many managers to defend such reviews as necessities, given the lack of everyday direction many workers experience in their day-to-day existence (Nankervis & Compton 2006: 84-85).
According to Nankervis & Compton in their study of 992 Australian companies, performance reviews are…
This brings us to the costs that both employees and JVA Corp. will face if this strategy is implemented. The employees will lose because, after the economic crisis, they will find themselves at the same professional levels as before the crisis. As no performance management has been undertaken, there have been no training programs etc. And the employees will simply find themselves not adapted to the challenges of the environment. They will find it difficult to move to another organization or be promoted in the near future.
The costs for the organization are even more significant and the previous paragraphs had hinted towards this. The main cost for the organization translates into the decrease in performance, over time, of its human resource and, indeed, of the overall quality of the personnel. At the same time, an additional cost will be the company's inability to make accurate strategic decisions, since the…
1. Richards, Brian. 2010. How to Create an Effective Employee Performance Management System. Accelerated Outcomes. On the Internet at http://acceleratedoutcomes.net/how-to-create-an-effective-employee-performance-management-system / Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
2. Heathfield, Susan. 2011. Performance Management is NOT an Annual Appraisal. On the Internet at http://humanresources.about.com/od/performanceevals/a/performancemgmt_2.htm . Last retrieved on August 2, 2011
performance management that primarily involves investigating variances. Variances may take place because of several reasons such as climate changes that contribute to increase in electrical bills or slower of faster work by some employees. Nonetheless, only some of these factors or reasons are significant and may require management attention. Due to these unpredictable random factors or reasons, it's expected that nearly every category of cost will result in a variance of some kind. The investigation and calculation of variances is carried out to enable managers in the control of a business. However, managers need to make effective decisions on whether to conduct variance analysis for successful control.
As previously mentioned, variances are brought by several reasons that may require the attention of management. Therefore, the decision on when to investigate variances is based on consideration of several factors. These factors include the accuracy and reliability of the figures,…
Barry, J. (2010, June 16). Purchase Price Variance (PPV): the Only Believable Measure of Purchasing Performance. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from https://www.accentureacademy.com/~Blog/Purchase_Price_Variance_PPV_the_Only_Believable_Measure_of_Purchasing_Performance/view.aspx
Jay, S. (2006, October). Variance Investigation. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from http://www2.accaglobal.com/pubs/students/publications/student_accountant/archive/jay1006.pdf
Mohr, A. (n.d.). Reasons to Investigate a Budget Variance. Retrieved September 7, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/reasons-investigate-budget-variance-47924.html
The Extent to Which Motivation Theory Underpins Performance Management Systems
Performance Management Systems attempt to answer questions about employee work objectives and their overall role within an organization. The performance manager system is designed to assist the manager in developing, assessing and monitoring a plan by which an employee’s contributions to the organizational strategy and strategic objective are identified, measured and reviewed. The questions that the Performance Management System will are: What is the role of the employee? What is the objective of the employee? How well is the employee meeting the objective? What could be done to help the employee meet the objective more effectively? In encouraging employees to reach their goals, motivation theory can be seen as underpinning performance management systems to a high extent.
Motivation theory is based on the concept developed by Abraham Maslow (1943) in “A Theory of Human Motivation.” Maslow (1943) constructed a Hierarchy…
Contrary to popular belief, improved performance by employees in a particular organization is not always linked to incentives; in today's dynamic business environment, it is crucial for human resource managers to balance the needs of individuals with those of the organization. One critical component that leads to good individual as well as organizational performance is the application of an effective performance management process. In fact, companies that invest in good performance management practices generally perform better than those that do not measure and manage their performance (Leeuw and Berg, 2010). According to Cardy and Leonard (2011), performance management can be defined as the integrated and strategic approach used by human resource managers to deliver successful results by improving the performance of all the individuals in the organization. It ensures that the goals of an organization are achieved in an efficient and effective manner, while at the same time maintaining good…
Cardy, R & Leonard, B. (2011). Performance Management: Concepts, Skills and Exercises. (2nd Ed.) New York, NY: Routledge
Leeuw, S & Berg, J.P. (2010) Improving operational performance by influencing shopfloor behavior via performance management practices. Journal of Operations Management Vol. (29)1 224-335. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://www.isihome.ir/freearticle/ISIHome.ir-21006.pdf
Riccio, S. (2014) Hudson College Scenario C: Performance Management. Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved 10 April 2015 FOM https://www.shrm.org/Education/hreducation/Documents/Riccio_Hudson%20College_Scenario%20C_Student%20Workbook_FINAL.pdf
Stone, R.N. (2009) Achieving Results with a Performance-Centered Design Framework. Performance Improvement Vol. (48)5 37-44. Retrieved 10 April 2015 from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/237234715/4155FCBF55844623PQ/1?accountid=39364
What issues might arise as they attempt to merge their respective performance management systems?
Performance management systems play a significant part in the everyday operational success of an organization. When a firm acquires another firm, there are fundamental issues that might emanate as they try to merge their corresponding performance management systems. One of the key issues is that some of the metrics being employed by one company may not be suitable or efficacious for the other company. Majority of the organizations have a performance management practice and procedure that they utilize to measure and assess personnel on objectives delineated by human resources and ascertain bonus payments and compensation. Therefore, the lack of compatibility of the performance management systems of the companies whilst merging implies that the companies may fail to properly assess and manage the performance of the new set of employees and therefore give them the wrong set…
Performance Management System in the Organization
The objective of this study is to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the performance management system in the organization in which the writer of this work is employed and to make recommendations to improve this system.
The writer of this study is employed in a government organization that is aligned with the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) hiring standards and selections. Each separate government organization is required to develop their own hiring and onboarding procedures therefore, these are unique to each individual agency. A 45-day model is used to recruiting and hiring of new employees.
Assessment of Organization Processes
Day One and Two
Noted as a weakness in attracting the best talent is the many steps involved in the process since the first ten steps in the hiring process are redundant and seemingly ambiguous and little excitement is present until the candidate…
Onboarding and Engaging New Employees (nd) Dartmouth. Retrieved from: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~hrs/manager/toolkit/hiringonboarding/onboarding_engaging.pdf
Pimentel, R. (nd) Peer Mentoring for the New Employee: Making a Difference One Employee At A Time. Retrieved from: http://www.miltwright.com/articles/PeerMentoring-NewEmployee.pdf
Schooley, Claire (2010) Drive Employee Talent Development Through Business Mentoring Programs. 6 Aug 2010. Forrester. Retrieved from: http://www.3creek.com/research/Forrester_Business_Mentoring_Aug10.pdf
Performance Management Plan task decribed email Traci Atwood Allen Consulting page
Performance management plan
In order to experience best results with the company, the employer needs to consider the value of employees for the firm as a whole. Through being able to assess each employee and the degree to which he or she is essential for the institution, Bradley can effectively direct finances with the purpose of providing valuable employees with bonuses. In order to obtain best results from his relationship with employees, he would have to devise a job plan in order to emphasize the expectations he has from each of his employees.
All employees need to be well-acquainted with the company's goals in general and with the tools it needs to use in order to achieve them. This means that Bradley would have to produce a strategy that would instruct each person about his or her role in…
Daniels, L.M. "Business Information Sources," (University of California Press, 1993)
Lee-Ross, D., & Lashley, C. "Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management in the Hospitality Industry," (Routledge, 4 May 2010)
Stewart, J., Beaver G., "Human Resource Development in Small Organisations: Research and Practice," (Routledge, 2 Aug 2004)
Performance Management and Establishing Value Propositions
Successful performance management can create a competitive advantage in virtually any industry. Furthermore, the failure to manage performance can also make an organization vulnerable to external threats. As a result of the importance of implanting strategies and managing performance, many organizations have begun to understand the importance of using a wider array of metrics than just the traditional financial metrics to create value. Models such as the balanced scorecard provide a comprehensive platform that can be customized to help an organization manage performance and create value in the market for both customers and investors. Still, even with a good strategy in hand, an organization must also have an execution strategy that can help them implement the strategy before it is of value and can create a competitive advantage. This analysis will look at the ability for strategy mapping to serve as a…
Armitage, H., & Scholey, C. (2006). Using Strategy Maps to Drive Performance. Retrieved from CIMA Global: http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_MAG_Strategy_Mapping_March07.pdf
Jones, P. (2011). Introducing Strategy Maps and Strategy Mapping. Retrieved from Excitant: http://www.excitant.co.uk/resources/white-papers/strategy-maps-and-strategy-mapping
Keyte, C. (2012, October 30). 90% of Business Strategies Fail Due to Poor Execution. Retrieved from B2C: http://www.business2community.com/strategy/90-of-business-strategies-fail-due-to-poor-execution-0319429#XOoz4suKltT25xhE.97
Performance management refers to the accomplishment of performance targets through the strategic management of people and the workplace environment. Thorough performance management needs to be able to resonate strongly throughout the entire organization as a core aspect of the business rather than a separate part of the business process: it is fundamental and integral and needs to be activated wherever targets are set and where resources are allocated in terms of their achievement. Performance management needs to be seen as both a strategic issue and a tactical issue (thecqi.org). The most strategic aspect of performance management is that it focuses on the setting of achievable goals for a specific organization and in the development of the competence and capabilities in accomplishing such goals: if the goals set are not realistic or if they are beyond the organization's capability, no amount of trying or encouraging of employees will ever assist in…
Hamlett, C. (2013). Examples of Performance Management Goals. Retrieved from chron.com: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-performance-management-goals-11829.html
Microsoft. (2008, August). The Role of Performance Management in Organizations. Retrieved from Microsoft.com: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc811594(v=office.12).aspx thecqi.org. (2013). What is performance management? Retrieved from thecqi.org: http://www.thecqi.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledge-portal/Interactions-of-organisations-and-people/Performance-management/
uw.edu. (2014). Manager's Guide to Performance Management. Retrieved from uw.edu: http://www.washington.edu/admin/hr/roles/mgr/ee-performance/perfmgmt/
Performance Management and Performance Appraisal eport:
As a member of the U.S. military, my organization's current performance management and performance appraisal system is driven by very unique needs. It is in many ways highly bureaucratic and standardized. This is so that the requirements of the organization vs. The personal and subjective responses of supervisors define the ratings process. It also has specific mechanisms for the mentorship of soldiers advancing through the system. Although there are certain aspects to the Army's performance management approach which are quite specialized and specific, I believe that any organization, including private for-profit enterprises, could learn from its philosophy. Its strong emphasis on mentorship and performance feedback minimize frustration with criticism and the candidate's sense of being unfairly judged. The process is on one hand uniform in terms of the benchmarks to which candidates are held but on the other hand, the coaching and individualized…
Aguinis, H. (2013). Performance management (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Aguinis, H., Joo, H., Gottfredson, R. (2011). Why we hate performance management -- and why we should love it. Business Horizons, 54, 503 -- 507
Managing Individual Behavior
How Google's corporate values and goals concerning employees, customers, and the business combine to create job satisfaction and motivate the people who work there
Google Inc. has been handling its personnel successfully. This has resulted in the enhancement of the overall motivation and commitment to its goals. Moreover, the effective management of human resources has made Google elected the 'Best Company to work for' in the United States. Google uses a strategy of making workplaces and offices all over the world which are designed over expansive areas with offering the workers not only with every possible space for innovation and creativity, but also make sure that the employees' concepts are properly and uncompromisingly analyzed, worked on, and recognized (Girard, 2008).
Best companies make their own exclusive cultures in which workers are able to say "I believe in the company I work for, have the pleasure in what…
Axson, D.A.J. (2010). Best practices in planning and performance management: Radically rethinking management for a volatile world. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Cooke, W.N. (2012). Multinational companies and global human resource strategies. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Girard, B. (2008). The Google way: 12 management strategies to revolutionize your business. San Francisco, Calif: No Starch.
Performance Management Plan
Provide a description of your company and employees.
The company is question is Allure Car Company. The company is in its first year and has twenty-five employees. The company operates out of New York. In addition, the owner of the company expects that the business will generate about $100,000 in revenue in its first year and a growth of 5% every fiscal year subsequently. More so, the company expects a turnover growth of 10% every year from now on for a period of three years.
How will you assess employees? (For example, will you make performance appraisals? Will you rank employees?)
The basic approach that I will use to assess the employees of the company will be through a behavior-based rating system and a secondary evaluator that is based on the results of the employees. In particular, I will appraise the personnel using the…
Seotlela, R. P. J., & Miruka, O. (2014). Implementation Challenges of Performance Management System in the South African Mining Industry. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(7), 177.
Aguinis, H. (2009). Performance management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
I work in a retail store that sells handbags, shoes, linens and similar household and clothing products. My company just had a bad quarter. Consequently, I have requested my senior management team to enhance the performance by employees in the retail section immediately in order to turn the trend around. I have requested that they establish a performance management system so as to change the performance of the current employees for the better. This can be achieved, firstly, by making the system effective through the creation of a job description for each employee and the retail sales associate (Smith, 2016). This can be attained as follows
The retail associates in our company are critical positions because they are best poised to deliver the retail objective of the company. A retail sales associate must polish his/her sales techniques and internalize the company's strategies aimed at boosting sales.…
Biro, M. M. (2012). 5 Leadership Behaviors Loyal Employees Trust. Forbes. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2012/06/04/5-leadership - behaviors-loyal-employees-trust/
Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2007). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Paul, A. M. (2013). Four Ways to Give Good Feedback. Psychology. Time Ideas. Retrieved August 24, 2013, from http://ideas.time.com/2013/03/18/four-ways-to-give-good-feedback/
Smith, L. (2016). Performance Management. Academia. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from https://www.academia.edu/9665199/HRM_3_sample_paper_Assignment_2
Accreditation plan for the American Correctional Association
The accreditation of the correctional facilities is aimed at ensuring the well-being of the inmates but also is targeted at benefiting the employees, the victims, the courts as well as the legislators of a state. The standards that are set do allow the protection of the judicial system from embarrassment as well as allowing the correctional institutions to have and retain the autonomy from outside interventions.
Goals and functions of functional areas
Safety; this involves provision of conditions that are humane, protection of the inmates from rape and possible assault, giving of nutritious food as well as medical care, giving the inmates a hygienic living environment and recreation activities. This will ensure the inmates are safe from ill health or physical harm while within the walls of the facility as well as being safe from abusive guards.
Security; this functional are…
American Correctional Association, (2014). Public Correctional Policy on Standards and Accreditation. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.aca.org/government/policyresolution/view.asp?ID=44
David Ronald R., (2006). Evaluating American Correctional Association Accreditation of Adult Correctional Institutions. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=5&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdspace.uta.edu%2Fbitstream%2Fhandle%2F10106%2F478%2Fumi-uta-1244.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1&ei=r3YcU97SBubb7Aa2hIHAAQ&usg=AFQjCNGeh6YJwRQeOzwduuSGkhI3J9IXMg&sig2=jVsH_ysiTj7ZUyDagJDjSA&bvm=bv.62578216,d.bGE
Flynn E.E., (1977). The Correctional Facility: The Environment Today and in the Future. Library Trends. Summer edition.
Manitoba Laws, (1999). The Correctional Services Act. Retrieved March 7, 2014 from https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/statutes/ccsm/c230e.php
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
Performance Management and People
"Performance Management" and "People Performance"
The purpose of this paper is to discuss and critically evaluate the Performance Management model by Michael Armstrong and People Performance model by John Purcell. The paper starts with an ample introduction and significance of the employee performance management practices and proceeds by discussing the various concepts and strategies which are incorporated by business organizations all over the world. The major focus of the paper is to discuss the implications of these models for the success and prosperity of an organization. The main body of the paper discusses these models from a critical perspective and explains their major components in detail.
The most important strategies which are recommended by Performance Management model include performance appraisal and reviews, training and skills development, Management by Objectives (MBO), the techniques to manage the low performers,…
Armstrong. M, 2012, Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, 12th edition. U.S.: Kogan Page
Becker, B. & Gerhart, B. 1996, "The impact of human resource management on organisational performance: Progress and prospects," Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779-801.
Becker, B. & Huselid, M. 2006, "Strategic Human Resources Management: Where do we go from here?," Journal of Management, 32 (6): 898-925.
Boselie, P., Dietz, G., & Boon, C. 2005, "Commonalities and contradictions in HRM and performance research," Human Resource Management Journal, 15 (3): 67-94.
Active Performance Management Proposal: Case Study Evaluating Active Performance Measurement in Beechwood
The research examines the potential possibilities of active performance management in the modern workplace. It first examines the current literature as a way to set a foundation for the actual analytic portion of the project. Then, specific research questions are examined in order to provide a framework to test the actual efficiency of an active performance management style implemented in the field. Finally, a potential methodology is explored as well as the significance of the research as a whole.
In this vulnerable economic environment, many businesses are looking for an edge on their competition. One potentially lucrative strategy for increasing productivity and efficiency within implementation of future strategies is adopting an active performance measurement strategy. In this, managers focus on evaluating perfomance from a proactive standpoint. Essentially, "the purpose of performance analysis is to locate evidence and draw…
Abbey, Paul, 2009. Active performance management. Management Articles. Web. http://www.articlesfactory.com/articles/management/active-performance-management.html
Armstrong, Michael, 2009. Armstrong's Handbook of Performance Management: An Evidence-Based Guide to Delivering High Performance. Kogan Page Publishers.
Beechwood, 2012. About Beechwood. Beechwood. Web. http://www.beechwoodps.co.uk/about
Ferri, Richard A., 2010. Active managers' market-beating claims debunked. Forbes. Web. http://www.forbes.com/2010/02/16/mutual-funds-active-management-debunked-personal-finance-indexer-ferri.html
Organizational Success, Performance Management and Motivation and the elationship between Performance Management and eward
A landmark in the successes of an organization is to fulfill the incessant changing needs of organization and workers; grave responsibility falls on top management to develop strong associations between them. Organizations expect workers to follow the rules and regulations, work according to the principles set for them; the workers expect good working conditions, fair pay, fair treatment, secure career, power and involvement in decisions. These expectations of both parties differ from organization to organization. For organizations to address these expectations, an understanding of workers' motivation is necessary (Zaidi & Abbas, 2011).
It is important for the organizations to meet and initiate new motivational needs of workers in today's organizations. The reality is that organizations today have completely changed; consequently it is more important for the top management to carry out new methodologies of developing sturdy…
Lucica, C. (n.d.). Performance Management. The Relationship between Evaluation and Reward in the Pedagogical Activity of the Romanian Secondary Education. Retrieved from http://conference.ubbcluj.ro/mccs/RePEc/bbu/wpaper/115-121.pdf
Pulakos, E.D. (2004). Performance Management. Retrieved from http://www.shrm.org/about/foundation/research/Documents/1104Pulakos.pdf
Role of Motivation in Employee Relationship. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.managementstudyguide.com/role-of-motivation-in-employee-relationship.htm
Zaidi, F.B., & Abbas, Z. (2011). A Study on the Impact of Rewards on Employee Motivation
II. Performance Management in England and Wales:
In Wales and England the National Policing Plan 2004-2007 was published in November 2003 with the stated aim of the plan being to: "Deliver policing to high national standards and for communities to be increasing engaged in the policing of their area." The stated plan is inclusive of a "framework for local police planning in England and Wales over the next three years." Within the scope of the plan are 'five key priorities' for the police service' which are: Provision of a 'citizen focused service to the public'
Tackling anti-social behavior and disorder as well as continuing to bring a reduction to 'burglary, vehicle crime, robbery and drug related crime' are said to be in line with the Government's Public Service Agreement targets Stated as the Performance Police Authority Role is the holding together of the police force on behalf of…
Eigerman, M.R. 1988, "Who should be responsible for business strategy?" Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 40.
Gummer, B. 1992, "Ready, fire, aim! Current perspectives on strategic planning,"
Administration in Social Work, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 89.
Cross, K.F. & Lynch, R.L. 1992, "For good measure," CMA Magazine, vol. 66, no. 3,
According to the author selected for this analysis, the quality standards embodied in the ISO 9000 quality systems standards have clearly become more prevalent over the last few years, in fact, more than 90 countries out of the world's 220 or so burgeoning nations have adopted the ISO 9000 series or its equivalent as their national standards; furthermore, adherence to ISO 9000 standards has become mandatory for companies looking to market medical devices or telecommunications equipment in Europe, where more than 20,000 companies are currently registered (Barnes, 1998. According to this analyst, "In the U.S., suppliers to the electrical, chemical, and nuclear industries are expecting certification to become mandatory. The number of ISO 9000 registrations is doubling every nine to 12 months in the U.S., from 100 in 1990 to 4000 in 1994" (Barnes 1998, p. 24).
What is typically referred to as the ISO 9000 standard are actually comprised…
Barnes, F.C. (1998). ISO 9000 myth and reality: A reasonable approach to ISO 9000. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 63(2), 23.
Lorsch, J.W. (1986). Managing Culture: The Invisible Barrier to Strategic Change. California Management Review, 28, 95-109.
Madu, C.N. & Kuei, C. 1993, "Strategic Total Quality Management (STQM)," in Management of New Technologies for Global Competitiveness, C.N. Madu, Quorum Books, Westport, CT.
Simmons, B.L. & White, M.A. 1999, "The Relationship between ISO 9000 and Business Performance: Does Registration Really Matter?," Journal of Managerial Issues, 11(3), 330.
How New Practices at Sodexho Align with the Essentials of Performance Management
Performance management, in basic terms, has got to do with an organization's involvement of employees with an aim of enabling them to achieve objectives and, hence, further enhance performance at both the individual and organizational level. Quite a number of changes have taken place at Sodexho since the entry of Ms. ohini Anand, the Senior Vice President and Global Chief Diversity Officer at Sodexho. To what extent do these changes and new practices align with the essentials of performance management?
To begin with, Sodexho has been able to not only define, but also clarify performance expectations. This, as will be indicated below, has been more so the case when it comes to identifying the exact performance expectations of various groups or categories of employees. As Ms. Anand points out, interviewers at Sodexho are trained on cultural…
Sims, R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Performance Management at Porter Novelli
For Porter Novelli, even as the company advanced its objectives and improved its market orientation, its Human Resource strategy appeared to lag behind. It is for this reason that the firm began to investigate ways of linking its Human Resource orientation with its overall business strategy. Among the key objectives within the scope of the proposed strategic improvement would be more effective performance management, clearer opportunities for professional development and a shift toward client-centered HR strategies.
At the center of Porter Novelli's change process would be the use of a Leadership Pipeline model. This would be constructed to enable Porter Novelli the ability to assign meaningful leadership roles at every level. As this relates to performance management, the approach would be aimed at created tiered levels of accountability. Leadership roles would be especially important in effecting change through the three level…
Goldsmith, M. & Carter, L. (2009). Best Practices in Talent Management: How the World's Leading Corporations Manage, Develop, and Retain Top Talent. John Wiley & Sons.
AE alanced Scorecard Performance Management Implementation
Facing the daunting challenge of staying competitive in rapidly consolidating industry segments of aerospace, defense and commercial aircraft components and assembly manufacturing and service, senior management at AE Systems chose to completely re-architect the company. The comprehensive change programme included dismantling the global conglomerate and replacing its structure with a series of interlocking businesses that would strengthen and support each other, generating greater competitive advantage than the current structure allowed for (Murby, Gould, 2005). As ritish Aerospace had been privatized in 1979, and with the acquisition of Marconi Electronic Systems in 1999 the company changed its name to AE Systems and become Europe's largest defense contractor and the second leading defense contractor in the world (Murby, Gould, 2005). Through both acquisitions and organic growth, the company had grown to over 100,000 employees in nine global markets including the UK, USA, Sweden, Saudi…
Murby, L., Gould, S., (2005). Effective Performance Management with the Balanced Scorecard: Technical Report. Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. Retrieved from: http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/Tech_rept_Effective_Performance_Mgt_with_Balanced_Scd_July_2005.pdf
Purvanova, R.K., & Bono, J.E. (2009). Transformational leadership in context: Face-to-face and virtual teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20(3), 343.
Sim, K.L., & Koh, H.C. (2001). Balanced scorecard: A rising trend in strategic performance measurement. Measuring Business Excellence, 5(2), 18-26.
redesign Hershey' ? s performance management system appeal diverse groups employs. 2. If a Hershey's employee, analyze interpret values Hershey embraces relation role.
First of all, Hershey's performance management system should track the evolution of each of the diverse groups it employs by allowing each of these groups to set its own objectives, in concordance with the four general company objectives and should track the performance related to these group objectives. At the same time, some of the performance management could also be tracked according to the social responsibility objectives that the different groups of employees set for themselves. As seen in the case study, some of these objectives aim to make the world better by supporting communities and improving life, so this could also be something to be monitored and evaluated.
One of the interesting aspects of Hershey's human resource management is the capacity of combining different age and…
Q1. Explain the differences between cost-effectiveness and performance management. Which performance elements are essential for assessing financial soundness of a nonprofit?
Although sound financial performance is clearly critical for an organization to flourish, cutting costs is not synonymous with performance management itself. An organization can be maximizing its cost effectiveness but not necessarily its performance. Performance management sets specific goals for employees. Goals must be measurable to be clear and effective but not necessarily tangible in nature. “Performance management is a whole work system that begins when a job is defined as needed” (Heathfield, 2018, par.3). It starts with the hiring process, beginning with an effective job description of each employment position. Each employment position should be linked to specific organizational needs. This is followed up by training and monitoring that evaluates the candidate’s performance over time based on those needs. Presumably the performance markers are also linked to financial…
Compensation and Performance management: Two Sides of the Same H Coin
While it is unquestionably part of a human resources manager or director's job to ensure that the company achieves some level of cost savings -- and definitely cost benefit -- in its human resources expenditures, this does not mean that keeping compensation packages at the minimum possible level is the ideal target to shoot for. The well-being and satisfaction of employees is important not only to ensure ongoing loyalty and productivity, but also for intrinsic and ethical reasons. When making cost-saving decisions in regards to human resources compensation, then, certain steps and measures must be taken.
First, effective appraisals must be conducted to determine where cost savings is appropriate, and where it is unwarranted. This process must begin with a purposeful appraisal design that is in keeping both with legal and ethical requirements and that is explicitly geared towards…
DeCenzo, D. & Robbins, S. (2009). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. New York: Wiley.
McNamara, C. (2011). from Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. Accessed 7 February 2011. http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/perf_rvw/basics.htm
However, when an employee sees that his or her employer is stepping up and trying to do something that the employee wants or needs, instead of just what is good for the company and not the employees, motivation can result. People need to feel that they matter to their employer. Few people are content with only receiving monetary compensation for the work that they do for their boss. They are all individuals and they have a desire to be recognized. They have goals that do not match up with the goals of the organization for which they work, but they may also have goals which are similar in nature to those of the company by which they are employed. Has anyone asked them what they really want to do with their lives and how the company can help facilitate those dreams? Companies that are concerned about the health and…
Austin, J. & Carr, J.E. (2000). Handbook of applied behavior analysis, New York: Context Press. 2000. Understanding the behavior of individuals in the workplace and in other areas of daily life can be very difficult. However, it is vital that an employer or anyone who is in charge of people focus on learning about the behavior of the individuals of which he or she is in charge. It is not possible to properly motivate people for employment or any other reason without being clearly aware of what motivates those people and what they are focused on in their careers and in the rest of their lives. Gaining information on how to analyze the behavior of those individuals is a way in which leaders can see more success.
Bedeian, A.G. (1993). Business owners (3rd ed.). New York: Dryden Press. Owning a business may sound enjoyable because there is no "boss" to which to answer. However, having a business of one's own is more complicated than most people think. This is especially true in the hiring of employees because there are so many different areas to consider. Reading up on how a business operates and the kind of information which is needed to successfully run a business is something that all leaders should do, even if they are not the head of the business in which they are working. Those who are high up in management are particularly susceptible to not realizing the needs of other people, and that can start them down a slippery slope of not doing what is right by their employees -- and those employees will leave, causing the business to struggle if it cannot quickly find good help.
Bowen, B.E., & Radhakrishna, R.B. (1991). Job satisfaction of agricultural education faculty: A constant phenomena. Journal of Agricultural Education, 32 (2). 16-22. No matter what kind of business a person operates or what kind of career that person has, job satisfaction is a big issue. Some people assume that they are capable of handing any job as long as they are well-paid, but this is often not really the case. People who are paid well but not treated respectfully quickly tire of their jobs. By focusing on one type of job it is possible to see just how diverse a group of workers might be and just how significant it is that these workers all get what they need in order to feel satisfied at their job. There is much more than money involved where the satisfaction with one's career is concerned. Strong businesses are aware of this, and work to make sure their employees are satisfied with what they are doing for the company.
Brethower, D. & Smalley, K. (1998). Performance-based instruction: Linking training to business results. Pfeiffer; Har/Dis edition. 1998. How a person is trained when he or she begins a job can have a large influence on whether that person continues to perform well. Getting a job is not always difficult, but enjoying that job and performing well in it are other areas where employees may not succeed. If an employee is properly trained, he or she will statistically perform better at the job to which he or she has been assigned. One of the best ways to train an employee properly is to make sure that employee learns on the job.
The author has been asked to take one of the handful of human resources interventions that were discussed in the prior assignment and present them in a meaningful way like they would be if they were presented to a management team. As a quick review, the interventions proposed in the seventeenth assignment were the performance management model, talent and career intervention, work diversity dimension interventions and stress management diagnosis intervention. Of those four, the author would focus on the first and the last.
Performance management is something that should be an integral part of any human resources approach. Performance should get a formal review at least once a year and feedback of some nature should be ongoing so that it is known by the employees that they are being monitored and they will know what they are doing right and wrong. However, the challenge in doing this is measuring…
An effective job description performs many functions -- attracting the right people, holding existing employees accountable to defined standards, and helping management structure the organization more effectively (Florentine, 2015). The job description for the sales associate needs to be aligned with the overall corporate objectives in order to be at its most effective. The overall objectives appear to be the simultaneous goals of increasing sales and increasing service. These are not necessarily mutually exclusive, because higher levels of service often result in more sales, but in retail the two can be mutually exclusive. Such a situation would arise in the case of the pushy salesperson more interesting in making a commission that meeting the needs of the customer. A job description should describe the position, and its role within the organization, not just a set list of tasks. The qualifications should actually align with the skills…
Florentine, S. (2015). How to write an effective job description. CIO Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from http://www.cio.com/article/2908027/hiring/how-to-write-an-effective-job-description.html
Redmon, W., Mawhinney, T. & Johnson, C. (2001) Handbook of Organizational Performance. Routledge.
Adler, L. (2015). Soft skills are hard to assess. And even harder to succeed without. Inc. Magazine. Retrieved November 27, 2015 from http://www.inc.com/lou-adler/hiring-guide-soft-skills.html
Heckman, J. & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour Economics. Vol. 19(4) 451-464.
The document states the plan of an organization in different phases. For each phase there will be a different management strategy. The document has described the management strategy and the effects that they will have on the performance of the business and why that particular management strategy has been chosen.
Management structure needs to be examined carefully when a new business venture is setup. In order to develop and build on the business plan a compact management structure is necessary. The managers are the people who are responsible for steering an organization towards achieving the business objectives. In the second phase the business plan will be implemented on the basis of geographical region and the management structure will be based accordingly.
The four key functions of management are planning, organizing, leading and controlling the business. The type of managers which are selected for the business venture must be…
Gomez-Mejia, Luis R.; David B. Balkin and Robert L. Cardy (2008). Management: People, Performance, Change, 3rd edition. New York, New York USA: McGraw-Hill. pp. 19.
Kleiman, Lawrence S. (2010). " Management and Executive Development" Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business
Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries (2003). The Dark Side of Leadership - Business Strategy Review 14(3), Autumn Page 26
Richard Barrett (2003). Vocational Business: Training, Developing and Motivating People, - Business & Economics - 2003. - Page 51
Performance Measurement for Project Management
Every enterprise which employs a diverse and multifaceted workforce to facilitate organization, production, and service, from major international corporations to local community churches, utilizes a concept known as performance management to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness. The field of performance management has been defined by managerial researchers as a "strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of companies by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors" (Armstrong and Baron, 1998), and the technique has been used since the 1970's by businesses seeking to improve their organizational results. For the sake of the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino's proposed luxury tour bus renovation project, it is essential to examine the complex issue of performance management from the varying perspectives of the different stakeholders involved, including the project's sponsors (MGM Grand Hotel and…
Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (1998). Performance management: The new realities. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.
Dudek-Burlikowska, M., Szewieczek, D. The Poka-Yoke method as an improving quality tool of operations in the process. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 36/1 (2009) 95-102.
Schwalbe, K. (2011). Information technology project management. (6th ed.). Boston: Course Technology Ptr.
This qualitative study, which used the methods of case study, in-depth interviewing, and focus group discussions (FGDs) is particularly vital to the implementation of change in organizational structures, from being a hierarchical to being decentralized. Like Perry, the study puts the manager's role as the most pivotal within the organization, primarily because s/he serves as the 'catalyst' for change and innovation in it.
Other literature also stress the role of power and control in helping the "new managers" of the 21st century to further develop their significant positions in the organization. Hill's (2005) study of managers for the century reflects how learning is achieved through experience, backs up theoretical assumptions that management for the 21st century does not demonstrate parallelism between its theories and actual applications. This assertion is mirrored in a theoretical study by Drejer (2004) and Klagge (1998), wherein he found out that training and learning for new…
Balogun, J. (2004). "Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking." Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, Issue 4.
Callanan, G. (2004). "What would Machiavelli think? An overview of the leadership challenges in team-bases structures." Team Performance Management, Vol. 10, No. 3.
Drejer, a. (2004). "Back to basics and beyond: Strategic management -- an area where theory and practice are poorly-related." Management Decision, Vol. 42, Issue 3.
Hill, L. (2004). "New manager development for the 21st century." Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, Issue 3.
The performance of each team member depends on the performance of all others, this being a team project. Constraints include time and financial resources; as such improvement requires permanent improvement effort.
isk Management. No risk has been identified related to the project's completion.
Monitoring and Controlling Mechanisms. The data analysts will develop a metric system to measure each member's performance on a weekly basis. This weekly performance will be submitted to the project manager for potential adjustments.
V. Operations management plan
Operations Strategy. An easy way to understand the meaning of operations strategy is to break the word into the two separate words: operations and strategy - these words being the opposite of each other (Slack & Lewis, 2002). 'Operations' is about the functions and procedures regarding the day-to-day processes, while 'strategy' is about the direction and scope of an organisation over a long period of time. The operations strategy…
Aberdeen Group. 2008. Operational KPIs and Performance Management -- Are Your Daily Decisions Based on Fact?, http://www.aberdeen.com/
Cooper, M. & Lambert D. 2000. Issues in Supply Chain Management. Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 29: pp. 65-83.
Johnson, J. C. And Wood, D.F. 1996. Contemporary Logistics, N.J.: Prentice Hall Upper Saddle Creek.
Keah C.R.K. And Handfield, R.B. 1998 .Supply Chain Management: Supplier Performance and Firm Performance. International Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management: pp.2-9.
5. Concerns Associated with the System
The legal concerns associated with the system are relatively reduced and are included in the same category as all the legal concerns faced by companies all over the world. In other words, the system must focus on being objective and fair; otherwise, the company stands the risks of being sued for discrimination and unfair treatment of the staff members.
The objectivity and fairness of the system is not only a matter for legal concerns, but also for ethical ones. If the employees come into contact with information of biased evaluations, they will lose their trust in the entity. This will lead to reduced performances, low employee morale or even high employee turnover rates, generating additional expenditure. Foremost, all these will negatively impact the company's image and perception on the market.
6. Possible Challenges in a Multicultural Workforce
Generally speaking, the appraisal system is objective…
Bowman, J.S., 1999, Performance Appraisal: Verisimilitude Trumps Veracity, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 28
Kovach, R.C., 1994, Matching Assumptions to Environment in the Transfer of Management Practices: Performance Appraisal in Hungary, International Studies of Management and Organization, Vol. 24
Lonsdale, a., 1998, Performance Appraisal, Performance Management and Quality in Higher Education: Contradictions, Issues and Guiding Principles for the Future, Australian Journal of Education, Vol. 42
Performance Management Plan eview
The value of measuring and identifying key skills and attributes is essential to an evolving organization. The following performance management plan is tailored to the Stonefiled Limousine business.
Location: Austin, Texas
Type of Business: Limousine Service
Number of Employees
Current Predicted Annual Net evenue: $50,000
year evenue Growth Objective: 5%
Turnover ate: 10%
The purpose of a performance management plan is to track and guide an organization's employee's contribution to the organization. It is necessary to first identify the problems and objectives of the organization in order to get an appreciation for the industry and type of products and services they offer. The most important aspect of any performance management plan is that the organizational strategy is aligned with other facets of this improvement such as the Human esources and operations aspects of the company. Put simply, the company must understand what is being asked of…
Armstrong, M., & Baron, A. (2000). Performance management. Human resource management, 69-84.
Otley, D. (1999). Performance management: a framework for management control systems research. Management accounting research, 10(4), 363-382.
The World ank model centers on a five-person team called the Performance Advisory Service or PAS (Yandrick 1995). PAS trains supervisors to analyze work performance and personality problems. The supervisor first determines if a skill deficiency is involved or there are personal and environmental factors. He does this by reviewing the employee's records in search of troubled behavioral patterns; consulting with work team leaders, colleagues and support staff in investigating possible problems within the organization; and/or directly exploring the employee's work performance and conduct.
In the last option, the supervisor may ask or remind the employee about the consequence of poor performance; if he or she is being rewarded for poor or nonperformance; if performance matters to him or her; if there are health or stress factors conducing to his or her poor or low-level performance; or if there are external stimuli behind it. Armed now with the different angles…
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Managing Diversity in the Workplace
The modern business environment is marked by numerous people-oriented variables brought to organizations. These variables include gender, race, age, and religion, and socioeconomic background, regional and national origin. All these factors form the current workforce in the market place. Diversity is widely recognized as one of the world's greatest strengths. Diversity continues to affect the society and the organizational workforce in the process of shaping the 21st century workforce (Konrad, 2006). Organizations appreciate individual sensitivity and differences to enable them discharge the organizational mission. Sensitivity and training on diversity focuses on changing valid standards and expectations of people. This paper gives details on understanding diversity. Although the scope is limited, it highlights how the understanding of diversity is a challenge in managing the current workforce. It remains a fact that the contemporary workforce does not have the same desires as the previous workforce.
Albrecht, M.H. (2011). International HRM: Managing diversity in the workplace. Oxford [u.a.: Blackwell.
Cornelius, N. (2012). Building workplace equality: Ethics, diversity and inclusion. London: Thomson Learning.
Dansby, M.R., Stewart, J.B., & Webb, S.C. (2011). Managing diversity in the military: Research perspectives from the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Jackson, S.E. (2012). Diversity in the workplace: Human resources initiatives. New York: Guilford Press.