Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Some Americans were dissatisfied with the explanations and "No Blood for Oil" became a rallying cry for domestic opponents of the war. After a sober January debate, the Senate finally voted 52-47, and the House 250-183, to authorize the President to use force (Persian Gulf ar, 1990-1991).
The Persian Gulf ar was not another Viet Nam. The opposition was not as great, nor was the support for the administration's actions unanimous. The political reality was that we had a despotic ruler to eliminate and, together, both domestically and internationally, it was done.
Arkin, illiam. "Masterminding an Air ar." 1998. washingtonpost.com. 14 April 2009 .
Feldman, Leslie Dale and Rosanna Perotti. Honor and loyalty: inside the politics of the George H.. Bush hite House. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
"George H.. Bush." 2006. usa-presidents.info. 14 April 2009 .
Joyner, Christopher. The Persian Gulf ar: lessons for strategy,…
Arkin, William. "Masterminding an Air War." 1998. washingtonpost.com. 14 April 2009 .
Feldman, Leslie Dale and Rosanna Perotti. Honor and loyalty: inside the politics of the George H.W. Bush White House. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
"George H.W. Bush." 2006. usa-presidents.info. 14 April 2009 .
Joyner, Christopher. The Persian Gulf War: lessons for strategy, law, and diplomacy. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990.
The United States should propose economic and political incentives for Iraq to moderate its behavior and to increase our influence" (George Bush- the Persian Gulf ar, 2008). The incentives included massive food exports to Iraq which was a huge benefit to American farmers. The administration resisted demands from many human rights activists in Congress to enforce sanctions against Iraq. And they dismissed Saddam Hussein's public threat to destroy half of Israel with chemical warfare as mere show (George Bush- the Persian Gulf ar, 2008).
In spite of all the help that the Bush administration offered Iraq, they still found themselves in difficult economic condition. The country was suffering from widespread unemployment. Oil prices were down, which greatly affected national revenue. They were facing high costs in order to repair the damage from the long war with Iran, and they were already deep in debt to other Arab states. In the…
"Economic Causes of the Gulf War." 2006. World Socialist Movement. 15 April 2009,
"George Bush- the Persian Gulf War." 2008. Profiles of U.S. Presidents. 15 April 2009,
Persian Gulf War
During the last eighteen months of the Cold War, the United States and members of a United Nations coalition were engaged in a large-scale war. The United States deployed over 500,000 soldiers, sailors, and air force personnel - the largest such deployment since the Vietnam War, but the war it found itself in was not of global scale, but regional; and the enemy was not the U.S.S.. But Iraq, who, in the summer of 1990, possessed the fourth largest military in the world. On August 2, 1990, the combined armed forces of Iraq, under the direct leadership of Saddem Hussein - some 140,000 soldiers - invaded the neighboring oil rich kingdom of Kuwait. Many Western countries feared the Iraqi dictator would push his forces further south into the kingdom of Saudi Arabia with its vast oil riches that supplies. On August 3, 1990, President George Bush and…
Rubin, Barry. Cauldron of Turmoil: America in the Middle East. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1992.
Speakman, Jay. The Persian Gulf War: Weapons of War. San Diego: Lucent Books, Inc., 2001.
Summers, Harry G., Jr. On Strategy II: A Critical Analysis of the Gulf War. New York: Dell Publishing, 1992.
Schwarzkopf, Norman. It Doesn't Take A Hero. New York: Bantam Books, 1992.
Liberal and ealist in the Debate on the Persian Gulf War and the U.S. Clean Air Act
The liberal view of the U.S. Clean Air Act would be of the nature of appointing the government as the entity holding responsibility to correct the problem resulting from the perceptual view in which carbon dioxide of which the U.S. comprises 25% of the total of carbon emissions worldwide and that regulations should exist to govern said carbon emissions while the conservative view holds that global temperature naturally shifts but over very long continuum of time and that if laws were implemented they would fail to reduce carbon emissions and will result in price increase and significantly across the entire globe. It is reported that the Democrats in congress viewed terrorism as directly resulting from arrogance of the U.S. In foreign policy matters. The other widely held view is that terrorism is one…
1. Craig, Campbell (2004) American Realism vs. American Imperialism. Retrieved from: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/world_politics/v057/57.1craig.html
2. Lane, Lee (2010) The Political Economy of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Controls. Climate Policy Center (CPC) Retrieved from: http://www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/cpc/documents/2004_political_economy.pdf
3. Dryzek (1999) in Craig (2004) American Realism vs. American Imperialism. Retrieved from:
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…
A&E Television Networks. (2013). Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from History.com website: http://www.history.com/topics/persian-gulf-war
Morgan, P. (2012). The state of deterrence in international politics today. Retrieved May 5,
2013 from Contemporary Security Policy website: http://www.contemporarysecuritypolicy.org/assets/CSP-33-1%20Morgan.pdf
PBS. (2010). The Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from American Experience
What all of the above makes clear is that, while Navy pilots may have played a smaller role in one-on-one combat than pilots from other service branches, naval support was critical to the victory in Gulf War I.
While it is easier to view war as a collection of nameless, faceless soldiers, the reality is that a war is really a collection of personal stories. On January 22, 1991, a downed American Navy pilot was rescued by an Air Force team. It was "the first successful such mission over hostile territory in the war with Iraq."
The pilot "had ejected after being hit by Iraqi ground fire, and had parachuted into a bleak, empty stretch of the Iraqi desert."
The operation to rescue him took eight hours, four of them in Iraqi territory. To rescue the downed pilot, members of the rescue crew had to destroy an Iraqi…
Atkinson, R. (1993). Crusade: the untold story of the Persian Gulf War: Chronology.
Retrieved October 3, 2009 from Frontline
Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/gulf/cron/
Marolda, E. (2001). The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf. Retrieved October 3, 2009
This is significant because it shows how a shift would occur in the way various events were dealt with in the future. As many nations would forge alliances to: solve various conflicts and would engage in consensus building (to increase support for a cause). This is different from the various unilateral actions that would take place in the events leading to: World War I, World War II and the Cold War. As a result, this is a political benefit, with it changing the way world leaders would interact with one another. Where, the process of building a coalition and working with international institutions would continue to increase. In many ways, one could argue that the tactics used by the United States, would serve as blue print in how to conduct various foreign policy initiatives. (Lee, 2010)
At the same time, the war would allow many of the lingering conflicts to…
Lee, R. (2010). The Persian Gulf War. History Guy. Retrieved from: http://www.historyguy.com/GulfWar.html#gulfwarcauses
Weiss, T. (2005). Northern Iraq. Military -- Civilian Interactions. (pp. 39 -- 54). Lantham: Oxford.
ar in Iraq
How Has it Impacted Basra?
Since the war in Iraq has begun, it has become almost impossible to turn on your radio or television without hearing about what has taken place in regard to Saddam Hussein or with our troops so many miles from home. Long before the official first shots were fired, the debate of whether the United States should pursue a war with Iraq has been hot and heavy. But, whether you are for or against the war, most of us can not help feeling a sense of anticipatory anxiety as we wonder what will happen next. But, as an Iraqi citizen, the anticipation must be very frightening to say the least. It is hard not to wonder what the long-term effects will be for the citizens of Iraq. Other than the city of Baghdad, the average American citizen probably knows very little about the…
Aparisim, Ghosh. "Basra: A City Braces For Battles As U.S. Troops Mass Across The Border." Time 10 Feb. 2003: 64.
Bandow, Doug. "The Iraqi Question." The Washington Times 18 Jan. 2002.
Barrett, Greg. "Basra is Wasteland of Wars, Sanction, Saddam's Neglect." Gannett News Service 06 Feb. 2003.
Editors, et al. "Persian Gulf II: A War Too Soon." St. Louis Dispatch 26 Jan. 2003: B2.
Military ar or Campaign
The world has existed amidst a set of wars and conflicts that have shaped political systems, governments, and humanitarian associations. Gulf ar is one of the universal and all time conflicts that rocked the world. ith equitable measures and categorical procedures, philosophies, missions, and visions of these wars, this piece of study exemplifies Gulf ar as one of America's participatory wars in the world. The article tries to establish the basement of Gulf ar together with its consequences and responses it received from the United States of America and the world as a whole.
and the Middle East have been on good terms for quite some time. Various wars between the U.S. And countries including Iraq have occurred. In such instances, military deployment by the U.S. government is intense supported by its foreign policies. This study focuses on the 1990/91 Gulf ar. The America's paradoxical love-hate…
Boyne, Walter J. Gulf War: A Comprehensive Guide to People, Places & Weapons. New York: Signet, 1991. Print.
Bulloch, John, and Harvey Morris. The Gulf War: Its Origins, History, and Consequences.
London: Methuen London, 1989. Print.
Carlisle, Rodney, and John S. Bowman. Persian Gulf War. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
Persian Gulf War of 1991 aimed to stop the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces. Ordered by Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein, the military action aimed to take control of the small country's immense oil reserves. y the time U.S. President George ush declared a cease-fire on February 28, 1991, Iraqi forces had already fallen. As part of the Gulf War treaties, the trade embargo on Iraq, sanctioned by the United Nations when Iraq first invaded Kuwait, was not lifted and a UN special commission was assigned to oversee the destruction of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including medium-range missiles and chemical and biological weapons as well as the facilities in which they were developed. Nevertheless, UN military forces were withdrawn from Iraq and Hussein was not pushed out of power. While the current war on Iraq has been called the "War for Iraqi Freedom," the events leading…
Banville, Lee. "U.S. - Iraq Relations After the Gulf War." PBS Online NewsHour. 25 Mar, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iraq/us_policy.html .
Key points of resolution on Iraq." BBC News World Edition. 25 Mar, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2412837.stm .
Persian Gulf War." Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 25 Mar, 2003 http://search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=60828 .
Powell presents evidence to U.N. In the case against Iraq." PBS Online NewsHour Update. 25 Mar, 2003. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/powell_02-05-03.html .
Iraq War - on Iraq and the U.S.
The drums of war once again echo in my ears. I am disgusted seeing Donald umsfeld on television defending the U.S. invasion of Iraq. CNN shows old footage of umsfeld shaking Saddam Hussein's hand, made in the late eighties when the U.S. was providing know-how for Saddam to build chemical weapons. I was five years old when we left the country, but I have one clear memory of the Iran-Iraq war in the 1987. I was at my grandmother's house in Esfahan, Iran.
My grandfather was listening to the radio report on our volunteer army, fighting the evil Saddam Hussein in the name of Islam. Grandfather turns the radio up; its' a bombing raid. "Let's go," Grandfather says; we go to the basement and I hear engines roaring. My mother presses me to her bosom. The roaring gets louder; they…
Al-Sudani, Zuhair. "Insecurity may delay Iraq Constitution." USA Today 4 Nov. 2003.
Bearden, Milt. "Iraqi Insurgents Take a Page from the Afghan 'Freedom Fighters'." The New York Times Nov. 2003:
Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. (2003). "Country Profile, Iran: a concise analysis
War is one of the primordial human traditions. Man has always been enthusiastic about fighting, murdering and stealing from others. However, it doesn't derive us to the conclusion that interpersonal associations are dependent on war as a requisite or obligatory institution (Mises 10+).
Many believe that war is a natural necessity and man can only attain full human importance if he behaves aggressively and antagonistically (Mead 415). If the militarist theory is taken into consideration for the sake of argument, it can be accepted that man is gifted with an intrinsic natural feeling to struggle, battle and to cause destruction and damage. Nevertheless, man cannot be characterized with these instincts and primal inclinations to harm and destroy. Man is distinguished from other mortals on the basis of his intellect, rationales and imagination. It is the 'reason' and 'logic' that teaches and guides man to the right path. The…
Bannon, Ian, and Paul Collier. Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003. ix. Web. .
"Conflict & Natural Resources." Environmental Literacy Council. The Environmental Literacy Council, 26 August, 2008. Web. 23 Sep 2011. .
Gausset, Quentin, Michael A. Whyte, and Torben Birch Thomsen. Beyond Territory and Scarcity: Exploring Conflicts over Natural Resource Management. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute, 2005. 20. Web. .
Kaptur, Marcy. " Feb 15, 2007- Kaptur: No Troop Surge in Iraq." Marcy Kaptur Representing Ohio's 9th District. U.S. House of Representatives, n.d. Web. 23 Sep 2011. .
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…
Lessons from the Last Gulf War (2003) Greenpeace Briefing Feb. 2003. Online available at http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/lessons-from-the-gulf-war-the.pdf
Learning, Jennifer (2000) Environment and Health: Impact of War. CMAJ • OCT. 31, 2000; 163 (9). Online available at http://www.cmaj.ca/cgi/reprint/163/9/1157.pdf
Amirahmadi, Hoosang (1992) Iranian Recovery From Industrial Devastation During War with Iraq. United Nations. 1992. Online available at http://www.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le0e.htm#environmental%20damage
Lindon, O., Jernelov, a., and Egerup, J. (2004) the Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991. Interim Report. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…
(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
(2) Ibid, 1.
(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
Private armies and warlords support themselves with these crops -- an instance of exploiting (in fact, abusing) the environment to pay for war (Global esources, 2004).
Use of esources to Finance Conflict
Forest products are also often used to pay for conflicts. Timber requires little investment and can be converted to cash more cheaply than oil, which requires technology. Control over timber resources can shift the balance of power during a conflict and affect how long the conflict lasts. Underfunded armies, military, police, and rebel forces often finance themselves by cutting trees. Conflicts in Cambodia, Burma and Liberia have been funded with timber, and in each of those countries the wood produced more than 100 million dollars per year (Global esources, 2004).
Incompatible Uses Leading to Conflict
Use or misuse of resources can be very profitable on one hand but ruinous to another. For example, jurisdictional conflicts have heated up…
Breaking the habit (2004). The Nation (Feb 9), 178 (5), 11-14.
Brown, V.J. (2004). Battle scars: Global conflicts and environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112 (17), 994-1003.
Coles, C. (2004). Resources for peace. The Futurist (Jan/Feb), 38 (1) 6.
Conserving the Peace: Resources, Livelihoods, and Security (2002). IUCN/IISD E&S Task Force. Johannesburg: World Summit on Sustainable Development.
War has undoubtedly shaped the course of human history. Conflicts, through sheer human nature often arise through disagreement. Occasionally these conflicts end with war as opposing sides believe so vehemently in their respective reasonings and doctrinal views. Oftentimes, these war's end with one "victor" and on defeated party, however, in war everyone losses.
The Vietnam War in particular is an example of how war is a zero sum game that only results in losses for all those involved. This paper examines how the conflict started, taking particular care to express both points-of-view regarding core issues followed by a discussion concerning Special Forces operations and their overall impact on the outcome of the war. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about Special Forces in Vietnam in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Origins of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2002, March). Delta Force: Secret Wielders of Death. VFW Magazine 89(7), p. 16.
Beckwith, Charles (with Donald Knox) (1983). Delta Force. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 9780151246571.
Kelly, Francis J. Green Berets of Vietnam - The U.S. Army Special Forces 61-71 - the. S.l: Archive Media Publishing, 2013.
War coverage-Media obsession
To argue about the role of media in our lives would be only redundant since we already know and acknowledge the influence of media over our perception of the world. How the various news media including newspapers, television, radio and more recently Internet affect our thinking and shape our perception requires some close analysis of the way these agencies gather and present news. There is an interesting process that works behind the seemingly simple task of news presentation. For one the media is almost always biased regardless of how they defend their impartiality. We must remember that journalists are capable of molding our perception because they have a certain hidden agenda and if they were unbiased in their opinion, they would have had little impact on our thinking. In an unbiased news piece, it is up to the viewer or reader to decide whom he would side…
Stuart Allan, News Culture. Open University Press: Buckingham 1999
William V. Kennedy, The Military and the Media: Why the Press Cannot Be Trusted to Cover a War.: Praeger Publishers. Westport, CT. 1993.
The Washington Times. Lynch, West and Common Sense. November 23, 2003. B05.
Christopher Hanson, American Idol: The Press Finds the War's True Meaning. Columbia Journalism Review. Volume: 42. Issue: 2. July-August 2003, 58+.
However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.
At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…
Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf
Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003
Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.
Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
President Bush's ar On Iraq
President Bush feels the United States should launch a preemptive strike on Iraq, rather than waiting for sanctions by the United Nations.
He has received support from some political groups while facing opposition from others. Each side presents valid arguments on why they believe the U.S. should or should not go to war with Iraq.
In 1990, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. The invasion eventually lead to the Gulf ar in 1991.
The U.N. agreed to lift the sanctions if Iraq would allow international inspectors to certify it had removed its weapons.
However, since 1998, Baghdad has refused to allow inspectors into the country until the sanctions are lifted, claiming the weapons no longer exist (Yacoub, 2002).
In May 2002, a new Security Council resolution dealing with U.N. sanctions was accepted by Iraq for a period of 6…
COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.
DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):
03 December. Pp. 38A.
IRAQ CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO IDENTIFY TERROR.
Hidden War: A ussian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan" by Artem Borovik.
Book report on Hidden War by Artem Borovik
Title of book: "Hidden War: A ussian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan"
Author's purpose in writing the book: This book contains three documentary stories: "Vstertimsia u Zhuravlei," "Spriatannaia Voina," "Kak I Byl Soldatom Amerikanskoi Armii." The first two stories are about the Afghan war, while the third story is about how the Soviets destroyed the image of the American soldier as an enemy for decades. The theme of the book deals with military conflicts and the wars fought. The writer uses the current political and ideology style of writing.
Borovik was born into the Soviet elite and went to prestigious Moscow English School, then to New York, since his father, Genrikh, who worked as a correspondent for the Novosti press agency, was given a…
Guardian | Artem Borovik, available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,3979635-103684,00.html , accessed on: April 14, 2004
Artem Borovik, The Hidden War: A Russian Journalists Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan, published: 10 May 2001
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
S. government analysts report that the Sudanese have violated the border with the Central African Republic during various military expeditions (Sudan 2). Furthermore, although millions of Sudanese have been displaced by these civil wars, so too has it been forced to deal with large numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad, seeking refuge from their respective conflicts as well (Sudan 3). According to these analysts, "Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations" (Sudan 2).
The Aftermath of the Discovery of Oil.
In their book, Africa's Thirty Years ar: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963-1993, Burr and Collins (1999) report that on the on hand, the Sudan is blessed with abundant natural resources, but on the other hand, the nation has been unable to exploit these to their maximum advantage for a variety of…
Burr, J. Millard and Robert O. Collins. Africa's Thirty Years War: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963-1993. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.
Cypher, J.M. And J.L. Dietz. The Process of Economic Development. London: Routledge, 1997.
Dupraz, Emily. (2002). "The Oils of War: Conflict in the Sudan." Harvard International Review 24(1):10.
El-Tigani, Mahgoub. (2001). "Solving the Crisis of Sudan: The Right of Self-Determination vs. State Torture." Arab Studies Quarterly 23(2):41.
played a dominant role in other countries' local conflicts because of our interest in the petroleum resources of these countries. The U.S. has been at the center of heated internal political debates in Iran. For example, the U.S. sided with the Shah, and when the Shah was overthrown, there was a great backlash against us. In addition, the U.S. has been involved in conflicts in Mexico over oil. Currently, our country is involved in a resource war in Colombia, which is as much about oil as it is about drugs.
According to the Secretary of State for the U.S., Alexander Haig, the efforts by the Soviet Union to extend its influence in Africa were the beginning rounds of a "resource war" aimed at the United States and its industrial allies. Haig was particularly concerned about cobalt and manganese, for which the U.S. is 100% dependent on imports. Most comes from…
N. Choucri and R.S. North Nations in Conflict. Freeman, 1975.
White Paper: The Resource War and the U.S. Business Community. Washington, CENS.
Knight and Behr, "Strategic minerals acquire news prominence in U.S.." The Guardian, April, 1981.
Klare, Michael. Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict. Henry Holt, 2001.
American Policing on the World Stage
The American “policing” role developed because of the Cold War, but it was primarily a means for protecting and assisting economic interests for itself and its allies as illustrated by recent events as well as earlier ones. When George H. Bush called for the Gulf War in order to push Iraq out of Kuwait, he cast Hussein in the role of “villain” and Kuwait as the “victim” in his address to Congress (Bush, 1991). Colin Powell (2003) would do a similar stunt a decade later in the events leading up to the post-9/11 invasion of Iraq, which was accused of harboring WMDs and using mobile weapons labs to hide them (labs that would in fact never be found). In both cases, the pretext for war was based on phony intelligence—but the point was never about sticking up for the little guy or defending the…
U.S. Intervention in Middle East Conflicts:
The relations between Iran and Iraq were hugely affected by Islamic Revolution as Iraq's president was worried that the emerging Shi'a regime in Iran would provoke uprisings in Iraq. Actually, Iraq became increasingly worried that the Islamic Revolution that emerged in Iran could spread to the country and topple the existing regime while replacing it with a theocracy. As Iraq's president was concerned that the Algiers Accord would be dismantled and not followed or obeyed because of the new Islamic Republic, he regarded this as a serious threat to the country's borders and sovereignty. Iraq became a more populist country several years before the emergence of the Islamic Revolution as the doors to trade liberalization were opened in the country. A war against Iran was considered as a suitable option by Saddam Hussein, Iraq's president, to build nationalist sentiments and spirit and…
Becker, Brian, "U.S. Conspiracy to Initiate the War Against Iraq," The Commission of Inquiry
for the International War Crimes Tribunal, last modified May 11, 1991, http://deoxy.org/wc/wc-consp.htm
Jacek, Brian, "U.S. Role in the Iran-Iraq War and its Negative Implications on U.S.-Iran
Relations," Kulna: For All of Us, last modified March 23, 2011, http://kulna.wordpress.com/2011/03/23/us-role-in-the-iran-iraq-war-and-its-negative-implications-on-us-iran-relations/
This situation, combined with the fact that countries from the former Soviet Union produced less oil, made the Western countries to consider Saudi Arabia their main oil supplier.
Saudi Arabia responded to the increased interest showed by the West by expanding its capacity plan for the oil industry. As a consequence, the largest Saudi Arabian companies in the industry increased their domestic crude oil capacity. These companies also invested in quality, not just in quantity. Although the country's economic relationships with the West significantly intensified, Saudi Arabia improved its regional trade sector by addressing markets like Iran, Central Asia, South Asia, and Kuwait.
However, the country was significantly affected by the Persian Gulf War. As a result of the war, the country's government finances were reduced. Not even the substantial revenues from oil could sustain the cost of the war. The country was forced to borrow money from international organizations…
1. The Economy (2010). U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 21, 2011 from http://countrystudies.us/saudi-arabia/34.htm .
Primarily, both Bushes wanted to show the world that America is a powerful force with which to be reckoned -- even if not a single or sole superpower, a force that can at least militarily have its way in the world, especially with regard to rogue, weaker states.
Also, both Bushes believed in cut-and-dried reactions. Communism and Saddam Hussein are simply "bad" without complicating factors such as reasons or motivations for their actions. Going hand in hand with that assessment, communism and Saddam Hussein must be defeated thoroughly, recognizing that even small victories on the part of Iraq, for instance, could draw support to Hussein's ranks and erode America foreign policy world opinion.
However, that is where the similarities ended. For George Bush, the homeland in the United States was never under a serious threat. The most perilous years of the Cold War were behind America when Bush took the…
First of all, the U.S. should "actively deter nations from "aspiring to a larger regional or global role." Second of all, preemptive force should be used to prevent countries from developing weapons of mass destruction and, third of all, the United States should "act alone if necessary." Clearly, all of these correlated ideas have been implementing in Iraq. Further more, all of ideas would be laid out in the founding statement of principles for the Project of the New American Century.
Evaluating what exactly the neoconservatives that have are now in the highest positions of the U.S. administration is a difficult and dangers job. Consternating the need for an objective evaluation, it is best to present all points-of-view. The least radical of these seems to be the one referring to its goal to promote the United States towards global leadership.
On the other hand, less moderate approaches see the Project…
1. Shank, Duane. September 2003. The project for a New American Empire. On the Internet at http://www.sojo.net/index.cfm?action=magazine.article&issue=soj0309&article=030911
2. Paul Wolfowitz - Highlights and Quotes. On the Internet at http://rightweb.irc-online.org/ind/wolfowitz/wolfowitz.php
3. Project for the New American Century. On the Internet at http://rightweb.irc-online.org/org/pnac.php
4. Harnden, Toby. March 2003. America's Dream for a New Middle East. News Telegraph. On the Internet at http://www.expat.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/03/18/wiplan18.xml
5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
OLE OF THE U.S. 5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
foreign aid to Bahrain, where the U.S. Fifth Fleet is centered, constitutes directly to the U.S. Government's aims to maintain safety in the Persian Gulf. Bahrain is the only Arab state that has led one of the Coalition Task Forces that move around the Gulf, and has issued to move its flagship in support of the formation counter-piracy mission. As suggested by Edward & Marolda (1998) U.S. aids assists Bahrain, which have no oil wealth of its neighbors, get the training and equipment it requirement to operate alongside U.S. air and naval forces. U.S. military access to Bahrain also uplifts the operations in Iraq,…
1. Michael A. Palmer, On Course to Desert Storm: The U.S. Navy and the Persian Gulf (Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1992), 122.
2. OPLAN 1019 Arabian Gauntlet," GlobalSecurity.org. Available from http://www. globalsecurity.org/military/ops/arabian-gauntlet.htm (accessed November 1, 2009).
3. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 33.
4. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 32-35.
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…
Farrar, L.L., Jr.(2003) Aggression vs. apathy: the limits of nationalism during the Balkan wars, 1912-1913. East European Quarterly
Hoagland, Jim (2001) Mysteries in the Persian Gulf. The Washington Post
Novotny, Patrick (1999) the Post-Cold War Era, the Persian Gulf War, and the Peace and Justice Movement in the 1990s. Social Justice nuclear terrorism (Accessed 5-17-07)
Although the absolute magnitude of group differences on measures such as the BDI may appear moderate, the finding that 22% of troops deployed to the Persian Gulf reported at least mild levels of depression on the BDI compared to 9% of those who served stateside within the first year of such military duty is of clinical significance (p. 422)."
Amy B. Adler (1996), writing for Military Psychology, points out that soldiers experiencing the highest levels of combat stress were those exposed to dead troops and civilians, but exposure to their own fallen comrades, people with whom they had bonded, resulted in the highest levels of stress (p. 2).
The goals of the study were to identify the extent of PTS symptomatology following redeployment and to identify the relation between such symptoms and rank and type of traumatic exposure. It was hypothesized that soldiers who had been exposed to the most…
Adler, Amy B. "Combat Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology among U.S. Soldiers Deployed to the Gulf War." Military Psychology 8.1 (1996): 1-14. Questia. 7 Mar. 2008
Many lessons can be learned from Khafji. First, the situation demonstrates effective coalition fighting; the Qatari and Saudi troops effectively squelched the Iraqi incursion not only in Khafji but also to the West, near the Kuwaiti border. Stratifying coalition forces into primary and secondary sectors ensures organized and effective responses to surprise attack like this one. The Saudi and Qatari forces not only drove back the Iraqis but prevented further problems. This allowed Marine forces to organize their reconnaissance mission and establish ground presence along the strategic Saudi-Kuwaiti border.
Second, Khafji proved a strategic stronghold, allowing American and coalition forces to amass troops only six miles from the Kuwaiti border: "occupying forward positions in anticipation of a future ground offensive." In contrast, Iraqi troops lay "entrenched behind layers of minefields, barbed wire and fortifications in occupied Kuwait."
Murphy, C. & Gugliotta, G. (1991). "Saudi Town eclaimed." Washington Post. Feb…
Murphy, C. & Gugliotta, G. (1991). "Saudi Town Reclaimed." Washington Post. Feb 1, 1991. Retrieved Mr. 27, 2007 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/fogofwar/archive/post013191_2.htm
orld ar II as a great triumph in American history. The United States forces were victorious in both the Pacific and European Theatres of war. Two military aggressive regimes were destroyed, and peace was restored, due in large part to America's involvement. hat many people do not realize is that some of the actions of the United States were just as morally corrupt as those of the Axis powers. Similar to the Nazi's imprisonment of Jews in Europe, the U.S. government imprisoned Japanese-Americans on the est Coast. orst of all, the internment of Japanese was more of an act of racism than actual perceived threat. The premise of this paper is to prove that the internment of Japanese in 1942 was a decision motivated by race rather than defensive strategy. I will chronicle the events leading up to the internment, the presence of racism before and after the bombing of…
Daniels, Roger. Prisoners Without Trial. New York: Hill and Wang. 1993.
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
But evidence indicates the true motive for the increased arms sales since the dismantling of the former Soviet Union is not about peacekeeping at all but about the bottom dollar.
According to the annual assessment, the United States supplied $8.1 billion worth of weapons to developing countries in 2005 -- 45.8% of the total and far more than second-ranked ussia with 15% and Britain with a little more than 13% (Bender, 2006)."
Arms sales (agreements) ranked by Supplier, 1998-2005 (in constant 2005 million U.S. Dollars and percentage of world sales).
Percentage of total sales
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, http://www.globalissues.org/i/pdf.gif
eport for Congress, U.S. Congressional esearch Service, Library of Congress, October 23, 2006. (Dollar values are constant 2005 dollars)
Each country shown as follows:
developing countries industrialized countries
If you are viewing this table on another site, please see http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/ArmsTrade/BigBusiness.aspfor further details and context.…
Bender, Brian (2006) U.S. is top purveyor on weapons sales (Accessed 3-22-07) list http://www.boston.com/news/world/articles/2006/11/13/us_is_top_purveyor_on_weapons_sales_list/?page=2Shipments grow to unstable areas by Bryan Bender, Globe Staff
Lewis, James (2005) Arms Control Today. LOOKING BACK: Multilateral Arms Transfer Restraint: The Limits of Cooperation
Roberts, Tom (1999) New battles brew over defense spending, arms sales.
National Catholic Reporter
General Norman Schwarzkopf
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. was born in Trenton, New Jersey on August 22 in the year 1934. He was named after his father, who was a est Point graduate and a decorated veteran of the Armed Forces, much like the younger Schwarzkopf has now become. General Schwarzkopf himself graduated from est Point in 1956 and has become one of our generation's most brilliant military leaders. He retired in the fall of 1991, shortly after successfully leading the Allied Troops into the Persian Gulf ar earlier that year.
Growing up as the youngest of three children, Schwarzkopf was taught from an early age that women were to be protected, that men were to protect them and that "Duty, Honor Country" would become the creed of his life. hen his father was called overseas during the onset of orld ar II in August of 1942, he became the…
Birnbaum, Jesse. THE GULF WAR: THE COMMANDER Stormin' Norman On Top. Time, 02-04-1991, pp.28
Duffy, Brian. A Desert Storm Accounting. U.S. News & World Report. 03-16-1992 pp.35-37
Fischer, Dean. THE GULF: The Desert Bear. Time, 10-15-1990, pp.52
Roberts, Tom. Viewpoint: Who Is Our Neighbor? National Catholic Reporter, 05-19-2000 pp.13
In the words of BBC Middle East analyst Gerald Butt (2001), "…his (Saddam's) opponents have not been able to nominate anyone else who might hold Iraq together -- with its Kurds in the north, Sunni Muslims in the centre [sic], and Shi'a in the south. What the outside world calls terror, Saddam calls expediency." Interestingly, Butt's analysis took into consideration the fact that despite the atrocities that Saddam had and has purportedly done to Iraqis and Iraq's neighbors, world leaders, particularly Western leaders like the U.S. And Britain, are still actually taking an active role in Saddam's political decision-making, albeit the latter has chosen to contain himself within Iraq's borders. Prior to 9/11, U.S. leadership continued to tolerate Saddam's regime, only until the point that it is able to find a 'suitable' replacement for the dictator (Dickey and Thomas, 2002).
In addition to "covert actions" taken to secure that Iraq…
Butt, G. (January 2001). "Saddam Hussein profile." BBC News World Edition website. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1100529.stm
Dickey, C. And E. Thomas. (September 2002). "How the U.S. helped create Saddam Hussein." Global Policy Forum website. Available at: http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/167/34978.html
O'Reilly, B. (2004). "Document connects Saddam Hussein to 9/11 terrorists." Fort Worth Business Press.
Paz, M. And J. Aviles. (2009). "Demonizing the tyrant: Saddam Hussein's image in Spanish news programs during the Second Persian Gulf War." International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1.
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
Intelligence in War: Iraq, WMDS, and the Rise of the Policymakers
In 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell testified before the UN Security Council that Iraq had mobile weapons labs and was in possession of uranium, which was being used in the country's WMD program. His testimony was based on faulty U.S. and British Intelligence: the invasion of Iraq that followed found no evidence of such labs or of such a program. Joe Wilson, husband of CIA operations officer Valerie Plame and former U.S. Ambassador to Gabon penned an op-ed for The New York Times entitled "What I Didn't Find in Africa" -- a piece that described how neither he nor Ambassador Owens-Kirkpatrick had uncovered any evidence of Niger uranium sales to Iraq.[footnoteRef:1] Both Owens-Kirkpatrick and Wilson, moreover, had submitted briefings to the CIA to this point. Nonetheless, the CIA along with British intelligence stood by as the narrative…
It will also attempt to identify average time lengths between episodes. This study will be important not only to the treatment of Vietnam Veteran PTSD but to the treatment of all PTSD sufferers who have flashbacks.
Coming home from war: a literature review: in the last of three articles, Deidre Wild examines the stressors faced by health professionals returning from the Gulf. (clinical).
From: Emergency Nurse | Date: May 1, 2003 | Author: Wild, Deidre | More results for: viet nam ptsd http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/13/1/101
Dissociative Flashbacks After ight Frontal Injury in a Vietnam Veteran With Combat-elated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Marcelo L. Berthier, M.D., Angel Posada, M.D. And Carmen Puentes, M.D.
eceived March 3, 2000; June 27, 2000; accepted July 7, 2000. From the Department of Medicine and Dermatology, University of Malaga, Spain, and the Service of Nuclear Medicine. Department of adiology, Carlos Haya University Hospital, Malaga, Spain. Address correspondence to…
Coming home from war: a literature review: in the last of three articles, Deidre Wild examines the stressors faced by health professionals returning from the Gulf. (clinical).
From: Emergency Nurse | Date: May 1, 2003 | Author: Wild, Deidre | More results for: viet nam ptsd http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/13/1/101
Dissociative Flashbacks After Right Frontal Injury in a Vietnam Veteran With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Marcelo L. Berthier, M.D., Angel Posada, M.D. And Carmen Puentes, M.D.
U.S. Invasion of Iraq- easons
US Invasion of Iraq: easons
The epublic of Iraq is located in South West Asia. Baghdad is its capital and Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the Persian Gulf, Iran and Turkey are its neighboring countries. More than 95% of the population in Iraq is Muslim. The members of Shiites sect are the main inhabitants of the country (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2009).
Saddam Hussein Takriti came in power after the resignation of President Bakr in 1979. It was immediately after his presumptuous control that a fight with Iran began which continued for eight years. The war ended in 1988 with a cessation of hostilities by the United Nations. Although Iraq was supported by the United States in Iran-Iraq war but it strongly criticized Hussein's tyrannical strategies and unrelenting arms increase. In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. International trade sanctions were established on Iraq by the…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth ed., s.v. "Iraq." New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117025268 (accessed June 25, 2011).
Deaver, Michael V. . Disarming Iraq: Monitoring Power and Resistance. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106841608 (accessed June 25, 2011)
Zunes, Stephen. "The U.S. Invasion of Iraq: The Military Side of Globalization?." Common Dreams. www.commondreams.org/views04/1020-28.htm (accessed June 25, 2011).
Enemark, Christian, and Christopher Michaelsen. " Just War Doctrine and the Invasion of Iraq." The Australian Journal Of Politics and History 51, no. 4 (2005): 545+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018854191 (accessed June 25, 2011).
McVeigh (Oklahoma City bomber) terms acts violence, childhood background, situational factors,
Timothy McVeigh will long be remembered as the Oklahoma City bomber and as the principle culprit of the bombing of that city's Murrah Federal Building the morning of April 19, 1995. The mass media was quick to vilify the then 26-year-old as an aberration -- someone who was driven by an unprovoked pathology to commit this act that resulted in 168 dead (including approximately 20 children in an on-site day care center) and which was inexplicable. However, a prolonged analysis into the background of McVeigh from his childhood through his days in the Armed Forces to the erratic behavior he exhibited prior to the bombing of the federal building demonstrates that from a psychological perspective, there are certainly explanations for McVeigh's actions. This document attempts to examine the myriad facets of McVeigh's life through the five axes of the…
Brown, B.L. (1999). "Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale (DSM - IV Axis V)." www.facstaff.gpc.edu / Retrieved from http://facstaff.gpc.edu/~bbrown/psyc2621/ch3/gaf.htm
No author. (2001). "Timothy McVeigh: convicted Oklahoma City bomber." CNN. Retrieved from http://archives.cnn.com/2001/U.S./03/29/profile.mcveigh/index.html
Linder, D.O. (2006). "The Oklahoma City Bombing & The Trial of Timothy McVeigh." www.law2umkc.edu. Retrieved from http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/mcveighaccount.html
Walsh, D. (2001). "Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh: the making of a mass murderer." International Committee of the Fourth International. Retrieved from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2001/04/mcve-a19.html
S.S.R.'s collapse have left America as the only global Super Power, but burdened with a $4/5 trillion deficit, declining economic- military resources and uncertain leadership. America's internationalism will increasingly rely on closer cooperation with the United Nations and the West to foster international stability and stronger Western solidarity (2).
Chinese arms sales to the Middle East became controversial, particularly in the United States, because of China's willingness to export tactical and strategic missiles, regardless of the consequences to regional stability. In response, the United States began to pressure and to restrain its ballistic-missile exports. Chinese leaders maintained that their country had adopted a prudent and responsible policy on arms sales, selling only a limited quantity of weapons. Nevertheless, China's attempts to use the international security framework to its own advantage were contradictory. China's withdrawal from the Perm Five arms-transfer talks, sale of M-11 missile components to Pakistan, undercut the credibility…
Keller, William W. & Nolan, Janne E., the Arms Trade: Business as Usual?. Vol. 109, Foreign Policy, 12-01-1997
Rimanelli, Marco, East-West arms control and the fall of the U.S.S.R., 1967-1994: radical change or expedient accommodation?. Vol. 29, East European Quarterly, 06-22-1995pp 237(37).
Sismanidis, Roxane D.V., China and the Post-Soviet security structure.. Vol. 21, Asian Affairs: An American Review, 04-01-1994 pp 39.
Author not available, arms trade., the Hutchinson Dictionary of World History, 01-01-1998
Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion lasted a few days and on August 8th Iraq announced that Kuwait was its nineteenth province. The same day the invasion began, the United Nations denounced the attack and passed Resolution 660, which condemned the Iraqi invasion and called for immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. The United States began mobilizing its military on August 7th.
y the time the UN deadline arrived in January of 1991, The United States had amassed hundreds of thousands of troops in the Persian Gulf Region. The war began on January 17th with bombing sorties. Over the next month, 67,000 sorties would be flown over Iraq. Operation Desert Storm was launched on February 24th, and Coalition ground forces entered the fight. The war was won in less than four days. The cease-fire began on 8am, February 28th. Iraq was defeated and Kuwait was liberated.
In a strategic sense, Operation…
April Glaspie Transcript." What Really Happened. 1996. What Really Happened. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/ARTICLE5/april.html
Chronology of the Kuwait Crisis." The Kuwait Information Office. 2004. The Kuwait
Information Office. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.kuwait-info.org
Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War." Apr 1992. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html
Legislation on liability and compensation is needed.
The United States should ratify the International Maritime Organization (IMO) 1984 Protocols.
Federal planning for oil spills must be improved.
Studies of the long-term environmental and health effects must be undertaken expeditiously and carefully.
How NOAA responds to spills?
NOAA is a 24/7 service that monitors and waits for a help if there is a spill. They help protect and conserve the natural resources. As soon as they got call they go to the scene as fast as possible. They inspect the vessel, and study the spill, damage and spread in the affected area. We determine the success of their operation through the response of NOAA. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration has a mission based on the online source, http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2004/s2353.htm:
OR& R. is currently assisting with trajectory modeling, oil fate forecasting, weather, and information management and participating in over flights and resource…
"Clean-Up Techniques" [Online] Available at:
"Containment and Recovery of Floating Oil" [Online] Available at:
Etkin, D.S. 1997. Oil Spills from Vessels (1960-1995): An International Historical Perspective.
This alliance brought an end to the illusion that the war in the Gulf was for humanitarian purposes and the restoration of democracy, since Assad, who killed 20,000 of his own citizens to quell an uprising in Hama, Syria, was comparatively more dictatorial than Saddam himself."(Fingrut, 1993)
In close connection with the geopolitical positioning of the kingdom of Kuwait and the regional alliances lay Western interests for oil. Head and Tilford noted in this sense that "the United States also feared a reduction in the flow of oil from Kuwait, especially for its Allies in Europe." (Head and Tilford 17) Indeed, it had become common knowledge that the Iraqi leadership had established the new foreign policy guidelines in terms of acquiring and controlling Kuwait's oil reserves. This attitude was determined by the acute economic crisis Saddam had led his country into, after the eight-year war with Iran. Therefore, his extensive…
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. (Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996)
Fingrut, David. Operation Desert Storm. Out right disinformation scheme. SEED Alternative School. Toronto, 1993. 23 March 2007. http://www.chss.montclair.edu/english/furr/Vietnam/gulf-war-fingrut.html#Bush
Head, William, and Earl H. Tilford, eds. The Eagle in the Desert Looking Back on U.S. Involvement in the Persian Gulf War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
IR Theory in Practice Case Study: The Gulf War, 1990-1991. (n.d) 23 March 2007. http://www.gulfweb.org/
As we know from the evolution of modern history, the Soviet Union and the countries of the Eastern block generally backed up the Arab countries, mainly because their actions were directed towards the Untied States and Israel, natural enemies for the Soviets.
However, strangely enough, international politics meant that the United States often found themselves backing Iraq, at least during the 80s and the war with Iran. This happened because of U.S.'s relations with Iran, after Khomeini had gained power here, in 1979. So, somewhat in an absurd manner, we find both superpowers, the U.S. And the Soviet Union, tacitly backing Iraq, at least in part of its actions.
This is not the case after the Persian Gulf War, in 1990. The impact from now on is mostly economically driven. Indeed, under international pressure and economic embargo, the Iraqi government and Saddam Hussein's regime is forced to abide by many…
1. Wikipedia. On the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_terrorism#Cuba
Wikipedia. On the Internet at
omen in Combat
The participation of women in the war against Iraq has once again focused attention on the question of women in the military.
Many have argued that because of biology and psychology, women are inherently unsuited for military life in general and to combat in particular. However, this argument ignores how women's participation in the military has steadily increased since the Korean ar. Today, women can now attend public military schools and are eligible for promotion to the highest ranks. This paper argues that as women's role in society continues to evolve, then so must the role of women in the military. This includes allowing women to serve in combat positions during times of war.
Those opposed to women in the military base their arguments on the assumption that biological differences between men and women make women unable to fulfill combat duties. Syndicated columnist Mona Charen, for example,…
Charon, Mona. "Eight Good Reasons to Oppose Women in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau, eds. New York: Bedford St. Martins Press, 2004.
Eskind, Amy. "A Post-Gulf Memorial Day" Arms and the Woman." The Washington Post, May 26, 1991. ProQuest Database.
Norwood, Vivian. "Eight Reasons Why Women Should Be in the Military." In Current Issues and Enduring Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking and Argument with Readings. 6th ed. Sylvan Barnet and Hugo Bedau, eds. New York: Bedford St. Martins Press, 2004.
Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community
An Analysis of the Benefits of Integration in the CI/HUMINT Community and Strategies for Effective Implementation
The success of any counterinsurgency operation depends largely on the effectiveness and appropriateness of intelligence gathered. Human subjects are a crucial source of intelligence for counterinsurgency operations. Several years back, the U.S. Armed Forces opened up opportunities for women to occupy specific positions in counterintelligence/human intelligence (CI/HUMINT) discipline. However, women still remain underrepresented in the same, and researchers remain largely divided on whether their participation in the same ought to be increased. esearchers have raised concern that the decision to integrate women into HUMINT units could cost the country dearly in the long-term as it is likely to ruin unit cohesion and impede on overall effectiveness. Proponents of the whole idea of integration have, however, argued that the inclusion of women in HUMINT units will actually enhance…
Alderman, M. I. (1993). Women in Direct Combat: What is the Price for Equality? School for Advanced Military Studies Monograph, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
Al-Ali, N. & Pratt, N. (2009). What Kind of Liberation: Women and the Occupation of Iraq. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bartone, P.T. Johnsen, B.H. Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg, J.C. (2002). Factors Influencing Small-Unit Cohesion in Norwegian Navy Officer Cadets. Military Psychology, 14(1), 1-22.
Beal, D.J. Cohen, R.R. Burke, M.J. & McLendon, C.L. (2003). Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of Construct Relations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (6), 989-1004.
eapons of mass destruction are just an excuse. But is known that
"President George Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney were both oil
company executives before entering politics, as was half the present US
administration," which means that not only do you have friends in the oil
business but that they dictate your policy (Vesely 2002). Having such
deceptive and underhanded policies and engaging an entire nation in a war
that not only kills Amerians, but also people of other countries and
encourages anti-American sentiment among even our allies is a horrible
foreign policy when all we receive in return is natural resources and
riches for a few Americans. Alternatives must be sought. No longer can
weapons of mass destruction be an excuse to involve the United States in
such costly polices.
And yet even more so now weapons of mass destruction are being hinted
at as an excuse to go…
Buckley Jr., William. "Looking Ahead-Oil." National Review (2005). 17 Apr.
"Imperialism Definition." Dictionary.Com. 17 Apr. 2007
Lewis, Bernard. "Did You Say 'American Imperialism'? : Power, Weakness, and
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
military deployment affects military families. The writer explores the many differences between deployed and non-deployed families and examines some of the things being done to ease the stress and problems that deployment presents. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
Americans are waiting with anxious anticipation as the federal government attempts to convince the United Nations that a war with Iraq is in order. President Bush as well as Colin Powell have spent days addressing the issue and presenting evidence of the need to forcibly disarm Iraq. As the world watches the events unfold, nations are lining up on one side or the other of the issue. France, Germany and ussia are asking the United States to hold off on an attack and see if a more peaceful solution can be hammered out. Britain, Canada and several others have pledged if a war erupts, they will send troops…
Peterson, Karen S.(2001).Peterson, Long deployments stress military families., USA Today, pp 08D.
2001). INDSTRY GROUP 91, AIR FORCE SPOUSE ADDRESSES QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES BEFORE CONGRESS FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Author not available (2001). U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) CHAIRMAN U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) HOLDS HEARING ON MILITARY QUALITY OF LIFE., Washington Transcript Service.
____(1999). INDSTRY GROUP 91, DOD STUDIES MISSION, FAMILY NEEDS., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Powell was unanimously approved by the Senate and became the first African-American to hold that position. His service as Secretary of State is a clear example of his reticence, yet readiness, for war. hile Powell is known for "the so-called Powell doctrine -- that U.S. military power only be used in overwhelming strength to achieve well-defined strategic national interests," (answers.com 3) he made a famous speech to the United Nations in which he voiced support for the war in Iraq. Although he clashed with the often "hawkish" members of the Bush hite House such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, "one of Powell's best known moments as secretary of state was his speech last year  to the U.N. Security Council in which he made a case for invading Iraq" (King 3). The initial invasion of Iraq was billed as necessary by the Bush hite House because of the threat…
Academy of Achievement. "Colin Powell Biography." January 11, 2006. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/pow0bio-1
America's Promise. "General Powell's Message to America." 2006. http://www.americaspromise.org/WhyHere.aspx?id=124
Answers.com. "Colin Powell." 2006. http://www.answers.com/topic/colin-powell
King, John; Koppel, Andrea; Malveaux, Suzanne; Labotte, Elise. "Powell resigns with three other Cabinet secretaries." http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/11/15/powell/
Economy in the 1970s and 1990s
Turkey is a unique country that lies partially in Asia and partly in Europe. The Asian and the European part of the country are separated by the Bosporus, which is the water link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. Although the areas constituting Turkey have a very ancient history, the modern day Turkey became a epublic in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Turkey's economy is a mixture of modern industry and ancient agriculture that has undergone many ups and down throughout its history. In this paper we will focus on the economy of Turkey in the 1970s & 1990s, and discuss the major economy-related events that occurred during this period.
The decade of 1970s was a period of serious economic crisis in Turkey, which was accompanied by political and social…
Turkey." (2001). Article in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.
TURKEY - A Country Study." (1995). Federal Research Division. Library of Congress. Edited by Helen Chapin Metz. [Available Online]. Retrieved on May 5, 2002 at ( http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-frd/cstdy:@field (DOCID+tr0029)
Turkey" Article from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2001
TURKEY - A Country Study." 1995. Federal Research Division. Library of Congress
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…
Averyt, William. (2005). E-Government Reconsidered: Renewal of Governance for the Knowledge Age. American Review of Canadian Studies 35(4): 769-770.
Chaffee, a. (2000-08-17). "What is a web application (or "webapp")?"
Cohen, JE. (2000). Examined Lives: Informational Privacy and the Subject as Object. Stanford Law Review 52(5): 1373.
Bourquard, J.A. (2003, March). What's Up with E-Government? Digital Government Isn't a Silver Bullet, but as Part of a Long-Term Plan it May Provide a Means to Reduce State
He explained that it was not popularity and looking good to others that should constitute success. It was what one struggled over and kept him thinking all night. He specifically spoke about President Truman's difficult decision to use nuclear weapons and his own military decision to risk lives (Roberts). According to him, the first rule about leadership is to take charge when in command (Saint 2001). The second rule is to always do what is right. He said that the challenge of leadership is to inspire others or followers to perform what they normally would not do. He described great leaders are "ordinary people in extraordinary times." According to him, great leaders are in history books because they responded adequately to the demand of extra ordinary times. He also said that leaders must take the time to train future leaders coming up through the ranks (Saint).
Schwarzkopf's adept leadership in…
Blumenson, M. (2004). Patton legend. 6 pages. Army: Association of the United States Army
Campbell, a (2007). Biography of General George S. Patton, Jr. 5 pages. Cape May County Herald. Retrieved on May 26, 2008 at http://www.generalpatton.com/biography.htm;
Carter, J.C. And Finer, M.S. (2004). A survey of leadership. 8 pages. Infantry Magazine: U.S. Army Infantry School
Fisher, K. And M. (2000). H. Normal Schwarzkopf. 4 pages. CarpeNoctem. Retrieved on May 27, 2008 at http://www.carpenoctem.tv.military/schwarzhopf.htm
Likewise, according to Anderson (2004), "War, if good for anything, is great for business. It means more than just the production of weapons and equipment -- sometimes faulty and overpriced. It promises billions in government revenues for increasingly privatized military training, recruiting, laundry and even KP services" (p. 155). These privatized military services all provided courtesy of the friendly folks at Kellogg, Brown & oot - and all at a hefty profit, of course. To be fair, though, the vice president is not the only one involved in this unholy conspiracy to bilk the American taxpayer while bleeding the armed forces dry. In this regard, Achcar (2004) emphasizes that the president is also implicated by virtue of his close ties with the oil and gas industry and the enormous political contributions they have provided to support his administration's prosecution of the war in Iraq. "Besides his own personal and family…
Achcar, G. (2004, February). U.S. imperial strategy in the Middle East. Monthly Review, 55(9), 23.
Anderson, R. (2004). Home front: The government's war on soldiers. Atlanta: Clarity Press.
Cobe, C. (2004, July 4). Fence post. Daily Herald, 17.
Goodman, a., & Goodman, D. (2004). The exception to the rulers: Exposing America's war profiteers, the media that love them and the crackdown on our rights. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.
I. Seeking to Define and Understand Joint Interoperability
There has historically been a challenge in attempting to properly understand in complexity in defining joint interoperability. This is related in the work of Faughn (2002) entitled: "Interoperability: Is it Achievable?" published by the Center for Information Policy Research at Harvard University. It is stated by Faughn that: "...the "shortfalls in operability among U.S. forces, first publicized by the press at the time of the Grenada invasion, became the catalysts for legislation and changes in defense policy, guidance, and procedures, and for numerous attempts to ensure joint interoperability. Despite tremendous planning and expenditure of funds, true interoperability, especially in the theaters with the greatest potential for conflict, continues to elude the Department of Defense (DOD)." (Faughn, 2002) Faughn relates that there are seven key factors that: "...hamper the achievement of interoperability." (p.7) These are stated to…
National Research Council, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, Committee to Review DOD C4I Plans and Programs, Realizing the Potential of C4I: Fundamental Challenges (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, December 1999), Chapter Two, 1, 2, [Online]. URL: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309064856/html/64.html
Hillman Dickinson, "Planning for Defense-Wide Command and Control," in Seminar on Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence, Guest Presentations, Spring 1982 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Program on Information Resources Policy, I-82-3, December 1982), 23, [Online]. URL: http://www.pirp.harvard.edu/pubs_pdf/dickinsdickins-i82-3.pdf
Snyder, Frank M. (1993) Command and Control: The Literature and Commentaries (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1993), 111.; as cited in Faughn (2002) p. 19
VADM Arthur K. Cebrowski, and John J. Garstka, "Network-Centric Warfare -- Its Origin and Future," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1998, pp. 28-35. VADM Cebrowski has since retired and is currently the Director of the Secretary of Defense's Office of Transformation; as cited in Roberts and Smith (2003) p.4.
Wesley Kanne Clark
An ideal leader inspires you to believe in yourself and makes you accomplish things that you earlier thought were not possible. An ideal leader leads by example. He does not tell you what you have to be, rather he shows you by what you have to be, by being an exemplary figure for you. An ideal leader to me is like a father figure who inspires you, motivates you and leads you without wanting the credit for himself. His aim is that you do great things with your own name, and not his. And my interaction with General Wesley Kanne Clark made me believe that he was all this, and much more.
In March 1997, I was a young sergeant (E-5) assigned as General Clark's drivers aid in Panama. He was Commander in Chief of the United States Southern Command, Panama from June 1996 to July 1997.…
(ACORE), American Council on Renewable Energy Copyright. General Wesley Clark (Retired). 4 Jan 2011. 30 Oct 2011 .
ACORE. General Wesley Clark Retd. 2 Feb 2008. 30 Oct 2011 .
ElectionTV. Biography - Wesley Clark. 1 Feb 2011. 30 Oct 2011 .
Source Watch., Wesley Kanne Clark. 09 Dec 2010. 30 Oct 2011 .
Terrorism Media in a minimum pages ( including title reference pages): Discuss broadcasting terrorist activities successes psychologically impacts individuals (e.g., victims, recovery teams, responders, general population).
Terrorism is one of the most discussed subjects in the last ten years. A terrorist attach that takes place in one place of the world usually captures the headlines in the next day's main newspapers and television broadcasts. This is largely due to the fact that terrorism is a phenomenon that can affect in an instant thousands of people and the futures of even more.
Given the importance of the subject, the media usually plays a key role in the relationship between terrorism and its target public. Through the media in particular terrorist activists send their message across to decision makers, to the public, and most importantly, through the immense coverage terrorism receives on all media channels, it has become an even more global…
Al Jazeera. (2010) "U.S. kills al-Qaeda 'number three'." Around the world . Retrieved from http://english.aljazeera.net/news/asia/2010/06/20106143751105245.html
Homeland security (2008). "Assessing the Nuclear Attack Threat" Testimony of Under
Secretary for Intelligence and Analysis Charles E. Allen before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/testimony/testimony_1207151676007.shtm.
Joyner, J. (2006) "Media Coverage Fuels Terrorism." Outside the beltway. Retrieved from http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/media_coverage_fuels_terrorism