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Personal Worldview Inventory
1( A) Key components of Personal Worldview
Worldview refers to the method individuals interpret reality and nature. Worldviews can shape an individual experience, and key components of worldviews include:
Modern worldview is similar to scientific worldview because modern worldview believes in scientific proof in understanding any event. Typically, the scientific worldview believes that any event that cannot be supported through scientific base is baseless. However, religious worldview is related to the postmodern worldview, which believes that God answers all prayers and all events are caused through supernatural means. eligious worldviews believe that knowledge can only come through supernatural and spiritual means. On the other Bacterium believes that events are caused by biochemical means while the societal worldviews are caused through cultural ontology.
I (B) Modern Western Worldview and Postmodern Worldview?
Modernism refers to the view of most people in western part…
Paggit, D. (2009). A Christianity Worth Believing: Hope-filled, Open-armed, Alive-and-well Faith for the Left Out, Left Behind, and Let Down in us All. Chicago. Jossey-Bass.
Svenaeus, F. (2001). The Phenomenology of Health and Illness. Handbook of Phenomenology and Medicine Philosophy and Medicine .68: 87-108
Tilburt, J.C.(2010). The Role of Worldviews in Health Disparities Education. J Gen Intern Med. 25(2): 178 -- 181.
A cornerstone concept of pop psychology, the left brain/right brain divide is "largely bogus," (Lombrozo, 2013). However, the metaphor of left brain/right brain does somewhat accurately allow us to classify people into those whose worldviews are governed by logic and reason versus those whose worldviews allow for a greater degree of impulse and emotionality. My personal worldview is thankfully somewhere between these two extremes. Too much left brain emphasis leads to rigidity and an inability to welcome new ideas, whereas too much right brain focus may lead to superstition and poor decisions.
The left brain/right brain metaphor demonstrates the need for fusing qualitative and quantitative research methods. Social scientists who discount the relevance or validity of qualitative methods can be considered left brained in their worldview. As important as quantitative analyses are, social science research does not always lend itself to quantification. Human beings are not robots. Human…
These authors add that with respect to this exemplary leadership quality, "Although a significant difference existed by gender, both men and women rated challenging the process as their least developed leadership skill" (p. 259). This also means that people must be willing to take personal and professional risks, including speaking up for what they believe in the workplace, but the cost-benefit analyses that are routinely used by winners can help establish the framework in which such pursuits are achievable.
Such intuitive decisions may be valuable in the workplace when someone's experience and intellect combine to produce consistently positive outcomes, but it is reasonable to suggest that many successful business leaders take their time in formulating decisions about many of the complex issues they encounter on a day-to-day basis, but in some cases, time is of the essence and what "seems more right" will have to do. People with fine-tuned senses…
Adams, T.C. & Keim, M.C. (2000). Leadership practices and effectiveness among Greek student leaders. College Student Journal, 34(2), 259.
Goleman, D. (2000). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Intagliata, J., Smallwood, N., & Ulrich, D. (2000). Leveraging leadership competencies to produce leadership brand: Creating distinctiveness by focusing on strategy and results.
Human Resource Planning, 23(3), 12.
Integrative Approach to Counseling
The theories that the author will compare and contrast within this document include gestalt theory, choice theory and its practical application, reality therapy, and psychoanalytic therapy. There are definite points of similarity and variance between these theories. The natural starting point for comparison and contrasting lies with an analysis of gestalt theory and choice theory/reality therapy. Gestalt theory was largely founded by Frederick Perls (Wagner-Moore, 2004, p. 180) and Miriam and Erwing Polster (Jacobs, 2010, p. 25), whereas Glasser is widely credited with launching the notion of reality theory (Bradley, 2014, p. 6). A critical point of similarity between these theories is that they are unequivocally focused on the present, or the proverbial 'here and now' of the patient and his or her cognitive, emotional, and physical states. Interestingly enough, these theories take different perspectives for addressing those present needs of the individuals counseled. The primary…
Bornstein, R.F. (2010). Psychoanalytic theory as a unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment. Psychoanalytic psychology. 27(2), 133-152.
Bradley, E.L. (2014). Choice theory and reality theory: An overview. International Journal of Choice Theory and Reality Theory. 34(1), 6-13.
European Association for Gestalt Therapy. (2006). Code of ethics and professional practice. http://www.eagt.org / Retrieved from
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The most general critical thinking strategy involves the following steps, outlined by Cohen et al. (2000). First, we propose certain statements or hypotheses. For example, I have written down my thoughts at this stage in the decision-making process if I have too many ideas. Second, we need to think of or actively solicit counter-arguments. We need alternative explanations for our observations. So in my situation, I need to brainstorm all the possibilities for a discrepancy in pharmaceutical inventory. My hunch might seem outlandish to another person and vice-versa. Only when all ideas are on the table can the project proceed in a rational, systematic manner. The third step in the Cohen et al. (2000) model is to modify the original hypotheses to take the additional information into account.
According to Paul & Elder (2002), irrational decision-making is simply a "bad habit" (146). We can unlearn this bad habit by practicing…
Cohen, M.S., Adelman, L. & Thompson B.B. (2000). Experimental investigation of uncertainty, stakes, and time in pilot decision making. Retrieved online: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/awc-thkg.htm#critical
Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2002). The art of making intelligent decisions. Chapter 9 in Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. FT Press.
To the extent the totality of circumstances suggest that possibility, even acceptance of the most nominal gratuities (i.e. A cup of coffee) is ethically inappropriate.
Similarly, even where the gratuity involved is of nominal value and there is no potential misunderstanding on the part of the individual proffering an otherwise appropriate gratuity, there is the issue of creating the appearance or inference of an improper relationship from the perspective of others observing the exchange. For example, while the proffer and acceptance of a single cup of coffee is excusable within the framework of ordinary positive community relations, the conspicuous regular transfer of even nominal gratuities in the presence of third parties can create an apparent inference of inappropriate influence regardless of whether or not that inference is necessarily accurate.
The SOI is intended to ensure that police officers do not misuse their duly authorized latitude to take different degrees…
Conlon E. (2004). Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam.
Peak K. (2002). Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges. New Jersey: Prentice
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Whether the rejecter's brain functions differ was not studied in their research, but in the future merging neurobiology with cultural psychology would yield even more fruitful results about the extent to which our culture does and does not produce specific responses in terms of how we think and act.
Delude, Cathryn (2008).Culture influences brain function, study shows. MIT News.
etrieved October 9, 2011 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/psychology-0111.html
Fischer, onald & Shalom Schwartz. (2011). Whence differences in value priorities?:
individual, cultural, or artifactual sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Hofstede, Geert. (2001). Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA.
Leung, Angela K.-Y. & Dov Cohen. (2011). Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100 (3): 507 -- 526.
Nauert, . (2010). Cultural environment influences brain function. Psych Central. etrieved on…
Delude, Cathryn (2008).Culture influences brain function, study shows. MIT News.
Retrieved October 9, 2011 at http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2008/psychology-0111.html
Fischer, Ronald & Shalom Schwartz. (2011). Whence differences in value priorities?:
individual, cultural, or artifactual sources. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Managing People. Module 5 Managing developing teams Module 6 Managing Performance. Develop a -page scenario a work team familiar. Describe work team organisational context operates. Include appendix.
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
The Bruce Tuckman model of team development
Managing and developing teams and managing for performance when creating a new corporate software training manual
In my past place of employment (which will be known as company X), the members of the IT staff and members of other departments were forced to collaborate on a joint effort to create a corporate manual to explain the company's new computer operating system to all employees. Proper safety Internet 'hygiene;' dealing with the operating system on a daily basis, and orienting workers to the various new applications were all to be described. In other words, effective communication was…
Bacal, R (1999). Performance management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Chapman, A. (2013). Bruce Tuckman. Business Balls. Retrieved:
Cleland, D.I. (1996). Strategic management of teams. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Attachment was believed by owlby to be a critical aspect of the normal development of human behavior. Attachment is inclusive of the following characteristics:
1) Proximity Seeking - the infant seeks to be near the maternal figure;
2) Separation distress or protests - when separated or distant from the material figure the infant becomes distressed and signals this by vocalizing these feelings and changes in affect.
3) a secure base - when the infant develops a healthy attachment, the mother becomes a 'secure base' from which the child can venture forth into the world and securely explore their surroundings.
Ainsworth is noted as the first to conduct empirical research assessing patterns of attachment behaviors in infant attachment relating to the mother being under stress. Infant attachment behavior was categorized as: (1) secure; (2) avoidant; and (3) ambivalent. Since then the behavioral patterns of infants has undergone intensive assessment and study…
DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: APA. - (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Aaronson, C.J., Bender, D.S., Skodol, a.E. And Gunderson, J.G. (2006) Comparison of Attachment Styles in Borderline Personality Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Journal Psychiatric Quarterly Vol. 77 No. 1 March 2006. Online available at http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=attachment+theory+and+borderline+personality+disorder&page=3&nt=null&userid=9218600308675950091&encquery=431f3e36d133ebdff7537ee6febc11c6eca098f7674f16b90920f3bd5b092d5ab49460504194f6e58ee065b5a3272811bc442682a5c9c059&ie=UTF-8&invocationType=keyword_rollover&clickstreamid=5154621097040471491 .
Adalist-Estrin, Ann (1993) Moral Development and Attachment: Disruptions that Create Cycles of Criminal Behavior October 10-12. The Fourth North American Conference on the Family & Corrections Family and Corrections Network. Family Pathway Project. Online available at http://www.fcnetwork.org/4thnorth/moral.html
Agrawal, H.R., Gunderson, J., Holmes, B.M. And Lyons-Ruth, K. (2004) Attachment Studies with Borderline Patients: A Review. HARV REV PSYCHIATRY 2004;12:94-104
Gender Attitudes in Business Students
An Analysis of Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes Relative to Gender and Professions
Significance and Conclusion
There is a body of evidence that suggests many disparities in the representation of gender in certain segments of the academic and business professions. For example, previous research has indicated that women, on average, are less likely to attend business school than males and are also less likely to hold high-ranking positions in organizations. Although there are many factors that are involved in such trends, and many societies have made significant progress towards minimizing the gender gaps, there is still much to be understood about the challenges that women face into entering into certain professions. This research will consider whether there is differences inherent in the genders that could help explain the outcomes that have been observed in various professions. The proposal outlines a research plan that will investigate differences…
Brandt, T., & Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context: An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 44-66.
Copen, C. (2008). TRANSMISSION AND TRANSITIONS: YOUNG ADULTS' BELIEFS, VALUES AND LIFE COURSE TRANSITIONS IN FAMILIAL CONTEXT. University of Southern California, 1-47.
Kennedy, J., & Kray, L. (2014). Who Is Willing to Sacrifice Ethical Values for Money and Social Status?: Gender Differences in Reactions to Ethical Comprimises. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 52-59.
Mumford, M., Helton, W., Decker, B., Connelly, M., & Van Doorn, J. (2003). Values and Beliefs Related to Ethical Decisions. Teaching Business Ethics, 139-170.
Emotionally Healthy Church is a book about the importance of emotionally intelligent church leadership. A healthy Church depends on strong leaders who can introduce the congregation to Biblical principles and serve as role models in the community. Being disconnected with the emotional side of life is an unfortunate by-product of the modern world. Genuine discipleship involves a recognition and appreciation of the emotional components of spirituality. Emotional intelligence involves more than just empathy. It involves self-awareness as a pastor or church leader, with the express goal of eliminating sin and enhancing the power of prayer.
In The Emotionally Healthy Church, Scazzero (2010) provides an overview of why emotional health is important in a church, its leadership, and in a Christian community. The author also offers an emotional and spiritual inventory that can be used for church leaders to assess their current state, which can be useful in recognizing weaknesses and…
Scazzero, P. (2010). The Emotionally Healthy Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
likeability is effected by management in the international workplace. It assumes a phenomenological approach to the notion of likeability, and is based on the idea that likeability in management is fundamental to achieving "connectedness" among employees and to inspiring the drive needed to ensure an organization's success. By conducting a survey of employees and managers from every major business continent of the globe (Asia, Europe, America, the Middle East), it seeks to understand the different ways in which likeability is manifested, discerned, appreciated, and utilized in the cross-cultural international workplace. Its aim is to fill a gap in likeability research regarding the importance of international managerial likeability and hopes to raise awareness about the essentiality of likeability to success. It also aims to identify the phenomenon of likeability as it appears in different cultures. Identifying that phenomenon and coming to terms with it will help business managers to better develop…
Data Analysis: A Phenomenological Approach
The methodology for this study is based on a phenomenological approach, rooted in the Moustakas (1994) model. The Moustakas model focuses on the idea that the "wholeness of experience" should form the essence of the research (Simon, 2011). Moustakas recommends a heuristic process that allows the researcher to immerse himself in the world/sphere he is observing, to "intuit" the relevant data, to use active learning as an illuminative process, to explicate, and to synthesize the information (Simon, 2011). A phenomenological approach will allow for an understanding of likeability "through the eyes of the participants in the study" (Simon, 2011). The phenomenon under consideration is the effect of likeability in the international workplace -- how it is effected, how it is perceived, and how it helps to advance business success.
Observing likeability "through the eyes of the participants in the study" presents a unique and novel opportunity to investigate the subjective aspect of likeability as opposed to an objective, empirical aspect of the concept. With the argument of Weaver (1984) in mind, that universality is a difficult concept for modern scientists to grasp because the existence of truth is essentially debated on philosophical, scientific, and metaphysical grounds, a study of likeability through the eyes of the participants provides the researcher with an opportunity to record the various ways that perception and reality meet and depart. Is there a reality of likeability or is likeability always merely a perception? Studies have argued that likeability can be controlled in the same way that EI can be controlled (Mayer et al., 2001). If such a claim can indeed be made, perhaps likeability is no more real than one's perception is true. In other words, if a manager can convince subordinates of likeability in order to "get ahead," it is possible that subordinates can convince themselves of their superior's "likeability" in order to appear as a "team player" and one who will not "rock the boat." Furthermore, such a suggestion may carry repercussions for what is meant by authenticity and whether or not this term carries any meaning of honesty or realness or whether it is
Staffing process of which I was a part focused on two primary considerations: first, the functionality of the employees within the organization and the need to ensure the new workers had the necessary qualifications to excel and secondly the extent to which the employees' personalities suited the organizational culture. In retrospect, I think there should have been a greater focus upon employees having the necessary interpersonal vs. technical skills. In fact, many organizations such as Southwest Airlines and Zappos primarily put an emphasis on hiring individuals with personalities well-suited to the organizational ethos vs. specific qualifications.
I also believe that during the hiring process there was too much focus on hiring people from within the industry rather than looking outside the box for more diverse experiences. Too much insularity can produce a cookie-cutter mentality within the organization that is not conducive to creativity. Even if people do not have industry-specific…
Barrett, A. (2009). Beyond Eureka. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved from:
Berry, T. (2015). The different types of business plans. Retrieved from:
Middle Eastern Students: What Is the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years- Grades 8-9
Benefits of student advisory
Adolescence and its effects on learning
Functions and Expectations of Advisory Program
Middle Eastern Student advisory experiences
Social and economic mobility is a function of educational achievement. It is important to ensure that all children receive education in order to secure their future and that of the nation. The U.S. accommodates many immigrants from the Middle East. Several studies done in the recent past have examined how immigrants fair in the educational system. However, few studies attend to the subject of adolescent students from the Arab world participation in advisory programs for schools and the effects of such participation explicitly. It is not clear whether the results of adolescent participation in school advisory programs would necessarily coincide with the participation by Arab immigrants. Considering the consistent negative portrayal of…
Alexander, W.M., & George, P. S. (1981). The exemplary middle school. New York, NY: Holt, Reinhart, & Winston.
Al-Khatab, A. (1999). In search of equity for Arab-American students in public schools of the United States. Education, 120, 254.
American Psychological Association. (2010). 2008 APA survey of psychology health service providers: Special analysis. Washington, DC: Author
Arnold, J. (1991). The revolution in middle school organization. Momentum, 22(2), 20-25.
Students are required to position their own personal set of values, opinions and convictions in view of the theories and topics justifying them rationally and using a philosophical approach and language taken
Developing Emotional Intelligence (EQ) to build a more effective sales team
Being a salesperson is a demanding job. It demands verbal acuity, a quick grasp of facts and figures, but above all emotional intelligence. The architect of the theory of Emotional Intelligence (EQ), Daniel Goleman, defined the five basic components of the attribute of EI as follows: emotional self-knowledge, emotional self-governance, the ability to independently motivate one's self, the ability to regulate one's own emotions, "recognizing and understanding other people's emotions," and the ability to manage the emotions of others in an effective manner to reach personal goals (Chapman 2009). Enhancing the emotional intelligence skills and competencies of a group of ten sales associates working in a wireless…
Chapman, Alan. (2009). Emotional Intelligence. Business Balls. Retrieved October 26, 2010 at http://www.businessballs.com/eq.htm
Goleman, Daniel. (2000). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.
Learning is the acquisition of new knowledge or skills. Because learning changes the way we think and act, the concept is powerful and transformative. Learning changes our worldviews, and expands our perspectives. With learning, we cultivate new insights, fermenting what we acquire as pure fact into what can be better referred to as knowledge or even wisdom. Then we can apply that knowledge to our own lives, and also help others. Online learning is simply a new method of learning and is not qualitatively different from other methods of learning. The benefits of online learning include empowering the learner to take charge of his or her own pace of development.
The fundamental benefit associated with online learning is convenience. Students can learn whenever and wherever they please, so long as they participate and turn in their assignments in a timely fashion. Online learning allows us the same degree of social…
Luke Associates is an up-and-coming service-based firm with a bright future. Like all emerging firms it is striving to find a way to ensure that its work teams are serving the organization in a functional and effective manner. "Whether in the workplace, professional sports, or your local community, team building requires a keen understanding of people, their strengths and what gets them excited to work with others. Team building requires the management of egos and their constant demands for attention and recognition -- not always warranted. Team building is both an art and a science and the leader who can consistently build high performance teams is worth their weight in gold" (Llopis 2013). Luke's strong service-based ethos speaks well of its ability to ensure that teams will be an important part of its organizational structure but teamwork is not something that happens organically and naturally, no matter how forward-thinking or…
Forming, storming, norming, and performing. (2015). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:
Importance of the performance review process. (2015). Success Factors. Retrieved from:
This is an approach that is not current nor balanced. By echoing the importance of race and its ability to transcend the individual, soon all students will be able to belong to a single race of beings, the human race.
The literature extant on the ideas of culture and its impact on teachers ability to communicate successfully in the classroom has wide appeal to my specific research question. The aforementioned research will successfully contribute to my larger arguments about the situation while providing precedent and argument useful in presenting a compelling and rhetorically sound hypothesis.
Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education. Foundations, Curiculum and Teaching (4th ed.). London: Allyn. etrieved from http://pcsocialstudiesmethods.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/68301852/Banks%20article.pdf
Bireda, S., & Chait, . (2011). Increasing Teacher Diversity: Strategies to Improve the Teacher Workforce. Center for American Progress. etrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535654.pdf
Gao, W., & Mager, G. (2011). Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and…
Banks, J.A. (2001). Cultural diversity and education. Foundations, Curiculum and Teaching (4th ed.). London: Allyn. Retrieved from http://pcsocialstudiesmethods.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/68301852/Banks%20article.pdf
Bireda, S., & Chait, R. (2011). Increasing Teacher Diversity: Strategies to Improve the Teacher Workforce. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED535654.pdf
Gao, W., & Mager, G. (2011). Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Attitudes toward School Diversity through Preparation: A Case of One U.S. Inclusive Teacher Education Program. International Journal of Special Education, 26(2), 92-107. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ937178.pdf
Larke, P. (1990). Cultural diversity awareness inventory: Assessing the sensitivity of preservice teachers. Action in Teacher Education. Vol. 12 (3) 23-30.
Malphurs, Aubrey. Advanced Strategic Planning: A new model for Church and Ministry Leaders ISBN-13:978-0801014550
In the latest edition of Malphurs's book Advanced Strategic Planning, the author remains consistently committed to the goal of helping ministers develop the most effective and successful ministries possible. Strategic planning refers to the large and diverse checklist of activities relevant during the development of a new ministry or during major structural or thematic changes to existing ones. Without a strategy or a roadmap, notes Malphurs, many churches are doomed to failure. The author walks the reader through the process of strategic planning from the pre-planning and visionary stages through to the pragmatic and logistical issues like fundraising and financial management, through the necessity for ongoing assessment. Although the book would be strengthened with additional sections on risk and crisis management, Malphurs does a good job with the material.
The strengths of the Malphurs book…
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
Students would undertake self-directed research projects, guided or led by teachers at their request. Agency would enable students to play a few hours of sports instead of read, or to read instead of play the piano. Teachers expressing their agency could hold classes outdoors, and teach about any subject they wish.
2.What contradictions might result?
The teacher's agency can easily conflict with that of the student. The teacher's agency might also clash with prevailing social values and norms. For example, a teacher who wanted to include Intelligent Design in the course curriculum could do so if all structure to the educational system were removed. With that structure in place, the teacher cannot teach Intelligent Design. The contradiction between structure and agency becomes poignant in an educational setting.
Between teacher and student, conflicts would arise between what is being taught and what is being learned; between what students want to learn…