Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Society and culture can also influence the development of the personality of the individual in even more fundamental ways than self-esteem issues linked to sexual expression. For example, in some societies, (most notably, in India), the prevailing social system is based on "castes" that are associated with and directly dependent on the family and social class of one's birth. Typically, individuals fortunate enough to be born into privileged classes can be expected to have relatively high self-esteem and high opinions of themselves in general. Meanwhile, those unfortunate enough to be born into the peasant classes can be expected to internalize the beliefs of their relative worthlessness, strictly as a function of the messages they receive within the predominant framework of societal beliefs in their environment.
In many respects, the individual can be said to represent a microcosm of the dominant values and beliefs of his or her social culture. Because…
shame and doubt; initiative vs. guilt; industry vs. inferiority; identity vs. role confusion; intimacy vs. isolation; generativity vs. stagnation; and ego integrity vs. despair. Like Piaget, Erikson's theory also explains the factors that influence personality development albeit through a framework of psychosocial factors. Thus, this theory too is immensely valuable as it enables parents and teachers to help a child successfully negotiate each psychosocial crisis and thereby develop a healthy sense of self.
Piaget and Erikson's work is valuable but is limited since the focus is on explaining the process through which personality develops. Thus, both theories stop short of explaining final personality outcomes and their functioning. For this reason, I agree with Carl Jung's personality theory more than any other since it offers an explanation of how the individual psyche works, by itself, and in terms of its relation to the universe. In fact, I find that Jung's personality…
AllPsych. (2004, March 21). Personality Development. Psychology 101. Retrieved Nov. 10, 2004: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
human personality is a complex process that has been tackled by a number of great psychologists, each with important contributions. Each theory outlined below offers something new to the study of personality, and as such, I feel that any "ultimate" theory of personality must try to incorporate the best parts of each theory.
Gordon Allport, along with Maslow and Rogers was one of the early humanists. He argued that the proprium, or sense of self was made up of seven different components that include sense of body, self-image, self-esteem, and rational coping. Carl Rogers was a humanistic theorist who felt that people have a basic "actualizing tendency" that drives all of their behaviors and thoughts. The personality, or "self" in Roger's terms is created by the sum of a person's conscious and unconscious experiences. Abraham Maslow's famed hierarchy of needs, in which he argues that all humans move toward self-actualization,…
Boeree, George. Personality Theories. 10 December 2003. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/perscontents.html
Hall, Calvin S., Lindzey, Gardner, Loehlin, John C. And Manosevitz, Martin. 1985. Introduction to Theories of Personality. Wiley.
Wikipedia. Edward O. Wilson. 10 December 2003. http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_O._Wilson
Cognition and Personality Development
Cognition is the process of human thought and this development of cognition typically enables the decision-making outcomes of an adolescent. Adolescence itself is a "period of transition that involves biological, cognitive, psychological, social, and physical changes" (Commendador, 2010). As the adolescent transitions between the level of immaturity to that of maturity, the adolescent's cognitive capabilities are also developing. This can be attributed to the individual's ego, wherein one's personality changes and accordingly reacts to one's morals, self-esteem, and character (Lambie, 2010). Cognition and personality development can be affected by biological and environmental factors just as easily as social and economic constructs. A person's ego develops through relationships and experiences gained within the person's general environment. The same person's cognition and personality development can also be attributed to genetic and biological functions that involve neural pathways.
Donellan et. al. (2007) briefly mentions an adolescent's personality development with…
Commendador, K.A. (2010). Parental Influences on Adolescent Decision Making and Contraceptive Use. Pediatric Nursing, 36(3), 147-157. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Denson, T.F., Pedersen, W.C., Ronquillo, J., & Nandy, A.S. (2009). The Angry Brain: Neural Correlates of Anger, Ang Rumination, and Aggressive Personality. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(4), 734-744. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Donnellan, M., Conger, R.D., & Burzette, R.G. (2007). Personality Development From Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Differential Stability, Normative Maturity, and Evidence for the Maturity-Stability Hypothesis. Journal of Personality, 75(2), 237-264. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00438.x
Lambie, G.W., Hagedorn, W., & Ieva, K.P. (2010). Social-Cognitive Development, Ethical and Legal Knowledge, and Ethical Decision Making of Counselor Education Students. Counselor Education & Supervision, 49(4), 228-246. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them
In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus
Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them
Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences
Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Braungart-Rieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2009). Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Lozoff, B., Beard, J. & Connor, J. et al. (2006). Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutritional Review. 64,34 -- 44.
e. social transitions in historically changing environment.
The next section discusses Sociology. In this section, the researchers discuss the significance of sociology in this study and the world of psychology. It has been stated that the view of sociology is necessary and useful. The finding suggest that personality can in fact be tested using actual life consequences and that it is possible to organize life data by articulating the social meanings of roles according to age linked expectations. The researchers believe that sociological treatment of personality in the life course can shape the analysis and interpretation of data presented.
The last section discusses the question of why history. The answer is that in fact over a life span each individual is exposed to various historical experiences during ones transition through the "age-graded roles." Researchers further conclude that it is extremely important that when making historical generalizations that age be considered…
Personality Theories: A Road to the Self
Knowing oneself is not an easy task by any stretch of the imagination; and being able to definitively describe one's own personality is even more difficult. However, the basic groundwork in truly knowing oneself is in one's ability to fully understand the concept of personality. Before garnering embarking on a possible endless journey deciphering the endless labyrinth of available personality theories it is best to start from a more sociological perspective, namely the one proposed by Charles Cooley and known as the "Looking Glass Self" for it is on the basis of how one perceives the self, how others perceive the self and how one would like others to perceive the self that personality is born.
Knowing the self is molded from three perspectives continuation in, and the depth of, knowing the self is brought about through the study of personality. Regardless of…
Psychologists have described personality as specific way of feeling, thinking and self-conduct (Mcleod, 2014) of an individual. Personality is the constantly changing system in the minds of individuals and made up of specific psychological traits that influence their specific self-conduct and thinking. Personality is the combination of behavior that distinguishes a person. The personality of a person is affected by genetic and biological factors as well as factors such as upbringing, environment etc.
Personality theories are broken down into two classes:
• Trait theories of personality that believe that personality depends more on biological factors
• State theories, which see upbringing and societal factors as the major determinants of personality
This paper will be exploring two personality theories: Hans Eysenck's Personality Theory and Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory of personality believes that our differing personalities arise from the communication between what Sigmund Freud…
Boundless. (2016, August 17). Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Boundless Psychology: https://www.boundless.com/psychology/textbooks/boundless-psychology-textbook/personality-16/psychodynamic-perspectives-on-personality-77/freudian-psychoanalytic-theory-of-personality-304-12839/
McLeod, S. (2014). Theories of Personality. Retrieved December 14, 2016, from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Theories of Personality
This paper analyses the process of personality development in detail. It discusses how various genetic, environmental, cognitive, unconscious and socioculture factors affect the process of personality development in different individuals.
Theory of Personality
Personality can be defined as the sum total of all the characteristics that make an individual unique and different from other individuals. In order to analyze one's personality you do not necessarily need a psychologist to speculate and observe it. In our day-to-day dealings we refer to a large number of personality traits that various individuals possess. Different authors and playwrights usually use key figures and role models in their novels and plays to attract people. The word 'personality' is frequently used in day-to-day conversations nowadays. All of us develop our own theories of personality, each and every time we answer the question ' how is he or she like?'. There are five…
Houston, D. Islamic Azad University, (2005). Personality. Retrieved from Islamic Azad University website: http://dralizadeh.iauq.ac.ir/imagesMasterPage/Files/dralizadeh/file/chapter14.pdf
Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., & Jokela, M. (2010). Nature and nurture in personality. The Journal Of Lifelong Learning In Psychiatry, 8(2), 180-184. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/data/Journals/FOCUS/1842/foc00210000180.pdf
Pearson Education, (2002). Personality theories. Retrieved from Pearson Education website: http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1530/1567154/278-316_CH08_61939.pdf
Personality: social learning, humanistic, and socio-cultural perspectives. (2010). Unpublished manuscript, Psychology, Weber State University, Retrieved from http://faculty.weber.edu/eamsel/Classes/Introduction 1010/Lectures/8. Personality/Lectures/Lecture 26-27 Personality - Social Learning others.pdf
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
This approach assumes that the psychological apparatus of the mind is dependent upon some type of energy to make it function (Personality pp). This energy is used in psychological work such as planning, thinking, feeling, and remembering (Personality pp). Everything that happens in an individual's mind and everything he or she does have a specific, identifiable cause, which is referred to as psychic determinism (Personality pp). According to Freud, "people are driven, fundamentally, by unconscious, animalistic, instinctual urges, particularly lust and aggression" (Personality pp). The unconscious is understood to be the large part of the mind that is hidden from view, and the internal structure of the mind is divided into three separate motivations, the Id, which is the irrational and emotional part of the mind, the Ego, which is the rational part, and the Superego, the moral part (Personality pp).
The basic assumption of the learning perspective is that…
Boeree, C. George. Personality Theories: Introduction. http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/persintro.html
Evolutionary Perspectives on Personality. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:UxKqbHF4VjwJ:www.bsu.edu/web/00t0holtgrav/317/evolution.ppt+Perspectives+on+Personality&hl=en
Kagan, Jerome. Personality Development.
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0004/ai_2602000429
Prejudice in Individuals:
Prejudice is the rigid irrational attitudes and opinions possessed by individuals or members of a specific group about another individual or group. onsequently, being prejudiced is defined as having preconceived beliefs regarding some people groups or cultural practices. In addition to being preconceived and difficult to change, prejudices can be positive or negative. While is possible to be prejudiced and fail to act upon the beliefs or attitudes, negative prejudices can result in discrimination. This negative form of prejudice is practiced in order to guard opportunities through denying access to groups of people. There is an urgent need to lessen prejudice because of the changing social structure, demographics, work place settings, and education settings. However, many efforts to reduce prejudices in these various settings have been legal and have failed to confront the dynamics of the disorder.
There are two prejudicial processes that operate differently…
Cole, J. (n.d.). Understanding Prejudice Behavior. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.beyondprejudice.com/under_stand.html
"Prejudice and Discrimination." (n.d.). Cliff Notes. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Prejudice-and-Discrimination.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
Schamotta, J. (n.d.). The Development of Prejudice. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8547880_development-prejudice.html
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
Personality Theory Blog
Personality Theories and Conducting Assessment
According to the humanistic psychologist's theory of personality, people in their endeavor, try to reach superior levels of mental functioning and personal growth that they also evaluate through objective measures and individual reflections. Even though objective measures are not biased, they do not offer a lot of information. An objective measure of personality is one that uses research to get results. For instance, a pen and paper pre-employment test is very likely an objective measure, other examples of which include: the Second Edition (MMPI-2), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and other major assessments of personality/intelligence (Heffner, 2015). Humanistic psychologists use objective tests to understand better how the patient views his/herself. In these tests, choices that when chosen by the patient will give a clear description of the patient are presented as compared to the unstructured and structured personal interviews…
Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality Theories. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/persintro.html
Evans, R. (2012, November). Japan and blood types: Does it determine personality? Retrieved from BBC News Magazine: http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-20170787
Fletcher, R. (2014, August 21). Cross Cultural Personality Research. Retrieved from Randall Fletcher: https://randallnf.wordpress.com/2014/08/21/cross-cultural-personality-research/
Heffner, C. L. (2015, Novemeber 1). Assessment Theories. In AllPsych (Ed.), Personality Theory: An Introduction. AllPsych. Retrieved from All Psych: http://allpsych.com/personalitysynopsis/assessment_theories/#.VjZkw1TnUV4
Like most people, I have experienced ups and downs, highs and lows. The major upheavals in my life have revealed some of the core personality traits that have been with me since childhood. I believe that crisis and stress challenge us, and also bring to light our true selves. However, I also believe strongly in the power of each person to change. I used to have anger management problems and other emotional issues, just like most people. Mainly these problems were related to my not having in place a set of established coping mechanisms in my life. Part of this is related to the culture and upbringing, and part also to personality traits. Yet after I was divorced from a husband of 22 years, it was a shock. I did not feel like myself because my emotions were getting the best of me. Knowing this, I…
Collins, W.A., Maccoby, E.E., Steinberg, L. & Hetherington, E. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting. American Psychologist 55(2): 218-232.
Jussim, L. (2012). Social Perception and Social Reality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lalande, Kathleen M.; Bonanno, George A. (2011). Retrospective memory bias for the frequency of potentially traumatic events: A prospective study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol 3(2), Jun 2011, 165-170.
Lewkowitz, D.J. (2011). The biological implausibility of the nature-nurture dichotomy and what it means for the study of infancy. Infancy 16(4): 331-367.
Eve wondeed why people behave the way they do and why people act in one way while othes act in a diffeent way? Well we all know that people ae diffeent when it comes to thei physical and psychological aspects. In human pesonality the cental dimension is the tait of extavesion and that of intovesion. Vitually all the compehensive models of pesonality must include these two concepts extavesion and intovesion is typically temed as a single continuum. This insinuates that fo one to be on the high of one they necessaily have to be low on the othe. Theefoe one cannot have extemes of both at a go. Thee is also a diffeent pespective that suggests that each individual has both an extovet and intovet side with on dominating ove the othe. Regadless of the thee is always a fluctuation in peoples behavio at all times and even exteme…
Bennington, J.(2013).The science of what makes an introvert and an Extrovert. Retrieved October 19, 2013 from io9.com/the-science-behind-extroversion-and-introversion-1282059791
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122-147.
Blumberg, A. (1970). A system for analyzing supervisor-teacher interaction. In A.
Simon & G. Boyer (Eds.), Mirrors for behavior, 3, 29-45.
Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
Personality and Personalistic Leadership: An Assessment of Team Management for the 21st Century usiness Team Environment
Contemporary studies on emerging new principles on the nature of the culture of the business environment and team management within organizations led to the development of what is termed as "personalistic leadership." This new term and concept refers to the prevailing use of personal relations and strategies that aim to build stronger social bonds between leader and members, as well as among members of an organization. Personalistic leadership arises from the development of diversity among members of an organization; it is in this change in the business environment that made personal and social relationships important within business organizations (uhler, 2004). In this kind of leadership, it is also vital that leaders/managers must be able to adapt strategies and methods which reflect the flexibility or adaptability of the leader to changes within the business environment…
Antonakis, J. (2003). Why "emotional intelligence" does not predict leadership effectiveness: a comment on Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, and Buckley. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11, no. 4. pp. 355-361.
Buhler, P. February 2004. Managing in the new millenium. Supervision, vol. 65, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 12121885.
Douglas, M. (2003). Servant-leadership: an emerging supervisory model. Supervision, vol. 64, issue 2. EBSCO ID No. 9036904.
Dulewicz, V. And M. Higgs. 2003. Leadership at the top: the need for emotional intelligence in organizations. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis. pp. 193-210.
Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).
Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.
Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm
Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333. Cited in Allport, Pattern & growth in personality (1937/1961, p.36). retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://www.thepersonalitysystem.org/PFA%20What%20Is%20Personality/How%20Is%20Personality%20Defined.htm
(Humans are often called 'social animals'). However, the test construct acknowledged the fact that no one is perfectly social or asocial but a mix of both characteristics. Extroversion and introversion are not necessarily either/or qualities, which has been one of the critiques of the Myers-Brigg assessment. In future forms of this extroversion inventory, creating a typology of different types of introversion and extroversion would be useful. For example, some people are very extroverted with friends, but are more socially reserved in a work context. Others are very introverted in the sense that they like to be alone, but can still 'get by' in social environments and perform like extroverts. It is also possible to be very confident speaking in public to large groups of people, but to feel more uncomfortable one-on-one, in personal social contexts.
Additionally, positive forms of sociability -- such as compassion -- and negative forms -- such…
DISC assessment. (2010). DISC homepage. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.churchangeldisc.com/definitionofdisc.html
Measuring the big five personality factors. (2010). Department of Psychology. University of Oregon. Retrieved September 17, 2010 at http://www.uoregon.edu/~sanjay/bigfive.html#where
Myers, Isabel Briggs & Peter B. Myers (1995). Gifts differing. Mountain View, CA: Davies-
It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.
Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.
ehavior may change, he states, as a…
Azar, B. 1997. Nature, Nurture: Not Mutually Exclusive. APA Monitor. American Psychological Association. http://www.snc.edu/psych/korshavn/natnur02.htm (March28, 2002).
Cosgrove, C. May 30, 2000. Researchers Seek Explanations, Coping Strategies For Bad Childhood Behavior. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/children/05/30/born.bad.wmd/ (March28, 2002).
Fujita, F. May 1, 1996. The Nature/Nurture Controversy. Sci.Psychology.Personality FAQ. http://www.iusb.edu/~ffujita/Documents/nn.html (March28, 2002).
Gendlin, E.T. A Theory of Personality Change. Chapter Four in Personality Change,
Her wellness did not allow participation in the second that took place in 1977; however Isabel Myers took pleasure in the other 2 extensively, though sometimes she would be dismayed at the different ways that the analysts treated her information. She understood that the intuitive 'kind' or personality indexes will need to alter the MBTI [instrument] as that is in their nature but she hoped that prior to the time when they altered it, they will initially attempt to comprehend exactly what had been done as the foundation of the theory because her reasons for choosing a certain structure were logical and justified. In 1975, publication of the Indicator was presumed by CPP, Inc. For the first time, the MBTI [instrument] was readily available as an instrument prepared for use in assisting individuals (Kirby and Myers, 2000).
In the last months of her life, when she invested much time sleeping…
Bowdon, T.B. (2010). 50 Psychology Classics. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Drucker, C.T. (2007). Once Upon a Type: Mythological Dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. ProQuest Publications.
Kirby, L.K. And Myers, K.D. (2000). Introduction to Type. Cpp Publications.
Myers, I.B. (1962). The Myers-Briggs type indicator. Consulting Psychologists Press.
As the individual grows, the extended family becomes an increasing part of his or her life. At a certain age, the individual goes to preschool or primary school, and thus becomes part of society as a whole. This is where the primary relationship with the first family unit plays its most important role.
I believe that object-relations theory has much to offer in terms of ensuring the healthy development of the individual during his or her first years. This development should be seen as the basis of future development, rather than the basis of all other relationships during the individual's life. Furthermore, I also feel that the theory can be used in combination with other theories in order to achieve a balance between the importance of the individual as self, as well as the individual as part of other entities, or "wholes," including the family, school, work, as well as…
Psychological Influences on Personality Development
ecognizing Various Unconscious Behavioral Determinants
Contemporary psychologists understand that myriad influences of variable origin contribute to the development of human personality. Some of those influences are more apparent than others and some operate on the conscious level whereas others operate on a completely unconscious level. Naturally, the latter present more complex potential issues simply because they are not known to the individual. That is especially true with regard to aspects of personality whose roots go back to infancy but that only become manifest in behavior only much later.
Different psychological theorists have provided conflicting explanations for the origin of major issues in human personality development. Freud, for example, regarded virtually all manifestations of psychological pathology as being the result of early trauma, sexual impulses, and the failure to successfully negotiate specific stages of infancy, such as the oral stage, anal stage, and the Oedipal stage.…
Bretherton, I. "The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth
Developmental Psychology, Vol. 28 (1992): 759-775. Accessed Online:
Byng-Hall, J. "Creating a Secure Family Base: Some Implications of Attachment Theory
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.
More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. y matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.
Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality…
Bradshaw J. (2002). Bradshaw on: The Family. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.
Branden N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Lewis M. And Feiring C. "Infant, Mother, and Mother-Infant Interaction Behavior and Subsequent Attachment" Child Development, Vol. 60, No. 4, (1989): 831-837.
Family-Centered Approach in Child Development
Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement
Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…
Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.
Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.
Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
The theory does not appear to allow for success in the workplace solely for the sake of workplace success. Instead, it appears to view procreation as the ultimate purpose of human life, with workplace success only a vehicle towards attaining success within the loving family circle.
To these ideas the authors add that the theory does not account for intimacy beyond the heterosexual and indeed beyond the sexual. As such, the theory is fundamentally inadequate to address the entire paradigm of successful adult individuation and attachment. Furthermore, the authors note that the theory is very limited in its connection between the biological and the psychological paradigms of differences between the male and female. While the theory does indeed better address the positive aspects of female development, it does so primarily in terms of the female drive to bear children, which substantiates the feminist view that the theory appears to be…
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
To the extent members of diverse groups experience negative encounters and relationships early in life that are attributable to residual intolerance of diversity in society, they typically internalize various negative impressions, both of themselves in relation to self-esteem (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008) and also with respect to other members of society in relation to negative expectations and a reflexive antagonism (Schaefer, 2006).
Management Skills and Tactics in elation to Diversity and Individual Employees
Supervisors and managers in the vocational environment must develop the ability to recognize potential situations that can arise in connection with negative expectations in relation to diversity in the workplace. In that regard, supervisors and managers must be able to anticipate potential problem situations before they occur and they require effective conflict resolution skills to address conflicts immediately so as to minimize the potential for negative impact on individual employees and the organization (George & Jones, 2009).…
George JM. And Jones GR. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Gerrig RJ and Zimbardo PG. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson.
Macionis JJ. (2007). Sociology. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
person is born, the family, neighbor and the culture is the prime aspect through which they interact before they can enter into the outside world. The development of the personality of an individual is the synthesis of traditions, values, thoughts, feelings, and various other factors that is based on the cultural aspects. In this regard, the dissertation is about the ways in which personality and culture have a relationship to each other. The thesis paper has also discussed how culture leaves a profound impact on the development of the personality.
How are Culture and Personality Related?
hat is Culture?
hat is Personality?
Is there a relationship between Culture and Personality?
How is Culture and Personality Related?
Since the world has come to existence, people have divided themselves into smaller groups that have been named as civilizations and societies. These diverse civilizations with different norms, customs, traditions…
Bock, P.K. Rethinking Psychological Anthropology. 2nd Edition. USA: Waveland Press, 1999. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Culture and personality: contemporary readings. USA: Transaction Publishers, 1974. Print.
LeVine, R.A. Psychological Anthropology: A Reader on Self in Culture. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2010. Print.
Triandis, H.C. & Suh, E.M. "Cultural influences on personality." Annual Review of Psychology 53 (2002): 133 -- 160. Print. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135200
andura's social cognitive theory is similar with Skinner's behaviorist theory, in so far as the role of the external environment on the individual is concerned. However, andura's theory differs from Skinner's in that the former extended the relationship between the individual and external environment to include, at the same time, the influence that the individual's behavior has on his/her external environment. andura's theory illustrates a seemingly 'reciprocal' relationship between the individual and the external environment: the latter affects the former in exchange for a positive outcome, while the former affects the latter as part of his/her continuous cycle of personality development (424).
From the discussion of these three perspectives of the psychology of human personality, significant differences that highlight the importance of each tradition emerge.
The humanistic tradition looks into the internal traits of the individual, positing that these internal traits are what ultimately shape the personality of a person.…
Buber, M. And C. Rogers. (1997). The Martin Buber-Carl Rogers Dialogue: A New Transcript with Commentary. Albany: University of New York Press.
Freedheim, D. And I. Weiner. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill.
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…
Diem-Wille, G. (2011). The Early Years of Life: Psychoanalytical Development Theory According to Freud, Klein and Bion. London: Karnac.
Gurman, A.S., & Messer, S.B. (2003).Essential Psychotherapies: Theory and Practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Kasschau, R.A. (1985). Psychology: Exploring Behavior. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs. Print.
Kitano, M.K., & LeVine, E.S. (1987). Existential theory: Guidelines for practice in child therapy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 24(3), 404-413. doi:10.1037/h0085732
Measurement of Personality by Henry Murray
The emergence of the psychoanalytic tradition in psychology by Sigmund Freud provided social scientists with profound insights and information regarding the personality and behavior of the individual. In the 20th century, psychoanalysis has been taken into the field of study of personality development, and is quantified through techniques in psychological testing. Henry Murray, one of the proponents and formulators of psychological tests as effective tools for analyzing human behavior, had introduced his own theory of personality, influenced by the works of Freud.
Personality research during Murray's time was quantified because this field of study seeks to rationalize human behavior, thinking, and action, providing more stable ground to formulate generalizations regarding the study of humans and their development. During the 1930s, continuing conflict among nations of the world prompted psychologists to study human personalities in order to gauge and predict actions through behaviors displayed by…
Neill, J. (2003). Personality Traits. University of Canberra Web site. Accessed 13 December 2003. Available at http://www.wilderdom.com/personality/L6-2PersonalityTraits.html.
Santrock, J. (2000). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Carl Roger's Theory Of Personality Development
In Rogerian therapy the therapist enters into the client's "phenomenological world" and in mirroring this world the therapist does not disagree nor point out contradictions, nor delve into the unconscious (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).Therapy focuses on immediate conscious experience, a process of freeing a person by removing obstacles thus allowing normal growth and development to take place and thereby the client becomes independent and self-directed (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The therapist must be "congruent, have unconditional positive regard for the client as well as show empathic understanding...and to be completely genuine," by communicating back to the client an understanding of feelings and personal meanings as they are experienced (http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html).The core tendency is to actualize one's inherent potentialities, although this potential exists in all living organisms, humans possess the additional form of self-actualization (http://oldsci.eiu.edu/psychology/Spencer/Rogers.html).According to Rogers, "of basic importance is the fact that one's inherent potentialities are genetically determined, while the self-concept…
Carlozzi, Alfred F.; Bull, Kay S. Ells. " Empathy as related to creativity, dogmatism, and expressiveness." The Journal of Psychology. July 01, 1995
Pescitelli, Dagmar. "Rogerian Therapy." http://www.wynja.com/personality/rogerst.html .(accessed 12-04-2003).
Rowan, John. "The Person-Centered Approach." Association for Humanistic
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
Media in the Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder vs. the Effect of Media in the Development of Prosocial Behavior
Some researchers contend that media has a negative impact on individuals and can be instrumental in the development of antisocial personality disorder (obertson, McAnally, Hancox, 2013), while other researchers contend that media can actually have a positive effect on individuals and support prosocial behavior (Greitemeyer, 2011; Greitemeyer, Oswald, 2011). This paper will discuss the two competing viewpoints regarding the effects of media on the mental disorder of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and then discuss why I support the view that media is inherently antisocial and thus has a negative effect on the development of APD. The paper will conclude with an experimental research idea containing a reason for the study and the issue that will be resolved by the experiment.
Media does have a negative impact on personality development that…
Collings, S., Niderkrotenthaler, T. (2012). Suicide prevention and emergent media:
surfing the opportunity. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 33: 1-4.
Davis, B. (2008). Defeating Diabetes: Lessons from the Marshall Islands. Today's
Dietitian, 10(8): 24.
Freud and Erikson Theory
Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory
This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Freud vs. Erikson: How Do Their Theories Compare? Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/Freud-and-Erikson Compared.htm#step2
Difference Between Erikson and Freud (2011, April 5). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-erikson-and-freud/
Hayes, N. (1999). Access to Psychology. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton Educational
Jarvis, M. & Chandler, E. (2001).Angles on Psychology. Cheltenham, Australia: Nelson Thornes Limited.
Freud's Tripartite Theory of Personality in Human esource Management
What is the Freud's Tripartite Theory of Personality?
Developed by Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, the tripartite theory holds that personality development is driven by two basic factors: love and aggression, both of which have profound effects on an individual's thought processes and actions. Freud believed that love, which he referred to as eros, represents peoples' instinct to survive while aggression, thanatos, is a destructive and violent force that often leads to death. According to Scudder (2013), the tripartite personality theory states that there are three independent yet interrelated parts of the human psyche. These are the conscious, the subconscious, and the preconscious. The Freudian psychoanalysis then suggests that a combination of three determinants shapes an adult's personality: the id, ego, and the superego.
The id, also called the It, is what contains the eros and thanatos, the…
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. (10th Ed). Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Limited
Parvis, L. (2013). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World. (5th Ed.) Minnesota: Embrace Publications and Consulting, LLC.
Scudder, T. J (2013) Personality Types In Relationship Awareness Theory: The Validation of Freud's Libidinal Types and Explication of Porter's Motivational Typology. ProQuest LLC. Retrieved 15 April 2015 from http://search.proquest.com.proxy-campuslibrary.rockies.edu/docview/1476209039/3FCA7DF3E232498FPQ/1?accountid=39364
Picture retrieved 15 April 2015 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Sigmund-Freud.html
One of the earliest theorists of personality development was Sigmund Freud. Freud defined the development of the individual's personality primarily in terms of struggle, loss, and repression -- namely the individual's family romance with the mother that was finally supplanted through a series of phases or traumas. Eventually, the individual's personality achieved a stasis or a maturity whereby the superego checked the impulses of the id and the ego. Jung expanded upon this notion to include the notion of a collective unconscious that all individuals participated in, as personalities whose forms could be generalized into shapes common to all cultures called archetypes. However, humanistic psychologists such as Piaget and Maslow offered developmental views of the personality that were not necessarily traumatic, but based in developing cognitive structures within the brain. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is perhaps most persuasive, suggesting that an individual's personality is based upon satisfying basic needs,…
Freud, Sigmund. (1917) The Ego and the Id.
Huitt, William. (February 2004) "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." Educational Philosophy Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved on October 18, 2004 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html
Jung, Carl. (2004) "Myths, Dreams, Symbols." Retrieved on October 18, 2004 at http://www.mythsdreamssymbols.com/archetype.html
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. (2004) Web MD. Retrieved on October 18, 2004 at http://aolsvc.health.webmd.aol.com/hw/anxiety_panic_disorders/ty3382.asp
We don't really know everything a newborn infant is capable of, but we know that mother and infant relate to each other within the first few minutes of life (Klaus, 1998). When we think of infancy, in my opinion we have to keep in mind that we cannot observe brain activity. The baby that can reach for a toy at seven months was learning things all along that brought him or her to that point. So I believe infancy to be a crucial part of child development.
If this is true, then the role of the caregiver is crucial. We know that babies are cared for in different ways by members of different cultures. In the United States, a mother is likely to place the baby in some kind of stroller and push the child in front of her. However in some African and Asian cultures, the mothers carry…
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.
Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.
Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.
Small, Meredith F. 1997. "Making connections (adult-infant connections) (1997). American Scientist, November.
In this area the facilitators are the human resource personnel. The contribution of HM to ethics in organization is widespread. Human resource management serves with models and theories to implement an ethical environment for the development of organization. First and foremost relates to performance management. This is a sort of theory that involves performance appraisement, compensation, selection and training. The improvement through this process leads to motivation in employees. Therefore performance management leads the way to effective ethical performance that helps in the advancement of people's ethical conduct or behavior. The HM establishes the performance management with help from popular tool such as 'ethical values matrix'. This is just to show the importance of establishing ethical values and its implementation. This conveys a message that achieving productivity without ethics would put your job at risk. The most important effects of going by ethical values are it provides long-term profits, productivity…
Deckop, John Raymond. Human Resource Management Ethics. IAP. 2006. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=K3O-u89su_UC&pg=PA88&dq=Ethics+and+Organizational+Development&ei=Iy28R_mBBp6ktgO11riaBQ&sig=J-PZuq3azr5iIwOuU6tzIik9beQ#PPA71,M1
Heathfield, Susan. M. Build Support for Effective Change Management. 2008. http://humanresources.about.com/od/changemanagement/a/change_lessons5.htm
Johnson, Kenneth W. Integrating Applied Ethics and Social Responsibility.
Ethics Resource Center. 2005. http://www.ethics.org/resources/articles-organizational-ethics.asp?aid=798
Erikson's Theory Of Identity Development
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development was meant to provide society with a better understanding of the stages that an individual experiences across his or her life. Even with the fact that the first four stages described by Erikson are essential in a person's upbringing, it is only after these stages that he or she actually comes to understand society as a whole and starts to express interest in getting actively involved in the social order. It is actually probable that the first four stages are meant to prepare an individual to accumulate the experience needed for him or her to become a part of society.
The fifth stage provides the individual with the task of achieving "a sense of identity -- both who he or she is and what he or she will be" (Theories of personal development 254). While the individual was accustomed…
Aiken, Lewis R. "Human Development in Adulthood," (Springer, 1998)
"Theories of Personality Development"
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
In addition, the information that I find on their site seems to be very vague, especially about what kind of 'success' they have had in being accurate regarding people's personalities. While this is not just a quick, online quiz, it has much more of the feel of that type of 'test' than the Myers-riggs assessment does. If I were to take a personality test, I think I would avoid the Keirsey test, simply because it does not seem to be that legitimate of an instrument for truly determining a person's personality and temperament, and what he or she should then do with his or her life based on personality.
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-riggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & orders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional…
Harrington, R. & Loffredo, D.A. 2001. The relationship between life satisfaction, self-consciousness, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory Dimensions. Journal of Psychology, 135(4): 439-450.
Keirsey Temperament Sorter. n.d. http://keirsey.com/faq.aspx
Lewis, V.G. & Borders, D. 1995. Life satisfaction of single middle-aged professional women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74(1): 94.
Myers-Briggs Personality Test. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/reliability-and-validity.asp
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Nonetheless, Bill never hurts other people simply because he thinks that it is irrational to hurt others. He thinks that any rational person would be like him and not hurt other people. Does Bill really understand that hurting others is morally wrong? (Nichols, 2002, p. 285)."
This presents some interesting directions of thought. However, it is time to go into the relationship between serial murderers and forensic psychology as it applies to the crime scene. Ted Bundy seemed very much aware that he was committing crimes against society, certainly crimes against his victims. Berkowitz, it was argued, was more psychotic, and for that reason perhaps less aware of his actions as crimes against society or individuals. Berkowitz was known to have started more than a thousand fires, and had a history of cruelty to animals; both manifestations of deeper emotional problems (Schlesinger, 2004, p. 328). This does not make any…
Horley, J. (2003). Personal Construct Perspectives on Forensic Psychology. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107452916 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304
Inside the Mind of the Mind Hunter: An Interview with Legendary FBI Agent John Douglas Criminal Profiler John Douglas Will Share His Understanding of the Criminal Mind at September's APA Conference. (2007). Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 10(1), 8+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027
Nichols, S. (2002). How Psychopaths Threaten Moral Rationalism: Is it Irrational to Be Amoral *?. The Monist, 85(2), 285+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99956702
personality - Sigmund Freud.
In a healty person, parts interact? 3) In unhealthy person, interact? Give a faulty interaction lead problems a person? 4) In ur words Defense Mechanisms? 5) Give 2 examples Defense Mechanism: Repression Displacement Rationalization Regression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation.
Sigmund Freud's personality theory describes the three parts of the personality as the id, the ego, and the superego. The Austrian psychoanalyst considered that people are born with an id, a feature that assists them in getting them whatever pleasures them. The Id will stop at nothing from accomplishing an individual's basic needs and does not allow him or her to express any interests in things other than his or her own well being. As a child's understanding of the world evolves, the ego starts to govern his or her thinking as he or she starts to notice that other people's interests are also important. The ego…
antisocial personality disorder (APD) as displayed by serial killer Belle Gunness. The essay discusses her behaviors with reference to the DSM IV criteria and reviews theoretical perspectives on APD.
Belle Gunness, who immigrated to the U.S. In 1881, was born Brynhild Paulsdatter Strseth in November 1859 in Selbu, Norway. Following her immigration, a series of suspicious fires and deaths resulting in insurance awards ensued. Shortly after marrying Mads Sorenson in 1884, the couple's store and home mysteriously burned down, with them claiming the insurance money for both. Sorenson died soon after of heart failure on the very day that his two life insurance policies overlapped, and Belle received about $8,000 from his life insurance. Even though his family demanded an inquiry, no charges were filed, nor were the couple's two children accounted for. They were believed to have been poisoned in infancy for the insurance money as well (A+E Networks,…
A+E Networks. (2011). Belle Gunness biography. Retrieved December 21, 2011 from: http://www.biography.com/people/belle-gunness-235416
BehaveNet. (2011). Antisocial personality disorder. Retrieved December 21, 2011 from: http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/antisocialpd.htm
Black, D. (2006). What Causes Antisocial Personality Disorder? Psych Central. Retrieved December 21, 2011, from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/what-causes-antisocial-personality-disorder/
Gabbard, G.O. (2004, January 02). Antisocial personality disorder: When is it treatable? Psychiatric News, 39(1), 25. Retrieved December 21, 2011, from: http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/newsarticle.aspx?articleid=107089
I also plan to join a book club to be around people who have a passion for books and reading and see if I can identify with them and their passions for this area.
Long-term I plan to write more and focus on keeping a journal so I can see how my communications skills are improving. In addition, joining Toastmasters' and also taking public speaking courses will help me to better grasp verbal and linguistic connections to presenting in class. In short, I need to define a thorough self-improvement program in the area of verbal and linguistic skills. Most critically I need to figure out how to be passionate about getting stronger about verbal and linguistic communication skills so I can excel in serving and leading my students. There needs to be a long-term plan in place and I need to create it based on my unique needs, balanced with…
Brian J. Hoffman, Brian C. Frost. (2006). Multiple intelligences of transformational leaders: an empirical examination. International Journal of Manpower: Leadership in organizations, 27(1), 37-51. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1073422031).
Susan Elaine Murphy, Ellen a Ensher. (2008). A qualitative analysis of charismatic leadership in creative teams: The case of television directors. Leadership Quarterly, 19(3), 335. Retrieved July 2, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1490793221).
Leslie Rae (2002, December). Multiple Intelligences: A Trainer's Resource of 35 Activities. Training Journal,39. Retrieved July 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 256241961).
Jennifer J. Salopek (2004, September). Social Intelligence. T + D, 58(9), 17-19. Retrieved July 3, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 694876261).
Participatory Approaches to Development Communication
It was confirmed by Everett ogers in 1976 that the dominating paradigm towards development of communication had passed. He negated all those theories, which have been prevalent in field of communication ever since the 10950s. These theories have been diffusion-ism, and it was replaced by the new participatory approach. It was a very important and significant declaration, especially when it came from ogers, who was a seminal personality in the field of diffusion study. Not only did this new theory point out the shortcomings of the existing belief, it has highlighted and brought forth the advantages of theories related to participation of community, and that of socio-economic structures towards analysis of communication process.
It is very important to study and highlight the findings of ogers almost thirty years after their being discovered, due to their validity till date and the substantial academic application. It is…
Edwards, M. (1999). International development NGOs: Agents of foreign aid or vehicles for international cooperation? Nonpro't and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(1), 25A37.
Ellerman, D. (2006). Helping people help themselves: From the World Bank to an alternative philosophy of development assistance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gumucio-Dagron, A. And T. Tufte (2006), eds., Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. New Jersey: Communication for Social Change Consortium.
Gumucio-Dragon, A. (2006). Knowledge, communication, development: A perspective from Latin America. Development in Practice, 16(6). Retrieved 20 April 2008 from http://www.development inpractice.org/apc_ae-v16n6x542370.html
The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career people would tend to fit into the five factor model. The second and final question asks the author of this report to take an online personality assessment and share the results. While making broad generalizations about the first of those two questions would be unwise, there are patterns and trends that would make themselves clear and personality tests like the one taken in the second question would be much more precise.
The five factors of the Five Factor grouping are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The president of a corporation would absolutely tend to have extraversion and neuroticism as the main foci. To be specific, they would tend to be secure and confident as well as…
MBTI. (2014, September 28). The Myers & Briggs Foundation. The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/
Rathus, S.A. (2013). PSYCH (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Jet Li-Psychological Personality Analysis
The Image of Jet Li: Development of a Wu-Shu Master
For many years, Asian actors have not been given enough opportunities to break into the entertainment industry in the United States, popularly called the Hollywood. Only few Asian actors have made it big in Hollywood, of which the famed martial arts master ruce Lee is considered as the first Asian who brought fame in the Asian entertainment industry through his martial arts movies. Jackie Chan, similarly, shares ruce Lee's glory but in a different genre, where Chan uses martial arts not as a form of physical violence, but a form of art movement. Also, Chan's movies are mostly humorous, illustrating Chan's penchant for a feel-good movie for his audience.
Another name that has emerged as another potential Asian martial arts actor is Jet Li, a wu-shu expert who hailed from eijing, China. Jet Li is popularly…
Maier, H. (1969). Three Theories of Child Development. New York: University of Washington.
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
Employee satisfaction might be one of the most difficult measures in management to quantify. There are so many ways to judge this factor, from self-evaluation to independent evaluation to more concrete numbers like productivity, which has been linked to job satisfaction.
There is no industry-wide standard for assessing employee satisfaction, and yet it is one of the most important factors in a successful work environment. This paper will explore the influence of an individual's personality and character traits on their job satisfaction; instead of seeing job satisfaction as a result of outside influences, I hypothesize that an employee's individual personality and attitude are important factors in his or her job satisfaction. That is to say, an employee who is otherwise unhappy and gloomy will most likely not be happy in his or her workplace either, and conversely, an employee with a positive outlook and an upbeat personality will be satisfied…
Morrison, Reese, "How In-House Managers Can Profit from Diverse Satisfaction Surveys," Of Counsel, 21:3, 2002.
Bernthal, Paul. "Measurement Gets Strategic," T& D, published by American Society for Training and Development, May 2005.
"Management Communication: Unlocking Higher Employee Performance," Communication World, March-April 2005, pp. 18-22.
leadership coach begins each public presentation making it very clear that having a leadership position and being a leader are not the same thing. Leadership and management are quite different even though often used synonymously. A "position" is something one is hired into, or appointed -- whether that results in leadership is dependent on the qualities of the individual. Some leaders rise from relative obscurity, and lead from below; some managers never learn to lead (Ventura, 2008).
Almost all the literature reviewed, though, seem to see the leader as being one who can see a situation and assume the right style of leadership for that occasion (e.g. Harry Truman taking over after Franklin Roosevelt's death). Certainly, once there is a leadership role assumed, the dynamics of interpersonal relationships change -- as they should. It is impossible for a leader to be completely fair and unbiased if that leader openly socializes…
John Glenn. (2012, Feburary 19). Retrieved from TimesLeader Online.com: http://www.timesleaderonline.com/page/content.detail/id/536833/John-Glenn.html?nav=5005
Brown, L., & Posner, B. (2001). Exploring the Relationship Between Learning and Leadership. Leadership and Organizational Development, May (5), 274-80.
Brown, T., Browne, M., Giampetro-Meyer, A., & Kubansek, N. (1998). Do We Really Want More Leaders in Business? Journal of Business Ethics, 17(15), 1727-36.
Carlyle, T., & Tenneyson, G. (Eds.). (2000). A Carlyle Reader. New York: Copley Publications.
Youth Leadership and the Development of Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Problem Solving and Employment Opportunities
The four-year longitudinal study by Marshall, Parker, Ciarrochi and Heaven (2014) showed that self-esteem is a reliable predictor of "increasing levels of social support quality and network size across time" (p. 1275). The idea that social support is a reliable predictor of self-esteem was not supported by the study's findings. The researchers measured the quantity and quality of self-esteem and social support levels of 961 adolescents over a five-year period to find that self-esteem is the key to helping adolescents develop into successful adult leaders with a wide range of networking possibilities open to them and a strong social support group behind them. This study directly links the concept of self-esteem to the greater possibility of employment as well, indicating that as adolescents with high self-esteem mature into adults, their ability to network and utilize support…
Larson, R., Tran, S. (2014). Invited commentary: Positive youth development and human complexity. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43: 1012-1017.
Marshall, S., Parker, P., Ciarrochi, J., Heaven, P. (2014). Is self-esteem a cause or consequence of social support? A 4-year longitudinal study. Child Development, 85(3): 1275-1291.
Morton, M., Montgomery, P. (2013). Youth empowerment programs for improving
adolescents' self-efficacy and self-esteem: A systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 23(1): 22-33.
orolenko tells his tale of a mob massacre of Jews in 1903 with a view of relaying the horror and injustice of the events in question. He writes from the perspective of a journalist recounting the events after having arrived in town some two months following the massacre. However, he relays the events as they occurred in a first-hand manner, telling the details as though he had been there amongst the crowd. He had gathered his information from interviews with survivors conducted soon after the events and this first-hand approach feels real and credible. He gives a convincing portrait of the madness of crowds and the bloodlust of anti-Semitism. His overarching purpose is to convince the reader of the injustice of the events, and he gathers credibility for his story by telling the story of a man who led the riots, only to repent later and commit suicide. In doing…
Korolenko tells his tale of a mob massacre of Jews in 1903 with a view of relaying the horror and injustice of the events in question. He writes from the perspective of a journalist recounting the events after having arrived in town some two months following the massacre. However, he relays the events as they occurred in a first-hand manner, telling the details as though he had been there amongst the crowd. He had gathered his information from interviews with survivors conducted soon after the events and this first-hand approach feels real and credible. He gives a convincing portrait of the madness of crowds and the bloodlust of anti-Semitism. His overarching purpose is to convince the reader of the injustice of the events, and he gathers credibility for his story by telling the story of a man who led the riots, only to repent later and commit suicide. In doing so he suggests that even the crowd knew it was wrong.
Orwell describes taking place in a battle against the Fascists in the Spanish Civil War, and relays details of the day as the battle raged on. He tells of the danger of the struggle and also of the excitement. Ultimately his purpose is twofold: (1) to dispel the myth of war's glory, by arguing that he risked his life only to find that the battle was a mere diversion for a larger conflict, and (2) to set the stage for showing in the next chapter of his account of how he came -- through participating in the camaraderie of soldier life, with its emphasis on equality and universal humanity -- to be a socialist.
The accounts reviewed stressed events that the authors wanted to relay in order to achieve their larger purposes. Because those events were relayed skillfully, the authors gained credibility which supported their more interpretative aims. This is, perhaps, a chief reason for writing and reading history. In the end the historian tells as much about himself as he does about his subject and the reader learns about himself as well about the past.
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.