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523). The voices that schizophrenics hear might indeed persuade them to commit criminal and even violent acts, and the delusions of persecution might also lead to such behaviors when schizophrenics encounter individuals that they believe to be "enemies" within their framework of delusion (Hirsch & Weinberger 2003, pp. 25-7).
In addition to these rather extreme symptoms of schizophrenia, other milder signs often accompany the disorder and can appear as precursors to the full blown development of the disorder. An emotional "flatness" or lack of response to normal emotional stimuli is a typical aspect of schizophrenia in many of its stages, which contrasts sharply to the depths of fear, rage, and paranoia that schizophrenics can exhibit at the extremes of their delusions (Hirsch & Weinberger 2003, pp. 26-30). This is mirrored by a semi-catatonic physical state, where body movements become lessened, there is again reduced physical response to external stimuli, and…… [Read More]
People with high self-esteem do not behave in an antisocial manner. They are not overly dramatic and they also do not feel like the world revolves around them. The low self-esteem manifests itself in the various characteristics displayed by people with these personality disorders and surprisingly, manner of the characteristics are the same.
We all have our own interpretation of what is considered normal behavior. For the most part, most people agree on the type of behavior that people should display. Everyone has their own quirks and idiosyncrasies and some people may not be familiar with the three personality disorders discussed here, yet they know when a person's behavior is different than what society considers normal. None of the three personality types is normal. They may seem like three separate personality types, and they are. Some traits are similar in all three, but they are acted out differently among the…… [Read More]
" Psychotherapy, for instance, would include treatment through talking. Furthermore, this would be divided by type of psychotherapy employed. ypes include cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and psycho-education.
he second type of treatment approaches, medications would also include several medications varying in intensity and purpose. For instance, antidepressant medication would be prescribed for those suffering from depression associated with personality disorders. Mood-stabilizing medications would even out an individual's moods. Anti-anxiety medications would help with insomnia and antipsychotic medications would help with "losing touch" symptoms. Again, just as the type of psychotherapy varies, so do the medications needed, which vary by individual and by symptom.
he last resort in the case of treating personality disorders would be hospitalization or residential treatment, which would include a 24-hour inpatient care facility, which would help an individual dealing with a severe case of personality disorder, as well as which would come…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is likely that "men who are highly comorbid for antisocial PD and alcohol and drug use disorders are more likely to die young or be incarcerated than women and thus less likely to be represented in general population surveys." (Grant et al., 2006, p. 128). However, because incarcerated or dead men do not present for treatment, these findings are still of use to the practitioner.
Both articles do a good job of explaining the relationship between personality disorders and substance disorders. The authors all did a good job of explaining the prior literature and why it suggests such a relationship. Furthermore, they did a good job of explaining why knowledge about comorbidities is important to those seeking to treat people with either substance disorders or personality disorders.
The articles were both written in an easy-to-read manner, which could be understood by anyone with at least a high-school…… [Read More]
Personality Theories: Personality Disorders and Their Diagnoses
Personality theorists often differ on how the term personality should be used. In fact, Gordon Allport, one of the first psychologists to focus on personality, had more than fifty different definitions for the term. According to Engler (2014), Allport's basic idea was that personality is the true nature of an individual that influences the way they behave and think. Carl ogers, another influential psychologist, believed that personality is the organized and persistent individual perceptions that determine their experiences. Sigmund Freud, popularly referred to as the father of psychoanalysis, argued that personality is often concealed and it is not conscious or easily known. In light of all these conflicting definitions, one thing is evident: there are a variety of personality theories which attempt to define what personality is and how it influences the lives of people. The American Psychological Association, APA (2015) defines personality…… [Read More]
The author further asserts that high heels often serve as fetishes because of the manner in which they accentuate the shape of a woman's body.
There also exists a typology of fetishes which are either physical attributes or objects (Langevin). The author explains that "One may be partial to redheads for example and find them more erotic than persons with other colors of hair. The degree of arousal differs between individuals from mild to strong and for some men it is strong and the stimulus is essential. Thus one may like redheads but he can react to other females or males as well. However if one could only react to redheads, this would be a necessary fetish (Langevin)."
The terms masochism and sadism are often used synonymously to explain the condition by which an individual's sexual gratification is correlated with domination, physical pain, humiliation and enslavement (Langevin). The masochist…… [Read More]
Substance abuse, which is also called addiction or using the substance more than needed, trying then to quit but having physical or psychological problems that were worsened by the drug, and having problems at work or with loved ones (Kring, et.al. 2007, 297). Tolerance is when a person needs higher doses of the drug to feel the effects or the lack of effect on the person when the drug is taken in its usual dosage (Kring, et.al. 2007). Withdrawal symptoms or negative physical and psychological effects occur when a person decides to lessen the intake of the drug or quit the drug altogether (Kring, et.al. 2007). Such symptoms include alcohol withdrawal delirium (Kring, et.al. 2007).
Eating Disorders. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that is most prevalent in young women (Halmi, 1983). This disorder usually begins in the adolescent stage when a girl's body begins to change (Halmi, 1983). Anorectics…… [Read More]
Treatment of Personality Disorders Debate
One of the most challenging and mysterious problems in the mental health sector is personality disorders, especially with regards to developing a suitable treatment approach. The challenge or difficulty associated is evident in the fact that those suffering from antisocial personality disorders are usually misdiagnosed. The situation is the same for patients who suffer from obsessive compulsive personality disorder. Personality disorders continue to be a significant challenge in the field of mental health and the overall health sector because of its severe effects on patients and families (Conan, 2012).
While there have been several attempts to develop a suitable treatment measure for this condition, treatment of personality disorders have been increasingly controversial. The controversy and debates is attributed to the fact that the major areas of personality disorders are not specifically satisfactory though they are hallowed by long use (Tyrer & Simonsen, 2003, p.42). Moreover,…… [Read More]
Determination of the Normative Definition of Abnormality and Deviance
Though what is normal and abnormal is socioculturally relative, a normative definition of deviant or abnormal is possible. Every culture regards specific behaviors as good or normal or right. Those behaviors vary from culture to culture, place to place, and over time, yet the standards or dichotomies of behaviors exist. Once one end of the spectrum, good or normal, are named, the behaviors antithetical those are outlined as well, meaning what is deviant or abnormal. Normative definitions of deviance and abnormality that recognize the sociocultural relativism of such terms function on two levels, according to Chapter 14. Normative definitions function on the level of what is culturally universal, meaning that there exist sets of norms per every culture. Normative definitions also function on what is culturally specific, meaning what sets of norms exist per individual culture. Deviance and abnormality need…… [Read More]
Personality theories and PTSD
Alternative Theoretical Positions and Applications
The idea of personality is broadly accepted as being fundamental in psychology, but its dynamics as well as the ways that it may be identified and assessed are questions in which psychologists have been in substantial disagreement. Millon had been focused on perpetually creating a systematic program to describe standard as well as abnormal personality functioning and also to determine various kinds of personality types and conditions according to deductive thinking. This varies with the rising inductive technique that identified proportions of personality functioning and realignment according to factor evaluation of the personality lexicon qualities. The present system consists of 13 personality designs or kinds according to groups generally observed in a number of communities to varying degrees. The primary personality designs established by Millon had been all variants from the Passive, Active along with Pleasure-Pain proportions. Over his years of…… [Read More]
These people have been seen to have rigidity towards people who are struggling in life and are going through a tougher time or with people who are already emotionally weak or vulnerable in case where they might be going through a tough relationship. It has been reported that if these people are asked for advice for better parenting with a troubled teen, the advice from an overtly controlling person would be to cast the teen away, leave him in a church or be hard on him in a physical manner. In the case of marital issues, the advice would be to make sure that the wife being a weaker person should be made to submit to the much stronger husband. If a depressed individual asks such controlling person for an advice, it would be repent on sins making sure that such sins are not committed again.
These individuals are overtly…… [Read More]
antisocial personality disorder (APD) as displayed by serial killer Belle Gunness. The essay discusses her behaviors with reference to the DSM IV criteria and reviews theoretical perspectives on APD.
Belle Gunness, who immigrated to the U.S. In 1881, was born Brynhild Paulsdatter Strseth in November 1859 in Selbu, Norway. Following her immigration, a series of suspicious fires and deaths resulting in insurance awards ensued. Shortly after marrying Mads Sorenson in 1884, the couple's store and home mysteriously burned down, with them claiming the insurance money for both. Sorenson died soon after of heart failure on the very day that his two life insurance policies overlapped, and Belle received about $8,000 from his life insurance. Even though his family demanded an inquiry, no charges were filed, nor were the couple's two children accounted for. They were believed to have been poisoned in infancy for the insurance money as well (A+E Networks,…… [Read More]
The review assesses the book's strong points, and gives good information on personality disorder, but does not point out any weaknesses, which makes it seem a bit biased. In addition, the review does not include the reviewer's qualifications for writing the review, and that would have made the review stronger as well.
It is clear the reviewer understands personality disorder and agrees with the findings of the author of this book. The review is helpful if a student is looking for a definitive text on the issue of personality disorder, but the review does leave out some key points that could have made an even stronger argument for purchasing this book and learning more about personality disorder.
Baer, M. (2002). The personality disorder. Annals of the…… [Read More]
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Personality is the unique way in which every individual expresses their inner experience and outer behavior. People tend to react a given way every time they experience something and in return express personality traits that come to define who people are. But personalities are not set in stone. They can change according to any given experience, environment, or circumstance that one comes to encounter (Dobbert, 74). The ability to adjust our personalities according to a situation is what people with personality disorders lack. According to the DSM-IV (1994) a Personality Disorder is defined as "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment" (p. 629). These types of disorders are actually hard to self-recognize but can…… [Read More]
Avoidant Personality Disorder
As per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a certain case of avoidant personality disorder (APD) is featured by the existent sign of social inhibition, feeling of being short of requirement, and hypersensitivity to negative valuation. (American Psychiatric Association, 1994, p.1) Even though personality disorders are not often discovered in persons below age 18, children who come within the condition of APD are recurrently portrayed as being aloof to the core, fearful in arising circumstances, and afraid of dissention and social boycott. The proportion of the signs and the inability is way behind the practice of inhibition that is prevalent in as much as 40% of the populace. Hence it is of great relevance of examining the disorder as it relates to professional counseling.
Exploration of disorder
Bearing a semblance to other personality disorders, the state of Avoidant Personality disorder turns out…… [Read More]
The research on HPD causes is clearly linked to personality theory, and can help to understand each theory. By first examining causation research, and then by locating personality theory which supports the research, it was easy to see the validity of personality theories, and how they can be used in real world research. The research also tied in to course material by again forcing real world situations to be applied to theoretical perspectives.
As research surrounding the causes of HPD is undertaken, more is learned about factors that affect those with HPD. If a definite cause, or a list of possible causes, can be discovered through such research, treatment options specifically designed to address those causes can be developed, resulting in a higher possibility of success. This type of research is vital if those with histrionic personality disorder are to ever be fully cured. Therapy without certain cause can reduce…… [Read More]
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a personality disorder connected with anxiety which is characterized by repeated thoughts and behavior. epeated thoughts, feelings compose the obsessive part of the disorder while actual drive to do those actions repeatedly falls under the compulsive category. A person suffering from this condition would succumb to the drive and engage repeatedly in those actions just to get rid of the feeling but it only helps him temporarily. Failure to engage in the actions can result in serious anxiety attack.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Like most personality disorders, the causes of OCD are unknown. Several theories have surfaced regarding the causes but none is universally accepted or agreed upon. Some studies have connected the disorder with brain abnormalities but only further research can confirm this. It is known that those who eventually display OCD usually start developing symptoms by the age of 30.…… [Read More]
adults become susceptible to avoidant personality disorder.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder results in social constraint, feeling of insecurity and susceptibility towards criticism. Even if one want to socialize with others he is most often scared to. Being embarrassed in front of others horrifies individuals suffering from Avoidant Personality Disorders. As a result they usually withdraw themselves from social gatherings to avoid any sort of discomfort. John G. Gunderson in his article Childhood Antecedents of Avoidant Personality Disorder: A etrospective Study outlines the risk factors and primordial exhibition of Avoidant Personality Disorders by investigating present perspective reports of social functioning and antagonistic childhood encountering.
Primitive social operative and pathological childhood experiences were investigated through a childhood experience questionnaire. It was shocking to find out that around 146 adults out of 376 patients suffered from Avoidant Personality Disorder.
Adults with AVPD reported poorer child and adolescent athletic performance, less involvement…… [Read More]
Avoidant Personality Disorder
WK 5 DISC - AB
WK 5 DISC -- AB GO BY AND IMPOTANT ESOUCES
Personality disorder: Avoidant personality disorder
According to the DSM, an avoidant personality (Axis II) is characterized by extreme anxiety and an aversion to engaging in social activities due to an overly sensitized fear of rejection. The avoidant nature of this type's personality means he or she has trouble functioning normally both in work and personal contexts. For example, an avoidant personality "avoids occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact, because of fears of criticism, disapproval, or rejection" (Avoidant personality disorder, 2013, Mental Health). An avoidant personality may work at an occupation significantly beneath his or her level of intelligence and education, simply to avoid dealing with people.
On a personal level, the avoidant personality is extremely hyper-sensitive. This personality type avoids new situations, for fear of being rejected and minimizes social content…… [Read More]
Schizoid Personality Disorder Chart
SPD or Schizoid Personality Disorder is a Cluster A personality, which is a group consisting of peculiar and odd personality disorders. SPD is categorized by a prevalent social detachment pattern and a restricted amount of emotions. Due to this, the people affected by SPD are isolated socially and do not seek for relationships that get them close to a person.
Individuals suffering from SPD are mostly reserved and they organize their life so they can avoid social contact. A lot of individuals with SPD do not marry and even live with their parents their whole life. Some other commonly found characteristics of SPD are:
They seek solitary activities and jobs
They do not seek and enjoy relationships with a close bonding
They do not take pleasure in a lot of activities (group)
They do not have any close relatives
They find it difficult to relate…… [Read More]
Discuss the differential diagnoses and rationale for choosing the primary diagnoses
"There has been little systematic study of personality disorders in older people (65 years of age and above). However, with an ageing population worldwide we should expect to find increased numbers of people with Axis II disorders surviving into old age" (Mordekar & Spence 2007 ). Based upon the patient C.W.'s previous psychiatric history, his likely primary diagnosis would be that of a paranoid personality disorder. According to the definition provided by the ICD9 301 codes for this condition, paranoid personality disorder is distinct from full-blown schizophrenia. Unlike schizophrenics, the patient does not exhibit the hallucinations and delusions characteristic of individuals suffering this condition.
However, the patient does show a persistent pattern of mistrust that is damaging for his health. He has refused any type of medical intervention, including vaccinations as well as medications and therapy. He…… [Read More]
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined as a condition wherein the patient suffers from a difficulty in regulating his or her emotions (NAMI, 2018). Individuals suffering from BPD can lack impulse control, have a poor self-image, and experience severe emotional responses when stressed. The inability to regulate the emotions can lead the individual to lash out at the self and engage in self-harm in some cases (NAMI, 2018). Though three-quarters of individuals diagnosed with BPD are women, some research indicates that an equal number of men may also suffer from the disorder and simply not be diagnosed.
Symptoms of BPD include: strong sense of abandonment by friends or family, real or imagined; very unstable relationships with others, consisting of wild swings between intense love and intense hate; distortion of a sense of one’s self that leads to depression or delusions of grandeur; poor impulse control; self-harm or…… [Read More]
This 14-year-old male is currently in the ninth grade. In the demographic portion of the test, he identifies "restless/bored" as the problem that is troubling him the most. A tendency toward avoiding self-disclosure is evident in this adolescent's response style. This nondisclosure may signify characterological evasiveness or an unwillingness to divulge matters of a personal nature, problematic or not. Also possible are broad deficits in introspectiveness and psychological-mindedness, owing to either emotional impoverishment or thought vagueness" (Millon 2005).
As evidenced in the above, sample assessment, the Millon devices are all-encompassing, giving a diagnosis and analysis of a multitude of different factors relating to an individual's state of mental health. A statistical recording of all responses and how they correlate to different mental health conditions is included and incorporated into the assessment. The assessment can make judgments about an adolescent's developmental state, as for example the above 9th grader's lack…… [Read More]
Personality and Behavior: Changing for the Better
Hundreds of thousands of years of instinctive programming influence the behavior of modern humans in ways they do not fully understand, and in many cases, people may not even be aware of these influences on their behavior. This is not to say, of course, that modern humans are incapable of thoughtful and purposeful action, but it is to say that such unconscious influences on behavior can cause problems if they are not recognized and dealt with in a meaningful fashion. To gain additional insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning personality and behavior, followed by a discussion concerning how behavior can be influenced by personality in ways that can cause individual problems such as risky behaviors that lead to substance abuse or unprotected premarital sex. Finally, an examination concerning how the interactionism view…… [Read More]
All participants will be clinically diagnosed with an addiction problem to alcohol and/or another controlled substance. Those that are addicted to prescription medicine alone will be excluded from the study as they are suspected to represent a different underlying order. Subjects will be chosen for addiction to alcohol, meth, crack, opiates and other controlled substances, other than prescription drugs. Participants may have single or multiple substances of addiction.
In order to eliminate as many potential confounding variables as possible the subjects will be males between the ages of 25-40. They will be from a number of socioeconomic backgrounds and will not be eliminated for race or other cultural attributes. However, these attributes will be considered in the final analysis to eliminate potential sources of sample bias. Participation in this study will be voluntary and all participants will be asked to sign a consent form. Participants meeting the criteria will be…… [Read More]
The two interpersonal scales are Dominance and Warmth. Many of the clinical scales, as well as the aggression scale, also have a number of subscales to provide more nuanced information bout each of the clinical conditions. For example, the Borderline Features scale has four subscales: Affective Instability, Identity Problems, Negative elationships and Self-Harm.
The resulting score profiles can be compared to either normative or clinical populations. aw scores are converted to T-scores using tables provided in the scoring manual. These tables were generated using either normative or clinical samples that were census matched and standardized (Morey, 2007). The manual provides average scores for each of the subscales, for example, the average T score for Borderline Traits is 59, indicating that individuals falling below this number are emotionally stable and do not reflect borderline traits. The individual mean scores for each scale vary and are presented within the testing manual (Morey,…… [Read More]
personality" and personalities. Everyone has a personality, their own unique collection of traits and characteristics. The facets of a person's personality may be partly inherited and partly the result of the person's life experiences. In the personality disorder, the person has inflexible traits and patterns of behavior not typical of most people and that cause the person to function poorly in life. Up to 13% of people may have some kind of personality disorder.
"Odd" Personality Disorders: are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior that can include a high degree of suspiciousness or social withdrawal.
Paranoid personality disorder: is characterized by high levels of distrust regarding other people. Believing that others have it in for them, they avoid close relationships. They find proof that their suspicions are justified in the actions of others, which they perceive as either threatening or putting them down in some way. They are highly critical…… [Read More]
Dispositional and Evolutionary Theories
What makes some people extraverted and others introverted? Why are some people mellow and calm, while others lose their tempers at the drop of a hat? Personality psychology tries to answer questions like these by performing a twofold role. The first role of personality psychology is to explain how clusters of traits work together to cause behavioral or cognitive effects, and the other role is to simply explain individual differences or classify people according to clusters of traits (American Psychological Association, 2015). There are several schools of personality psychology, including dispositional and evolutionary theories. Dispositional theory is quite common in popular psychology and has been a prevalent mode of thinking in the history of philosophies throughout different societies. According to dispositional theory, people have immutable traits and personality "types." Occasionally a person might act out of character, but generally people have strong, innate personalities that remain…… [Read More]
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…… [Read More]
It has been a long controversy about how nature and nurture imply to personality traits and human behavior. Nature means that genetic factor and the system of organs control the personality, while nurture means the personality is a result of conditioned circumstances where a person is brought up. It includes the personality of other people, like family, includes the teaching, and lessons a child gains during his/her mental development process.
Recent studies find more in human biological system that genes are related to people's behavior. McInerney (2001) shows, many researchers believe that genetics factors determine how someone will act and think in his or her life. Animal and human are born with specific character linked with the genetic information in the genes. It shapes each individual trait exclusively including the performance in social, interaction, intelligence, and adaptability to the surrounding community.
ehavior may change, he states, as a…… [Read More]
Low emotion level - this is an area that will need improvement considering that a perspective employer may view me as an individual that is not overall enthusiastic in nature, this can also be perceived as a lack on enthusiasm in my work and corporate morale. Low trust level - Work is needed in this area in order to make interactions with others more fulfilling. If everyone is perceived as selfish and potentially dangerous, this will put a strain on cooperation in-group work and in building positive personal and business relationships. Low altruism level - Being viewed as a person that does not like to help others. In a work setting or search for employment, this can be seen as a deterrent to hiring me if the perception of ill will towards helping others exists. Low tenderness level- if I want to pursue a career in Counseling & Psychology, this…… [Read More]
realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…… [Read More]
Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…… [Read More]
biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.
Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:
An overview of the debate
Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…… [Read More]
They make good leaders, because they can make impartial decisions, and will not back down after they have made a decision. They are more concerned with external forces, and so, they are attracted to products, goods, and services, rather than the internal motivations for these items. In other words, they are consumers and they like material goods.
ESTJ's like to bring things to closure quickly and effectively, and they may even overlook some information or input if it seems as if it might impede closure in some way. They engage in primary thinking, which helps create their desire for regimen and discipline. They like being in charge and directing others, as well. They are down to earth, and do not like to be phony. They make friends easily, and usually have many friends in their lives.
Some famous ESTJ's include Harry S. Truman, Lyndon B. Johnson, George W. Bush, Carrie…… [Read More]
Media in the Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder vs. the Effect of Media in the Development of Prosocial Behavior
Some researchers contend that media has a negative impact on individuals and can be instrumental in the development of antisocial personality disorder (obertson, McAnally, Hancox, 2013), while other researchers contend that media can actually have a positive effect on individuals and support prosocial behavior (Greitemeyer, 2011; Greitemeyer, Oswald, 2011). This paper will discuss the two competing viewpoints regarding the effects of media on the mental disorder of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and then discuss why I support the view that media is inherently antisocial and thus has a negative effect on the development of APD. The paper will conclude with an experimental research idea containing a reason for the study and the issue that will be resolved by the experiment.
Media does have a negative impact on personality development that…… [Read More]
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…… [Read More]
Bipolar and Personality Disorder
Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder are also found to suffer from borderline personality disorder (Zimmerman & Morgan, 2013). While some of the symptoms and characteristics of both disorders are similar, it is important, as Zimmerman and Morgan (2013) point out, to distinguish between the two, as each requires its own form of treatment in order to allow the patient to overcome the issues associated with each. This paper will discuss the treatment considerations for a person presenting with both bipolar disorder and personality disorder.
DSM-5 (2013) states that the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are: “For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes” (p. 123). Mania is described as a…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…… [Read More]
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]
hile Dr. Asperger called the condition "autistic psychopathy" and described it as a personality disorder primarily marked by social isolation, today Asperger's Syndrome is identified as a brain, communication, or neurological disorder like autism, not a personality disorder like, for example, antisocial personality disorder ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS).
Like autism, Asperger's Syndrome is characterized by repetitive routines, rituals, and movements, poor social skills, and odd ways of communicating that do not take into consideration the other person's feelings and needs. The distinguishing feature of Asperger's, in contrast to classical autism, is that the individuals all have normal IQ but show "limited interests or an unusual preoccupation with a particular subject to the exclusion of other activities" ("Asperger's Syndrome fact sheet," 2008, NINDS). Unlike autistic individuals who show little interest in others, Asperger children may seek out companionship, but may drive other people away because of their refusal to…… [Read More]
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit HyperactivITY Disorder DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDEN
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a diverse behavioral set of symptoms described by the hub indication of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Even as, these symptoms have a tendency to gather together, some individuals are for the most part hyperactive and impetuous, even as others are predominantly inattentive. This disease affects both toddlers and adults of all ages and should be taken seriously. When this disease is being diagnosed in children, doctors often make quick decisions to make a diagnosis and handing out prescriptions. This should not be the case as doctors are supposed to take enough time to well analyze the condition of the children before offering prescriptions.
About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
There are two main diagnostic decisive factors that are currently in use. These are the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders uses the initials (ICD-10) and the…… [Read More]
Hitler's Personality And Rise To Power
Adolph Hitler's rise to power over the course of the 1920s and 30s was due to a confluence of political and personal factors which served to make Hitler the ideal person to take control of Germany's failing fortunes. In many ways one may view Hitler's frightening success as a case of being the right person, in the right place, at the right time, because his peculiar personality was an almost perfect match for the disillusioned Germans suffering from the ignominy and economic disaster which followed their defeat in the first orld ar. Numerous researchers have attempted to diagnose Hitler's personality in psychological or psychiatric terms, and while these studies some useful insights, this study will focus more on Hitler's personality as it relates to his audience, because regardless of the specific neuroses Hitler exhibited, the image he cultivated in the minds of Germans and…… [Read More]
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…… [Read More]
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…… [Read More]
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…… [Read More]
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…… [Read More]
Predicting Patient Investment Into Psychotherapy
Prediction Patient Investment in Psychotherapy
Predicting Patient Investment into Psychotherapy
The factors that cause an individual to terminate psychotherapy have been of interest since this form of therapy was developed. Some researchers and theorists have argued that the need to relieve personal isolation and habits of dependency may motivate patients to remain in psychotherapy (reviewed by Ackerman, Hilsenroth, Clemence, Weatherill, and Fowler, 2000, p. 387). This does not imply that patients who remain in psychotherapy are docile though. Quite the contrary, studies have shown that these patients are often aggressive, contrary, have turbulent negative emotions, and high levels of interpersonal distress.
The research data that produced the above findings were based primarily on orschach examinations. Whether these findings would be validated by non-orschach instruments is unknown. Towards this goal, Ackerman and colleagues (2000) examined the utility of the Westen's Social Cognition and Object…… [Read More]
DSM diagnostic criteria have long been a source of criticism. McGorry, Hickie, Yung, Pantelis, and Jackson (2006) point out some basic deficiencies of the DSM diagnostic system. First the authors state that the function of a diagnosis is to state what treatment should be applied or predict the prognosis of the condition. These are certainly functions of a diagnosis, but a diagnosis has broader implications. First and foremost the idea of having a diagnosis is to take a series of related signs and symptoms that hang together consistently and label them so as to facilitate communication between health care professionals. A diagnosis alone is useless unless it allows professionals to communicate about the same entity. Then descriptions of course, treatment, and prognosis can follow.
McGorry et al. charge that in the DSM system the clinical features that occur early in the course of the disorder are not distinguished from those…… [Read More]
Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.
In…… [Read More]
personality is a branch of psychology that deals with personality and variations among individuals. Personality is an organized and dynamic set of characteristics possessed uniquely by individual, and influenced by emotion, cognitions, motivation, and environment. In other words, the personality is referred as pattern of feelings, thoughts; social adjustments as well as behaviors exhibited by individual that strongly influence one's self-perceptions, expectations, attitudes and values. (Vink, Nawijn, Boomsma, & Willemsen, 2007).
The paper uses the Humanistic theory to explain the concept personality. The humanistic theory argues that people generally possess freewill that determines the way they behave. The reason for chosen humanistic theory to explain personality concept is that the theory focuses on individual subjective experiences and definitive factors that determine human behaviors. The basic idea of humanistic theory is that it focuses on the present rather than the future. The goal of humanistic theory is to assist…… [Read More]
Nonetheless, Bill never hurts other people simply because he thinks that it is irrational to hurt others. He thinks that any rational person would be like him and not hurt other people. Does Bill really understand that hurting others is morally wrong? (Nichols, 2002, p. 285)."
This presents some interesting directions of thought. However, it is time to go into the relationship between serial murderers and forensic psychology as it applies to the crime scene. Ted Bundy seemed very much aware that he was committing crimes against society, certainly crimes against his victims. Berkowitz, it was argued, was more psychotic, and for that reason perhaps less aware of his actions as crimes against society or individuals. Berkowitz was known to have started more than a thousand fires, and had a history of cruelty to animals; both manifestations of deeper emotional problems (Schlesinger, 2004, p. 328). This does not make any…… [Read More]
Persons with Emotional Behavior Disorder
Importance of assessment of emotional and behavioral disorders in schools
Identifying and assessing emotional and behavioral disorders in schools (EBD) helps identify and address a number of risky behaviors among youths in good time. Students suffering from EBD experience difficulties when learning, have challenging social relationships, experience depression and anxious moments as well as exhibit inappropriate behaviors. School, administrators usually know these students, as they need a lot of support and different resources to be able to survive in a school environment (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters, 2011).
Early identification of these problem behaviors help school administrators provide the necessary support students need before the situation gets out of hand or becomes impossible to manage. Even though students at risk of EBD have less severe characteristics and frequency than those already diagnosed, early identification is crucial in improving educational outcomes (Davis, Young, Hardman & Winters,…… [Read More]
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…… [Read More]
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…… [Read More]
The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low growth of sex hormones that make them weaker sexually. You can see many people who have poor body structure and lack of bone density due to their improper nutrition so these children usually have weak bones and there is fear that they may face with bone fracture in their life.
While besides physical body disturbance and weakness it put effect on the brain of human being and person who is diagnose with Anorexia Nervosa have weak structure of their brain and have physiological impact on those people including poor personality, shattered body image.
There are many ways that can be used to cure this disease but first of all you need to find out that you are also suffering from this…… [Read More]