Pharmacology Essays (Examples)

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Purpose Statement for Pharmacy Program

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83303884

Pharmacology

One of my most important life goals is to continue my studies in pharmacology and become the most skilled practitioner that I am able to be. I am applying to the PN [Is it Pacific Northwest? ] University for a Masters Degree in Pharmacology primarily because of two factors. The University has a reputation for developing knowledgeable graduates whose high level of skills positions them to make strong contributions in their field. The second factor stems from experiences in my personal life.

My name is Reem AL Qahtani and I am 25 years old. I live in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where I am currently a teaching assistant in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy at Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University. I became interested in pharmacology because of a family history of breast cancer. My aunt had a benign breast cancer. My grandmother was not as fortunate…… [Read More]

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Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Lipitor

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59435879

Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).

Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.…… [Read More]

Reference

"Lipitor," (n.d.). RXList. Retrieved online:  http://www.rxlist.com/lipitor-drug/clinical-pharmacology.htm
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Errors in the ICU

Words: 1240 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20109837

Medication Errors

One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the case of the ICU, these challenges are becoming more pronounced. This is because of the different conditions and large number of patients they are working with. A good example of this can be seen with insights from Orgeas (2010) who said, "Although intensive care units (ICUs) were created for patients with life-threatening illnesses, the ICU environment generates a high risk of iatrogenic events. Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. We describe the selection of indicator MEs, the incidence of such MEs, and their relationship with mortality. We selected indicator MEs using Delphi techniques. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27…… [Read More]

References

Data and Statistics. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/

Marcucci, L. (2012). Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Marino, P. (2012). ICU Book. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McClean, S. (2011). Intelligent Patient Management. New York, NY: Springer.
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Paxil in the 35 Years Following Its

Words: 2169 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38820310

Paxil

In the 35 years following its development, femoxetine, commonly known by its trade name "Paxil," has been the focus of a growing body of research based on its proven harmful effects, most especially an increased incidence of suicide. The fact that the drug's manufacturer concealed evidence of these harmful effects has added further fuel to the investigatory fires and new findings continue to confirm the harmful effects of Paxil today. To gain some current insights into Paxil's use and how it has affected consumers in recent years, this paper provides the history of the drug, representative evidence from the scientific community that confirms its several dangers, as well as the results of two face-to-face interviews with former Paxil users to identify specific points of convergence with the scientific research as well as differences. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis…… [Read More]

References

Breggin, P.T. (2006). "How Glaxosmithkline Suppressed Data on Paxil-induced Akathisia:

Implications for Suicidality and Violence." Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry,

8(2), pp. 91-93.

Choate, L.H. & Ginter, G.G. (2011). "Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment." Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(3), pp. 373-376.
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Dangers of Marijuana Is a

Words: 1798 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3899599

, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.

Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154

Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.

Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.

Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors

Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.

Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.

Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall

Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.

Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
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Paxil Tying Drug Readings Using Readings Support

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19923123

Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The

Analyze Paxil

In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Becker, Howard S. "Becoming a Marihuana User." The American Journal of Sociology. 59, no.3 (1953): 235-242.

DeGrandpre, Richard. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.

Hacking, Ian. "Making Up People." The London Review of Books. 28, no. 16 (2006)
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Medicinal Information Not Only for

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6422527

Eithe way, such a volume simply could not be as pactical and useful as eithe the two independent volumes of the Physician's Desk Refeence o the single and easily navigable website un by Medline Plus. This website's seach-ability allows fo an easie coss-efeencing between phamaceuticals and nutitional supplements, as well, without tying to keep a book open to seveal pages at once.

Cost is also a majo facto in the two efeences. Though olde editions of the Physician's Desk Refeence can be found elatively cheaply (ionically, via online shopping), the cuent edition costs almost one hunded dollas puchased new. Medline Plus is fee, making the cost benefit of this option at least equal to the benefits deived fom ease of use and completeness of infomation. On this last point, the Physician's Desk Refeence often contains moe detailed infomation on vaious dugs, but these details ae pesented in a vey dy…… [Read More]

references also list common side effects and interaction warnings. Medline Plus, however, also presents all of this information as if in response to specific consumer questions, rather than in a simple list of facts as in the Physician's Desk Reference. Though this reference is still the standard of the industry, the fact that it is mainly directed towards physicians (cf. The title) makes it less easy to use. Overall, Medline Plus is a more effective resource for the average user today.
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Palliative Care Has Gone Under a Lot

Words: 2174 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72419793

Palliative care has gone under a lot of changes as the years have progressed. Just like how general care has been advanced for the sick in areas such as pharmacology and medical engineering, palliative care has also been given much importance. Palliative care has been recognized as a specialty in many countries. There has been evidence that a care outlook that takes note of psychosocial, psychological and spiritual support is very effective and holds great importance in the eyes of those who are sick and their families. (Beaver et al., 2000) In simpler terms, palliative care means to relieve the sufferings of the sick and not really to make the treatment effective. (Macpherson, 2002)

Watching the movie Wit, I was truly saddened and affected by the degree of importance that is given to research these days. esearch for a horrible disease like cancer should be carried out but not on…… [Read More]

References

Beaver, K. et al. (2000) Primary care services received during terminal illness. International Journal of Palliative Nursing; 6, 220 -- 227.

Macpherson, G. (2002) Black's Medical Dictionary. London: A&C Black.

Nursingtimes.net (2009) Palliative care 1: principles of palliative care nursing and end-of-life care. [online] Available at:  http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/end-of-life-and-palliative-care/palliative-care-1-principles-of-palliative-care-nursing-and-end-of-life-care/2007480.article  [Accessed: 11 Jan 2013].

Wit (2001) [DVD] USA: Mike Nichols.
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Brugada Syndrome

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62860835

Brugada Syndrome is a hereditary illness that is categorized by irregular electrocardiogram (ECG) results (efer to Appendix 1) and an augmented danger of unexpected cardiac arrest. It is titled after the Spanish cardiologists Josep and Pedro Brugada. It is counted amongst one of the key (Nademanee, 1997) reasons for "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome" (SUDS), and is the most regularly occurring reason of unexpected expiration amongst young men without knowing the fundamental cardiac ailment. This holds particularly true for Laos and Thailand.

The purpose of this research essay is to talk about the Brugada Syndrome by focusing on its epidemiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology and implications for advanced nursing techniques. It also discusses the disease itself in tremendous detail and makes thorough used of secondary research to validate statements wherever required.

Even though, if the ECG results of Brugada Syndrome were initially found amongst survivors of cardiac arrest in the year 1989 (Martini,…… [Read More]

References

Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Corrado D, et al. (2005). Brugada syndrome: report of the second consensus conference: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association. Circulation; 111: 659-70

Antzelevitch C (2007). "Genetic basis of Brugada syndrome." Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 4 (6): 756 -- 7. DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.03.015. PMC 1989771. PMID 17556198

Belhassen B, Glick A, Viskin S (2004). "Efficacy of quinidine in high-risk patients with Brugada syndrome." Circulation 110 (13): f1731 -- 7. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000143159.30585.90. PMID 15381640

Brugada J, Brugada P, Brugada R (July 1999). "The syndrome of right bundle branch blocks ST segment elevation in V1 to V3 and sudden death -- the Brugada syndrome." Europace 1 (3): 156 -- 66. DOI:10.1053/eupc.1999.0033. PMID 11225790.
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Jnj and Inflammation and Its Role in

Words: 2767 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16597287

JNJ and Inflammation

Inflammation and its role in disease

Inflammation is a primary contributing component to the pathophysiology of allergies asthma (Barbers et al., 2012). Inflammation along with remodeling are defining features present with mild to severe asthma. Inflammation due to allergies causes structural and functional changes to blood vessels within the respiratory tract. These changes include increased blood flow, vasodilation, angiogenesis, and higher vascular permeability in airways of asthmatics (Jang et al., 2012). emodeling is defined as the structural changes that occur within airways such as increases in vascularity, increased smooth muscle mass within the airways, subepithelial fibrosis, and hyperplasia of goblet cells within the proximal and distal airways (Barbers et al., 2012). Furthermore, remodeling is a process involving a multitude of factors including complex interactions among cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, and growth factors (Jang et al., 2012). esearch has suggested that the structural changes that occur due to…… [Read More]

References

Barbers, R.G., Papanikolaou, I.C., Koss, M.N., Patel, A., Katagihara, E., Arenas, M., Chan, K., Azen, C.G., Sharma, O.P. (2012). Near fatal asthma: clinical and airway biopsy characteristics. Pulmonary Medicine, 2012, 829608.

Beermann, S., Glage, S., Jonigk, D., Seifert, R., Neumann, D. (2012). Opposite effects of mepyramine on JNJ 7777120-induced amelioration of experimentally induced asthma in mice in sensitization and provocation. PLoS One, 7(1), e30285.

Cowden, J.M., Riley, J.P., Ma, J.Y., Thurmond, R.L., Dunford, P.J. (2010). Histamine H$ receptor antagonism diminishes existing airway inflammation and dysfunction via modulation of Th2 cytokines. Respiratory Research, 11, 86.

Desai, P. Thurmond, R.L. (2011). Histamine H4 receptor activation enhances LPS-induced IL-6 production in mast cells via ERK and PI3K activation. European Journal of Immunology, 41(6), 1764-73.
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New Drug Development and Approval

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49692904

Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.

Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.

Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…… [Read More]

References

Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.

"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .

Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
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Head Injuries and Resultant Deafness

Words: 1992 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98340917

(Walls, Hendricks, Dowler, Hirsch, Orslene and Fullmer, 2002). The animal will serve as a vital link between John Q. And the world around him, helping to be independent and to have quality time to himself and allow him to travel on his own.

There is a need, too, to emphasize that services are available to the family as individuals, and in a group setting, to confront and work through the issues that upcoming months, perhaps even years of hardship as a result of John Q's physical injuries will mean to them as a family and as individuals. The focus must be a positive one, for research has shown that positive and hopeful attitudes impact an individual's ability to recover faster and more fully (Schmidt, Vickery, Cotugna, and Snider, 2005).

esearcher Thoughts

esearching the conditions and needs of a family and individual as cited above, created a sense of caring and…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755753

Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.). (1994). Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755753

(1994). CHAPTER TWO Pharmacological Treatments for Brain-Injury Repair: Progress and Prognosis. In Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives, Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.) (pp. 17-33). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755811

(2003). Conversation and Brain Damage (C. Goodwin, Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104810903 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009630086
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Neurofibroma Genetic Traits and Impact

Words: 5537 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52789543

However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.

Respiratory System

Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]

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Health Car Problem Select and

Words: 3075 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28264858

At which point, they talk about the effects that the different kinds of coverage are having on senior citizen, with many using a combination of Medicare and private insurance, while others have used a combination of Medicare / Medicaid. To rectify the situation, the article points out that there is one of two solutions to include: the government placing price caps and importing prescription drugs. A government model of limiting the overall scope of price increases, could help to reduce the negative effects that this having on the elderly. Another option, for those who are opposed to such a plan, is to allow the import of prescription drugs. This is significant, because it shows how increasing the available supply of prescription drugs are a key to curtailing costs. If some kind of programs, this could be introduced to address this issue. At which point, it could be effective in reducing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carbaugh, R. (2006). Chapter Summary. Contemporary Economics (pg. 76) Mason, OH: Thompson. http://books.google.com/books?id=9Pascy_5HUMC&pg=PA76&dq=solutions+high+prescriptions+drug+costs+on+the+elderly&hl=en&ei=zFcmTIaALMKB8gb59YnKDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false

Day, T. (n.d.). About Medical Care for the Elderly. Retrieved June 26, 2010 from Long-Term Care Link website: http://www.longtermcarelink.net/eldercare_medical_care_issues.htm

Ham R. (2007). Clinical Pharmacology. Primary Care Geriatrics (pp. 94) Philadelphia, PA Mosby.

http://books.google.com/books?id=aboBPOyYt3IC&pg=PA359&dq=Clinical+Pharmacology.+Primary+Care+Geriatrics+(pp.+94&hl=en&ei=Q3wmTKiCGYP98Ab1pvjLDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
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Medications to Treat Alcoholism This

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65361695



It is interesting to note that Tambour and Quertemont studied the effects of the same two drugs plus Disulfiram, an alcohol-deterrent drug. Their findings, in reviewing other studies, indicated slightly different results from Richardson. Since different drugs target different neuro-inhibitors, the drugs were used both separately and together. Quertemont discovered, in reviewing the results of previous and current studies, that none of the drugs worked particularly well, and that the combination of two of the drugs didn't seem to help. Her review of these studies contradicted the Richardson trial in which acamprosate was found to be ineffective.

Quertemont and Tambour ultimately concluded that the future of curing alcoholism lie in both discovery of new drugs and the refinement of the use of current drugs either singly or in combination.

In Willenbring and Gitlow's debate over the value of drugs to treat alcohol dependence, Dr. Gitlow concludes that until it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gitlow, S., & Willenbring, M. (2008). Are medications that reduce risk of drinking, or heavy drinking, or that promote abstinence, of value in the treatment of alcohol dependence? American Journal on Addictions (peer-reviewed), 17(1), 1-5, doi:10.1080/10550490701756047.

Kranzler, H. (2006). Medications to treat heavy drinking. Are we there yet? Addiction (peer-reviewed), 101(2), 153-154, doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01324.x.

Richardson, K., Reid, S., Baillie, A., Morley, K., Teesson, M., Sannibale, C., et al. (2008). Do acamprosate or naltrexone have an effect on daily drinking by reducing craving for alcohol? Addiction, (peer-reviewed), 103(6), 953-959, doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02215.x.

Tambour, S., & Quertemont, E. (2007). Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of alcohol dependence. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (peer reviewed), 21(1), 9-28, doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2006.00459.x.
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Hyperglycemia Chronic Hyperglycemia Management and

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96850340

"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.

Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.

Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.

Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.

Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.

Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.

Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…… [Read More]

References

Balagopal, P., Kamalamma, N., Patel, T.G., & Misra, R. (2008). "A community-based diabetes prevention and management education program in a rural village in india." Diabetes Care, 31, 1097-1104.

Bloomgarden, Z.T. (2007). Screening for and managing diabetic retinopathy: current approaches. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(S), S8-S14.

Chang, K., Davis, R., Birt, J., Castelluccio, P., Woodbridge, P., & Marrero, D. (2007). Nurse practioner-based diabetes care management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 15, 377-385.

Davis, S., Asch-Goodkin, J. (2007). Heart failure risk climbs with use of glitazones. Geriatrics, 62(9), 11-11.
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Flavonoids the Benefits of Flavonoids

Words: 3595 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46849066



Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.

Potential Health Benefits

The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…… [Read More]

(25) U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods; usda.gov, NP-107-2006, pg 24-29.

(26) Prior, RL, Wu, X, Gu, L. (2006). Flavonoid Metabolism and Challenges to Understanding Mechanisms of Health Effects, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 86(15): 2487-2491

Flavonoids
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Mercury in Seafood Are High

Words: 3633 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9940392



The Food and Drug Administration has published recommendations that warn pregnant women, nursing mothers, women who might become pregnant, and children not to ear swordfish, shark, tilefish, and king mackerel due to high methylmercury content. They also warn women and children to limit their consumption of tuna (DHHS/EPA, 2004). However, if guidelines are followed, these women and children are told that they can eat limited amounts of low mercury fish.

What Levels of methylmercury are safe?

There are many factors that help to determine how much mercury is considered to be safe. The EPA reference dose (fD) is the amount of mercury that a person can be exposed to on a daily basis over a lifetime without appreciable risk of effects from it. The EPA fD is 0.1 ?g mercury per kg body weight per day. This level translates into a blood mercury level 5.8?g/L or 5.8 parts per billion…… [Read More]

References

Budtz-Jergenson, E., Grandjean, P., & Weihe, P. (2007). Separation of Risks and Benfits of Seafood Intake. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (3); 323-327

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2000). National toxics inventory. Washington, DC: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Environmental Protection Agency.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2001). Mercury Update: Impact on Fish Advisories. EPA-823-F-01-011. Retrieved November 5, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fishadvice/mercupd.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002). Estimated per Capita Fish Consumption in the United States. EPA-821-C-02-003. Retrieved November 5, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/files/consumption_report.pdf
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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
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Medication Reconciliation Evidence-Based Practice and the Procedural

Words: 6404 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3318945

Medication econciliation

Evidence-Based Practice and the Procedural Education of Nurses

Medication reconciliation is a critical issue in healthcare reform. Today, improvement in this area of treatment could have a transformative effect on the current practices of nursing and medicine administration. The discussion, literature review and research tests that are conducted hereafter will outline the implications of medication reconciliation; justify the call for improvement in this treatment area; and offer support for the resultant recommendations using the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) template as a guide. The discussion will provide a background discussion on the three primary procedural steps by which medication reconciliation is defined: Verifying Medications by Collecting an Accurate Medication History; Clarifying Information by Ensuring Medications and Doses Are Appropriate, and; econciling and Documenting Change. Additionally, the discussion will offer a literature review as a means of providing some comprehensive knowledge of current practices in the field.…… [Read More]

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Medication Reconciliation. U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services.

Alabama Universal Medication Form, Retrieved April 28, 2012 from: http://alaha.org/uploadedFiles/Resources/UniversalMedicationForm.pdf

American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). (2008). The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice. Quality and Safety
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Binge Eating Animal Models of Addiction Do

Words: 3066 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31876046

Binge Eating

Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]

References

Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.

Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-text revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Bartsch, A.J., Homola, G., Biller, A., Smith, S.M., Weijers, H.G., & Wiesbeck, G.A. (2007). Manifestations of early brain recovery associated with abstinence from alcoholism. Brain, 130(1), 36-47.
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APN Compare the Scope of

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2876012



Summarize Complementary Therapies and the APNs ole in guiding their Inclusion in Treatment Plans.

Complimentary therapies are a part of the practices which are utilized to help patients to improve their underlying state of health and reduce the need for long periods of hospitalization. In most cases, this allows them to receive continuous treatment on an outpatient basis. Some of the most notable include: chemotherapy, kinesiology, nutrition / diet, focusing on the mind / body connection and psychological treatment options. These different areas are important, as they will help patients to understand other tools they can utilize in dealing with their condition. This is giving them a sense of empowerment by comprehending what is occurring and the best approaches for addressing these challenges over the long-term. (Mezey, 2003) (Naylor, 2010)

The APNs role is to suggest other therapies they can use during the process and help to supervise the patient.…… [Read More]

References

Cronenwett, L. (2009). Quality and Safety Education. Nursing Outlook, 57 (6), 338 -- 348.

Fitzpatrick, J. (2003). Managing Your Practice. New York, NY: Springer.

Hughes, R. (2008). Patient Safety and Quality. Rockville, MD: Agency for Research and Health Care Quality.

Jansen, M. (2010). Advanced Practice Nursing. New York, NY: Springer.
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Role of an Advanced Practice

Words: 3411 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42231364

In other words, physicians authorize the nurse practitioner to prescribe certain medications -- perhaps not all but those medications that are most often required by patients -- without getting approval from a physician. It saves time and is primarily designed to make the patient more comfortable, not just to hand additional authority to the nurse practitioner.

Is prescriptive authority appropriate? This question, according to Patricia Berry, a faculty member at the University of Utah, is raised often because there is in the healthcare industry a "…misapprehension about pain and addiction" (Lebo, p. 1). There are "myths about pain and pain management," Berry is quoted saying. Healthcare professionals get "…addiction, physical dependence and tolerance all mixed up," Berry continues. There are "erroneous beliefs about opioids and addiction, side effects, respiratory depression, those kinds of things," Berry explains (Lebo, p. 1).

In twenty-nine states physician collaboration is a "requirement," Lebo explains on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Christianson, Martin. (2011). Advancing nursing practice: redefining the theoretical and practical integration of knowledge. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 20, 873-881.

Fagerstrom, L., and Glasberg. a-L. (2011). The first evaluation of the advanced practice

Nurse role in Finland -- the perspective of nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Management,

Vol. 19, 925-932.
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Nursing One Need Only Read the Newspaper

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99718284

Nursing

One need only read the newspaper "Classified" ads to realize that employers are trying many clever marketing tactics to attract prospective nurses into their organizations. Many are offering sign-on bonuses, extra benefits and other amenities to attract a limited supply of nurses. As both the general population and the elderly population grow, the number of nurses needed to care for them increases proportionally as well. The number of people choosing to pursue nursing as a career has been on the decline, mainly due to long working hours, low pay, high job stress and other factors. These factors will not resolve themselves if the nursing deficit continues to increase. In addition, graduate nurses find it difficult to enter the workforce due to their lack of experience and a shortage of mentors to teach them. The solution is simple, more nurses are needed, and soon. Novice nurses are fresh graduates who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Durkin, Barbara.(2002) Reliving Hospital Mistake: Mom recalls overdose case February

24, 2002. Newsday, Inc.

Lang, Susan. (1996) Lack of nursing assistants is an impending crisis, says Cornell gerontologist. Cornell University. Cornell University. http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/May96/nursingassistants.ssl.html. Accessed June, 2002.

National League for Nursing (NLN). (2000). Unpublished Data. New York, NY. http://nursing.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nln.org%2Faboutnln%2Fnews_tricouncil2.htm. Accessed June, 2002.
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Cultural Awareness Americans Have Traditionally Celebrated the

Words: 2642 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94745781

Cultural Awareness

Americans have traditionally celebrated the diversity of cultures that comprises the United States. Despite some reservations, much of the country still believes that the amalgamation of different ethnicities contributes to the richness of American culture.

The merging of cultures in the United States has also given rise to conflicts and collisions, as established concepts are confronted and challenged. New belief systems, often developed over centuries, have already redefined prevailing estern cultural concepts.

This paper examines how prevailing estern cultural concepts regarding the soul and spirituality, gender and healing have been challenged and redefined by a growing awareness of cultural alternatives. Some of these concepts, such as gender, were redefined largely within an American context. Many, such as healing and spirituality, have been influenced by Eastern and African cultures and religions.

The first part of the paper looks at the various cultural meanings of healing, as practiced by the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fadiman, Anne. The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down: A Hmong Child, Her American Doctors, and the Collision of Two Cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.

Feminist Research Center. "Empowering Women in Sports." Empowering Women in Sports. March 1995. Feminist Majority Foundation. 17 April 2003 http://www.feminist.org/research/sports6.html.

Grenz, Stanley. A Primer on Postmodernism. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1996.

Some, Malidoma Patrice. The Healing Wisdom of Africa: Finding Life Purpose through Nature, Ritual and Community. New York: Putnam, 1998.
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Caffeine Increases Visual and Motor Performance

Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86964022

Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance

Biological Investigation

Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses

Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…… [Read More]

References

Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.

Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.

Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-content/coffee-drip.

Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.
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Mental Patients' Physical Health Who Use Antipsychotic Medication

Words: 13284 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44641264

Antipsychotic Medication and the Physical Health Problems of the Patient With Mental Illness

More and more attention is now being given to the mental disorders especially in U.S. And due to this increase in attention an increase has also been noticed in the treatment of these mental health issues (Zuvekas, 2005). About 30% of the total U.S. population that is between the ages of 18-52 is being affected by mental health issues which make up a large part of the public health problem (Kessler et al., 2005; Narrow et al., 2002). The risk of morbidity and smaller life expectancy is very high in the patients who suffer from the mental health issues (Millar, 2008; Skodol, 2008). It has been observed from numerous researches that the chances of suffering from various health issues such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension are a lot more for the patients suffering from schizophrenia (Millar,…… [Read More]

References

Robson, D. And Haddad, M. (2012). Mental health nurses' attitudes towards the physical health care of people with severe and enduring mental illness: The development of a measurement tool. International Journal of Nursing Studies 49; 72 -- 83

Rosenberg, S., Goodman, L.A., Osher, F.C., 2001. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in people with sever mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 91, 31 -- 37.

Ruigomez, A., Rodriguez, L.A.G., Dev, V.J., Arellano, F., Raniwala, J., 2000. Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts? Epidemiology 11, 620 -- 623.

Ryan, M.C., Thakore, J.H., 2001. Physical consequences of schizophrenia and its treatment: the metabolic syndrome. Life Sciences 71 (3), 239 -- 257.
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How Do You Convince a Friend to Exercise

Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16448222

Friend

The colleague and friend I selected has worked with me on fundraising projects and has been a neighbor and friend of our family for several years. She is respected in the community for her advocacy for children's education in particular, but also for her support of local nonprofit organizations that raise money and awareness of the homeless, of the local teen center, and of the group that fights to protect open space from development, so it can remain as habitat for wildlife.

Describing the Situation

hat I would like to have Elaine change is her diet; but especially I would like to change her attitude about -- and her indifference to -- exercise. I would like to coax her into starting slow and going for walks, with me and another friend we have in common, and get her into the consciousness that walking is enjoyable and healthy as well.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Health. (2014). Why Exercise, Not Diet, May Explain Our Obesity Problem. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from  http://news.health.com .

The Office of Minority Health. (2012). Obesity and African-Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from  http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov .

Vina, J., Sanchis-Gomar, F., Martinez-Bello, V., and Gomez-Cabrera, M.C. (2012). Exercise

Acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise. British Journal of Pharmacology,
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Drug Abuse in the Society

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981014

predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).

The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.

Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.

Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/

Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf.
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Drug Therapy

Words: 517 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8360663

Drug Therapy

Advanced pharmacology

Drug therapy: Individualized drug therapies

Patient responses to drug therapy can vary widely between individuals. For example, not all patients find their pain alleviated by the same doses of analgesics; some patients can become suicidal when taking antidepressants rather than find their symptoms eased. It is because of the varied response of individuals, based upon their physical chemistry (as well as their social and psychological needs) that individualized drug therapy is necessary. The social and psychological component, it should be noted, must not be minimized. Some diabetic patients find it very difficult to regulate their blood sugar with a highly complex insulin regime and any modifications which can be made might be extremely helpful in terms of ensuring glucose stability and compliance with treatment.

Another component of different drug response mechanisms is that of allergies. Allergies to penicillin, sulfate drugs, eggs, and other substances are amongst…… [Read More]

References

Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents. (2014). NIMH. Retrieved from:

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/child-and-adolescent-mental-health/antidepressant-medications-for-children-and-adolescents-information-for-parents-and-caregivers.shtml

Lesko, L.J. & Schmidt, S. (2012). Individualization of drug therapy: History, present state, and opportunities for the future. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 92, 458-466.

doi:10.1038/clpt.2012.113
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Etiology and Treatment of a Psychological Disorder

Words: 2917 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83230922

Individual Programmatic Assessment

TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME

Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…… [Read More]

References

American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub

Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson

Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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audience'style writing on websites Webmd and Drugs com

Words: 496 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21699036

Audience in Communication

Not all websites are written for a general audience. Some websites include technical information geared for professionals in their field. There are also a number of websites that aim to please both types of audiences: those who understand rich technical or scientific jargon and those who do not. This memorandum compares and contrasts two health information websites: WebMD and Drugs.com to illustrate the importance of audience when composing and presenting health-related information online.

Audience

The WebMD website is written for a general audience with limited understanding of science or low science literacy. To a degree, Drugs.com is also geared for a general audience, but the difference between these sites is that Drugs.com also has a section for professionals that can be used to make educated and evidence-based decisions about pharmacological treatments. There is, for example, a "Pro Edition" section of Drugs.com as well as detailed information about…… [Read More]

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Eating Disorders in Women from the Christian Point of View

Words: 3830 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94830349

Abstract

Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.

Outline
I. Introduction
a. Key facts and statistics…… [Read More]

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obesity and nursing rates of care community

Words: 3859 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32760816

OBESITY 1
OBESITY 15








Obesity
Name
Date












Introduction
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…… [Read More]

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Purnell Model the Book the

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79212776

A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.

Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Lopez, P. (2003) Mexican-American Health Issues for the 21st Century. Californian Journal of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Purnell, L, & Paulanka, B. (1998). Transcultural Healthcare. Philadelphia: Davis Company.

Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (1998a) Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. in

Nava, G. (director) Quintanilla, a. (executive producer) (1997) Selena. Q Productions.
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to

Words: 2115 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87064250



3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
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Life Before Tylenol and Prozac

Words: 1710 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40145356



Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.

Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.

One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.

Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.

The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…… [Read More]

references.

Additional Source #3: UCLA's Online Archive of American Folk Medicine. Web. http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/

This online searchable database will provides students with access to thousands of articles and texts related to the course topic.

Two Guest Speakers

Guest speaker #1: D.C. Jarvis, author of the book Folk Medicine. Having him as a guest speaker would be an excellent supplement to the book. It would also allow students to ask questions related to his book.
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Measuring Arterial Stiffness Arterial Stiffness

Words: 3813 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93992174

When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.

Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)

Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:

we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arnett, D. (n.d.). Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from  http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/hbp/arnett/arnetti.htm 

Bailey, B.; Jacobsen, D.; LeCheminant, J.; Kirk, E.; & Donnelly, J. (2003). The Effect of Analysis Method in Determining Change in Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption.

Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2003/05001/The_Effect_of_Analysis_Method_in_Determining.1004.aspx

Balmain, S., Padmanabhan, N., Ferrel, W., Morton, J. & McMurray, J. (2007). Differences in arterial compliance, microvascular function and venous capacitance between patients with heart failure and either preserved or reduced left ventricular systolic function. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/9/865.full
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Theoretical Analysis of Obsessive Compulsive

Words: 3218 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49908541

Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.

The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…… [Read More]

References

Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35

Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.

Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.

Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
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Chemical Mediators in the Brain

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8760485



Phenylethylamine naturally occurs as a trace amine in the brain. It releases dopamine in the mesolimbic pleasure-centers and peaks during orgasm. In the laboratory, and in unnaturally high doses it can produce stereotyped behavior more prominently than even than amphetamine (ibid).

Phenylethylamine has very distinct binding sites but not specific neurons. It helps mediate feelings of attraction, excitement, giddiness, apprehension and euphoria; but it has also been described as an endogenous anxiogen. One of its metabolites is high in subjects with paranoid schizophrenia (ibid).

Phenylethylamine has been theorized to cause depression. Monoamine oxidase type-b is equated as phenylethylaminase. The use of a selective MAO-b inhibitor, such as selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl) or rasagiline (Azilect) can accentuate the effects of chocolate (ibid).

In not just sex, but in all addictive behaviors, dopamine is released . Dopamine is released following high levels of addictive activity. e are not really addicted to the activity,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Caston, John. (2010). Before you buy oxytocin nasal sprays are you aware of the effects and mechanism of oxytocin?. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Before-You-Buy-Oxytocin-Nasal-Sprays-Are-You-Aware-of-the-Effects-and-Mechanism-of-Oxytocin?&id=201718.

Chocalate. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.chocolate.org/ .

The molecular biology of paradise. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.oxytocin.org/ 

Oxytocin . (2010, July 12). Retrieved from  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/oxytocin.html .
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Excessive Coffee Drinking and Behavior

Words: 1181 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61669915



There have been several studies that have confirmed the effects of caffeine and the personality dimension of impulsivity (Smith 2002). Performance, according to Smith (2002), is "an interactive function of task difficulty, caffeine and impulsivity" (2002).

Performance on an easy letter cancellation task was improved as caffeine dose increased, but on a difficult task impulsive subjects (less aroused) improved while non-impulsive subjects (more aroused) improved then deteriorated. Other results do not fit this pattern and could reflect other individual differences such as expectancies or caffeine usage (Smith 2002).

Another study conducted by Sawyer, Julia and Turin (1982) showed that caffeine does indeed play a role in behavior, which includes changes in "arousal, anxiety, and performance" (1982). Once again, Sawyer et al. (1982) found that personality plays a big role in caffeine's effects on humans as does sensitivity, adaption to caffeine, and the way that caffeine may interact with both nicotine…… [Read More]

References:

Dews, P.B. (1984). Behavioral effects of caffeine. Caffeine. Springer: New York.

Foxx, R.M. & Rubinoff, a. (1979). Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: reducing excessive coffee drinking. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis,12(3): 335-

Greden, J.F. (1974). Anxiety or caffeinism: A diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Psychiatry,131: 1089-1092.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E. & Liebson, I.A. (1986). Human coffee drinking:
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Companion Diagnostics Translational Medicines

Words: 4711 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9971327

Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.

Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.

Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24 

Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
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Newest Vital Sign and Realm

Words: 1845 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91623369



Bass, P., ilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.

Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. ashington, DC: ACP Fouindation.

Chew, L., Bradley, K., and Boyko, E.. (2004). Brief Questions to Identify Patients with Inadequate Health Literacy. Family Medicine, 36(8), 588-94.

Chew, L., Griffin, J., Partin, M., et al. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 561-6.

Davis, T. And olf, M.. (2004). Health Literacy Implications for Family Medicine. Family Medicine, 36(8), 595-8.

Davis, T., Long, S., and Jackson, R. (1993). Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Family Medicine, 25(1), 391-95.

Dowse, R., Lecoko, L. And Ehlers, M. (2005). Applicability of the REALM Health Literacy Test. Pharmacy orld, 32(4), 464-71.

Ibrahim, S., Reid, F., Shaw, A., et al. (2008). Validation of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Health Litarcy: Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. (1999). Journal of the American Medical Association, 28(1), 552-7.0

Arozulla, Y., Benett, S., Soltysilk, T., et al. (2007). Development and Validation of a Short-Form, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Medical Care, 5(11), 1026-33.

Bass, P., Wilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.

Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. Washington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
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Gluten Affect Autism Fact or

Words: 7524 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46952110

When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).

Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence

UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General

Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994

Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?

Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
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Johnson Spencer 1998 Who Moved

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65062985

ursing leadership can have a significant impact upon retention, satisfaction, and even nurses' perception of their exhaustion. The study "Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment" attempted to understand what leadership styles had a positive and a negative impact upon nurses' desires to stay within the organization and function effectively. To answer this research question, the study examined a nursing environment in Saudi Arabia, a nation with a patient population that is notably diverse that has a notable shortage of nurses, forcing healthcare institutions to rely upon expatriates as a source of labor (Suliman, 2009: 301). Given the importance of culturally-specific dialogue and care in nursing, this can prove challenging. Effective leadership that facilitates dialogue between providers and patients and between managers and employees within the nursing environment is a critical aspect of dispensing effective care.

The study submitted the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to 31 nurse managers and…… [Read More]

Nursing Admin Quarterly, 33 (4) 301 -- 309

Retention of high-quality nursing staff is an equally critical component of addressing the nursing shortage as hiring newly-qualified nurses. Nursing leadership can have a significant impact upon retention, satisfaction, and even nurses' perception of their exhaustion. The study "Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment" attempted to understand what leadership styles had a positive and a negative impact upon nurses' desires to stay within the organization and function effectively. To answer this research question, the study examined a nursing environment in Saudi Arabia, a nation with a patient population that is notably diverse that has a notable shortage of nurses, forcing healthcare institutions to rely upon expatriates as a source of labor (Suliman, 2009: 301). Given the importance of culturally-specific dialogue and care in nursing, this can prove challenging. Effective leadership that facilitates dialogue between providers and patients and between managers and employees within the nursing environment is a critical aspect of dispensing effective care.

The study submitted the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses. The study was grounded in comparative theories of leadership development, examining individual nurse's preference for transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. These theories emphasize the interactions between leaders and followers -- transformational leaders inspire subordinates to expand their vision of what is possible, transactional leaders merely focus on the 'here and now' technical aspects of leadership and laissez-faire leaders employ a hands-off style. While a transformative, participative approach was favored by nearly all respondents, there was a discrepancy between managers' perceptions of their own leadership styles and staff nurses' perceptions. Managers felt that they favored a transformative approach most of the time, while staff nurses felt they did so only some of the time (Suliman, 2009: 306). Still, "the stated intention of 77.1% of staff nurses to stay at work suggests that nurse managers as transformational leaders are more likely to be successful in creating a positive working environment…and that transformational leadership enhances staff nurses' retention by the hospital" (Suliman, 2009: 307). However, the authors of the study do caution that the respondents tended to come from a more culturally homogeneous background than was typical in Saudi Arabian hospitals, and other factors such as work conditions, setting, and personal reasons also impacted individual's decisions to remain or leave their places of employment.
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Aspartame Sweet Nothing Food and

Words: 2406 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52247038

, 2006). The evidence reflects only a low level weight loss but is still worthwhile to consider in controlling weight at roughly 0.007 kg per week. It is useful for individual weight loss programs. Losing 0.2 kg per week requires a decrease of 220 kilocalories per day. Achieving a 32% reduction requires a sacrifice of 330 kilocalories a day from sucrose by substituting aspartame. Using aspartame replaces 70 g of sucrose or roughly two cans of soft drinks every day (Hunty et al.). This means less expense.

200 Times Sweeter and Cheaper

On the average, aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (Hu et al., 2008). Not only does it mean less calories but also less cost. The taste difference between them is that the sweetness of aspartame is detected by the taste buds longer than sucrose. This can, however, be resolved by adding acesulfame potassium. Aspartame also has limited…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

FDA (2007). FDA statement on European aspartame study. Office of Food Additive

Safety: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from  http://www.fda.gov e/Food/FoodingredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/ucm200858.htm

Hendrickson, K. (2011). Differences in aspartame and fructose. Live Strong:

Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/278757-differences-in-aspartame-fructose
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Drinking While Pregnant on Unborn

Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24639192



In the article "Pregnancy & Treatment," Linda L.M. Worley, past medical director of UAMS Arkansas CAES: Center for Addiction, esearch, Education and Services, and Curtis Lowery (2005), maternal fetal medicine expert, report that a number of medical and child welfare groups, including the American Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Nurses Association, and the March of Dimes, conclude that threatening to arrest pregnant women who drink alcohol beverages will not help them quit drinking. "ather, it will frighten them away from prenatal care and discourage them from speaking honestly to health care providers who may be able to help" (Worley & Lowery, 2005, ¶ 2). Worley and Lowery (2005) recommend that instead of imprisoning pregnant mothers, drug treatment "works and is much less expensive than imprisoning" them. When pregnant mothers are imprisoned, the state may not only incur delivery charges…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cave, E. (2004). The mother of all crimes: Human rights, criminalization, and the child born alive. Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Chudler, E.H. (2008). Alcohol and the brain. Neuroscience for Kids. Retrieved October 27,

2009 from  http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html 

Denny, C.H., Tsai, J., Floyd, R.L. & Green, P.P. (2009). Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age - United States, 1991-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. U.S. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2009
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Conflict in Triumph of the

Words: 807 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23243087

Similar to becoming a Board Certified Physician, credentialed nurses bring a far higher quality of professionalism to the field, and allow the public and medical community a standard by which staff must be held.

Do think it is important for clinical nurses to obtain certification in their specialty areas? If so, why? If not, why not? Yes, I actually do, for many of the same reasons as above, but actually more. The half-life of information and resulting changes in technology, procedures, appropriateness of care, and pharmacology are such that changes in specialties are so regular it is necessary to receive the highest and most specific level of training possible. Starting with a base curriculum and graduation is not the middle or the end, but only the beginning -- once the basics are mastered; it is time to continue to improve.

Do you believe the nurse leader/manager position is an advanced…… [Read More]