Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage.
Nursing implications: This drug has mild side effects. However, the patient was still advised to consult me if any unusual problems occurred.
Client Implications: the eye irritation caused by swimming had been completely cured.
Patient Education: the patient had been instructed to ensure regularity in all his appointments
9. Name of drug: Zafirlukast
Dosage: the drug should be taken twice a day.
Indications for use: the tablet should be taken by mouth without splitting, chewing, or crushing it.
Mode of action: It acts by jamming the process of chemicals that trigger irritation, mucous emission, and restrictions in the lungs.
Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage.
An Bord Altranais. (2003). Guidance to Nurses and Midwives on Medication Management: June.
Bailey, K. (1999) 'Basic principles of psychopharmacologic treatment for advanced practice psychiatric nurses with prescriptive authority', Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, vol. 37, no. 4, p. 31-38.
Department of Health (UK), (2004) Management of Medicines: a Resource to Support Implementation of the Wider Aspects of Medicines Management for the Diabetes, Renal and Long-Term Conditions National Standard Frameworks, [Online]. Available:
Moclobemide is classified as an antidepressant, a MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor. Antidepressants are designed to inhibit the reuptake or reabsorbtion of specific neurotransmitters, increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters around the nerves of the brain (Gbemudu, 2011:1). Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are often called 'feel good' chemicals that elevate the patient's mood.
A deficit of mood-enhancing chemicals is associated with depression, although there is no single neurotransmitter that is associated with depression alone. ecause every patient's biochemistry and history of depression is different, different classes of antidepressants are designed to have different effects on the brain's neurotransmitters and have different indicated uses. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)s like Prozac prevent the reabsorbtion of the 'feel good' chemical serotonin, just as MAOIs prevent the reabsorbtion of monoamine oxidase. Depression is thought to be caused, in part, by a decrease in the…
Gbemudu, Annette. 2011. Antidepressant FAQs. RX List.
Accessed: http://www.rxlist.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=88888 [22 Dec 2011]
Lerner, Barron. (2009). From the death of Libby Zion, crucial medical reforms. The New York
Times. Accessed: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/03/health/03zion.html [22 Dec 2011]
In the legs, there are two kinds of veins, namely, deep and superficial. The deep veins pass through the middle of the leg, enclosed by the muscles. A blood clot or thrombus that crops up in the deep veins of the leg is called a Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT. Blood clot, and hence DVT, can arise due to slowing down or stoppage of blood or due to damage of the vein. DVT produces pain in the leg, and can result in complications if it breaks off and travels in the bloodstream to the lungs. Occasionally, DVT can take place in the deep veins of the arm or pelvis. The incidence of DVT is more probable for people with following conditions: age above 40, obesity and previous history of DVT. Other factors that lead to DVT are: extended bed rest or serenity; major impairments or paralysis; surgery, particularly…
"Deep vein thrombosis" (June, 2003) BUPA's Health Information Team. Retrieved from http://hcd2.bupa.co.uk/fact_sheets/mosby_factsheets/Deep_Vein_Thrombosis.html
Accessed on 24 July 2005
"Deep venous thrombosis" Medical Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000156.htm Accessed on 24 July 2005
Gylys, Karen H. (July 2001) "Pharmacology Department: Low-Molecular Weight Heparins" The
Nevertheless, an unscheduled PT test performed in the ER during her second visit provided markedly different results indicating a prolonged coagulation time despite no known changes to the patient's medication regimen or diet.
As a result of the results of the PT test performed in the ER, her physician lowered her daily dosage of Coumadin to 2 milligrams per day, with instructions to repeat PT testing weekly for the time being. Four days later, the patient returned to the ER complaining of excessive bleeding from the nose and gums (on flossing) again, despite following her physician's instructions to decrease her Coumadin dosage.
Administration of intravenous saline and elevation of the affected extremities again resolved her symptoms, but this time, she was admitted to the hospital for observation and more extensive testing scheduled by her cardiologist for the nest day.
While interviewing the patient and her family in great detail…
Ginkgo Biloba and St. John's Wart for "mood elevation." According to the patient, she first began taking those two herbal agents shortly after her first visit to the ER, specifically because she was depressed over the recurrence of her DVT symptoms.
After reiterating his instructions about avoiding "any and all" dietary changes without first consulting him, he instructed the patient to discontinue the Ginseng tea, St.
John's Wart, and the Ginkgo Biloba, the last of which, in particular, has specifically been linked to increasing the effect of blood thinning medications like Coumadin, resulting in excessive bleeding. Following her discharge the next day, the patient was returned to her previous 2.5mg/day dosage of Coumadin without subsequent medical incident. She is presently looking forward to her next European trip in July of 2008.
Pharmacology of Beta Lactam Antibiotics
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
This class of antibiotic agents, including penicillin derivatives, (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems, is the most widely used antibiotic. In fact, more than half of the antibiotics that were commercially sold in 2003 were ?-lactam compounds. Beta lactam antibiotics are characterized by a molecular ?-lactam ring structure (Drawz & Bonomo, 2010). The beta lactam antibiotics inhibit the biosynthesis of the cell walls of bacterial organisms by interfering with the synthesis of peptidoglycan. . The penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the bacterial enzymes affected by beta lactam antibiotics, which means that beta lactams do not act against microbes that do not have cell walls containing peptidoglycan, such as chlamydiae, mycoplasmata, rickettsiae, and mycobacteria.
The ?-lactam antibiotics are indicated for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. When first introduced to the market, ?-lactam antibiotics were only effective against Gram-positive bacteria (Drawz &…
Drawz, S.M. And Bonomo, R.A. (2010). Three decades of ?-Lactamase inhibitors. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 23(1): 160 -- 201. doi:10.1128/CMR.00037-09. PMC 2806661. PMID 20065329
Frankel, E.H. (2003). Basic concepts. In: Hand book of food-drug Interactions, McCabe, B. J,, Frankel, E.H., and Wolfe, J.J. (Eds.) 2003., pp. 2, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Holten, KB, and Onusko, E.M. (August 2000). Appropriate prescribing of oral beta-lactam antibiotics. American Family Physicia, 62(3): 611 -- 20. PMID 10950216.
____. (2013). Antibiotics. PharmaSchool. http://pharmaschool.blogspot.com/
Pharmacology eport: Xanax aka Alprazolam
The drug Xanax is used to treat various anxiety disorders. The drug is considered a benzodiazepine (BZD) which are known as benzos or downers. BZD are psychoactive and Xanax speed of onset is rather quick making it a useful drug for someone having an acute panic or anxiety attack.
The drug works in a mysterious way and not all is known how exactly the operations take place. What is known is that the CNS agents of the 1, 4 benzodiazepine class "presumably" exert their effect by binding at receptors scattered about the central nervous system. This information is presumed, and once again, it is not fully known. Pfizer, the manufacturer of the drug clearly and explicitly states that "their exact mechanism of action is unknown. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance…
Evans, R.L., & Cardoni, A.A. (1981). Alprazolam (Xanax®, the Upjohn Company). Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 15(9), 633-638.
Glue, P., Fang, A., Gandelman, K., & Klee, B. (2006). Pharmacokinetics of an extended release formulation of alprazolam (Xanax XR) in healthy normal adolescent and adult volunteers. American journal of therapeutics, 13(5), 418-422.
espiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study
Description of Case
The study in question was conducted to determine the mechanisms by which inhaled ultrafine particles are further translated to other areas of the body. The researchers related that "Within hours after the respiratory system is exposed to UFPs, the UFPs may appear in many compartments of the body, including the liver, heart, and nervous system" (Geiser, et al., 2005). Since the means by which the particles are distributed is not entirely understood, the researchers determined to discover the specific pathways that particles take after they leave the lungs. Animal subjects (namely laboratory rats) were used to conduct the study.
Outline of Mechanisms
The authors studied a variety of mechanisms that could be responsible for the subsequent translation, among which possibilities were endocytosis (Morishita & Engebrecht, 2005) and simple migration of the particles across the wall of the cell (which has been…
Delfino, R.J., Sioutas, C., & Malik, S. (2005). Potential role of ultrafine particles in associations between ultrafine particle mass and cardiovascular health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8), 934-952.
Geiser, M., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Kapp, N., Schurch, S., Kreyling, W., Schulz, H., Semmler, M., Hof, V.I., Heyder, J., & Peter, G., 2005. Ultrafine particles cross cellular membranes by nonphagocytic mechanisms in lungs and in cultured cells. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(11), pp. 1555-1565.
Morishita, M., & Engebrecht, G. (2005). End3p-mediated endocytosis is required for spore wall formation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Genetics, 170(4), 1561-1565.
Sena, E.S., van der Worp, H.B., Bath, P.M.W., Howells, D.W., & Macleod, M.R., 2010. Publication bias in reports of animal stroke studies leads to major overstatement of efficacy. PLoS Biology, 8(3).
Perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics" denotes some key concerns for perioperative professionals to consider when administering medication for this particular specialty. The article begins with the authors explicating the fact that the vast majority of errors related to issuing medication to patients in this field occurs during the administrative phase due to what is termed "a weakness in the knowledge of the health care provider" (Hernandez et al., 2011, p. 260). As such, the article identifies three key stratifications that health care professionals should consider when issuing perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. It is worth notin that pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are identified as considerations of pharmacotherapeutics.
Pharmacotherapeutics is best defined as "the use of medications to prevent, treat, cure, or alleviate symptoms of disease" (Hernandez et al., 2011, p.259). A key aspect of this pharmacotherapeutics is pharmacokinetics, a term used to denote just how the body processes medication…
Hernandez, J., Goeckner, B., Wanzer, L. (2011). Perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. ARON Journal. 93(2), 259-269.
Genetics and Pharmacology
Drug metabolism in humans is an essential topic to understand if one is to go into the pharmaceutical industry. When an individual ingests antibiotics their body is already prepared with the proper enzymes and molecular processes that allow for the breakdown and the uptake of these drugs. Xenobiotics encompass any substance that is foreign to the body; antibiotics fall into this category (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). These are entities that the body does not produce naturally. Antibiotics are used for a variety of conditions, especially those that involve the infestation of bacteria in the human body. These bacteria could cause adverse reactions in humans that could result in illness, calling the need for antibiotics. However, after a drug in ingested, it is drug metabolism that takes over.
Drug metabolism is set up in a way that requires the liver to function properly in order to activate…
Boukouvala, S. & Giannoulis, F. (2005). Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases: What we learn from genes to genomes. Drug Metabolism Reviews. 37(3), 511-564.
Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B., & Trevor, A.J. (2012). Basic and clinical pharmacology. (12th ed.). New York: McGrawHill.
Lea, DH, Williams, J., Donahue, P. (2005). Ethical Issues in Genetic Testing. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health. 50(3), 234-240.
Meisel, P. (2002). Arylamine N-Acetyltransferases and drug response. Pharmacogenomics. 3(3), 349-366.
The Link between Personality Traits and the Brain's Neurotransmitters
Purpose of Paper/Introduction/Background
My paper will be examining the links between personality traits and the brain's neurotransmitters. I plan to address this topic by looking at different personality traits and how they are linked to the brains neurotransmitters. I will also look at how this then leads to psychological disorders and how these are being treated with psychotropics. I will also compare this treatment method with unconventional and alternative treatments while looking at potential future developments and influences.
Some of the issues that I have identified are: that although personality may be inherent, it expands, through enduring occurrence, over ones lifetime. Personality is a multifaceted collection of behaviors, coping approaches, and defenses against apparently integrated vulnerabilities and while some are used to thinking of personality as something that is fashioned by early occurrences, mainly with parents and other caretakers, researchers…
Burke, S.M., van de Giessen, E.E., de Win, M.M., Schilt, T.T., van Herk, M.M., van den
Brink, W.W., & Booij, J.J. (2011). Serotonin and dopamine transporters in relation to neuropsychological functioning, personality traits and mood in young adult healthy subjects. Psychological Medicine: A Journal Of Research In Psychiatry And The
Allied Sciences, 41(2), 419-429.
Levine, D.S. (2005). Is all affiliation the same? Facilitation or complementarity? Behavioral
amoxicillan vs. penicillin for use in adults with strep throat.
Consult at least five sources of information.
Amoxicillan and Penicillan are both systemic antibacterials administered to adults for strep throat.
This paper will examine the use of amoxicillan vs. penicillin in the treatment of strep throat in adults. To begin, amoxicillian is a penicillan derivative.
Both have an extensive history of use and lack serious adverse events, although they do have some associated side effects.
Penicillin still remains the drug of choice in the treatment of pharyngitis caused by GABH. It is inexpensive and well tolerated, reduces symptoms, and is the only antibiotic proven to prevent rheumatic fever. There is no resistance to penicillin among GABH, and penicillin can be used in convenient regimens (500 mg orally 2 or 3 times daily). Despite being the drug of choice, the low and decreasing rate of penicillin use we noted from 17%…
Antibiotic Treatment of Adults with Sore Throat. Linder, JA. Stafford, RS. JAMA 2001.
A www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/amox.Clinical Pharmacology.
One of my most important life goals is to continue my studies in pharmacology and become the most skilled practitioner that I am able to be. I am applying to the PN [Is it Pacific Northwest? ] University for a Masters Degree in Pharmacology primarily because of two factors. The University has a reputation for developing knowledgeable graduates whose high level of skills positions them to make strong contributions in their field. The second factor stems from experiences in my personal life.
My name is Reem AL Qahtani and I am 25 years old. I live in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where I am currently a teaching assistant in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy at Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University. I became interested in pharmacology because of a family history of breast cancer. My aunt had a benign breast cancer. My grandmother was not as fortunate…
Trillium erectum, commonly known as Beth Root or Birthroot, is a flowering plant of the lily family that is indigenous to North America. The plant itself blooms in May and the root contains its primary active or medicinal agents (Williams, 1820). However, the leaves of the plant can be eaten. Medicinally, trillium has been used in native North American medicine primarily as an aid during childbirth, such as to induce labor or to minimize bleeding (Pistrang, n.d.). The name Bethroot is simply a bastardization of "birthroot," (Williams, 1820).
Nineteenth century medical science catalogued the herb judiciously, indicating its efficacy as an astringent and cathartic and used to stop hemorrhaging even unrelated to childbirth (Williams, 1820). Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, Williams (1820) also noted that Trillium causes fewer side effects than other astringent herbs, which can cause constipation. Moreover, Williams (1820) notes the use of Trillium for…
Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).
Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.…
"Lipitor," (n.d.). RXList. Retrieved online: http://www.rxlist.com/lipitor-drug/clinical-pharmacology.htm
One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the case of the ICU, these challenges are becoming more pronounced. This is because of the different conditions and large number of patients they are working with. A good example of this can be seen with insights from Orgeas (2010) who said, "Although intensive care units (ICUs) were created for patients with life-threatening illnesses, the ICU environment generates a high risk of iatrogenic events. Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. We describe the selection of indicator MEs, the incidence of such MEs, and their relationship with mortality. We selected indicator MEs using Delphi techniques. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27…
Data and Statistics. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/
Marcucci, L. (2012). Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Marino, P. (2012). ICU Book. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
McClean, S. (2011). Intelligent Patient Management. New York, NY: Springer.
In the 35 years following its development, femoxetine, commonly known by its trade name "Paxil," has been the focus of a growing body of research based on its proven harmful effects, most especially an increased incidence of suicide. The fact that the drug's manufacturer concealed evidence of these harmful effects has added further fuel to the investigatory fires and new findings continue to confirm the harmful effects of Paxil today. To gain some current insights into Paxil's use and how it has affected consumers in recent years, this paper provides the history of the drug, representative evidence from the scientific community that confirms its several dangers, as well as the results of two face-to-face interviews with former Paxil users to identify specific points of convergence with the scientific research as well as differences. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis…
Breggin, P.T. (2006). "How Glaxosmithkline Suppressed Data on Paxil-induced Akathisia:
Implications for Suicidality and Violence." Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry,
8(2), pp. 91-93.
Choate, L.H. & Ginter, G.G. (2011). "Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment." Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(3), pp. 373-376.
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
Farthing, G. (1992) The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall
Gazzaniga, M., Ivry R., and Mangun, G. (1998) Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind W.W. Norton & Company.
Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The
In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…
Becker, Howard S. "Becoming a Marihuana User." The American Journal of Sociology. 59, no.3 (1953): 235-242.
DeGrandpre, Richard. The Cult of Pharmacology: How America Became the World's Most Troubled Drug Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
Hacking, Ian. "Making Up People." The London Review of Books. 28, no. 16 (2006)
Eithe way, such a volume simply could not be as pactical and useful as eithe the two independent volumes of the Physician's Desk Refeence o the single and easily navigable website un by Medline Plus. This website's seach-ability allows fo an easie coss-efeencing between phamaceuticals and nutitional supplements, as well, without tying to keep a book open to seveal pages at once.
Cost is also a majo facto in the two efeences. Though olde editions of the Physician's Desk Refeence can be found elatively cheaply (ionically, via online shopping), the cuent edition costs almost one hunded dollas puchased new. Medline Plus is fee, making the cost benefit of this option at least equal to the benefits deived fom ease of use and completeness of infomation. On this last point, the Physician's Desk Refeence often contains moe detailed infomation on vaious dugs, but these details ae pesented in a vey dy…
references also list common side effects and interaction warnings. Medline Plus, however, also presents all of this information as if in response to specific consumer questions, rather than in a simple list of facts as in the Physician's Desk Reference. Though this reference is still the standard of the industry, the fact that it is mainly directed towards physicians (cf. The title) makes it less easy to use. Overall, Medline Plus is a more effective resource for the average user today.
Palliative care has gone under a lot of changes as the years have progressed. Just like how general care has been advanced for the sick in areas such as pharmacology and medical engineering, palliative care has also been given much importance. Palliative care has been recognized as a specialty in many countries. There has been evidence that a care outlook that takes note of psychosocial, psychological and spiritual support is very effective and holds great importance in the eyes of those who are sick and their families. (Beaver et al., 2000) In simpler terms, palliative care means to relieve the sufferings of the sick and not really to make the treatment effective. (Macpherson, 2002)
Watching the movie Wit, I was truly saddened and affected by the degree of importance that is given to research these days. esearch for a horrible disease like cancer should be carried out but not on…
Beaver, K. et al. (2000) Primary care services received during terminal illness. International Journal of Palliative Nursing; 6, 220 -- 227.
Macpherson, G. (2002) Black's Medical Dictionary. London: A&C Black.
Nursingtimes.net (2009) Palliative care 1: principles of palliative care nursing and end-of-life care. [online] Available at: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/end-of-life-and-palliative-care/palliative-care-1-principles-of-palliative-care-nursing-and-end-of-life-care/2007480.article [Accessed: 11 Jan 2013].
Wit (2001) [DVD] USA: Mike Nichols.
Brugada Syndrome is a hereditary illness that is categorized by irregular electrocardiogram (ECG) results (efer to Appendix 1) and an augmented danger of unexpected cardiac arrest. It is titled after the Spanish cardiologists Josep and Pedro Brugada. It is counted amongst one of the key (Nademanee, 1997) reasons for "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome" (SUDS), and is the most regularly occurring reason of unexpected expiration amongst young men without knowing the fundamental cardiac ailment. This holds particularly true for Laos and Thailand.
The purpose of this research essay is to talk about the Brugada Syndrome by focusing on its epidemiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology and implications for advanced nursing techniques. It also discusses the disease itself in tremendous detail and makes thorough used of secondary research to validate statements wherever required.
Even though, if the ECG results of Brugada Syndrome were initially found amongst survivors of cardiac arrest in the year 1989 (Martini,…
Antzelevitch C, Brugada P, Borggrefe M, Brugada J, Brugada R, Corrado D, et al. (2005). Brugada syndrome: report of the second consensus conference: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society and the European Heart Rhythm Association. Circulation; 111: 659-70
Antzelevitch C (2007). "Genetic basis of Brugada syndrome." Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 4 (6): 756 -- 7. DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.03.015. PMC 1989771. PMID 17556198
Belhassen B, Glick A, Viskin S (2004). "Efficacy of quinidine in high-risk patients with Brugada syndrome." Circulation 110 (13): f1731 -- 7. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000143159.30585.90. PMID 15381640
Brugada J, Brugada P, Brugada R (July 1999). "The syndrome of right bundle branch blocks ST segment elevation in V1 to V3 and sudden death -- the Brugada syndrome." Europace 1 (3): 156 -- 66. DOI:10.1053/eupc.1999.0033. PMID 11225790.
Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.
Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.
Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…
Friedhoff, Lawrence, Lawrence T., and M.d. New Drugs: An Insider's Guide to the FDA'New Drug Approval Process for Scientists, Investors and Patients. New York: PSPG Publishing, 2009. Print.
"How Drugs are Developed and Approved." U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Last updated 04/23/2010: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .
Janodia, MD. "Drug Development Process: A Review." Pharmaceutical News 12/25/2007: Web. 17 Jan 2011. .
Mathieu, Mark, and Christopher-Paul Milne. New Drug Development: A Regulatory Overview. 8th. MA: Barnett Educational Services Chi, 2008. Print.
(Walls, Hendricks, Dowler, Hirsch, Orslene and Fullmer, 2002). The animal will serve as a vital link between John Q. And the world around him, helping to be independent and to have quality time to himself and allow him to travel on his own.
There is a need, too, to emphasize that services are available to the family as individuals, and in a group setting, to confront and work through the issues that upcoming months, perhaps even years of hardship as a result of John Q's physical injuries will mean to them as a family and as individuals. The focus must be a positive one, for research has shown that positive and hopeful attitudes impact an individual's ability to recover faster and more fully (Schmidt, Vickery, Cotugna, and Snider, 2005).
esearching the conditions and needs of a family and individual as cited above, created a sense of caring and…
Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.). (1994). Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755753
(1994). CHAPTER TWO Pharmacological Treatments for Brain-Injury Repair: Progress and Prognosis. In Brain Injury and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: International Perspectives, Christensen, a. & Uzzell, B.P. (Eds.) (pp. 17-33). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27755811
(2003). Conversation and Brain Damage (C. Goodwin, Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104810903 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009630086
The drug, marijuana, is actually not as lethal to human beings as cigarettes or alcohol. Further, it is much less addictive, being generally consumed in far lesser quantities. It is also not strongly linked to accidents, risky sexual conduct, and violence, the way alcohol is. Lastly, one can never lose one’s life to marijuana overdose. While a small share of individuals who consume marijuana do develop addiction, this issue can be easily treated. Marijuana in the form of a medicine proves effective in dealing with various acute symptoms such as wasting diseases, nausea and vomiting. Marijuana is very commonly used in America (DPA). The marijuana on sale and used across the nation varies greatly in its quality, besides displaying the likelihood of containing high potentially-lethal adulterant or pesticide levels. DPA (Drug Policy Alliance) supports regulatory framework implementation for controlling potency, educating consumers using labels, and safeguarding against toxic pesticides…
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…
At which point, they talk about the effects that the different kinds of coverage are having on senior citizen, with many using a combination of Medicare and private insurance, while others have used a combination of Medicare / Medicaid. To rectify the situation, the article points out that there is one of two solutions to include: the government placing price caps and importing prescription drugs. A government model of limiting the overall scope of price increases, could help to reduce the negative effects that this having on the elderly. Another option, for those who are opposed to such a plan, is to allow the import of prescription drugs. This is significant, because it shows how increasing the available supply of prescription drugs are a key to curtailing costs. If some kind of programs, this could be introduced to address this issue. At which point, it could be effective in reducing…
Carbaugh, R. (2006). Chapter Summary. Contemporary Economics (pg. 76) Mason, OH: Thompson. http://books.google.com/books?id=9Pascy_5HUMC&pg=PA76&dq=solutions+high+prescriptions+drug+costs+on+the+elderly&hl=en&ei=zFcmTIaALMKB8gb59YnKDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Day, T. (n.d.). About Medical Care for the Elderly. Retrieved June 26, 2010 from Long-Term Care Link website: http://www.longtermcarelink.net/eldercare_medical_care_issues.htm
Ham R. (2007). Clinical Pharmacology. Primary Care Geriatrics (pp. 94) Philadelphia, PA Mosby.
"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.
Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.
Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.
Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.
Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.
Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.
Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…
Balagopal, P., Kamalamma, N., Patel, T.G., & Misra, R. (2008). "A community-based diabetes prevention and management education program in a rural village in india." Diabetes Care, 31, 1097-1104.
Bloomgarden, Z.T. (2007). Screening for and managing diabetic retinopathy: current approaches. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(S), S8-S14.
Chang, K., Davis, R., Birt, J., Castelluccio, P., Woodbridge, P., & Marrero, D. (2007). Nurse practioner-based diabetes care management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 15, 377-385.
Davis, S., Asch-Goodkin, J. (2007). Heart failure risk climbs with use of glitazones. Geriatrics, 62(9), 11-11.
Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.
Potential Health Benefits
The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…
(25) U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Program 107, Human Nutrition, Health Promoting Properties of Plant and Animal Foods; usda.gov, NP-107-2006, pg 24-29.
(26) Prior, RL, Wu, X, Gu, L. (2006). Flavonoid Metabolism and Challenges to Understanding Mechanisms of Health Effects, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 86(15): 2487-2491
The Food and Drug Administration has published recommendations that warn pregnant women, nursing mothers, women who might become pregnant, and children not to ear swordfish, shark, tilefish, and king mackerel due to high methylmercury content. They also warn women and children to limit their consumption of tuna (DHHS/EPA, 2004). However, if guidelines are followed, these women and children are told that they can eat limited amounts of low mercury fish.
What Levels of methylmercury are safe?
There are many factors that help to determine how much mercury is considered to be safe. The EPA reference dose (fD) is the amount of mercury that a person can be exposed to on a daily basis over a lifetime without appreciable risk of effects from it. The EPA fD is 0.1 ?g mercury per kg body weight per day. This level translates into a blood mercury level 5.8?g/L or 5.8 parts per billion…
Budtz-Jergenson, E., Grandjean, P., & Weihe, P. (2007). Separation of Risks and Benfits of Seafood Intake. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115 (3); 323-327
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2000). National toxics inventory. Washington, DC: Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Environmental Protection Agency.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2001). Mercury Update: Impact on Fish Advisories. EPA-823-F-01-011. Retrieved November 5, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fishadvice/mercupd.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002). Estimated per Capita Fish Consumption in the United States. EPA-821-C-02-003. Retrieved November 5, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/files/consumption_report.pdf
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
Summarize Complementary Therapies and the APNs ole in guiding their Inclusion in Treatment Plans.
Complimentary therapies are a part of the practices which are utilized to help patients to improve their underlying state of health and reduce the need for long periods of hospitalization. In most cases, this allows them to receive continuous treatment on an outpatient basis. Some of the most notable include: chemotherapy, kinesiology, nutrition / diet, focusing on the mind / body connection and psychological treatment options. These different areas are important, as they will help patients to understand other tools they can utilize in dealing with their condition. This is giving them a sense of empowerment by comprehending what is occurring and the best approaches for addressing these challenges over the long-term. (Mezey, 2003) (Naylor, 2010)
The APNs role is to suggest other therapies they can use during the process and help to supervise the patient.…
Cronenwett, L. (2009). Quality and Safety Education. Nursing Outlook, 57 (6), 338 -- 348.
Fitzpatrick, J. (2003). Managing Your Practice. New York, NY: Springer.
Hughes, R. (2008). Patient Safety and Quality. Rockville, MD: Agency for Research and Health Care Quality.
Jansen, M. (2010). Advanced Practice Nursing. New York, NY: Springer.
One need only read the newspaper "Classified" ads to realize that employers are trying many clever marketing tactics to attract prospective nurses into their organizations. Many are offering sign-on bonuses, extra benefits and other amenities to attract a limited supply of nurses. As both the general population and the elderly population grow, the number of nurses needed to care for them increases proportionally as well. The number of people choosing to pursue nursing as a career has been on the decline, mainly due to long working hours, low pay, high job stress and other factors. These factors will not resolve themselves if the nursing deficit continues to increase. In addition, graduate nurses find it difficult to enter the workforce due to their lack of experience and a shortage of mentors to teach them. The solution is simple, more nurses are needed, and soon. Novice nurses are fresh graduates who…
Durkin, Barbara.(2002) Reliving Hospital Mistake: Mom recalls overdose case February
24, 2002. Newsday, Inc.
Lang, Susan. (1996) Lack of nursing assistants is an impending crisis, says Cornell gerontologist. Cornell University. Cornell University. http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/May96/nursingassistants.ssl.html . Accessed June, 2002.
National League for Nursing (NLN). (2000). Unpublished Data. New York, NY. http://nursing.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nln.org%2Faboutnln%2Fnews_tricouncil2.htm. Accessed June, 2002.
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…
Bruce, M., Scott, N., Lader, M., & Marks, V. (1986). The psychopharmacological and electrophysiological effects of single doses of caffeine in healthy human subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 81-7.
Brunye, T.T., Mahoney, C.R., Leiberman, H.R., & Taylor, H.A. (2010). Caffeine modulates attention of network function. Brain and Cognition, 72, 181-8.
Caffeineinformer. (2014). Drip Coffee: Caffeine levels. Retrieved 16 Mar. 2014 from http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-content/coffee-drip .
Jacobson, B.H. & Thurman-Lacey, S.R. (1992). Effect of caffeine on motor performance by caffeine-naive and -- familiar subjects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 74, 151-157.
The colleague and friend I selected has worked with me on fundraising projects and has been a neighbor and friend of our family for several years. She is respected in the community for her advocacy for children's education in particular, but also for her support of local nonprofit organizations that raise money and awareness of the homeless, of the local teen center, and of the group that fights to protect open space from development, so it can remain as habitat for wildlife.
Describing the Situation
hat I would like to have Elaine change is her diet; but especially I would like to change her attitude about -- and her indifference to -- exercise. I would like to coax her into starting slow and going for walks, with me and another friend we have in common, and get her into the consciousness that walking is enjoyable and healthy as well.…
Health. (2014). Why Exercise, Not Diet, May Explain Our Obesity Problem. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://news.health.com .
The Office of Minority Health. (2012). Obesity and African-Americans. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov.
Vina, J., Sanchis-Gomar, F., Martinez-Bello, V., and Gomez-Cabrera, M.C. (2012). Exercise
Acts as a drug; the pharmacological benefits of exercise. British Journal of Pharmacology,
predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).
The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…
Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.
Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.
Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/
Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf .
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…
American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub
Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons
Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson
Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Audience in Communication
Not all websites are written for a general audience. Some websites include technical information geared for professionals in their field. There are also a number of websites that aim to please both types of audiences: those who understand rich technical or scientific jargon and those who do not. This memorandum compares and contrasts two health information websites: WebMD and Drugs.com to illustrate the importance of audience when composing and presenting health-related information online.
The WebMD website is written for a general audience with limited understanding of science or low science literacy. To a degree, Drugs.com is also geared for a general audience, but the difference between these sites is that Drugs.com also has a section for professionals that can be used to make educated and evidence-based decisions about pharmacological treatments. There is, for example, a "Pro Edition" section of Drugs.com as well as detailed information about…
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…
A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.
Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…
Lopez, P. (2003) Mexican-American Health Issues for the 21st Century. Californian Journal of National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000) Health Disparities: Bridging the Gap. Washington: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Purnell, L, & Paulanka, B. (1998). Transcultural Healthcare. Philadelphia: Davis Company.
Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (1998a) Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. in
Nava, G. (director) Quintanilla, a. (executive producer) (1997) Selena. Q Productions.
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…
Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.
Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.
Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.
Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.
Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.
One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.
Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.
The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…
Additional Source #3: UCLA's Online Archive of American Folk Medicine. Web. http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/
This online searchable database will provides students with access to thousands of articles and texts related to the course topic.
Two Guest Speakers
Guest speaker #1: D.C. Jarvis, author of the book Folk Medicine. Having him as a guest speaker would be an excellent supplement to the book. It would also allow students to ask questions related to his book.
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:
we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…
Arnett, D. (n.d.). Arterial Stiffness and Hypertension. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://www.fac.org.ar/scvc/llave/hbp/arnett/arnetti.htm
Bailey, B.; Jacobsen, D.; LeCheminant, J.; Kirk, E.; & Donnelly, J. (2003). The Effect of Analysis Method in Determining Change in Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption.
Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2003/05001/The_Effect_of_Analysis_Method_in_Determining.1004.aspx
Balmain, S., Padmanabhan, N., Ferrel, W., Morton, J. & McMurray, J. (2007). Differences in arterial compliance, microvascular function and venous capacitance between patients with heart failure and either preserved or reduced left ventricular systolic function. Retrieved on April 12, 2010 from http://eurjhf.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/9/865.full
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…
Abramowitz, J. (1997) Effectiveness of psychological and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a quantitative review Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 1-35
Fineberg, N.A. & Gale, T.M. (2005). Evidence-based pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int J. Neuropsychopharmacol; 8, 107-29.
Foa, E.B. & Goldstein, a. (1978) Continuous exposure and complete response prevention in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behav Ther; 9, 821-9.
Freeman, J.B. et al. (2008). Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach J. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47, 593 -- 602
Phenylethylamine naturally occurs as a trace amine in the brain. It releases dopamine in the mesolimbic pleasure-centers and peaks during orgasm. In the laboratory, and in unnaturally high doses it can produce stereotyped behavior more prominently than even than amphetamine (ibid).
Phenylethylamine has very distinct binding sites but not specific neurons. It helps mediate feelings of attraction, excitement, giddiness, apprehension and euphoria; but it has also been described as an endogenous anxiogen. One of its metabolites is high in subjects with paranoid schizophrenia (ibid).
Phenylethylamine has been theorized to cause depression. Monoamine oxidase type-b is equated as phenylethylaminase. The use of a selective MAO-b inhibitor, such as selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl) or rasagiline (Azilect) can accentuate the effects of chocolate (ibid).
In not just sex, but in all addictive behaviors, dopamine is released . Dopamine is released following high levels of addictive activity. e are not really addicted to the activity,…
Caston, John. (2010). Before you buy oxytocin nasal sprays are you aware of the effects and mechanism of oxytocin?. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Before-You-Buy-Oxytocin-Nasal-Sprays-Are-You-Aware-of-the-Effects-and-Mechanism-of-Oxytocin?&id=201718 .
Chocalate. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.chocolate.org/.
The molecular biology of paradise. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.oxytocin.org/
Oxytocin . (2010, July 12). Retrieved from http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/oxytocin.html .
There have been several studies that have confirmed the effects of caffeine and the personality dimension of impulsivity (Smith 2002). Performance, according to Smith (2002), is "an interactive function of task difficulty, caffeine and impulsivity" (2002).
Performance on an easy letter cancellation task was improved as caffeine dose increased, but on a difficult task impulsive subjects (less aroused) improved while non-impulsive subjects (more aroused) improved then deteriorated. Other results do not fit this pattern and could reflect other individual differences such as expectancies or caffeine usage (Smith 2002).
Another study conducted by Sawyer, Julia and Turin (1982) showed that caffeine does indeed play a role in behavior, which includes changes in "arousal, anxiety, and performance" (1982). Once again, Sawyer et al. (1982) found that personality plays a big role in caffeine's effects on humans as does sensitivity, adaption to caffeine, and the way that caffeine may interact with both nicotine…
Dews, P.B. (1984). Behavioral effects of caffeine. Caffeine. Springer: New York.
Foxx, R.M. & Rubinoff, a. (1979). Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: reducing excessive coffee drinking. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis,12(3): 335-
Greden, J.F. (1974). Anxiety or caffeinism: A diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Psychiatry,131: 1089-1092.
Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E. & Liebson, I.A. (1986). Human coffee drinking:
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
Bass, P., ilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.
Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. ashington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
Chew, L., Bradley, K., and Boyko, E.. (2004). Brief Questions to Identify Patients with Inadequate Health Literacy. Family Medicine, 36(8), 588-94.
Chew, L., Griffin, J., Partin, M., et al. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 561-6.
Davis, T. And olf, M.. (2004). Health Literacy Implications for Family Medicine. Family Medicine, 36(8), 595-8.
Davis, T., Long, S., and Jackson, R. (1993). Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Family Medicine, 25(1), 391-95.
Dowse, R., Lecoko, L. And Ehlers, M. (2005). Applicability of the REALM Health Literacy Test. Pharmacy orld, 32(4), 464-71.
Ibrahim, S., Reid, F., Shaw, A., et al. (2008). Validation of a…
Health Litarcy: Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs. (1999). Journal of the American Medical Association, 28(1), 552-7.0
Arozulla, Y., Benett, S., Soltysilk, T., et al. (2007). Development and Validation of a Short-Form, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Medical Care, 5(11), 1026-33.
Bass, P., Wilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.
Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. Washington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…
Atwood, K.C. (2003). Naturopathy: a critical appraisal. 5 (4) Medscape General
Medicine. Retrieved on June 23, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/465994
Bastian, H. (2010). Can a diet avoiding gluten and milk proteins reduce autism?
Medicine News Today: MediLexicon International Ltd. Retrieved on June 23,
ursing leadership can have a significant impact upon retention, satisfaction, and even nurses' perception of their exhaustion. The study "Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment" attempted to understand what leadership styles had a positive and a negative impact upon nurses' desires to stay within the organization and function effectively. To answer this research question, the study examined a nursing environment in Saudi Arabia, a nation with a patient population that is notably diverse that has a notable shortage of nurses, forcing healthcare institutions to rely upon expatriates as a source of labor (Suliman, 2009: 301). Given the importance of culturally-specific dialogue and care in nursing, this can prove challenging. Effective leadership that facilitates dialogue between providers and patients and between managers and employees within the nursing environment is a critical aspect of dispensing effective care.
The study submitted the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to 31 nurse managers and…
Nursing Admin Quarterly, 33 (4) 301 -- 309
Retention of high-quality nursing staff is an equally critical component of addressing the nursing shortage as hiring newly-qualified nurses. Nursing leadership can have a significant impact upon retention, satisfaction, and even nurses' perception of their exhaustion. The study "Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment" attempted to understand what leadership styles had a positive and a negative impact upon nurses' desires to stay within the organization and function effectively. To answer this research question, the study examined a nursing environment in Saudi Arabia, a nation with a patient population that is notably diverse that has a notable shortage of nurses, forcing healthcare institutions to rely upon expatriates as a source of labor (Suliman, 2009: 301). Given the importance of culturally-specific dialogue and care in nursing, this can prove challenging. Effective leadership that facilitates dialogue between providers and patients and between managers and employees within the nursing environment is a critical aspect of dispensing effective care.
The study submitted the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to 31 nurse managers and 118 staff nurses. The study was grounded in comparative theories of leadership development, examining individual nurse's preference for transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. These theories emphasize the interactions between leaders and followers -- transformational leaders inspire subordinates to expand their vision of what is possible, transactional leaders merely focus on the 'here and now' technical aspects of leadership and laissez-faire leaders employ a hands-off style. While a transformative, participative approach was favored by nearly all respondents, there was a discrepancy between managers' perceptions of their own leadership styles and staff nurses' perceptions. Managers felt that they favored a transformative approach most of the time, while staff nurses felt they did so only some of the time (Suliman, 2009: 306). Still, "the stated intention of 77.1% of staff nurses to stay at work suggests that nurse managers as transformational leaders are more likely to be successful in creating a positive working environment…and that transformational leadership enhances staff nurses' retention by the hospital" (Suliman, 2009: 307). However, the authors of the study do caution that the respondents tended to come from a more culturally homogeneous background than was typical in Saudi Arabian hospitals, and other factors such as work conditions, setting, and personal reasons also impacted individual's decisions to remain or leave their places of employment.
, 2006). The evidence reflects only a low level weight loss but is still worthwhile to consider in controlling weight at roughly 0.007 kg per week. It is useful for individual weight loss programs. Losing 0.2 kg per week requires a decrease of 220 kilocalories per day. Achieving a 32% reduction requires a sacrifice of 330 kilocalories a day from sucrose by substituting aspartame. Using aspartame replaces 70 g of sucrose or roughly two cans of soft drinks every day (Hunty et al.). This means less expense.
200 Times Sweeter and Cheaper
On the average, aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (Hu et al., 2008). Not only does it mean less calories but also less cost. The taste difference between them is that the sweetness of aspartame is detected by the taste buds longer than sucrose. This can, however, be resolved by adding acesulfame potassium. Aspartame also has limited…
FDA (2007). FDA statement on European aspartame study. Office of Food Additive
Safety: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.fda.gov e/Food/FoodingredientsPackaging/FoodAdditives/ucm200858.htm
Hendrickson, K. (2011). Differences in aspartame and fructose. Live Strong:
Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on April 2, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/278757-differences-in-aspartame-fructose
In the article "Pregnancy & Treatment," Linda L.M. Worley, past medical director of UAMS Arkansas CAES: Center for Addiction, esearch, Education and Services, and Curtis Lowery (2005), maternal fetal medicine expert, report that a number of medical and child welfare groups, including the American Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Nurses Association, and the March of Dimes, conclude that threatening to arrest pregnant women who drink alcohol beverages will not help them quit drinking. "ather, it will frighten them away from prenatal care and discourage them from speaking honestly to health care providers who may be able to help" (Worley & Lowery, 2005, ¶ 2). Worley and Lowery (2005) recommend that instead of imprisoning pregnant mothers, drug treatment "works and is much less expensive than imprisoning" them. When pregnant mothers are imprisoned, the state may not only incur delivery charges…
Cave, E. (2004). The mother of all crimes: Human rights, criminalization, and the child born alive. Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Chudler, E.H. (2008). Alcohol and the brain. Neuroscience for Kids. Retrieved October 27,
2009 from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html
Denny, C.H., Tsai, J., Floyd, R.L. & Green, P.P. (2009). Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age - United States, 1991-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. U.S. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2009
Similar to becoming a Board Certified Physician, credentialed nurses bring a far higher quality of professionalism to the field, and allow the public and medical community a standard by which staff must be held.
Do think it is important for clinical nurses to obtain certification in their specialty areas? If so, why? If not, why not? Yes, I actually do, for many of the same reasons as above, but actually more. The half-life of information and resulting changes in technology, procedures, appropriateness of care, and pharmacology are such that changes in specialties are so regular it is necessary to receive the highest and most specific level of training possible. Starting with a base curriculum and graduation is not the middle or the end, but only the beginning -- once the basics are mastered; it is time to continue to improve.
Do you believe the nurse leader/manager position is an advanced…
According to the AACN's report, "Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health" (2002), "Competencies are the domain or body of knowledge and skills that essentially define a profession or discipline. This domain of competencies guides training programs, provides expectations for employers, and drives the nature of assessment instruments and performance standards for credentialing institutions, certifying agencies, and accrediting organizations" (p. 14).
The core competencies for nurse practitioner graduates are intended to help candidates used what they have already learned and require a graduate-level education in order to attain certification as an APN and the AACN has developed this graduate curriculum as the basis for advanced practice nursing. As described by AACN, advanced practice nursing preparation includes ". . . graduate nursing core content (e.g., research, health policy, ethics, and more) and advanced nursing practice content (e.g., advanced health assessment, advanced physiology and…
(2007), there existed no reviews on the efficacy of phenylephrine as a metabolized decongestant. ith legal conditions invoking its use thusly as early as 2002, it should be seen as surprising, problematic and irresponsible on the part of drug companies to actively work to promote this as a replacement for pseudoephedrine. Thus, all indications from the research are that those seeking to treat cold and flu symptoms will be better served by purchasing the behind-the-counter pseudoephedrine-based treatment rather than over-the-counter phenylephrine-based substitutes.
The Advanced Light Source (ALS). (2008). P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance. www.als.lbl.gov.
Bylund, D.B.; Bond, R.A.; Eikenburg, D.C.; Hieble, J.P.; Hills, R.; Minneman, K.P. & Parra, S. (2009). Adrenoceptors: 1A-adrenoceptor. IUPHAR database. Online at http://www.iuphar-db.org/GPCR/ReceptorDisplayForward?receptorID=2175.
Cerner Mulum, Inc. (CMI). (2009). Phenylephrine. Drugs.com.
Eccles, R. (2007). Substitution of phenylephrine for pseudoephedrine as a nasal decongeststant. An illogical way to control methamphetamine abuse. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology,…
The Advanced Light Source (ALS). (2008). P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance. www.als.lbl.gov.
Bylund, D.B.; Bond, R.A.; Eikenburg, D.C.; Hieble, J.P.; Hills, R.; Minneman, K.P. & Parra, S. (2009). Adrenoceptors: 1A-adrenoceptor. IUPHAR database. Online at http://www.iuphar-db.org/GPCR/ReceptorDisplayForward?receptorID=2175 .
Cerner Mulum, Inc. (CMI). (2009). Phenylephrine. Drugs.com.
Eccles, R. (2007). Substitution of phenylephrine for pseudoephedrine as a nasal decongeststant. An illogical way to control methamphetamine abuse. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 63(1), 10-14.
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…
Goodman, W.K., Rudorfer, M.V., & Maser, J.D. (Eds.). (2000). Obsessive-compulsive disorder contemporary issues in treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hollander, E. Allen, A. Steiner, M. Wheadon, D.E. Oakes, R. Burnham, D.B. (September 2003) Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64(9) 1113-1121.
Howland, R.H. (2005). Chapter 6 Biological bases of psychopathology. In Psychopathology: Foundations for a Contemporary Understanding, Maddux, J.E. & Winstead, B.A. (Eds.) (pp. 109-119). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Liebowitz, M.R. Turner, S.M. Piacentini, J. Beidel, D.C. Clarvit, S.R. Davies, S.O. Graae, F. Jaffer, M. Lin, S. Sallee, F.R. Schmidt, A.B. Simpson, H.B. (December 2002) Fluoxetine in Children and Adolescents With OCD: A Placebo-Controlled Trial Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 41(12) 1431-1438.
Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).
Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).
Other Natural Herbs
Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php
Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.
Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…
Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/
Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf
Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169
MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp
These studies demonstrate that there are several factors associated with patient noncompliance, regardless of the disease being treated. Medication side effects represent only one of these issues. Nurse practitioners could help to resolve many of these issues by being proactive and asking questions about side effects in patients at risk for becoming noncompliant. They may also be able to predict noncompliance in patients that are prescribed medications with known side effects. By informing the patient of the side effects and giving them practical ways to cope with them, the nurse practitioner can play an active role in helping to eliminate patient noncompliance.
Education was found to play an important role in patient noncompliance. The overall educational level of the patient was found to be important. The nurse practitioner can take positive action by being aware of the patient's overall educational background. Extra care must be taken with those of low…
Barber, N., Parsons, J., Clifford, S., Darracott, R., & Horne, R. (2004). Patients' problems with new medication for chronic conditions. Quality and Safety in Healthcare. 13(3): 172-175.
Chatterjee, J. (2006). From compliance to concordance in diabetes. Journal of Medical Ethics. 32(9): 507-510.
Chisholm, M., Lance, C. & Mulloy, L. (2005). Patient factors associated with adherence to immunosuppressant therapy in renal transplant recipients. American Journal of Health- System Pharmacy. 62 (17): 1775-1781.
Eastern, J. "Dismissing Patients Properly." 1 Jun 2006. OB/GYN News. Accessed 11 Sept. 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYD/is_/ai_n26906768 .