Pharmacology Essays (Examples)

180+ documents containing “pharmacology”.


Sort By:

Reset Filters


Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage.

Nursing implications: This drug has mild side effects. However, the patient was still advised to consult me if any unusual problems occurred.

Client Implications: the eye irritation caused by swimming had been completely cured.

Patient Education: the patient had been instructed to ensure regularity in all his appointments

9. Name of drug: Zafirlukast

Dosage: the drug should be taken twice a day.

Indications for use: the tablet should be taken by mouth without splitting, chewing, or crushing it.

Mode of action: It acts by jamming the process of chemicals that trigger irritation, mucous emission, and restrictions in the lungs.

Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage.

Nursing implications: This drug has severe side effects. Therefore, the….

Pharmacology: Moclobemide
Moclobemide is classified as an antidepressant, a MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor. Antidepressants are designed to inhibit the reuptake or reabsorbtion of specific neurotransmitters, increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters around the nerves of the brain (Gbemudu, 2011:1). Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are often called 'feel good' chemicals that elevate the patient's mood.

Drug class

A deficit of mood-enhancing chemicals is associated with depression, although there is no single neurotransmitter that is associated with depression alone. ecause every patient's biochemistry and history of depression is different, different classes of antidepressants are designed to have different effects on the brain's neurotransmitters and have different indicated uses. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)s like Prozac prevent the reabsorbtion of the 'feel good' chemical serotonin, just as MAOIs prevent the reabsorbtion of monoamine oxidase. Depression is thought to be caused, in part, by a decrease in the concentration of chemicals….

Pharmacology
DVT:

In the legs, there are two kinds of veins, namely, deep and superficial. The deep veins pass through the middle of the leg, enclosed by the muscles. A blood clot or thrombus that crops up in the deep veins of the leg is called a Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT. Blood clot, and hence DVT, can arise due to slowing down or stoppage of blood or due to damage of the vein. DVT produces pain in the leg, and can result in complications if it breaks off and travels in the bloodstream to the lungs. Occasionally, DVT can take place in the deep veins of the arm or pelvis. The incidence of DVT is more probable for people with following conditions: age above 40, obesity and previous history of DVT. Other factors that lead to DVT are: extended bed rest or serenity; major impairments or paralysis; surgery, particularly if it….

Nevertheless, an unscheduled PT test performed in the ER during her second visit provided markedly different results indicating a prolonged coagulation time despite no known changes to the patient's medication regimen or diet.
As a result of the results of the PT test performed in the ER, her physician lowered her daily dosage of Coumadin to 2 milligrams per day, with instructions to repeat PT testing weekly for the time being. Four days later, the patient returned to the ER complaining of excessive bleeding from the nose and gums (on flossing) again, despite following her physician's instructions to decrease her Coumadin dosage.

Administration of intravenous saline and elevation of the affected extremities again resolved her symptoms, but this time, she was admitted to the hospital for observation and more extensive testing scheduled by her cardiologist for the nest day.

Resolution:

While interviewing the patient and her family in great detail the next day,….

Pharmacology of Beta Lactam Antibiotics
Beta Lactam Antibiotics

This class of antibiotic agents, including penicillin derivatives, (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems, is the most widely used antibiotic. In fact, more than half of the antibiotics that were commercially sold in 2003 were ?-lactam compounds. Beta lactam antibiotics are characterized by a molecular ?-lactam ring structure (Drawz & Bonomo, 2010). The beta lactam antibiotics inhibit the biosynthesis of the cell walls of bacterial organisms by interfering with the synthesis of peptidoglycan. . The penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the bacterial enzymes affected by beta lactam antibiotics, which means that beta lactams do not act against microbes that do not have cell walls containing peptidoglycan, such as chlamydiae, mycoplasmata, rickettsiae, and mycobacteria.

Pharmacotherapeutics

The ?-lactam antibiotics are indicated for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. When first introduced to the market, ?-lactam antibiotics were only effective against Gram-positive bacteria (Drawz & Bonomo, 2010). With further….

Pharmacology for Nurses
PAGES 8 WORDS 2245

Pharmacology for Nurses

Pharmacology, the study of drugs and their effects on the human body, is a critical component of nursing education and practice. Nurses must have a sound understanding of pharmacology to safely administer medications and monitor their effects on patients. This foundation allows nurses to play a pivotal role in medication management and patient education (Burchum & osenthal, 2021). Knowledge of pharmacology enables nurses to understand why certain medications are prescribed, how they should be administered, and what adverse effects to look for, which is essential in preventing medication errors.


The role of a nurse in pharmacology starts with understanding the basic principles such as pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics involves the processes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). A nurse must understand these principles to predict how a drug moves through the body and the factors that could affect this process, such as the….

Advanced Pharmacology
PAGES 1 WORDS 348

Pharmacology Xanax
Pharmacology eport: Xanax aka Alprazolam

The drug Xanax is used to treat various anxiety disorders. The drug is considered a benzodiazepine (BZD) which are known as benzos or downers. BZD are psychoactive and Xanax speed of onset is rather quick making it a useful drug for someone having an acute panic or anxiety attack.

The drug works in a mysterious way and not all is known how exactly the operations take place. What is known is that the CNS agents of the 1, 4 benzodiazepine class "presumably" exert their effect by binding at receptors scattered about the central nervous system. This information is presumed, and once again, it is not fully known. Pfizer, the manufacturer of the drug clearly and explicitly states that "their exact mechanism of action is unknown. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance….

espiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study
Description of Case

The study in question was conducted to determine the mechanisms by which inhaled ultrafine particles are further translated to other areas of the body. The researchers related that "Within hours after the respiratory system is exposed to UFPs, the UFPs may appear in many compartments of the body, including the liver, heart, and nervous system" (Geiser, et al., 2005). Since the means by which the particles are distributed is not entirely understood, the researchers determined to discover the specific pathways that particles take after they leave the lungs. Animal subjects (namely laboratory rats) were used to conduct the study.

Outline of Mechanisms

The authors studied a variety of mechanisms that could be responsible for the subsequent translation, among which possibilities were endocytosis (Morishita & Engebrecht, 2005) and simple migration of the particles across the wall of the cell (which has been seen in other studies….

Perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics" denotes some key concerns for perioperative professionals to consider when administering medication for this particular specialty. The article begins with the authors explicating the fact that the vast majority of errors related to issuing medication to patients in this field occurs during the administrative phase due to what is termed "a weakness in the knowledge of the health care provider" (Hernandez et al., 2011, p. 260). As such, the article identifies three key stratifications that health care professionals should consider when issuing perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. It is worth notin that pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are identified as considerations of pharmacotherapeutics.
Pharmacotherapeutics is best defined as "the use of medications to prevent, treat, cure, or alleviate symptoms of disease" (Hernandez et al., 2011, p.259). A key aspect of this pharmacotherapeutics is pharmacokinetics, a term used to denote just how the body processes medication….

Genetics and Pharmacology
Drug metabolism in humans is an essential topic to understand if one is to go into the pharmaceutical industry. When an individual ingests antibiotics their body is already prepared with the proper enzymes and molecular processes that allow for the breakdown and the uptake of these drugs. Xenobiotics encompass any substance that is foreign to the body; antibiotics fall into this category (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). These are entities that the body does not produce naturally. Antibiotics are used for a variety of conditions, especially those that involve the infestation of bacteria in the human body. These bacteria could cause adverse reactions in humans that could result in illness, calling the need for antibiotics. However, after a drug in ingested, it is drug metabolism that takes over.

Drug metabolism is set up in a way that requires the liver to function properly in order to activate or de-activate….

Psychology Pharmacology
PAGES 3 WORDS 1039

Psychology
The Link between Personality Traits and the Brain's Neurotransmitters

Purpose of Paper/Introduction/Background

My paper will be examining the links between personality traits and the brain's neurotransmitters. I plan to address this topic by looking at different personality traits and how they are linked to the brains neurotransmitters. I will also look at how this then leads to psychological disorders and how these are being treated with psychotropics. I will also compare this treatment method with unconventional and alternative treatments while looking at potential future developments and influences.

Some of the issues that I have identified are: that although personality may be inherent, it expands, through enduring occurrence, over ones lifetime. Personality is a multifaceted collection of behaviors, coping approaches, and defenses against apparently integrated vulnerabilities and while some are used to thinking of personality as something that is fashioned by early occurrences, mainly with parents and other caretakers, researchers are now learning detailed….

Behavior Pharmacology
PAGES 4 WORDS 1156

amoxicillan vs. penicillin for use in adults with strep throat.
Consult at least five sources of information.

Amoxicillan and Penicillan are both systemic antibacterials administered to adults for strep throat.

This paper will examine the use of amoxicillan vs. penicillin in the treatment of strep throat in adults. To begin, amoxicillian is a penicillan derivative.

Both have an extensive history of use and lack serious adverse events, although they do have some associated side effects.

Penicillin still remains the drug of choice in the treatment of pharyngitis caused by GABH. It is inexpensive and well tolerated, reduces symptoms, and is the only antibiotic proven to prevent rheumatic fever. There is no resistance to penicillin among GABH, and penicillin can be used in convenient regimens (500 mg orally 2 or 3 times daily). Despite being the drug of choice, the low and decreasing rate of penicillin use we noted from 17% in 1989 to 6%….

Trillium erectum, commonly known as Beth Root or Birthroot, is a flowering plant of the lily family that is indigenous to North America. The plant itself blooms in May and the root contains its primary active or medicinal agents (Williams, 1820). However, the leaves of the plant can be eaten. Medicinally, trillium has been used in native North American medicine primarily as an aid during childbirth, such as to induce labor or to minimize bleeding (Pistrang, n.d.). The name Bethroot is simply a bastardization of "birthroot," (Williams, 1820).
Nineteenth century medical science catalogued the herb judiciously, indicating its efficacy as an astringent and cathartic and used to stop hemorrhaging even unrelated to childbirth (Williams, 1820). Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, Williams (1820) also noted that Trillium causes fewer side effects than other astringent herbs, which can cause constipation. Moreover, Williams (1820) notes the use of Trillium for "arresting….

Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).
Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.

The drug….

Errors in the ICU
PAGES 4 WORDS 1240

Medication Errors
One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the case of the ICU, these challenges are becoming more pronounced. This is because of the different conditions and large number of patients they are working with. A good example of this can be seen with insights from Orgeas (2010) who said, "Although intensive care units (ICUs) were created for patients with life-threatening illnesses, the ICU environment generates a high risk of iatrogenic events. Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. We describe the selection of indicator MEs, the incidence of such MEs, and their relationship with mortality. We selected indicator MEs using Delphi techniques. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27 to….

Topic 1: The Neurobiology of PTSD

Explore the complex brain mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of PTSD, including changes in neurotransmitters, neural pathways, and brain structures.
Discuss the role of genetic and environmental factors in shaping individual vulnerability to PTSD.
Analyze the implications of neurobiological findings for the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD.

Topic 2: The Impact of Trauma on Memory

Examine the ways in which trauma alters memory processes, including fragmentation, blocking, and intrusion.
Discuss the role of cognitive distortions and biases in shaping trauma memories.
Explore the potential benefits and limitations of memory-focused therapies for PTSD, such as....

## Delving into the Realm of Clinical Psychology: A Comprehensive Guide to Essay Topics

Introduction

Clinical psychology, a multifaceted field rooted in the practice of evidence-based techniques, offers a captivating landscape for scholarly exploration. Its vast scope, encompassing assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental health disorders, presents an array of compelling essay topics. This comprehensive guide will navigate you through the intricacies of clinical psychology, providing a wealth of essay topics that resonate with the field's theoretical foundations and practical applications.

Theoretical Perspectives in Clinical Psychology

1. Psychodynamic Theory: Exploring the Unconscious Roots of Psychopathology
2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Unveiling the Interplay of Thoughts, Emotions, and....

Lucrative Earning Potential

CRNAs are among the highest-paid healthcare professionals. According to the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA), the median salary for CRNAs in 2022 was $191,330, with the top 10% earning over $230,000. This earning potential is attributed to the critical role CRNAs play in the healthcare system, providing anesthesia services to patients undergoing various medical procedures.

Job Stability and Security

The demand for CRNAs is expected to remain strong in the coming years, driven by an aging population and the increasing number of surgical procedures being performed. Hospitals and healthcare facilities rely heavily on CRNAs to manage anesthesia, ensuring the....

1. The Impact of Mindfulness on Mental Well-being

Explore the concept of mindfulness and its benefits for mental health.
Examine research on mindfulness interventions and their effectiveness in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression.
Discuss the mechanisms through which mindfulness promotes psychological well-being, such as cognitive regulation and emotional awareness.
Consider the implications for promoting mindfulness in clinical settings, schools, and the general population.

2. The Role of Technology in Mental Health

Examine the potential benefits and risks of technology use on mental health.
Review empirical research on the impact of social media, digital entertainment, and online therapy on psychological well-being.
Discuss....

image
7 Pages
Term Paper

Healthcare

Pharmacology Legal Obligations of Nurses

Words: 1985
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage. Nursing implications: This drug has…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Pharmacology Moclobemide Is Classified as an Antidepressant

Words: 1212
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Pharmacology: Moclobemide Moclobemide is classified as an antidepressant, a MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor. Antidepressants are designed to inhibit the reuptake or reabsorbtion of specific neurotransmitters, increasing the levels of these…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Medicine

Pharmacology Dvt In the Legs There Are

Words: 1640
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Pharmacology DVT: In the legs, there are two kinds of veins, namely, deep and superficial. The deep veins pass through the middle of the leg, enclosed by the muscles. A blood…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Term Paper

Health - Nursing

Pharmacology - Prothrombin Fluctuation Fluctuating

Words: 966
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Nevertheless, an unscheduled PT test performed in the ER during her second visit provided markedly different results indicating a prolonged coagulation time despite no known changes to the…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Pharmacology of Beta Lactam Antibiotics Beta Lactam

Words: 644
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Pharmacology of Beta Lactam Antibiotics Beta Lactam Antibiotics This class of antibiotic agents, including penicillin derivatives, (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems, is the most widely used antibiotic. In fact, more…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
8 Pages
Essay

Pharmacology for Nurses

Words: 2245
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Essay

Pharmacology for Nurses Pharmacology, the study of drugs and their effects on the human body, is a critical component of nursing education and practice. Nurses must have a sound understanding…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
1 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Advanced Pharmacology

Words: 348
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Essay

Pharmacology Xanax Pharmacology eport: Xanax aka Alprazolam The drug Xanax is used to treat various anxiety disorders. The drug is considered a benzodiazepine (BZD) which are known as benzos or downers.…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Case Study

Biology

Respiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study

Words: 589
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Case Study

espiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study Description of Case The study in question was conducted to determine the mechanisms by which inhaled ultrafine particles are further translated to other areas of…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Perioperative Pharmacology

Words: 577
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics" denotes some key concerns for perioperative professionals to consider when administering medication for this particular specialty. The article begins with the authors…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
6 Pages
Essay

Medicine

Genetics and Pharmacology Drug Metabolism in Humans

Words: 1963
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

Genetics and Pharmacology Drug metabolism in humans is an essential topic to understand if one is to go into the pharmaceutical industry. When an individual ingests antibiotics their body is…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
3 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Psychology Pharmacology

Words: 1039
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Psychology The Link between Personality Traits and the Brain's Neurotransmitters Purpose of Paper/Introduction/Background My paper will be examining the links between personality traits and the brain's neurotransmitters. I plan to address this…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Term Paper

Medicine

Behavior Pharmacology

Words: 1156
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

amoxicillan vs. penicillin for use in adults with strep throat. Consult at least five sources of information. Amoxicillan and Penicillan are both systemic antibacterials administered to adults for strep throat. This…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Essay

Health

trillium herb pharmacology and history

Words: 606
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Trillium erectum, commonly known as Beth Root or Birthroot, is a flowering plant of the lily family that is indigenous to North America. The plant itself blooms in May…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
2 Pages
Case Study

Pharmacy

Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics of Lipitor

Words: 586
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Case Study

Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with…

Read Full Paper  ❯
image
4 Pages
Capstone Project

Healthcare

Errors in the ICU

Words: 1240
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Capstone Project

Medication Errors One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the…

Read Full Paper  ❯