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Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage.
Nursing implications: This drug has mild side effects. However, the patient was still advised to consult me if any unusual problems occurred.
Client Implications: the eye irritation caused by swimming had been completely cured.
Patient Education: the patient had been instructed to ensure regularity in all his appointments
9. Name of drug: Zafirlukast
Dosage: the drug should be taken twice a day.
Indications for use: the tablet should be taken by mouth without splitting, chewing, or crushing it.
Mode of action: It acts by jamming the process of chemicals that trigger irritation, mucous emission, and restrictions in the lungs.
Interactions: the patient had informed me about his medical history and his psychological state so as to compensate and recommend the best possible drug dosage.
Nursing…… [Read More]
Moclobemide is classified as an antidepressant, a MAO (monoamine oxidase) inhibitor. Antidepressants are designed to inhibit the reuptake or reabsorbtion of specific neurotransmitters, increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters around the nerves of the brain (Gbemudu, 2011:1). Neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are often called 'feel good' chemicals that elevate the patient's mood.
A deficit of mood-enhancing chemicals is associated with depression, although there is no single neurotransmitter that is associated with depression alone. ecause every patient's biochemistry and history of depression is different, different classes of antidepressants are designed to have different effects on the brain's neurotransmitters and have different indicated uses. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)s like Prozac prevent the reabsorbtion of the 'feel good' chemical serotonin, just as MAOIs prevent the reabsorbtion of monoamine oxidase. Depression is thought to be caused, in part, by a decrease in the…… [Read More]
In the legs, there are two kinds of veins, namely, deep and superficial. The deep veins pass through the middle of the leg, enclosed by the muscles. A blood clot or thrombus that crops up in the deep veins of the leg is called a Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT. Blood clot, and hence DVT, can arise due to slowing down or stoppage of blood or due to damage of the vein. DVT produces pain in the leg, and can result in complications if it breaks off and travels in the bloodstream to the lungs. Occasionally, DVT can take place in the deep veins of the arm or pelvis. The incidence of DVT is more probable for people with following conditions: age above 40, obesity and previous history of DVT. Other factors that lead to DVT are: extended bed rest or serenity; major impairments or paralysis; surgery, particularly…… [Read More]
Nevertheless, an unscheduled PT test performed in the ER during her second visit provided markedly different results indicating a prolonged coagulation time despite no known changes to the patient's medication regimen or diet.
As a result of the results of the PT test performed in the ER, her physician lowered her daily dosage of Coumadin to 2 milligrams per day, with instructions to repeat PT testing weekly for the time being. Four days later, the patient returned to the ER complaining of excessive bleeding from the nose and gums (on flossing) again, despite following her physician's instructions to decrease her Coumadin dosage.
Administration of intravenous saline and elevation of the affected extremities again resolved her symptoms, but this time, she was admitted to the hospital for observation and more extensive testing scheduled by her cardiologist for the nest day.
While interviewing the patient and her family in great detail…… [Read More]
Pharmacology of Beta Lactam Antibiotics
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
This class of antibiotic agents, including penicillin derivatives, (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems, is the most widely used antibiotic. In fact, more than half of the antibiotics that were commercially sold in 2003 were ?-lactam compounds. Beta lactam antibiotics are characterized by a molecular ?-lactam ring structure (Drawz & Bonomo, 2010). The beta lactam antibiotics inhibit the biosynthesis of the cell walls of bacterial organisms by interfering with the synthesis of peptidoglycan. . The penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the bacterial enzymes affected by beta lactam antibiotics, which means that beta lactams do not act against microbes that do not have cell walls containing peptidoglycan, such as chlamydiae, mycoplasmata, rickettsiae, and mycobacteria.
The ?-lactam antibiotics are indicated for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. When first introduced to the market, ?-lactam antibiotics were only effective against Gram-positive bacteria (Drawz &…… [Read More]
Pharmacology eport: Xanax aka Alprazolam
The drug Xanax is used to treat various anxiety disorders. The drug is considered a benzodiazepine (BZD) which are known as benzos or downers. BZD are psychoactive and Xanax speed of onset is rather quick making it a useful drug for someone having an acute panic or anxiety attack.
The drug works in a mysterious way and not all is known how exactly the operations take place. What is known is that the CNS agents of the 1, 4 benzodiazepine class "presumably" exert their effect by binding at receptors scattered about the central nervous system. This information is presumed, and once again, it is not fully known. Pfizer, the manufacturer of the drug clearly and explicitly states that "their exact mechanism of action is unknown. Clinically, all benzodiazepines cause a dose-related central nervous system depressant activity varying from mild impairment of task performance…… [Read More]
espiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Case Study
Description of Case
The study in question was conducted to determine the mechanisms by which inhaled ultrafine particles are further translated to other areas of the body. The researchers related that "Within hours after the respiratory system is exposed to UFPs, the UFPs may appear in many compartments of the body, including the liver, heart, and nervous system" (Geiser, et al., 2005). Since the means by which the particles are distributed is not entirely understood, the researchers determined to discover the specific pathways that particles take after they leave the lungs. Animal subjects (namely laboratory rats) were used to conduct the study.
Outline of Mechanisms
The authors studied a variety of mechanisms that could be responsible for the subsequent translation, among which possibilities were endocytosis (Morishita & Engebrecht, 2005) and simple migration of the particles across the wall of the cell (which has been…… [Read More]
Perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics" denotes some key concerns for perioperative professionals to consider when administering medication for this particular specialty. The article begins with the authors explicating the fact that the vast majority of errors related to issuing medication to patients in this field occurs during the administrative phase due to what is termed "a weakness in the knowledge of the health care provider" (Hernandez et al., 2011, p. 260). As such, the article identifies three key stratifications that health care professionals should consider when issuing perioperative pharmacology: pharmacotherapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. It is worth notin that pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are identified as considerations of pharmacotherapeutics.
Pharmacotherapeutics is best defined as "the use of medications to prevent, treat, cure, or alleviate symptoms of disease" (Hernandez et al., 2011, p.259). A key aspect of this pharmacotherapeutics is pharmacokinetics, a term used to denote just how the body processes medication…… [Read More]
Genetics and Pharmacology
Drug metabolism in humans is an essential topic to understand if one is to go into the pharmaceutical industry. When an individual ingests antibiotics their body is already prepared with the proper enzymes and molecular processes that allow for the breakdown and the uptake of these drugs. Xenobiotics encompass any substance that is foreign to the body; antibiotics fall into this category (Katzung, Masters, & Trevor, 2012). These are entities that the body does not produce naturally. Antibiotics are used for a variety of conditions, especially those that involve the infestation of bacteria in the human body. These bacteria could cause adverse reactions in humans that could result in illness, calling the need for antibiotics. However, after a drug in ingested, it is drug metabolism that takes over.
Drug metabolism is set up in a way that requires the liver to function properly in order to activate…… [Read More]
The Link between Personality Traits and the Brain's Neurotransmitters
Purpose of Paper/Introduction/Background
My paper will be examining the links between personality traits and the brain's neurotransmitters. I plan to address this topic by looking at different personality traits and how they are linked to the brains neurotransmitters. I will also look at how this then leads to psychological disorders and how these are being treated with psychotropics. I will also compare this treatment method with unconventional and alternative treatments while looking at potential future developments and influences.
Some of the issues that I have identified are: that although personality may be inherent, it expands, through enduring occurrence, over ones lifetime. Personality is a multifaceted collection of behaviors, coping approaches, and defenses against apparently integrated vulnerabilities and while some are used to thinking of personality as something that is fashioned by early occurrences, mainly with parents and other caretakers, researchers…… [Read More]
amoxicillan vs. penicillin for use in adults with strep throat.
Consult at least five sources of information.
Amoxicillan and Penicillan are both systemic antibacterials administered to adults for strep throat.
This paper will examine the use of amoxicillan vs. penicillin in the treatment of strep throat in adults. To begin, amoxicillian is a penicillan derivative.
Both have an extensive history of use and lack serious adverse events, although they do have some associated side effects.
Penicillin still remains the drug of choice in the treatment of pharyngitis caused by GABH. It is inexpensive and well tolerated, reduces symptoms, and is the only antibiotic proven to prevent rheumatic fever. There is no resistance to penicillin among GABH, and penicillin can be used in convenient regimens (500 mg orally 2 or 3 times daily). Despite being the drug of choice, the low and decreasing rate of penicillin use we noted from 17%…… [Read More]
One of my most important life goals is to continue my studies in pharmacology and become the most skilled practitioner that I am able to be. I am applying to the PN [Is it Pacific Northwest? ] University for a Masters Degree in Pharmacology primarily because of two factors. The University has a reputation for developing knowledgeable graduates whose high level of skills positions them to make strong contributions in their field. The second factor stems from experiences in my personal life.
My name is Reem AL Qahtani and I am 25 years old. I live in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where I am currently a teaching assistant in the Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy at Princess Nora Bint Abdulrahman University. I became interested in pharmacology because of a family history of breast cancer. My aunt had a benign breast cancer. My grandmother was not as fortunate…… [Read More]
Trillium erectum, commonly known as Beth Root or Birthroot, is a flowering plant of the lily family that is indigenous to North America. The plant itself blooms in May and the root contains its primary active or medicinal agents (Williams, 1820). However, the leaves of the plant can be eaten. Medicinally, trillium has been used in native North American medicine primarily as an aid during childbirth, such as to induce labor or to minimize bleeding (Pistrang, n.d.). The name Bethroot is simply a bastardization of "birthroot," (Williams, 1820).
Nineteenth century medical science catalogued the herb judiciously, indicating its efficacy as an astringent and cathartic and used to stop hemorrhaging even unrelated to childbirth (Williams, 1820). Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, Williams (1820) also noted that Trillium causes fewer side effects than other astringent herbs, which can cause constipation. Moreover, Williams (1820) notes the use of Trillium for…… [Read More]
Lipitor is a brand name of Atorvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. Atorvastatin belongs to the statin family of drugs, which react with specific enzymes in order to lower cholesterol in the body. Lipitor/atorvastatin inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that "converts 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of sterols" like cholesterol ("Lipior," n.d.).
Elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (both LDL-cholesterol or LDL-C and HDL) as well as levels of apolipoprotein B (apo B) are known precursors or risk factors in human atherosclerosis and are risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. By reducing the amount of cholesterol in plasma as well as in the liver, the drug helps to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Lipitor is effective in addressing elevated cholesterol due to hereditary hypercholesterolemia, as well as nonfamilial types. Lipitor is indicated for patients with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina.…… [Read More]
One of the major challenges impact healthcare providers is medical errors. These issues are challenging, as they will have an adverse impact on quality and safety. In the case of the ICU, these challenges are becoming more pronounced. This is because of the different conditions and large number of patients they are working with. A good example of this can be seen with insights from Orgeas (2010) who said, "Although intensive care units (ICUs) were created for patients with life-threatening illnesses, the ICU environment generates a high risk of iatrogenic events. Identifying medical errors (MEs) that serve as indicators for iatrogenic risk is crucial for purposes of reporting and prevention. We describe the selection of indicator MEs, the incidence of such MEs, and their relationship with mortality. We selected indicator MEs using Delphi techniques. An observational prospective multicenter cohort study of these MEs was conducted from March 27…… [Read More]
In the 35 years following its development, femoxetine, commonly known by its trade name "Paxil," has been the focus of a growing body of research based on its proven harmful effects, most especially an increased incidence of suicide. The fact that the drug's manufacturer concealed evidence of these harmful effects has added further fuel to the investigatory fires and new findings continue to confirm the harmful effects of Paxil today. To gain some current insights into Paxil's use and how it has affected consumers in recent years, this paper provides the history of the drug, representative evidence from the scientific community that confirms its several dangers, as well as the results of two face-to-face interviews with former Paxil users to identify specific points of convergence with the scientific research as well as differences. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis…… [Read More]
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…… [Read More]
Paxil tying drug readings: (Using readings support analysis)… the articles: "The
In order to properly analyze the drug known as Paxil, one must give prudent consideration to a number of factors. The first of these, of course, is the fact that by the very definition of this narcotic, it is a mind altering substance that is able to readily induce changes in one's brain or psychological state that often time have effects upon the physical body as well. Additionally, it should be noted that the very nature of this particular narcotic is quite different from other narcotics, in particular those which are used for recreational purposes -- namely mind altering substances such as alcohol and marijuana. It is quite possible for users to view occasions to engage in either of these substances as opportunities for fun and pleasure, particularly marijuana. However, although there may be medicinal purposes of…… [Read More]
Eithe way, such a volume simply could not be as pactical and useful as eithe the two independent volumes of the Physician's Desk Refeence o the single and easily navigable website un by Medline Plus. This website's seach-ability allows fo an easie coss-efeencing between phamaceuticals and nutitional supplements, as well, without tying to keep a book open to seveal pages at once.
Cost is also a majo facto in the two efeences. Though olde editions of the Physician's Desk Refeence can be found elatively cheaply (ionically, via online shopping), the cuent edition costs almost one hunded dollas puchased new. Medline Plus is fee, making the cost benefit of this option at least equal to the benefits deived fom ease of use and completeness of infomation. On this last point, the Physician's Desk Refeence often contains moe detailed infomation on vaious dugs, but these details ae pesented in a vey dy…… [Read More]
Palliative care has gone under a lot of changes as the years have progressed. Just like how general care has been advanced for the sick in areas such as pharmacology and medical engineering, palliative care has also been given much importance. Palliative care has been recognized as a specialty in many countries. There has been evidence that a care outlook that takes note of psychosocial, psychological and spiritual support is very effective and holds great importance in the eyes of those who are sick and their families. (Beaver et al., 2000) In simpler terms, palliative care means to relieve the sufferings of the sick and not really to make the treatment effective. (Macpherson, 2002)
Watching the movie Wit, I was truly saddened and affected by the degree of importance that is given to research these days. esearch for a horrible disease like cancer should be carried out but not on…… [Read More]
Brugada Syndrome is a hereditary illness that is categorized by irregular electrocardiogram (ECG) results (efer to Appendix 1) and an augmented danger of unexpected cardiac arrest. It is titled after the Spanish cardiologists Josep and Pedro Brugada. It is counted amongst one of the key (Nademanee, 1997) reasons for "Sudden Unexplained Death Syndrome" (SUDS), and is the most regularly occurring reason of unexpected expiration amongst young men without knowing the fundamental cardiac ailment. This holds particularly true for Laos and Thailand.
The purpose of this research essay is to talk about the Brugada Syndrome by focusing on its epidemiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology and implications for advanced nursing techniques. It also discusses the disease itself in tremendous detail and makes thorough used of secondary research to validate statements wherever required.
Even though, if the ECG results of Brugada Syndrome were initially found amongst survivors of cardiac arrest in the year 1989 (Martini,…… [Read More]
Initial product formulation utilizes knowledge acquired from pre-formulation outcomes to derive proper dose, dosage form, and type of administration for the proposed marketed use. A pilot batch of Clinical Trial Materials (CTM) may be produced after the new drug has completed these initial tests.
Upon completion of preclinical testing, the drug sponsor files an Investigational New Drug Application (IND) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), after they have obtained prerequisite approval from the Institutional eview Board (IB). The purpose of the investigation is to assure that the new drug is safe and meets stated objectives for human consumption. Among other things, all formulations must meet FDA Current Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines before human testing can begin. Ordinarily, the FDA has 30 days to respond to the application. After the drug receives this initial approval clinical trials may begin within 30 days.
Clinical trials proceed in four phases, with…… [Read More]
(Walls, Hendricks, Dowler, Hirsch, Orslene and Fullmer, 2002). The animal will serve as a vital link between John Q. And the world around him, helping to be independent and to have quality time to himself and allow him to travel on his own.
There is a need, too, to emphasize that services are available to the family as individuals, and in a group setting, to confront and work through the issues that upcoming months, perhaps even years of hardship as a result of John Q's physical injuries will mean to them as a family and as individuals. The focus must be a positive one, for research has shown that positive and hopeful attitudes impact an individual's ability to recover faster and more fully (Schmidt, Vickery, Cotugna, and Snider, 2005).
esearching the conditions and needs of a family and individual as cited above, created a sense of caring and…… [Read More]
The drug, marijuana, is actually not as lethal to human beings as cigarettes or alcohol. Further, it is much less addictive, being generally consumed in far lesser quantities. It is also not strongly linked to accidents, risky sexual conduct, and violence, the way alcohol is. Lastly, one can never lose one’s life to marijuana overdose. While a small share of individuals who consume marijuana do develop addiction, this issue can be easily treated. Marijuana in the form of a medicine proves effective in dealing with various acute symptoms such as wasting diseases, nausea and vomiting. Marijuana is very commonly used in America (DPA). The marijuana on sale and used across the nation varies greatly in its quality, besides displaying the likelihood of containing high potentially-lethal adulterant or pesticide levels. DPA (Drug Policy Alliance) supports regulatory framework implementation for controlling potency, educating consumers using labels, and safeguarding against toxic pesticides…… [Read More]
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]
At which point, they talk about the effects that the different kinds of coverage are having on senior citizen, with many using a combination of Medicare and private insurance, while others have used a combination of Medicare / Medicaid. To rectify the situation, the article points out that there is one of two solutions to include: the government placing price caps and importing prescription drugs. A government model of limiting the overall scope of price increases, could help to reduce the negative effects that this having on the elderly. Another option, for those who are opposed to such a plan, is to allow the import of prescription drugs. This is significant, because it shows how increasing the available supply of prescription drugs are a key to curtailing costs. If some kind of programs, this could be introduced to address this issue. At which point, it could be effective in reducing…… [Read More]
"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.
Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.
Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.
Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.
Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.
Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.
Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…… [Read More]
Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.
Potential Health Benefits
The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…… [Read More]
The Food and Drug Administration has published recommendations that warn pregnant women, nursing mothers, women who might become pregnant, and children not to ear swordfish, shark, tilefish, and king mackerel due to high methylmercury content. They also warn women and children to limit their consumption of tuna (DHHS/EPA, 2004). However, if guidelines are followed, these women and children are told that they can eat limited amounts of low mercury fish.
What Levels of methylmercury are safe?
There are many factors that help to determine how much mercury is considered to be safe. The EPA reference dose (fD) is the amount of mercury that a person can be exposed to on a daily basis over a lifetime without appreciable risk of effects from it. The EPA fD is 0.1 ?g mercury per kg body weight per day. This level translates into a blood mercury level 5.8?g/L or 5.8 parts per billion…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]
Summarize Complementary Therapies and the APNs ole in guiding their Inclusion in Treatment Plans.
Complimentary therapies are a part of the practices which are utilized to help patients to improve their underlying state of health and reduce the need for long periods of hospitalization. In most cases, this allows them to receive continuous treatment on an outpatient basis. Some of the most notable include: chemotherapy, kinesiology, nutrition / diet, focusing on the mind / body connection and psychological treatment options. These different areas are important, as they will help patients to understand other tools they can utilize in dealing with their condition. This is giving them a sense of empowerment by comprehending what is occurring and the best approaches for addressing these challenges over the long-term. (Mezey, 2003) (Naylor, 2010)
The APNs role is to suggest other therapies they can use during the process and help to supervise the patient.…… [Read More]
One need only read the newspaper "Classified" ads to realize that employers are trying many clever marketing tactics to attract prospective nurses into their organizations. Many are offering sign-on bonuses, extra benefits and other amenities to attract a limited supply of nurses. As both the general population and the elderly population grow, the number of nurses needed to care for them increases proportionally as well. The number of people choosing to pursue nursing as a career has been on the decline, mainly due to long working hours, low pay, high job stress and other factors. These factors will not resolve themselves if the nursing deficit continues to increase. In addition, graduate nurses find it difficult to enter the workforce due to their lack of experience and a shortage of mentors to teach them. The solution is simple, more nurses are needed, and soon. Novice nurses are fresh graduates who…… [Read More]
Americans have traditionally celebrated the diversity of cultures that comprises the United States. Despite some reservations, much of the country still believes that the amalgamation of different ethnicities contributes to the richness of American culture.
The merging of cultures in the United States has also given rise to conflicts and collisions, as established concepts are confronted and challenged. New belief systems, often developed over centuries, have already redefined prevailing estern cultural concepts.
This paper examines how prevailing estern cultural concepts regarding the soul and spirituality, gender and healing have been challenged and redefined by a growing awareness of cultural alternatives. Some of these concepts, such as gender, were redefined largely within an American context. Many, such as healing and spirituality, have been influenced by Eastern and African cultures and religions.
The first part of the paper looks at the various cultural meanings of healing, as practiced by the…… [Read More]
Caffeine Improves Visual-Motor Performance
Acute Caffeine Ingestion Improves Visual-Motor esponses
Caffeine represents the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, so understanding how this chemical affects an individual's physiology is essential to providing the best healthcare advice for the general public. Towards this goal, the response times of college students were studied before and after ingestion of water, ed Bull, or coffee. The task involved clicking a mouse button as fast as possible in response to a computer monitor screen changing color. Compared to water, response times improved by almost 6 and 13 seconds for ed Bull and coffee, respectively. Based on published information, which suggests the ed Bull and coffee ingestion would provide approximately 80 and 122 mg of caffeine, respectively, these results indicate a dose-dependent improvement in task performance as the caffeine dosage increased. Although between subjects variability was high, these results are remarkably consistent…… [Read More]
The colleague and friend I selected has worked with me on fundraising projects and has been a neighbor and friend of our family for several years. She is respected in the community for her advocacy for children's education in particular, but also for her support of local nonprofit organizations that raise money and awareness of the homeless, of the local teen center, and of the group that fights to protect open space from development, so it can remain as habitat for wildlife.
Describing the Situation
hat I would like to have Elaine change is her diet; but especially I would like to change her attitude about -- and her indifference to -- exercise. I would like to coax her into starting slow and going for walks, with me and another friend we have in common, and get her into the consciousness that walking is enjoyable and healthy as well.…… [Read More]
predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).
The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…… [Read More]
Audience in Communication
Not all websites are written for a general audience. Some websites include technical information geared for professionals in their field. There are also a number of websites that aim to please both types of audiences: those who understand rich technical or scientific jargon and those who do not. This memorandum compares and contrasts two health information websites: WebMD and Drugs.com to illustrate the importance of audience when composing and presenting health-related information online.
The WebMD website is written for a general audience with limited understanding of science or low science literacy. To a degree, Drugs.com is also geared for a general audience, but the difference between these sites is that Drugs.com also has a section for professionals that can be used to make educated and evidence-based decisions about pharmacological treatments. There is, for example, a "Pro Edition" section of Drugs.com as well as detailed information about…… [Read More]
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…… [Read More]
Obesity is a global epidemic affecting almost all population cohorts. Rates of obesity are rising worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), the obesity epidemic “is not restricted to industrialized societies,” with millions of obesity-related cases burgeoning in developing countries (p. 1). With billions of cases worldwide, obesity has therefore been described as the “major health hazard of the 21st century,” (Zhang, Liu, Yao, et al., 2014, p. 5153). Given the global nature of the disease, clinical guidelines have become increasingly standardized, but it is still necessary to tailor interventions to specific populations to create age appropriate, culturally appropriate, and gender appropriate treatment interventions. After a brief discussion of obesity pathophysiology, this paper will evaluate standard practices at local, state, national, and international levels. Access to care and treatment options also determine disease outcomes. Therefore, this paper will also address…… [Read More]
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…… [Read More]
A dominant healthcare practice for many Mexican-Americans is the hot and cold theory of food selection, where illness or trauma may require adjustments in the hot and cold balance of foods to restore body equilibrium. In lower socioeconomic groups is a wide-scale deficiency of vitamin a and iron, as well as lactose intolerance.
Mexican-American birth rates are 3.45 per household compared to 2.6 per household among other minority groups (Chapa & Valencia, 1993 as cited in Purnell & Paulanka, 1998). Multiple births are common, particularly in the economically disadvantaged groups. Men see a larger number of children as evidence of their virility. If a woman does not conceive by the age of 24, it may be considered too late. Given their predominant Catholic beliefs, the tendency is only to use acceptable forms of birth control, although many will use other unacceptable forms. Abortion is morally wrong. Family planning is an…… [Read More]
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]
Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.
Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.
One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.
Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.
The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…… [Read More]
When evaluating completions rates involved with PWA, radial tonometry had a 66% and carotid tonometry had a 99%. The radial tonometry was determined to be easier on the patient.
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI)
Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) has increased significance over previous single probe techniques. lood flow is no longer measured at a single site but between an area and the LDI due to being non-contact cannot interfere with the final results. LDI is a 1mm laser beam that uses a mirror to scan in two dimensions. A small amount of light penetrates the skin; the depth depends on wavelength and absorption, of area scanned and interacts with cells and tissues. Speed and density of moving cells determine the signal sent to detector. Discovery Technology International defines the amount of tissue measured as:
we have estimated that for well-perfused tissue such as muscle, the mean sampling depth for our probes…… [Read More]
Clinically meaningful differences between juvenile and adult participants were also found. Compared to adults, juveniles were more likely to be male, recall an earlier age at OCD onset, and have different lifetime comorbidity patterns. Significant outcomes were that children were less likely than either adolescent or adults to report aggressive obsessions and mental rituals.
The glaring - and possibly only -- distractions that I see with this study are that groups are ill matched. There is a large range of ages even amongst each group (children ranged between 6-12 whilst adolescents ranged between 13-18); they were ill-matched in OCD symptoms too; there were far less children than adolescents; and adults more than doubled the size of the juvenile and children group combined. Self-reported OCD symptom could have been produced by an alternate factor (another determinant) that was not taken into account. What could have been taken then as start of…… [Read More]
Phenylethylamine naturally occurs as a trace amine in the brain. It releases dopamine in the mesolimbic pleasure-centers and peaks during orgasm. In the laboratory, and in unnaturally high doses it can produce stereotyped behavior more prominently than even than amphetamine (ibid).
Phenylethylamine has very distinct binding sites but not specific neurons. It helps mediate feelings of attraction, excitement, giddiness, apprehension and euphoria; but it has also been described as an endogenous anxiogen. One of its metabolites is high in subjects with paranoid schizophrenia (ibid).
Phenylethylamine has been theorized to cause depression. Monoamine oxidase type-b is equated as phenylethylaminase. The use of a selective MAO-b inhibitor, such as selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl) or rasagiline (Azilect) can accentuate the effects of chocolate (ibid).
In not just sex, but in all addictive behaviors, dopamine is released . Dopamine is released following high levels of addictive activity. e are not really addicted to the activity,…… [Read More]
There have been several studies that have confirmed the effects of caffeine and the personality dimension of impulsivity (Smith 2002). Performance, according to Smith (2002), is "an interactive function of task difficulty, caffeine and impulsivity" (2002).
Performance on an easy letter cancellation task was improved as caffeine dose increased, but on a difficult task impulsive subjects (less aroused) improved while non-impulsive subjects (more aroused) improved then deteriorated. Other results do not fit this pattern and could reflect other individual differences such as expectancies or caffeine usage (Smith 2002).
Another study conducted by Sawyer, Julia and Turin (1982) showed that caffeine does indeed play a role in behavior, which includes changes in "arousal, anxiety, and performance" (1982). Once again, Sawyer et al. (1982) found that personality plays a big role in caffeine's effects on humans as does sensitivity, adaption to caffeine, and the way that caffeine may interact with both nicotine…… [Read More]
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…… [Read More]
Bass, P., ilso, J. And Griffith, C. (2003). A Shortened Instrument for Literacy Screening. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8(12), 1036-8.
Berger, J. (2000). Corporate Health Plan Strategies and Health Literacy. National Health Communications Conference. ashington, DC: ACP Fouindation.
Chew, L., Bradley, K., and Boyko, E.. (2004). Brief Questions to Identify Patients with Inadequate Health Literacy. Family Medicine, 36(8), 588-94.
Chew, L., Griffin, J., Partin, M., et al. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5), 561-6.
Davis, T. And olf, M.. (2004). Health Literacy Implications for Family Medicine. Family Medicine, 36(8), 595-8.
Davis, T., Long, S., and Jackson, R. (1993). Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Family Medicine, 25(1), 391-95.
Dowse, R., Lecoko, L. And Ehlers, M. (2005). Applicability of the REALM Health Literacy Test. Pharmacy orld, 32(4), 464-71.
Ibrahim, S., Reid, F., Shaw, A., et al. (2008). Validation of a…… [Read More]
When processed by a transglutaminase enzyme, it can interact with immunological cells and produce cytotoxic inflammation. In autism, it is believed that peptides from gluten and casein cross the intestinal microvillus barrier and enter the blood stream. They also cross the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, certain amino acid sequences of these peptides compete with natural peptides, which bind to opioid receptors. These receptors are G-protein receptors in cell membrane surfaces of neurons. inding to these receptors disturbs the neuronal function and ultimately leads to or contributes to autism (Department of Pediatrics Staff).
Limited Reliable Scientific Evidence
UK researchers investigated more than 30 scientific articles on the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet on autistic children (astian, 2004). They found one, which provided reliable scientific evidence that the diet works. The particular study, however, was conducted on only 20 children aged 5-10 who had high levels of protein in their…… [Read More]
ursing leadership can have a significant impact upon retention, satisfaction, and even nurses' perception of their exhaustion. The study "Leadership styles of nurse managers in a multinational environment" attempted to understand what leadership styles had a positive and a negative impact upon nurses' desires to stay within the organization and function effectively. To answer this research question, the study examined a nursing environment in Saudi Arabia, a nation with a patient population that is notably diverse that has a notable shortage of nurses, forcing healthcare institutions to rely upon expatriates as a source of labor (Suliman, 2009: 301). Given the importance of culturally-specific dialogue and care in nursing, this can prove challenging. Effective leadership that facilitates dialogue between providers and patients and between managers and employees within the nursing environment is a critical aspect of dispensing effective care.
The study submitted the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to 31 nurse managers and…… [Read More]
, 2006). The evidence reflects only a low level weight loss but is still worthwhile to consider in controlling weight at roughly 0.007 kg per week. It is useful for individual weight loss programs. Losing 0.2 kg per week requires a decrease of 220 kilocalories per day. Achieving a 32% reduction requires a sacrifice of 330 kilocalories a day from sucrose by substituting aspartame. Using aspartame replaces 70 g of sucrose or roughly two cans of soft drinks every day (Hunty et al.). This means less expense.
200 Times Sweeter and Cheaper
On the average, aspartame is 200 times sweeter than sucrose (Hu et al., 2008). Not only does it mean less calories but also less cost. The taste difference between them is that the sweetness of aspartame is detected by the taste buds longer than sucrose. This can, however, be resolved by adding acesulfame potassium. Aspartame also has limited…… [Read More]
In the article "Pregnancy & Treatment," Linda L.M. Worley, past medical director of UAMS Arkansas CAES: Center for Addiction, esearch, Education and Services, and Curtis Lowery (2005), maternal fetal medicine expert, report that a number of medical and child welfare groups, including the American Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Nurses Association, and the March of Dimes, conclude that threatening to arrest pregnant women who drink alcohol beverages will not help them quit drinking. "ather, it will frighten them away from prenatal care and discourage them from speaking honestly to health care providers who may be able to help" (Worley & Lowery, 2005, ¶ 2). Worley and Lowery (2005) recommend that instead of imprisoning pregnant mothers, drug treatment "works and is much less expensive than imprisoning" them. When pregnant mothers are imprisoned, the state may not only incur delivery charges…… [Read More]
Similar to becoming a Board Certified Physician, credentialed nurses bring a far higher quality of professionalism to the field, and allow the public and medical community a standard by which staff must be held.
Do think it is important for clinical nurses to obtain certification in their specialty areas? If so, why? If not, why not? Yes, I actually do, for many of the same reasons as above, but actually more. The half-life of information and resulting changes in technology, procedures, appropriateness of care, and pharmacology are such that changes in specialties are so regular it is necessary to receive the highest and most specific level of training possible. Starting with a base curriculum and graduation is not the middle or the end, but only the beginning -- once the basics are mastered; it is time to continue to improve.
Do you believe the nurse leader/manager position is an advanced…… [Read More]
According to the AACN's report, "Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health" (2002), "Competencies are the domain or body of knowledge and skills that essentially define a profession or discipline. This domain of competencies guides training programs, provides expectations for employers, and drives the nature of assessment instruments and performance standards for credentialing institutions, certifying agencies, and accrediting organizations" (p. 14).
The core competencies for nurse practitioner graduates are intended to help candidates used what they have already learned and require a graduate-level education in order to attain certification as an APN and the AACN has developed this graduate curriculum as the basis for advanced practice nursing. As described by AACN, advanced practice nursing preparation includes ". . . graduate nursing core content (e.g., research, health policy, ethics, and more) and advanced nursing practice content (e.g., advanced health assessment, advanced physiology and…… [Read More]
(2007), there existed no reviews on the efficacy of phenylephrine as a metabolized decongestant. ith legal conditions invoking its use thusly as early as 2002, it should be seen as surprising, problematic and irresponsible on the part of drug companies to actively work to promote this as a replacement for pseudoephedrine. Thus, all indications from the research are that those seeking to treat cold and flu symptoms will be better served by purchasing the behind-the-counter pseudoephedrine-based treatment rather than over-the-counter phenylephrine-based substitutes.
The Advanced Light Source (ALS). (2008). P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance. www.als.lbl.gov.
Bylund, D.B.; Bond, R.A.; Eikenburg, D.C.; Hieble, J.P.; Hills, R.; Minneman, K.P. & Parra, S. (2009). Adrenoceptors: 1A-adrenoceptor. IUPHAR database. Online at http://www.iuphar-db.org/GPCR/ReceptorDisplayForward?receptorID=2175.
Cerner Mulum, Inc. (CMI). (2009). Phenylephrine. Drugs.com.
Eccles, R. (2007). Substitution of phenylephrine for pseudoephedrine as a nasal decongeststant. An illogical way to control methamphetamine abuse. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology,…… [Read More]
Though a great deal more is known about neurotransmission today than was known at the beginning of the research associated with the initial biological discoveries of neurotransmitters and the neurotransmission process there is still a great deal to be discovered. Neurotransmission disorganization and impairment is clearly identified as a pervasive aspect of many psychological disorders. This is particularly true of the anxiety disorders and OCD. There is no doubt that increased understanding of the various mechanisms of OCD and normal neurotransmission will add to a greater research understanding of the biological causalities and modalities of OCD.
Though the most simplistic and earliest neurotransmission disturbance theories have been largely discounted the research has created ample evidence of disturbances in neurotransmission function (in more complex terms) as the root cause of several psychological disorders including various forms of anxiety disorders the subgroup which OCD falls into.
…this research has revealed the…… [Read More]
Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).
Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).
Other Natural Herbs
SAM-e…… [Read More]