Pharmacology of Beta Lactam Antibiotics
Beta Lactam Antibiotics
This class of antibiotic agents, including penicillin derivatives, (penams), cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, and carbapenems, is the most widely used antibiotic. In fact, more than half of the antibiotics that were commercially sold in 2003 were ?-lactam compounds. Beta lactam antibiotics are characterized by a molecular ?-lactam ring structure (Drawz & Bonomo, 2010). The beta lactam antibiotics inhibit the biosynthesis of the cell walls of bacterial organisms by interfering with the synthesis of peptidoglycan. . The penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are the bacterial enzymes affected by beta lactam antibiotics, which means that beta lactams do not act against microbes that do not have cell walls containing peptidoglycan, such as chlamydiae, mycoplasmata, rickettsiae, and mycobacteria.
The ?-lactam antibiotics are indicated for the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. When first introduced to the market, ?-lactam antibiotics were only effective against Gram-positive bacteria (Drawz & Bonomo, 2010). With further development, ?-lactam antibiotics were formulated to act as broad-spectrum antibiotics that are active against Gram-negative...
The structural integrity of bacterial cell walls is dependent on the peptidoglycan layer. This is particularly true for Gram-positive organism in which the peptidoglycan layer is the primary and outermost component of the cell wall. When ?-Lactam antibiotics are present in the bacterial cell medium while it is dividing, it causes the bacteria to shed cell walls, rendering them unable to divide; instead the bacteria form enlarged and fragile spheroplasts.
Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR)
Common adverse effects of ?-lactam antibiotics include rash, hives (urticarial), diarrhea, nausea, superinfection (particularly of candidiasis). Less frequently, people who are administered ?-lactam antibiotics develop angioedema, dermatitis, erythema, fever, pseudomembranous colitis, vomiting. When ?-lactam antibiotics are administered parenterally, commonly experienced adverse effects are inflammation and pain.
Drug to Drug and Food to Drug Interactions
Patients can experience clinically significant drug-to-drug interactions that can cause substantive…
(16) The drug has better coverage against Gram-positive cocci and atypical pathogens, and it is able to achieve excellent penetration into respiratory fluids and tissues. One particular adverse effect of the drug is that it may result in gastrointestinal disturbances, and thereby affect the individual's metabolism. (17) e) How does metabolism influence clearance, bioactivity and elimination? At times, the metabolism does tend to affect the absorption and the clearance of
Chemo Penicillins are antibiotics derived from the Penicillium mold. They are classified as beta-lactam antibiotics because of their fused beta-lactam structure. They also have a free carboxyl acid group, and one or more substituted amino acid side chains (Ophardt, 2003). Their primary mode of action is to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by preventing the cross linking of peptides on the mucosaccharide chains, thereby causing the bacterial cells to inundate with
When the drug penicillin finds the bacteria, penicillin blocks the bacteria's ability to produce this chemical, making it impossible for the bacteria to perform respiration. Numerous other drugs have been derived from penicillin and are referred to as sulfa drugs. When the goal is to prevent certain bodily functions and reactions from taking place, the drugs used are called hormones. The most commonly used hormones are for birth control. There