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Physical Geology the 'Indian Ocean
Words: 2629 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 29596606
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In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)

After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…


Bernard, Eddie N; Robinson, Allan R. The Sea Tsunamis.

Harvard University Press. 2009.

Bilham, R; Engdahl, E. R; Feldl, N; Satyabala, S.P. Partial and Complete Rupture of the Indo-Andaman plate boundary 1847-2004. University of Colorado, Boulder.

Seism. Res. Lett. 2005.

World Regional Geography
Words: 2680 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29821841
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Regional Geography

hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.

The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…

Works Cited

1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.

2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.

3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.

Geography When I Even Thought About It
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84984597
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geography (when I even thought about it) was that it was a class that I had to take in high school as part of my graduation requirements. Additionally, I believed that it was the study of land including a wide variety of areas such as; mountains, lakes, streams, hills, desert and forest areas. If I considered it, I would also think of it as a subject that I was not very knowledgeable in, nor did I really entertain any thoughts about gaining any knowledge about it.

After attending the lecture and reading the article, I learned (much to my surprise) that geography as a study was much more diverse, interesting and intriguing than what I had previously imagined. I discovered that geography is a field that studies much more than just the physical attributes of Mother Earth. Geography studies more than just the mountains, hills, streams and lakes; it also…

Works Cited

Schlemper, M.B.; Adams, J.K.; Solem, M.; (2014) Geographers in business, government and nonprofit organizations: Skills, challenges and professional identities, Professional Geographer, Vol. 66, Issue 3, pp. 480-493

Geography on Political Cultural and Economic Development
Words: 994 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81771943
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Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley

The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.

Statement of Thesis

The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.

Mesopotamia & Egypt

What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…


Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: 

Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from:

Metamorphism Physical Geology Metamorphism Causes
Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34555526
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The effects of liquids are not a factor in regional metamorphism as fluids cannot circulate due to the effects of pressure upon the rocks, which seal in the circulation of moisture. egional metamorphism occurs in areas of heavy tectonic activity, near the places where the earth's plates rub up against one another. "egional metamorphism can be subdivided into different pressure-temperature conditions based on observed sequences of mineral assemblages. It may include an extreme condition, where partial melting occurs" (Jessey & Tarman 2010). egional metamorphism is commonly found in mountain regions (hence the name regional metamorphism), consisting of foliated rocks developed under medium to high temperatures. "The accompanying pressures vary from low to high. Geothermal gradients, which are likewise moderate to high, produce Buchan and Barrovian Facies series. Because the pressures of Buchan and Barrovian Facies series are commonly higher than are those of Contact Facies Series, they may contain different…


Contact metamorphism. (2010). Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.

Jessey, Dave. Metamorphism. (2010). Geology 101. Pomona College. Retrieved May 12, 2010.

Supercontinent Theory the Physical Geology of the
Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10576083
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Supercontinent Theory

The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift"…


Frankel, H. (2012). The Continental Drift Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, R. (2006). Plate Tectonics -- Great Ideas in Science. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Company.

United States Geological Society. (2009). Plate Tectonics. Retrieved from:

California Geography Fresno The Desert
Words: 1343 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 16494747
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1). Ironically, these workers who feed others are often hungry themselves, even when they bring home some of the rejected crop they harvest to feed their families. A 2007 study of agricultural workers in the area found that nearly half (45%) met the criteria of food insecurity. 34% of respondents were food insecure without hunger while an additional 11% were food insecure with hunger (irth et al. 2007, p.1). "Nearly half (48%) of eligible respondents reported utilizing the food stamp program, which is comparable to 53% of eligible Fresno County residents. However, food stamp participation varies by season. hereas 55% of eligible respondents utilized the program in the winter, only 37% of eligible respondents did so in the summer. Many respondents interviewed during the summer believed they were not eligible for this program because they were working or earned too much" (irth et al. 2007, p.24). They had little or…

Works Cited

Fresno California. Greenwich Mean Time. February 29, 2009. November 29, 2009.

Drury, Pauline. "Fresno." November 29, 2009.

Postcolonial Geography Post-Colonial Geography Questions
Words: 2507 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16647719
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Question 3:

In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."

Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…

Works Cited:

Bederman, G. (1995). Manliness & Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bender, T. (2006). A Nation among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill & Wang:

Cabral, A. (1973). National Liberation and Culture. In Return to the Source: Selected Speeches of Amilcar Cabral. New York: Monthly Review Press: 39-56.

McClintock, A. (1995). Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge.

Environmental Changes the Physical Environmental
Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68287562
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The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. ut not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal,…


Glantz.H. (March 2005) Climate Change Global Warming and Sub-Saharan Africa. Fragile Ecologies. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: s

Global Warming. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: 

Klueger J. (2008). Global Warming Heats Up. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website,,9171,1176980,00.html

Ngos Geography Groundwork and Initial Steps for
Words: 3166 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 263798
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Groundwork and Initial Steps

For this research and analytical paper, we have chosen to work as the members of a small NGO and conduct a research as an executive director of a small non-governmental organization that would utilize its funding of one million dollar donation by establishing its branch in Pakistan, a third world country in order to improve and strengthen the country's educational arena. In this phase, we first had to decide a third world country that actually deserved a good financial aid in the form of a million dollar donation to improve its educational facilities. I came up with Pakistan, because this is one country that unfortunately has one of the most appalling literacy rates and percentages. So, in order to solve the problem at hand that is to answer the question as to where invest the donation, I chose Pakistan. Since, we have twenty years…


Bryson, J.M. (1995). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

State of Education in Pakistan, Care. Retrieved September 6, 2003 at

Coffman J. (1997). Private Higher Education in Pakistan: The Need for Order. Centre for International Higher Education, Boston College. Retrieved September 6, 2003 at 

Ecotourism Society Pakistan (1999). Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Pakistan.

Roles of Physical Cultural & Vernacular Landscapes
Words: 788 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55752382
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As an extension of the sciences of geography and physical morphology, human dimensions research explores various concepts associated with human fairness, risk, biodiversity and sustainability and provides methods to measure public satisfaction and identify different communities of interest, conflict or consensus. Human dimension categories include economics with a focus on the monetary measurement of ecosystems; recreation which seeks to understand the relationship between the recreation setting and human experience; cultural heritage which explores the characteristics of sustainable societies, and lastly environmental psychology and social interactions which involve the measurement of ecosystem-related public perceptions, attitudes and beliefs and the objectives of the concerned parties.

A prime example of this research concerns the findings of the Department of the Interior and its exploration on how human dimensions affect certain areas of the western United States. Research topics associated with these findings…

Works Cited

Alanen, Arnold R. "Grounded in Reality: The Importance of Vernacular Landscapes."

Courier 34 (August 1989): 10-13.

Appleton, Jay. The Experience of Landscape. New York: John Wiley, 1975.

United States Global Change Research Program. The Human Dimensions Program.

Leopold Luna Bergere Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology
Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14426425
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Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Dover Publications, 1995.

Leopold's well-written and insightful book should be a required basic text for anyone interested in geomorphology. Specifically, the author delves into the basics of fluvial geomorphology, otherwise known as the study of the development of landforms under processes that are associated with running water.

Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology was originally written over 35 years ago, and does an amazing job of presenting the basic facts for fluvial geomorphologists. Over the years, a significant amount of additional detail has been added as the field of fluvial geomorphology has expanded.

Leopold's book consists of three main sections. The first part of the book centers on the process of change in the evolving landscape, and how geomorphology relates to field problems. The second part focuses on studies of climate, weather, flooding and erosion. The final third of the book centers on the processes…

Works Cited

Goudie, A. And Thomas, D., eds. The Dictionary of Physical Geography. Blackwell Publishers, 2000.

Hess, Darrel and McKnight, Tom L. Study Guide Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Pearson, 2001.

Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Dover Publications, 1995.

William Renwick The Content of
Words: 5769 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76841378
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The biosphere consists of all living organisms on the planet. The atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere function collectively to provide he environment which sustains the biosphere. These four spheres interact to create ecological systems. These ecosystems, as they are called, are groups of organisms and the nonliving environment which they exist in.

In the process of living and working in an area, people modify the landscape to suit their purposes or tastes. These are called cultural landscapes. Many geographers maintain that the entire surface of the earth constitutes a cultural landscape, as humans have changed the face of the planet to such a great degree. Some geographers also put forth environmentalist theories, which emphasize the role of the environment in human life. The interaction between humans and the environment is a circular effect- environment affects human life and culture, while humans alter and transform the environment. Geographers have studied the ways…

Thermal Transfer Rates for Different Materials
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 60279090
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Differential Heating of Materials

Lab eport in Geography

The heating of materials varies considerable depending on material composition and atmospheric conditions. A considerable amount of the sun's energy can be reflected back into the atmosphere, in a process called albedo (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 1998, p. 36). The average albedo rates for sand, mud, asphalt, and water are approximately 20-30%, 10%, 5-10%, and 3-80%, respectively, depending on the position of the sun relative to the surface of water (p. 40).

The process of heating materials will vary as well. For example, asphalt and dry sand would primarily use conduction for thermal transfer, while bodies of water or air would use convection (p. 30). On the other hand, thermal transfer for wet soil or mud has the added complexity of latent heating (p. 76). Latent heating or evaporation has a strong cooling effect on the liquid moisture remaining, a loss of 600…


Jones, L.L. (2015). Physical Geography Lab Manual: Geography 1401. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing.

Lutgens, F.K. & Tarbuck, E.J. (1998). The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Penokee Range in Wisconsin We
Words: 4206 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86159333
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Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.

The taconite iron ore extraction process

The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…


Broman, A (2011)'Silent Majority' Backs Penokee Mine: Gogebic Taconite President 

Cannon, W.F., (1973)The Penokean orogeny in northern Michigan, in Young, G.M., ed., Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper

Clements, B and Sack, C (2008)Introduction to Mining in the Penokees

Region of Megalopolis Urban Area in Northern
Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63836943
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Region of Megalopolis (urban area in Northern America) and its sub-Region of Nantucket (off Cape Cod)

This paper describes the geographic region of Megalopolis (urban area in Northern America) and its sub-region of Nantucket (off Cape Cod). It also deals with the history of Nantucket and the causes that led to the formation of the megalopolis in northeastern USA. Megalopolis comes from the Greek words for 'very large' (Mega) and city (polis). It basically means a very large city. Jean Gottmann, a Frenchman, coined this term to refer to northeastern USA extending from oston to Washington DC. The idea of Megalopolis existed in Ancient Greece where they attempted to create a very large city in the Peloponnese Peninsula. Their attempt was unsuccessful but the small city of Megalopolis that they created still exists. The concept of Megalopolis lies in the fact that cities are not viewed as individual units but…


Gottmann, Jean. Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1961.

J. Gottman, The Coming of the Transactional City, University of Maryland Institute for Urban Studies, 1983.

Mittleman, Earl. "An Outline of American Geography. United States Information Agency, 1995.

Basingstoke. "Megalopolis: The Giant City in History" Macmillan, 1993

Iraq Is Constantly in the News Today
Words: 825 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63680909
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Iraq is constantly in the news today, as the war in the Middle East continues. It is important to examine specific details of Iraq in order to gain a better understanding of the country.

Basic Information

Iraq is officially known by four different names. These names are: "conventional long form- Republic of Iraq; conventional short form- Iraq; local long form- Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah; local short form- Al Iraq ("

Iraq occupies a total of 437,072 sq km or 271596.5 sq miles, and is "slightly more than twice the size of Idaho (" The country is located in the Middle East, "bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait, with geographic coordinates of 33-00 N, 44-00 E, as compared with the geographic coordinates of the United States of 38-00 N, 97-00 ("

Geographic Features

In terms of physical geography, Iraq is "mostly desert with mild to cool winters and dry,…

Works Cited

(World Factbook- Iraq. (Accessed 29 November, 2004).


Lynching in Virginia
Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89044529
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Lynching in Virginia

The history of lynching in the state of Virginia is still surrounded by many misconceptions. Even though is has been decades since the last of the official lynchings took place, it is still difficult to find reliable and accurate information that accurately represents what went on during that period in history. Many of the primary documents on the issue are relatively sketchy and they avoid the real truth of the matter. Memories that have been passed down through generations are also somewhat sketchy and often they are changed by the passage of time. There are some surviving photographs but they do not really give insight into the meanings and motivations of the tradition, and instead show only the brutality (Allen, 2000).

It does appear, however, that the lynching practice did originate in Virginia with Col. Charles Lynch and some of his associates (rundage, 1993). It is not…


Allen, James, ed., Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America. Santa Fe: Twin Palms

Publishing, 2000.

Brundage, Fitzhugh W. Lynching in the New South: Georgia and Virginia, 1880-1930. Urbana:

University of Illinois Press, 1993.

Water in the Middle East
Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58217118
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While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…


Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992.

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.

Latin American Studies by Philip
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16105563
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This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.

2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…

Grocery Store I Decided to Visit the
Words: 2391 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76649793
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Grocery Store

I decided to visit the local Trader Joe's. The store that I visited actually has an almost identical layout to other Trader Joe's stores that I have visited in the past, with some minor differences in the details.

Design and Physical Surroundings

The main entry aisle sits to the right hand side of the store, aligned with the store's entryway, which is also on that side of the store. The entire store is lit with fluorescent bulbs, typical supermarket lighting, to a very bright level. Immediately, the size of the store seems inadequate for the number of people who are in the store at this point in time, and I tried to come at an off-hour. The first aisle is the only one that is genuinely visible at this point. The store layout features aisles that are slightly off-centered, which is quite unusual for a grocery store. Normally,…


Otterbring, T., Wastlund, E., Gustafsson, A. & Shams, P. (2012). Vision (im)possible: the effects of in-store signage on customers' visual attention. KarlstadsUniversitet.

Underhill, P. (2007). Why we buy: The Science of Shopping. Random House.

Mayan Lowlands and the Environmental Changes
Words: 3391 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69606458
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lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change

Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times

. Analysis of…


Aimers, James J. "What Maya Collapse-Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands." Springer Science+Business Media (2007): 330-337.

Oldfield, F., ed. 1998. Past global changes (PAGES): Status reportand implementation plan. IGBP Report 45. Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme

Dunning, Nicholas, et al. Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.

Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. (1992). El norte y el sur: pol?'tica, dominios y evolucio'n cultural maya.Mayab 8: 134 -- 149

Geographical Pivot of History H J
Words: 1342 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 2947534
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427). The limitations of the steppe people -- for example, the Mongols -- was running into geographical conditions that they were not used to. India was sheltered from invasion by the Tibetan barrier (until a way to go around it was found). These examples show how the lay of the land influences history.

His third key in describing geo-historical dynamics is the technological rivalry between land and sea. His often used term for this is "mobility of power." Mackinder contrasts land-power and sea-power. Land-power during the Columbian period means horses or camels such as those the Mongol hordes used for conquest. These are appropriate instruments for traversing the steppes and engaging in raids across relatively flat land. In contrast to this is sea-power: "Mobility upon the ocean is the natural rival of horse and camel mobility in the heart of the continent" (p. 432). Sea-power is crucial for the outlying…

Works Cited

Mackinder, H.J. (1904). The Geographical Pivot of History. The Geographical Journal, 23(4), 421-437.

Ozone a Little Is Good
Words: 2319 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36495591
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Due to the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 in which 160 of the world's nations joined together in banning CFCs and in an initiative to try to off-set any further effects due to emissions of gases that deplete the Ozone there are many recent reports that the hole in the Ozone layer is becoming smaller.

The "impressive global response to ozone layer destruction," were sung praises of the Secretary-General but also cautioned that it is not a time for complacency. There were minimum effects of decreasing to the ozone levels in the Antarctic during the decade of the 1990's. During 2000 and 2003 the hole extended over 10.8 million square miles or an area larger than the North American Continent.

All damages to the Ozone layer are not of the manmade type. It is known that volcanoes emit sulfuric acid droplets during the course of an eruption. Although it is…


Ricks, Delthia (2004) "U.S. Urban Air Polution: Ground-level Ozone Tied to Deaths"-

Newsday Report [Online] Retrieved from HighBeam Research ttp:// library/doc3.asp?DO CID=1P1:102525028& num=4& ctrlInfo=Round9b%3APro d%3ASR %3AResult& ao=

Fundamental of Physical Geography (nd) Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere: Atmospheric Composition [Online] located at; http://www.physicalgeography.n et/fu ndamenta ls/7a.html

Mukhopadyay, R. (2004) Rubber World: Ozone Attack and Tire Sidewall Protection (Tech Service); 9/1/2004; Mukhopadhyay, R.

Monsoons What Is a Monsoon
Words: 1335 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42916943
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They then separated the core, according to Science News, into 2-mm layers. Those 2-mm layers were carbon-dated (a very accurate way of telling how long a substance has been in the ground) and carefully examined for G. bulloides.

As a result of this research, the team was able to check the intensity of monsoons for as far back as 1,000 years. And what did they discover regarding monsoons over the past one thousand years? There was a "low in monsoon wind intensity" around the year 1,600, the article reports, but since then there has been "a steady increase." And moreover, the abundance of G. bulloides shows the scientists that there has been "a more marked increase in monsoon during the past 100 years.

Researchers attribute the rise in wind intensity from monsoons over the past 100 years to global warming. The reason scientists involved with this research feel sure that…

Works Cited

McKnight, Tom L.; & Hess Darrel. Monsoons. Physical Geography. A Landscape Appreciation.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall

New Scientist. "Deluged Nepal blames India. 195.2626. August 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2008 at .

Science News. "Data hint at wet and blustery future." 162.4. July 2002. Page. 54.

Cupid Eros and Osiris Giza
Words: 2041 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70038891
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However, even though their paintings, carvings and sculptures probably served a more functional purpose than otherwise, this does not mean that they didn't want to add aesthetic value to those things. In the case of this funerary sculpture, however, there is very little aesthetic value added to it, which makes one think that its purpose was purely functional and that it served a very specific purpose.

Eros, on the other hand, made out of terracotta was most likely created for a different usage than that of Osiris. Muratov (2011) states that terracotta figurines in Ancient Greece were used in houses as decorations or they sometimes served as "cult images in small house shrines; some of them functioned as charms to ward off evil." Sometimes they were brought to temples and were given as offerings to the gods, but sometimes they were put on graves as "cherished possessions of the deceased,…

Works Cited

Hamilton, Edith. Mythology. Back Bay Books, 1998. Print.

Lesko, Barbara S. The Great Goddesses of Egypt. University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.


Muratov, M.B. "Greek Terracotta Figurines with Articulated Limbs." The Metropolitan

Environmental Risk Analysis Process
Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36670430
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climate change is having a dramatic impact on the environment and on society. The paper also addresses the difficulties associated with politicians (and in particular, the U.S. Congress) vis-a-vis any meaningful action to slow the warming of the planet.

How does global warming affect daily life for society?

The National Geographic explains that over the past fifty years the average temperature in the United States has risen by 2 degrees and "…extreme weather events have become more frequent and intense" (Didier, 2013). One example of more intense storms -- that have devastating effects on society -- is the recent hurricane (Sandy), which left thousands homeless and destroyed thousands of homes along the New Jersey coastline. But there are other problems associated with global climate change, including rising food prices. Global wheat production was down by 5.5% last year due to "unstable climate" activities; and global corn production was reduced by…

Works Cited

Didier, Suzanna. (2013). How Does Global Warming Affect Daily Life? National Geographic.

Retrieved January 11, 2013, from

Geman, Ben. (2012). House Republicans scrub climate change concerns from EPA bill.

The Hill. Retrieved January 11, 2013, from .

National Planning Dynamics of National
Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 29630375
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36). The United States is very much a patchwork of different approaches.

The Netherlands is a much smaller and more homogeneous country, especially in terms of the major factors that have the most immediate impact on urban planning (unhaar, Driessen, & Soer, 2009). The country is indeed -- as the name suggests -- a low-lying nation, a fact that has required central planning over generations to avoid catastrophic flooding and to ensure that the nation has sufficient arable land. Unlike the United States, which includes lands ranging from desert to tundra and densely population urban areas to very sparsely population plains, the Netherlands as a nation is bound together by its shared geography as well as by a population that has until recently been highly homogeneous. This has meant that almost all planning takes place on the national level and reflects shared cultural ideals about what the nation should and…


Garvin, a. (2002). The American City: What Works, What Doesn't. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Runhaar H., Driessen, PJ., Soer, P. (2009). Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: An assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 36(3): 417 -- 431.

Development of Oil and Gas
Words: 2370 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91618234
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il and Gas

Development of Two Important Materials in Earth's Early History

According to scientists, Earth began its life 4.6 billion years ago, when cosmic dust collided to form increasingly large particles. These particles, after millions of years of colliding and increasing in mass, eventually formed the Earth, with a mass similar to what it is today (5.9736 x 1024 kg or 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg) . Soon, the Earth's atmosphere began to form, as well as various minerals within its core. Studying the Earth is a fascinating endeavor, yet one that comprises extensive research and writing. For the purposes of this paper, I will examine two elements that are of vital importance to human life today: oil and gas. In this study, I will thus speak both about the development of the two materials in the Earth's early history-how they developed, what factors contributed to this development, and when this development…

Oil and gas industries also comprise upstream and downstream exploration. The upstream process includes exploration and production and the downstream refers to refining crude oil and gas, distribution of the two and marketing. Some companies may be "fully integrated," meaning they have capabilities for both upstream and downstream interests; others only concentrate on exploration and production and are known as E&P companies. Furthermore, many companies operate nationally and internationally, while others are "independent." This short description of the oil and gas development process is very important because it can show how two natural fuels found in the Earth are utilized to improve our daily lives, for others' financial gain, of course. [16: "Overview of the oil and gas exploration and production process." Environmental Management in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. < >. ]


This paper has focused upon the development of the two fuels in the Earth's early history and has discussed oil and gas development, complete with how this development process took place, what factors contributed to it and how long it took. Furthermore, the paper has also analyzed the impact of oil and gas towards humanity and the complex process through which these resources are handled today, thus placing this paper's aim in a larger context and showing the importance of this study.

Institutions Describe the Characteristics of
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After the WWII, there was need to bring back peace to Europe in a lasting manner. There was need to bring a halt to international hatred and bring conditions necessary for a lasting peace into being. This was seen to fruition in the 1950s and one of the vehicles towards achieving this was European Union.

The wars that took place un Europe highly ravaged the economy of the country hence there was need to revitalize the economy of the region hence the formation of the EU was not only a political device to forging peace but an economic tool to ensure that the natural resources like coal that are found in abundance in Europe are well utilized to bring the economy of the region to higher levels than even before the war regime (EUOPA, 2011). These were the two major reasons for the formation of the EU apart from the…


EUROPA, (2011). Why the European Union. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from 

Conjecture Corporation, (2011). What is a Nation-State? Retrieved September 14, 2011 from 

Global Policy Forum, (2011). What Is a "Nation"? Retrieved September 16, 2011 from 

Friedrich Balke, (2007). Restating sovereignty: On America's Regaining the Old Sense of the Political. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from

Intercultural Communication Within the Classroom
Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31587896
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A major goal of learning is facilitation of basic literacy and language skills of difference students, the importance of which stems from a persistent school failure in the United States of students with Hispanic, African-American and American Indian background (Gay, 1994). Multicultural education can ease the tensions by teaching skills in a cross-cultural communication style that emphasizes interpersonal relations, perspective taking, contextual analysis and understanding differing points-of-view and frames of reference (Gay, 1994). Students must learn how their cultural condition may affect values, attitudes and beliefs, as well as preferences, expectations and behaviors (Gay, 1994).

As an experienced administrator working within the U.S. school system, I learned that within U.S. society there also still exists a strong ethnic prejudice as well as "ethnocentric values that are based and driven by cultural beliefs not based on fact; there is in fact a tendency in the U.S. To ascribe attributes and behaviors…


Gay, G. (1994). "A synthesis of scholarship in multicultural education." North Central

Regional Educational Laboratory. October 10, 2004, at

Gorski, P. & Covert, B. (2000). "Defining multicultural education." Multicultural

Pavilion. October 11, 2004,

Aquifers and Mass Wasting Factors Considered When
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Aquifers and Mass Wasting

Factors considered when identifying potential aquifers

Depth to water table: Water table refers to that depth below the earth's surface below which there is permanent availability of water. Potential aquifers are mostly located in the region where the water table is relatively closer to the surface of the earth.

Presence of highly permeable soils: Permeability of the soil influences the ability of rainwater or rather surface water to infiltrate into the lower layers of the earth. A region whose soil is permeable is most likely to have critical aquifers. On the other hand, a region with impermeable soil limits water into infiltration to form aquifers.

Presence of flat terrain: Terrain refers to the degree at which the land slopes. Surfaces with flat terrain discourage surface run-off and instead enhances water infiltration into the lower layers of the earth. As a result, the aquifer formed is critical…


Bocanegra, E.M., et al. (2005). Groundwater and Human Development. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis

Petersen, J.F., et al. (2011). Physical Geography. London: Cengage Learning

Robins, N.S. (1998). Groundwater Pollution, Aquifer Recharge, and Vulnerability. London: Geological Society

Stewart, J.M., et al. (2007). Physical Geology: Exploring the Earth. London: Cengage Learning

Glendale Mall Sometimes a Mall to Paraphrase
Words: 2516 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91860799
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Glendale Mall

Sometimes a Mall

To paraphrase Sigmund Freud, sometimes a mall is just a mall. Except that this is almost never true. For Americans who grew up in any city large enough to have its own shopping mall (or who grew up next to a city that was large enough to have its own shopping mall), the mall was a place where many of them learned to be grown-ups. Or at least how grown-ups would be if they had a more-than-usual amount of disposable income and no job to get to. And a lot of hormones to work off.

This paper examines the Glendale as a site in which the commerce that is enacted is far less important that the growing-up that occurs there. The fact that teenagers use malls as a sounding board for their adult lives is never an explicit aspect of the identity of the Glendale…


American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. "U.S. Census Bureau -- Ancestry:2000 -- Glendale city, California." . Retrieved January 29, 2011.

Bean, T. & Moni, K. (2003). Developing students' critical literacy: Exploring identity construction in young adult fiction Journal of adolescent and adult

Gold, E. (1998). Deconstructive approaches in the teaching of texts. In W. Sawyer, K. Watson, & D.R. Gallo (Eds.) Re-viewing English (pp. 198 -- 203). Sydney: St. Clair Press.

Langhorne, R. (2001). The coming of globalization: Its evolution and contemporary consequences. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave.

Elites in Engineering in the
Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 80333793
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Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).

Leades in Bitish Engineeing

Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List

Stuart Hall Revised According to Stuart Hall Culture
Words: 3728 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 86731684
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Stuart Hall/EVISED

According to Stuart Hall, culture is about shared meanings; language is the medium through which meaning is produced and exchanged (Hall, 2003, p. 1). In linking language to identity and culture, Hall uses the word "culture" in an anthropological sense, meaning to distinguish groups of people, whether they belong to a community, nation or social group, by their shared values. The shared values are manifest in literature, art, music and philosophy of the culture. The shared values shape customs and the very fabric of human life, ultimately influencing everything people do. Some shared values are seen in different cultures, while there are a few groups, often in relatively isolated regions of the globe, that have unique values unto themselves, producing customs, practices and beliefs that seem strange to the rest of the world. As Hall puts it, saying that two people belong to the same culture is to…


Benmoktar, A 2009, 'More than Words: Arab Body Language', Love Habibi, [blog] July 2, 2009,

Available at: / [Accessed: March 17, 2012]

Hall, S, ed. 2003. Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices.

Sage Publications, London.

Anallyzing the Cyber Terrorism Phenomenon
Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49253990
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Cyber Terrorism

hat is cyber-crime?

Cybercrime denotes an illegal action committed primarily by deploying technology (or, to be more precise, a computer and internet). America's justice department expands this definition to cover all illegal actions employing computers to store evidence of crime (Tech Target, 2016).

hat is cyber space?

Cyberspace represents a domain characterized by application of electromagnetic spectrum and electronics for storing, altering, and communicating information through networked structures and related physical infrastructures. Basically, one may regard cyberspace as an interlinking of people by means of telecommunication and computers, with no connection with their physical geography (Rouse, 2016).

Problems in prosecuting cyber-crime cases

The internet, when it was first commercialized and made easily accessible and affordable to everyone (earlier, it was accessible only to the government and academicians), was a novel frontier. Akin to the old ild est, the Internet was chiefly unregulated. Lawmakers did not expect it to…

Works Cited

Info Security. (2011). Cybercrime Knows No Borders. Retrieved from 

Opposing Views. (n.d.). Examples of Cyber Crime. Retrieved from

Rouse, M. (2016, Jan 03). Cyberspace. Retrieved from TechTarget: 

Shinder, D. (2011). What makes cybercrime laws so difficult to enforce. Retrieved from Tech Republic:

Kroetsch a Golden Voice When
Words: 994 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79961129
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Its being is a perpetual critique, leaving assumption after assumption dissected, displayed in its forlorn misappreciation for all to see. Indeed -- and here we go postmodernistly -- is there anything other than an intellectual game involved in the linking of the Great Plains to postmodernism or postmodernism to the scholarly study of regionalism? (Kaye and Thacker 167-8).

There are important ways in which Kroetsch is like other chroniclers of the est. For him, the physical geography of the est is an essential character in his novels. His sense of place is vital in his works, and in this his novels mirror many of the literary works of other writers about the est (Luebke 28). Kroetsch describes how the open spaces of the est, and especially the prairies of Canada, have shaped the lives of the peoples who have lived there, both the people who lived there at first and…

Works Cited

Cronon, W. A Place for Stories: Nature, History, and Narrative. Journal of American History 78, 1994. 1347-76. Print

Kaye, F. And R. Thacker. "Gone Back to Alberta": Robert Kroetsch Rewriting the Great Plains. Great Plain Quarterly, 2004. 167-186. Print.

Lane, Richard. The Double Guide: Through the Labyrinth with Robert Kroetsch. The Journal of Commonwealth Literature June 28, 1993. 19-27.

Luebke, F.C. Regionalism and the Great Plains," Western Historical Quarterly 15. 1984. 24-38. Print.

Melt Ice on Roadways and
Words: 1978 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 50003238
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This experiment showed that calcium chloride was the most effective substance tested in melting the ice, but only slightly compared to road salt and ammonium nitrate (3.5 minutes versus 4.25 minutes and 5 minutes, respectively). The results also showed that sand and cat litter required far longer (23 and 30 minutes, respectively) to complete the ice melting compared to 45 minutes for the ice that received no treatment at all. These results indicate that although there are alternative substances available that are slightly more effective at melting ice and snow, road salt is a highly effective tool for melting road ice and snow as well, and it is a more cost-effective method as well. Whether these attributes of road salt offset the corresponding environmental impacts remains unclear.

Conclusion. The results of the experiment confirmed the study's hypothesis that all of the substances tested would melt ice faster than no treatment…


Dziuba, G. (2006, February 22). Road crew budgets have weathered well so far this winter.

Daily Herald, 1.

Fields, S. (2005). Great Lakes: Resource at risk. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(3),


Gypsum on Sandy Loam and
Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 68797780
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20). This observation suggests that the addition of gypsum for erosion-control and soil-stabilization purposes may be more effective during some phases of the soils' evolution compared to others. In this regard, the Australian Soil Health Knowledge Bank adds that, "Soil slaking or dispersion is evident in soils with a high content of fine sand and/or silt (loamy soil) and low organic matter levels, with crusting and hardsetting most common in soils with 10 to 35% clay" (Soil stability, 2011, para. 3). In addition, the crusting and hardsetting processes can in turn affect the infiltration rate that determines a soil's composition, and infiltration rates are highly affected by the concentrations of saline that exist near the surface (Cochrane et al., 2005).

Although soils with high concentrations of saline may be responsive to gypsum applications, the gypsum will likely be required to be reapplied from time to time in order to remain…


Cochrane, B.H., Reichart, J.M., Eltz, F.L. & Norton, L.D. (2005). Controlling soil erosion and runoff with polycrylamide and phosphogypsum on subtropical soil. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 48(1), 149-154.

Orme, A.R. (2001). The physical geography of North America. New York: Oxford University


James, R. (2009). High soil salinity problems and how to correct them. Lawn Care Academy.

Lonely Seniors
Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64417199
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Lonely Seniors

Senior Citizens Do Not Have to be Lonely

A study involving older adults from senior residential facilities in the Chicago area suggests that isolated seniors may experience twice the risk of Alzheimer's disease compared with those who are not lonely or secluded ("Loneliness linked…" 8). Researchers at the University of California San Francisco analyzed data showing loneliness to be particularly debilitating to older adults and may predict serious health problems and even death. There are both psychological ramifications, such as depression, and physiological ramifications that can be addressed by looking at the problem of loneliness.

The elderly are susceptible to feelings of loneliness and isolation because of life changes that often occur at this stage of life. Individuals may have spent all their adult lives in the work place and be unable to deal with too much newfound leisure time. If they had children, their children are grown,…

Works Cited

"Gardner Massachusetts -- Senior Calendar." City of Gardner, MA. Sep. 2012. Web.

17 Sep. 2012.

Kim, Leland. "Loneliness Linked to Serious Health Problems and Death Among Elderly."

University of California San Francisco. 18 Jun 2012. Web. 17 Sep. 2012.

Tide Fluctuations
Words: 1762 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17378575
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Ocean Tides are the periodic rise and fall of the ocean waters due to the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the surface of the earth. This paper is all about oceanic tides in which we shall discuss what causes tides, what are high and low tides, the types of tides, the phenomenon of tidal currents and waves, the effect of tides on the coastlines, and on fishing, and how tides can be harnessed for energy. e shall also discuss other areas in which knowledge of tidal data can prove useful.

hat Causes Tides?

Tides (the periodic rise and fall of the ocean levels) are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun. Apart from the oceans, tides also occur to a lesser extent in large lakes, the atmosphere and in the solid crust of the earth. Although gravity of the moon and the…

Works Cited

Daily Tide Predictions." Nautical Software's Graphical Tide Charts. Tide Data for Gulf of Mexico. 2003. April 17, 2003. 

Davidson, Buck. "Moon Phases: How Should They Affect Your Fishing?" n.d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003.

Solunar Phases: How should they affect your fishing?" n.d. Some Techniques for Fishing in Gulf of Mexico. April 17, 2003.

Gore, Pamela J.W. "Shorelines and Coastal Processes." June 2000. Georgia Perimeter College. April 17, 2003.

Treaty of Ghent
Words: 1323 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48374845
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Treaty of Ghent on the United States as well as how it affected the economy.

Ghent Treaty

The Treaty of Ghent in 1815 set the path for the answer to the Canadian-American territorial disputes. Analysis of this treaty determines that a treaty is successful if it can not only end wars but also take care of other issues as well.

The Treaty of Ghent is evidence that the long-term national interests of the concerned parties are the most important factor in the success of any peace treaty. Before the war both the United States and Great Britain had mutual grievances that were the major cause for war in 1812, but as time elapsed the two nations realized they had a profound interest in peace so the treaty was signed to end the issues that provoked the conflict.

The United States, before the war broke out was trying to focus on…


1997 Winner: National Peace Essay Contest: Education: United States

Institute of Peace, available at , accessed on: October 18, 2003.

Effects of the Embargo Act and War of 1812, available at aster_Historians_Vol_III/embargoac_ba.html, accessed on: October 18, 2003.

Mackinac, United States (U.S. Physical Geography) - 1Up Info

War and Terrorism
Words: 843 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70800887
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War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)

Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.

Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.

However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…


Cheney questions release of more photos." 11 May 2004. The New York Times Online. Available at .

Executive Order 9066." (1942). Available at National Archives and Records Administration.

Government Alliance
Words: 1424 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27202176
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Promoting Organization Citizenship

With advancement in technology world has become a global village. Companies are reaching far away territories and brands are recognized globally. Multinationals have emerged as the driving force of economy as they don't find themselves restricted for resources and target market to any physical geography. Companies design their product at a different facility, test it, mass produce it and market it in different localities according to their goals, all to keep cost low and profitability high. This phenomenon has enabled them to establish their presence across the globe.

Though globalization created new opportunities for firms as it opened new prospective markets, new sources of cheap labor and friendlier laws, it also presented companies with unique challenges in form of highly aware customer and more demanding stake holders. Now all stake holders from customers to share holders, employees to suppliers and from government to local communities expect a…


Johnson, C. (2012). Organizational ethics (1st ed. ). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE Publications.

Greenblatt, J. (2008). The Business of Doing Good.

Small Business - Chron. com,. (2014). What Challenges Does a Business Face Involving Ethics?. Retrieved 17 August 2014, from http://smallbusiness. chron. com/challenges-business-face-involving-ethics-20160. html

Carpenter, M., & Dunung, J. (2013). International business (1st ed. ). Irvington, N.Y.: Flat World Knowledge.

Environmental Systems and Changing Attitudes for the Better
Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37887975
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Environmental Decision Making Ecosystems Approach

What is the author's main point?

The author's main point is to focus on the conflicting needs of stakeholders. He is developing an effective environmental management system to meet the conflicting interests. In these situations, Fish (2011) determined that a flexible and holistic approach must be utilized in conjunction with each other. The combination of these factors enables everyone to create a system that achieves the larger objectives of the organization. While at the same time, it is maintaining a sense of balance between the various interests in society. This is when it will be effective in reducing the adverse ecological impacts and it is taking into consideration all of the other factors that are not accounted for. (Fish, 2011)

Who is the author's intended audience?

Fish's intended audience is individuals who are in business, government, public advocacy groups and environmental organizations. Each one of…


Fish, R. (2011). Environmental Decision Making. Progress in Physical Geography, 35 (5), 671-680.

Schultz, L. (2015). Adaptive Governance, Ecosystem Management and Natural Capital. Proc. Natl. Acad. (112), 7348-7355.

Plotting the Growth of Vegetation
Words: 2331 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71457446
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Plotting of Vegetation

The purpose of this analysis is to describe the vegetation in the forest of the University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus (UBCOC), which is located at the north end of the city of Kelowna, and to note the gradation of vegetation across the slope of the observed plot. Gradation is influenced by variables such as available light, rainfall and ambient moisture, the depth and quality of soil, and shocks to the environment such as soil runoff, pollution, or fire.

Observation was directed at a particular plot of the UBCOC forests area that measures 20 meters by 100 meters and consists of an east-facing slope in the northeast corner of the University of British Columbia campus in Okanagan, which was set aside for study in 2007. Conditions suitable for plant life exist across the plot of land, but not uniformly. For instance, give the slope of the observed…


Magurran, A.E. (1988). Ecological Diversity and its Measurement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Meidinger, D. & Pojar, J. (1991). Ecosystems of British Columbia. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. pp. 330. Retrieved from 

____. (n.d.). Ministry of the Environment, Thompson Region Home. Retreived from 

Pidwirny, M. (2006). Soil classification. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition. Retrieved from

Blue Mountain Big White on
Words: 1979 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11912502
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These waterfalls provide a contrast to Blue Mountain and other mountains. As mountains rise, waterfalls fall. Another question that this project is focused on is the different ways in which waterfalls and mountains are valued differently as well as how they are valued the same in other situations.

This is how the government of Ontario describes and honors the Niagara Escarpment:

Designated a UNESCO World Biosphere eserve in 1990, the Niagara Escarpment is an internationally recognized landform and is the cornerstone of Ontario's Greenbelt. A landscape of rich biodiversity, home to hundreds of Ontario's Species at isk, vital watersheds, agricultural areas and 450-million year old geological history, the Niagara Escarpment is a treasure to protect for future generations of Ontarians. (Niagara Escarpment)

Perhaps it is that waterfalls can be seasonal while mountains remain all year round. But for a mountain that is defined by snow as opposed to just by…


Blue Mountain Skiing, 

Campbell, C.E. (2005). Shaped by the West Wind: Nature and history in Georgian Bay. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

Harris, R.C. (Ed.) (1987). Historical Atlas of Canada, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1800. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Niagara Escarpment,

California's Coastal Ocean Region
Words: 1547 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32670433
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China Sample

California's costal ocean region is characterized with both positive and negative attributes. The California Coastal egion is along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. This area is a beautiful, desirable area to live in, causing real estate to be among the highest in the United States. In fact, this area was one of the fastest to recover after the great recession of 2008, due primarily to its natural beauty. In addition, the per capita income for families in the area is also usually higher than the general population in the country. This fact is intuitive as higher income families are those best able to afford the beauty and natural elements in which the California costal region offers. There are many rivers and streams that lead out to the ocean. The popular edwood Forest is also within the vicinity of the costal region. There are beautiful mountains and sand…


1) Beckey, Fred W. (2000). Cascade Alpine Guide: Columbia River to Stevens Pass. Mountaineers Press. p. 11

2) Harris, S.L. (2005). Fire Mountains of the West: The Cascade and Mono Lake Volcanoes. Mountain Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-87842-511-2.

3) Smith, Genny; Putnam, Jeff (1976). Deepest Valley: a Guide to Owens Valley, its roadsides and mountain trails (2nd ed.). Genny Smith books. ISBN 0-931378-14-1.

4) Sawyer, John O. (2006). Northwest California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Biology Species Within a Given Population Will
Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 42368582
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Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.

Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.

Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.

Characteristics of…


"Tiny Gecko Species Discovered in Vanuatu Rainforest," (2008). Retrieved online: 

Uthicke, S. (1999). Sediment bioturbation and impact of feeding activity of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra and Stichopus chloronotus, two sediment feeding holothurians, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 64(1): 129-141.

Formed to What Their Value Is as
Words: 1636 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26133361
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formed to what their value is as well as the characteristics of diamonds.


Diamonds are forever! They are the most beautiful, extraordinarily brilliant, hardest, and highly desired out of all the gems. The word "diamond" holds many different meanings for many different people. The meaning of the gem depends on the occasion or interest one holds in the gem. On wedding and engagement ceremonies, diamonds are given to the couple because for one's fiancee or wife, a diamond is symbolizes purity and commitment to never-ending love. We often hear the brand mantra of De Beers "A Diamond is Forever." For the Sports Fan, a diamond is the focus of American baseball; to the gambler or bridge addict, it signifies a suit of playing cards; to the rich and famous, the commodity represents wealth and status; to the monarchist, its beauty, rarity and durability symbolize royalty. However, the question we…


Anderson, B.W., Gem Testing. Heywood & co. Ltd., London

Kraus, E.H., Hunt, W.F., Ramsdell, L.S., Mineralogy - An Introduction to the Study of Minerals and Crystals, McGraw-Hill, New York - London

McCarthy, J. R, Fire in the Earth - The Story of the Diamond. Robert Hale Ltd., London.

Schumann, Walter, Gemstones of the World, Sterling Inc. N.Y

Environmental Systems in the Past
Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 751326
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Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…


Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from

Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management

Journal, 62(2), 4-5.

Groundwater and Hydrology
Words: 4470 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53233682
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Groundwater & Hydrology

Water is the most cast off natural material in the earth. Irrespective of variations in its supply with the pace of time and location its aggregate quantity remains constant. The transformation of the water takes place through a continuation process referred to as hydrological cycle deriving its momentum through the solar energy and gravity. Down pouring of rain consequent upon condensation of clouds are extracted by the roots of plants, flooded over the surface joining the streams and rivers and to some extent absorbed by the earth to form the reservoir of underwater. Vaporization of water from water reservoirs, and transpiration of plants makes the water back to atmosphere.

The invisible underwater, which is the result of the continuous process of hydrological cycle, constitutes the key source of the water. This is also considered as the primary reservoir of pure water in a nation. Presently, the assessments…


Barringer, T.A; Dunn, D; Battaglin, W; Vowinkel, E.F. (1990) "Problems and Methods involved in Relating Land Use to Ground-Water Quality" Water-Resources Bulletin. Volume: 26; No: 1; pp: 1-9.

Cesare, Dosi. (2001) "Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management" Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht

Freeze, R. A; Cherry, J.A. (1979) "Groundwater" Prentice Hall, Inc.

Hubbert, M.K. (1956) "Darcy's Law and the Field Equations of the Flow of Underground Fluids" AIME Transact. Volume: 207. pp: 222-239

Using Metal Injection Molding for Gas Turbine Component Manufacture
Words: 2823 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 52274388
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Metallic Powder Injection Molding for Gas Turbines

Invented by Hans-Joachin Pabst von Ohain and Frank Whittle in the 1930s, gas turbines have become essential technologies for global transportation and international trade today (Anderson, 2011). In fact, gas turbines are among the most efficient machines ever designed for transporting large amounts of cargo for long-distances and these technologies boast the lowest carbon dioxide emission rates in terms of per tons miles compared to other transportation technologies (Anderson, 2011). A typical gas turbine engine and its main constituent components is depicted in Figure 1 below.

Additional refinements and innovations in gas turbine technologies are expected to further increase these efficiencies (Anderson, 2011). One such technology is metallic powder injection molding for gas turbines. Metallic powder injection molding is a technique that can be used to manufacture components/parts in the medical field, aerospace and other industries. The plan is to use metal…


Anderson, B. (2011, Fall). Review: Prime movers of globalization: The history and impact of diesel engines and gas turbines. Electronic Green Journal, 32, 1-4.

Ferri, O. M. & Ebel, T. (2011, January 17). The Influence of a small boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V fabricated by metal injection moulding. Advanced Engineering Materials, 13(5), 436-447.

Hastelloy X technical data. (2016). High Temp Metals. Retrieved from http://www.high

INCONEL 625. (2015). Special Metals. Retrieved from  / documents/alloys / inconel/inconel-alloy-625.pdf.

Magic Mountain Thomas Mann's the
Words: 1601 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73037791
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On several occasions he is tempted by the opportunity to return to the working world. After a time, he feels that he has become enriched by the "adventures of the flesh and the spirit" that the Mountain has presented him, and would have much to contribute were he to return (Mann, 994). The first signs of tuberculosis provide him the pretext to remain, initially, and spend his days dreaming of Clawdia. However, upon the first anniversary of his visit he is unequivocally branded fit for departure; this fact, Castorp refuses to accept. Castorp's uncle also comes to rescue him from the appeal of the Mountain, but finds that he must leave before he too succumbs to its charms.

Still, these interruptions of Castorp's dream-like existence are menial by comparison to the definitively external event that eventually lands him on a battlefield in Flanders -- the outbreak of war. Again, despite…

Works Cited

Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1958.