Oceanography is the field of geography that studies the origin and development of the oceans, including how they move, the life forms within it, and how to use its resources wisely and safely. It'd an interdisciplinary field of study that by necessity combines geography with biology, meteorology, chemistry, physics and even mathematics (ollege Board, 2005). Those who study oceanography must have a broad-based education in the sciences.
The physical properties of the ocean and the layers of Earth under it are of interest to a variety of businesses. All international shipping requires accurate information regarding such things as ocean currents. In addition, they need to understand the delicate balance of the ocean ecology, which is strongly affected by the geography of the ocean. Another industry profoundly affected by oceanography is the oil industry, as vast stores of oil have been found under the ocean's bottom. An accurate knowledge of…… [Read More]
According to the information presented in Chapter 8 "Weather ," thunderstorms and tornadoes are two types of severe weather. Compare and contrast the two types of violent weather. Why is Arizona a good place to study (or "chase") thunderstorms and the Midwest a good place to study (or "chase") tornadoes?
Both thunderstorms and tornadoes are fueled by the same kind of conditions most notably: dry hot weather that is coupled with moisture that is coming out of the south. Usually, inside the thunderstorms is when tornados will more than likely appear. Arizona is a good place to study thunderstorms because of the Arizona Monsoon. This is when tremendous amounts of tropical moisture will move up from the Pacific and Gulf of California into the Arizona desert. The dry heat that is combined with this moisture creates thunderstorms. This is what makes Arizona a good place to study thunderstorms.…… [Read More]
National Public Radio, "Scientists Debate Shading Earth As Climate Fix" talks about the importance of reengineering, a concept that has been explored at a National Academy of Sciences meeting, to potentially help halt global warming. To potentially stop global warming, climate researchers have proposed to release aerosols into the stratosphere that would cool the earth- similar to how volcanoes cool the Earth after they erupt. Though there are hesitations as to whether being able to control the environment is something that should be done in the first place. Furthermore, because this concept of geoengineering the environment is novel there are other concerns related to it including the possible initiation of drought or famine in some regions. Simply put, there needs to be far more research on the issue before it is able to be brought to the table as a possible option in the future for global warming.
The ideas…… [Read More]
physical geography. There is one reference used for this paper.
Physical geography is used in a variety of aspects throughout the world today. It is important to answer some questions about physical geography in order to better understand it.
Questions About Geography
The major themes and ideas in physical geography before 1950 were "Uniformatarianism, Evolution-Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, Exploration and Survey, and Conservation (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html)." After 1950, "Quantitative Revolution and the study of Human/Land Relationships (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html)" were the two main influences on physical geography.
Physical geography differs from human geography in that it deals with the physical elements such as water, air, rocks, weather, climate, etc. Human geography deals with aspects of human life such as population, religion, politics, agriculture, etc.
Physical geography is the study of "spatial patterns of weather and climate, soils, vegetation, animals, water in all its forms, and landforms (http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/contents.html)."
Some of the sub-fields in physical…… [Read More]
Topography of Louisiana
Louisiana encompasses an area of 51,844 square miles, and is the 31st largest state. The elevations of Louisiana range from 8 ft below sea level at New Orleans to a maximum of 535 ft at Driskill Mt, with a mean elevation of 100-ft (Buchanan, W.C., 1957, pp1-6). Along the Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana's coastline is 397 miles long. All of Louisiana lies within the Gulf Coastal Plain. There are three subregions of the Gulf Coastal Plain; the East Gulf Coastal Plain, the West Gulf Coastal Plain, and the Mississippi Alluvial Plane. The Florida Parishes are a part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain, and western Louisiana is a part of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The Mississippi Alluvial Plain separates the East and West Plains. Louisiana has a number of geographic regions, which are defined on the basis of climate, soil, relief, and vegetation (Buchanan, 1957, pp1-6).…… [Read More]
Demographics of the United States of America as Compared to the African Country of Angola
This paper looks at the demographic figures of the United States of America and the City of Los Angeles and compares the country of America with the African Country of Angola, looking at the population pyramids of both.
Comparison of a developed and undeveloped country
The city of Los Angeles; California it is the second most populated City within the United States, and has a population of around three point seven million The City of Los Angeles, California is the second most populous City in the United States
CITY, POPULATION STATISTICS
City of Los Angeles
Census for 1980, 1990 and 2000; other figures are California Department of Finance estimates as of January 1 of each year)
As can be seen by the figures above the population of the city of Los Angeles has grown by…… [Read More]
In fact, the entire damage was caused by the tsunami itself along with other factors like the geology and geography of the region. The damage that the tsunami caused to mainland India, a seismically quiescent region, was concentrated mainly on the eastern coastline but some damage due to diffraction also occurred on the southernmost tip of the western coastline. A factor which played a major role in the scale of devastation that occurred in this region is the bathymetry of the Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is quite shallow with an average depth of 2600 meters. The shallowness can be attributed to the huge amount of sediment that the Ganges iver deposits in it. (Strand; Masek, 40)
After the earthquake, the bay was sealed off by the deep Sunda Trench and the tsunami waves were reflected back towards the Indian Ocean striking the eastern Indian coastline within two…… [Read More]
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…… [Read More]
geography (when I even thought about it) was that it was a class that I had to take in high school as part of my graduation requirements. Additionally, I believed that it was the study of land including a wide variety of areas such as; mountains, lakes, streams, hills, desert and forest areas. If I considered it, I would also think of it as a subject that I was not very knowledgeable in, nor did I really entertain any thoughts about gaining any knowledge about it.
After attending the lecture and reading the article, I learned (much to my surprise) that geography as a study was much more diverse, interesting and intriguing than what I had previously imagined. I discovered that geography is a field that studies much more than just the physical attributes of Mother Earth. Geography studies more than just the mountains, hills, streams and lakes; it also…… [Read More]
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…… [Read More]
The effects of liquids are not a factor in regional metamorphism as fluids cannot circulate due to the effects of pressure upon the rocks, which seal in the circulation of moisture. egional metamorphism occurs in areas of heavy tectonic activity, near the places where the earth's plates rub up against one another. "egional metamorphism can be subdivided into different pressure-temperature conditions based on observed sequences of mineral assemblages. It may include an extreme condition, where partial melting occurs" (Jessey & Tarman 2010). egional metamorphism is commonly found in mountain regions (hence the name regional metamorphism), consisting of foliated rocks developed under medium to high temperatures. "The accompanying pressures vary from low to high. Geothermal gradients, which are likewise moderate to high, produce Buchan and Barrovian Facies series. Because the pressures of Buchan and Barrovian Facies series are commonly higher than are those of Contact Facies Series, they may contain different…… [Read More]
The physical geology of the earth consists of a Core (inner and outer), the mantle, the asthenosphere and the lithosphere. The lithosphere is the crust and upper mantle of the earth that is the hard and rigid layer in which humans live. This portion of the earth reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere through erosion and weathering, resulting in the soil forming process (Johnson, 2006). These layers of the earth are constantly in motion, giving us the Plate Tectonics, or Continental Drift, theory. Briefly, the theory states that the continents move across the molten plate of the earth -- drifting over time based on the rotation of the earth. The early evidence for this, of course, was that the eastern part of South America and Western Part of Africa fit together quite well. However, studies after 1958 show that there are three major reasons why the "drift"…… [Read More]
1). Ironically, these workers who feed others are often hungry themselves, even when they bring home some of the rejected crop they harvest to feed their families. A 2007 study of agricultural workers in the area found that nearly half (45%) met the criteria of food insecurity. 34% of respondents were food insecure without hunger while an additional 11% were food insecure with hunger (irth et al. 2007, p.1). "Nearly half (48%) of eligible respondents reported utilizing the food stamp program, which is comparable to 53% of eligible Fresno County residents. However, food stamp participation varies by season. hereas 55% of eligible respondents utilized the program in the winter, only 37% of eligible respondents did so in the summer. Many respondents interviewed during the summer believed they were not eligible for this program because they were working or earned too much" (irth et al. 2007, p.24). They had little or…… [Read More]
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…… [Read More]
The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. ut not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal,…… [Read More]
Groundwork and Initial Steps
For this research and analytical paper, we have chosen to work as the members of a small NGO and conduct a research as an executive director of a small non-governmental organization that would utilize its funding of one million dollar donation by establishing its branch in Pakistan, a third world country in order to improve and strengthen the country's educational arena. In this phase, we first had to decide a third world country that actually deserved a good financial aid in the form of a million dollar donation to improve its educational facilities. I came up with Pakistan, because this is one country that unfortunately has one of the most appalling literacy rates and percentages. So, in order to solve the problem at hand that is to answer the question as to where invest the donation, I chose Pakistan. Since, we have twenty years…… [Read More]
ROLES OF PHYSICAL, CULTURAL & VERNACULAR
LANDSCAPES IN HUMAN DIMENSIONS RESEARCH
As an extension of the sciences of geography and physical morphology, human dimensions research explores various concepts associated with human fairness, risk, biodiversity and sustainability and provides methods to measure public satisfaction and identify different communities of interest, conflict or consensus. Human dimension categories include economics with a focus on the monetary measurement of ecosystems; recreation which seeks to understand the relationship between the recreation setting and human experience; cultural heritage which explores the characteristics of sustainable societies, and lastly environmental psychology and social interactions which involve the measurement of ecosystem-related public perceptions, attitudes and beliefs and the objectives of the concerned parties.
A prime example of this research concerns the findings of the Department of the Interior and its exploration on how human dimensions affect certain areas of the western United States. Research topics associated with these findings…… [Read More]
Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Dover Publications, 1995.
Leopold's well-written and insightful book should be a required basic text for anyone interested in geomorphology. Specifically, the author delves into the basics of fluvial geomorphology, otherwise known as the study of the development of landforms under processes that are associated with running water.
Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology was originally written over 35 years ago, and does an amazing job of presenting the basic facts for fluvial geomorphologists. Over the years, a significant amount of additional detail has been added as the field of fluvial geomorphology has expanded.
Leopold's book consists of three main sections. The first part of the book centers on the process of change in the evolving landscape, and how geomorphology relates to field problems. The second part focuses on studies of climate, weather, flooding and erosion. The final third of the book centers on the processes…… [Read More]
The biosphere consists of all living organisms on the planet. The atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere function collectively to provide he environment which sustains the biosphere. These four spheres interact to create ecological systems. These ecosystems, as they are called, are groups of organisms and the nonliving environment which they exist in.
In the process of living and working in an area, people modify the landscape to suit their purposes or tastes. These are called cultural landscapes. Many geographers maintain that the entire surface of the earth constitutes a cultural landscape, as humans have changed the face of the planet to such a great degree. Some geographers also put forth environmentalist theories, which emphasize the role of the environment in human life. The interaction between humans and the environment is a circular effect- environment affects human life and culture, while humans alter and transform the environment. Geographers have studied the ways…… [Read More]
Differential Heating of Materials
Lab eport in Geography
The heating of materials varies considerable depending on material composition and atmospheric conditions. A considerable amount of the sun's energy can be reflected back into the atmosphere, in a process called albedo (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 1998, p. 36). The average albedo rates for sand, mud, asphalt, and water are approximately 20-30%, 10%, 5-10%, and 3-80%, respectively, depending on the position of the sun relative to the surface of water (p. 40).
The process of heating materials will vary as well. For example, asphalt and dry sand would primarily use conduction for thermal transfer, while bodies of water or air would use convection (p. 30). On the other hand, thermal transfer for wet soil or mud has the added complexity of latent heating (p. 76). Latent heating or evaporation has a strong cooling effect on the liquid moisture remaining, a loss of 600…… [Read More]
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…… [Read More]
Region of Megalopolis (urban area in Northern America) and its sub-Region of Nantucket (off Cape Cod)
This paper describes the geographic region of Megalopolis (urban area in Northern America) and its sub-region of Nantucket (off Cape Cod). It also deals with the history of Nantucket and the causes that led to the formation of the megalopolis in northeastern USA. Megalopolis comes from the Greek words for 'very large' (Mega) and city (polis). It basically means a very large city. Jean Gottmann, a Frenchman, coined this term to refer to northeastern USA extending from oston to Washington DC. The idea of Megalopolis existed in Ancient Greece where they attempted to create a very large city in the Peloponnese Peninsula. Their attempt was unsuccessful but the small city of Megalopolis that they created still exists. The concept of Megalopolis lies in the fact that cities are not viewed as individual units but…… [Read More]
Iraq is constantly in the news today, as the war in the Middle East continues. It is important to examine specific details of Iraq in order to gain a better understanding of the country.
Iraq is officially known by four different names. These names are: "conventional long form- Republic of Iraq; conventional short form- Iraq; local long form- Al Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah; local short form- Al Iraq (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."
Iraq occupies a total of 437,072 sq km or 271596.5 sq miles, and is "slightly more than twice the size of Idaho (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)." The country is located in the Middle East, "bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait, with geographic coordinates of 33-00 N, 44-00 E, as compared with the geographic coordinates of the United States of 38-00 N, 97-00 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/iz.html)."
In terms of physical geography, Iraq is "mostly desert with mild to cool winters and dry,…… [Read More]
Lynching in Virginia
The history of lynching in the state of Virginia is still surrounded by many misconceptions. Even though is has been decades since the last of the official lynchings took place, it is still difficult to find reliable and accurate information that accurately represents what went on during that period in history. Many of the primary documents on the issue are relatively sketchy and they avoid the real truth of the matter. Memories that have been passed down through generations are also somewhat sketchy and often they are changed by the passage of time. There are some surviving photographs but they do not really give insight into the meanings and motivations of the tradition, and instead show only the brutality (Allen, 2000).
It does appear, however, that the lynching practice did originate in Virginia with Col. Charles Lynch and some of his associates (rundage, 1993). It is not…… [Read More]
As a consequence, Turkey is uniquely positioned to sell to all of these different customers, as its position on the map indicates.
The market research process can be different in the international context. The first issue is that the purpose of the market entry has to be defined. Once this has been established -- suppose the objective is to set up textile manufacturing in Turkey -- then the research can focus on how. There are significant differences that might arise with respect to the access to information in foreign markets, however. hile Turkey is relatively transparent, some other markets are not. Turkish firms are exporting to Iraq, for example, but there are no real market statistics for that market. Such firms may be run by Kurds and trading mainly with Iraqi Kurdistan, for example, using connections to bridge the knowledge gap. In addition, where at home one can…… [Read More]
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…… [Read More]
I decided to visit the local Trader Joe's. The store that I visited actually has an almost identical layout to other Trader Joe's stores that I have visited in the past, with some minor differences in the details.
Design and Physical Surroundings
The main entry aisle sits to the right hand side of the store, aligned with the store's entryway, which is also on that side of the store. The entire store is lit with fluorescent bulbs, typical supermarket lighting, to a very bright level. Immediately, the size of the store seems inadequate for the number of people who are in the store at this point in time, and I tried to come at an off-hour. The first aisle is the only one that is genuinely visible at this point. The store layout features aisles that are slightly off-centered, which is quite unusual for a grocery store. Normally,…… [Read More]
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…… [Read More]
427). The limitations of the steppe people -- for example, the Mongols -- was running into geographical conditions that they were not used to. India was sheltered from invasion by the Tibetan barrier (until a way to go around it was found). These examples show how the lay of the land influences history.
His third key in describing geo-historical dynamics is the technological rivalry between land and sea. His often used term for this is "mobility of power." Mackinder contrasts land-power and sea-power. Land-power during the Columbian period means horses or camels such as those the Mongol hordes used for conquest. These are appropriate instruments for traversing the steppes and engaging in raids across relatively flat land. In contrast to this is sea-power: "Mobility upon the ocean is the natural rival of horse and camel mobility in the heart of the continent" (p. 432). Sea-power is crucial for the outlying…… [Read More]
Due to the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 in which 160 of the world's nations joined together in banning CFCs and in an initiative to try to off-set any further effects due to emissions of gases that deplete the Ozone there are many recent reports that the hole in the Ozone layer is becoming smaller.
The "impressive global response to ozone layer destruction," were sung praises of the Secretary-General but also cautioned that it is not a time for complacency. There were minimum effects of decreasing to the ozone levels in the Antarctic during the decade of the 1990's. During 2000 and 2003 the hole extended over 10.8 million square miles or an area larger than the North American Continent.
All damages to the Ozone layer are not of the manmade type. It is known that volcanoes emit sulfuric acid droplets during the course of an eruption. Although it is…… [Read More]
They then separated the core, according to Science News, into 2-mm layers. Those 2-mm layers were carbon-dated (a very accurate way of telling how long a substance has been in the ground) and carefully examined for G. bulloides.
As a result of this research, the team was able to check the intensity of monsoons for as far back as 1,000 years. And what did they discover regarding monsoons over the past one thousand years? There was a "low in monsoon wind intensity" around the year 1,600, the article reports, but since then there has been "a steady increase." And moreover, the abundance of G. bulloides shows the scientists that there has been "a more marked increase in monsoon during the past 100 years.
Researchers attribute the rise in wind intensity from monsoons over the past 100 years to global warming. The reason scientists involved with this research feel sure that…… [Read More]
However, even though their paintings, carvings and sculptures probably served a more functional purpose than otherwise, this does not mean that they didn't want to add aesthetic value to those things. In the case of this funerary sculpture, however, there is very little aesthetic value added to it, which makes one think that its purpose was purely functional and that it served a very specific purpose.
Eros, on the other hand, made out of terracotta was most likely created for a different usage than that of Osiris. Muratov (2011) states that terracotta figurines in Ancient Greece were used in houses as decorations or they sometimes served as "cult images in small house shrines; some of them functioned as charms to ward off evil." Sometimes they were brought to temples and were given as offerings to the gods, but sometimes they were put on graves as "cherished possessions of the deceased,…… [Read More]
climate change is having a dramatic impact on the environment and on society. The paper also addresses the difficulties associated with politicians (and in particular, the U.S. Congress) vis-a-vis any meaningful action to slow the warming of the planet.
How does global warming affect daily life for society?
The National Geographic explains that over the past fifty years the average temperature in the United States has risen by 2 degrees and "…extreme weather events have become more frequent and intense" (Didier, 2013). One example of more intense storms -- that have devastating effects on society -- is the recent hurricane (Sandy), which left thousands homeless and destroyed thousands of homes along the New Jersey coastline. But there are other problems associated with global climate change, including rising food prices. Global wheat production was down by 5.5% last year due to "unstable climate" activities; and global corn production was reduced by…… [Read More]
36). The United States is very much a patchwork of different approaches.
The Netherlands is a much smaller and more homogeneous country, especially in terms of the major factors that have the most immediate impact on urban planning (unhaar, Driessen, & Soer, 2009). The country is indeed -- as the name suggests -- a low-lying nation, a fact that has required central planning over generations to avoid catastrophic flooding and to ensure that the nation has sufficient arable land. Unlike the United States, which includes lands ranging from desert to tundra and densely population urban areas to very sparsely population plains, the Netherlands as a nation is bound together by its shared geography as well as by a population that has until recently been highly homogeneous. This has meant that almost all planning takes place on the national level and reflects shared cultural ideals about what the nation should and…… [Read More]
il and Gas
Development of Two Important Materials in Earth's Early History
According to scientists, Earth began its life 4.6 billion years ago, when cosmic dust collided to form increasingly large particles. These particles, after millions of years of colliding and increasing in mass, eventually formed the Earth, with a mass similar to what it is today (5.9736 x 1024 kg or 5,973,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg) . Soon, the Earth's atmosphere began to form, as well as various minerals within its core. Studying the Earth is a fascinating endeavor, yet one that comprises extensive research and writing. For the purposes of this paper, I will examine two elements that are of vital importance to human life today: oil and gas. In this study, I will thus speak both about the development of the two materials in the Earth's early history-how they developed, what factors contributed to this development, and when this development…… [Read More]
After the WWII, there was need to bring back peace to Europe in a lasting manner. There was need to bring a halt to international hatred and bring conditions necessary for a lasting peace into being. This was seen to fruition in the 1950s and one of the vehicles towards achieving this was European Union.
The wars that took place un Europe highly ravaged the economy of the country hence there was need to revitalize the economy of the region hence the formation of the EU was not only a political device to forging peace but an economic tool to ensure that the natural resources like coal that are found in abundance in Europe are well utilized to bring the economy of the region to higher levels than even before the war regime (EUOPA, 2011). These were the two major reasons for the formation of the EU apart from the…… [Read More]
A major goal of learning is facilitation of basic literacy and language skills of difference students, the importance of which stems from a persistent school failure in the United States of students with Hispanic, African-American and American Indian background (Gay, 1994). Multicultural education can ease the tensions by teaching skills in a cross-cultural communication style that emphasizes interpersonal relations, perspective taking, contextual analysis and understanding differing points-of-view and frames of reference (Gay, 1994). Students must learn how their cultural condition may affect values, attitudes and beliefs, as well as preferences, expectations and behaviors (Gay, 1994).
As an experienced administrator working within the U.S. school system, I learned that within U.S. society there also still exists a strong ethnic prejudice as well as "ethnocentric values that are based and driven by cultural beliefs not based on fact; there is in fact a tendency in the U.S. To ascribe attributes and behaviors…… [Read More]
Aquifers and Mass Wasting
Factors considered when identifying potential aquifers
Depth to water table: Water table refers to that depth below the earth's surface below which there is permanent availability of water. Potential aquifers are mostly located in the region where the water table is relatively closer to the surface of the earth.
Presence of highly permeable soils: Permeability of the soil influences the ability of rainwater or rather surface water to infiltrate into the lower layers of the earth. A region whose soil is permeable is most likely to have critical aquifers. On the other hand, a region with impermeable soil limits water into infiltration to form aquifers.
Presence of flat terrain: Terrain refers to the degree at which the land slopes. Surfaces with flat terrain discourage surface run-off and instead enhances water infiltration into the lower layers of the earth. As a result, the aquifer formed is critical…… [Read More]
Sometimes a Mall
To paraphrase Sigmund Freud, sometimes a mall is just a mall. Except that this is almost never true. For Americans who grew up in any city large enough to have its own shopping mall (or who grew up next to a city that was large enough to have its own shopping mall), the mall was a place where many of them learned to be grown-ups. Or at least how grown-ups would be if they had a more-than-usual amount of disposable income and no job to get to. And a lot of hormones to work off.
This paper examines the Glendale as a site in which the commerce that is enacted is far less important that the growing-up that occurs there. The fact that teenagers use malls as a sounding board for their adult lives is never an explicit aspect of the identity of the Glendale…… [Read More]
Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).
Leades in Bitish Engineeing
Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]
According to Stuart Hall, culture is about shared meanings; language is the medium through which meaning is produced and exchanged (Hall, 2003, p. 1). In linking language to identity and culture, Hall uses the word "culture" in an anthropological sense, meaning to distinguish groups of people, whether they belong to a community, nation or social group, by their shared values. The shared values are manifest in literature, art, music and philosophy of the culture. The shared values shape customs and the very fabric of human life, ultimately influencing everything people do. Some shared values are seen in different cultures, while there are a few groups, often in relatively isolated regions of the globe, that have unique values unto themselves, producing customs, practices and beliefs that seem strange to the rest of the world. As Hall puts it, saying that two people belong to the same culture is to…… [Read More]
hat is cyber-crime?
Cybercrime denotes an illegal action committed primarily by deploying technology (or, to be more precise, a computer and internet). America's justice department expands this definition to cover all illegal actions employing computers to store evidence of crime (Tech Target, 2016).
hat is cyber space?
Cyberspace represents a domain characterized by application of electromagnetic spectrum and electronics for storing, altering, and communicating information through networked structures and related physical infrastructures. Basically, one may regard cyberspace as an interlinking of people by means of telecommunication and computers, with no connection with their physical geography (Rouse, 2016).
Problems in prosecuting cyber-crime cases
The internet, when it was first commercialized and made easily accessible and affordable to everyone (earlier, it was accessible only to the government and academicians), was a novel frontier. Akin to the old ild est, the Internet was chiefly unregulated. Lawmakers did not expect it to…… [Read More]
Its being is a perpetual critique, leaving assumption after assumption dissected, displayed in its forlorn misappreciation for all to see. Indeed -- and here we go postmodernistly -- is there anything other than an intellectual game involved in the linking of the Great Plains to postmodernism or postmodernism to the scholarly study of regionalism? (Kaye and Thacker 167-8).
There are important ways in which Kroetsch is like other chroniclers of the est. For him, the physical geography of the est is an essential character in his novels. His sense of place is vital in his works, and in this his novels mirror many of the literary works of other writers about the est (Luebke 28). Kroetsch describes how the open spaces of the est, and especially the prairies of Canada, have shaped the lives of the peoples who have lived there, both the people who lived there at first and…… [Read More]
This experiment showed that calcium chloride was the most effective substance tested in melting the ice, but only slightly compared to road salt and ammonium nitrate (3.5 minutes versus 4.25 minutes and 5 minutes, respectively). The results also showed that sand and cat litter required far longer (23 and 30 minutes, respectively) to complete the ice melting compared to 45 minutes for the ice that received no treatment at all. These results indicate that although there are alternative substances available that are slightly more effective at melting ice and snow, road salt is a highly effective tool for melting road ice and snow as well, and it is a more cost-effective method as well. Whether these attributes of road salt offset the corresponding environmental impacts remains unclear.
Conclusion. The results of the experiment confirmed the study's hypothesis that all of the substances tested would melt ice faster than no treatment…… [Read More]
20). This observation suggests that the addition of gypsum for erosion-control and soil-stabilization purposes may be more effective during some phases of the soils' evolution compared to others. In this regard, the Australian Soil Health Knowledge Bank adds that, "Soil slaking or dispersion is evident in soils with a high content of fine sand and/or silt (loamy soil) and low organic matter levels, with crusting and hardsetting most common in soils with 10 to 35% clay" (Soil stability, 2011, para. 3). In addition, the crusting and hardsetting processes can in turn affect the infiltration rate that determines a soil's composition, and infiltration rates are highly affected by the concentrations of saline that exist near the surface (Cochrane et al., 2005).
Although soils with high concentrations of saline may be responsive to gypsum applications, the gypsum will likely be required to be reapplied from time to time in order to remain…… [Read More]
There are countless civic organizations and community services throughout the city, including Agency for International Development, American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association, American Muslim Council,
American Running Association, D.C. Travel & Social Club, Friends of Sri Lanka in the U.S., National Conference of State Societies, Human Rights Campaign,
National Genealogical Society, The National Genealogical Society, National Rifle Association, People For the American ay, St. John's Community Service's ArtView, and The Childrens Foundation (D.C.)
Despite the racial diversity and richness of culture, the ashington, D.C. area seems to be plagued with racial problems. The media are filled with news reports and editorials concerning the discrimination against African-Americans. In particular at issue are numerous accounts of racial profiling by law enforcement. Moreover, in recent years there has been much media discussion concerning discrimination against minorities among home-finance companies.
And even Mayor illiams's office has been forced to deal with racial slurs from his…… [Read More]
Senior Citizens Do Not Have to be Lonely
A study involving older adults from senior residential facilities in the Chicago area suggests that isolated seniors may experience twice the risk of Alzheimer's disease compared with those who are not lonely or secluded ("Loneliness linked…" 8). Researchers at the University of California San Francisco analyzed data showing loneliness to be particularly debilitating to older adults and may predict serious health problems and even death. There are both psychological ramifications, such as depression, and physiological ramifications that can be addressed by looking at the problem of loneliness.
The elderly are susceptible to feelings of loneliness and isolation because of life changes that often occur at this stage of life. Individuals may have spent all their adult lives in the work place and be unable to deal with too much newfound leisure time. If they had children, their children are grown,…… [Read More]
Ocean Tides are the periodic rise and fall of the ocean waters due to the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the surface of the earth. This paper is all about oceanic tides in which we shall discuss what causes tides, what are high and low tides, the types of tides, the phenomenon of tidal currents and waves, the effect of tides on the coastlines, and on fishing, and how tides can be harnessed for energy. e shall also discuss other areas in which knowledge of tidal data can prove useful.
hat Causes Tides?
Tides (the periodic rise and fall of the ocean levels) are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun. Apart from the oceans, tides also occur to a lesser extent in large lakes, the atmosphere and in the solid crust of the earth. Although gravity of the moon and the…… [Read More]
Treaty of Ghent on the United States as well as how it affected the economy.
The Treaty of Ghent in 1815 set the path for the answer to the Canadian-American territorial disputes. Analysis of this treaty determines that a treaty is successful if it can not only end wars but also take care of other issues as well.
The Treaty of Ghent is evidence that the long-term national interests of the concerned parties are the most important factor in the success of any peace treaty. Before the war both the United States and Great Britain had mutual grievances that were the major cause for war in 1812, but as time elapsed the two nations realized they had a profound interest in peace so the treaty was signed to end the issues that provoked the conflict.
The United States, before the war broke out was trying to focus on…… [Read More]
War & Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II)
Among nations of varying cultures and societies, maintaining satisfactory political relations is a challenge. This is primarily due to differences among leaders and societies that make up this nation; thus, as a result of this diversity, it is inevitable that international relations among countries of the world may experience conflicts and antagonism with each other.
Declarations of war are one manifestation of conflicts and disagreements between two or more nations. Examples of these political conflicts are the First and Second World Wars, where devastation of the physical geography of countries and millions of deaths had occurred. Human history has, over time, illustrated how individual differences can potentially lead to bigger conflicts, thereby resulting to devastating, even deadly, results.
However, a far more important issue that should be focused on during times of war…… [Read More]
Promoting Organization Citizenship
With advancement in technology world has become a global village. Companies are reaching far away territories and brands are recognized globally. Multinationals have emerged as the driving force of economy as they don't find themselves restricted for resources and target market to any physical geography. Companies design their product at a different facility, test it, mass produce it and market it in different localities according to their goals, all to keep cost low and profitability high. This phenomenon has enabled them to establish their presence across the globe.
Though globalization created new opportunities for firms as it opened new prospective markets, new sources of cheap labor and friendlier laws, it also presented companies with unique challenges in form of highly aware customer and more demanding stake holders. Now all stake holders from customers to share holders, employees to suppliers and from government to local communities expect a…… [Read More]
Environmental Decision Making Ecosystems Approach
What is the author's main point?
The author's main point is to focus on the conflicting needs of stakeholders. He is developing an effective environmental management system to meet the conflicting interests. In these situations, Fish (2011) determined that a flexible and holistic approach must be utilized in conjunction with each other. The combination of these factors enables everyone to create a system that achieves the larger objectives of the organization. While at the same time, it is maintaining a sense of balance between the various interests in society. This is when it will be effective in reducing the adverse ecological impacts and it is taking into consideration all of the other factors that are not accounted for. (Fish, 2011)
Who is the author's intended audience?
Fish's intended audience is individuals who are in business, government, public advocacy groups and environmental organizations. Each one of…… [Read More]
Plotting of Vegetation
The purpose of this analysis is to describe the vegetation in the forest of the University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus (UBCOC), which is located at the north end of the city of Kelowna, and to note the gradation of vegetation across the slope of the observed plot. Gradation is influenced by variables such as available light, rainfall and ambient moisture, the depth and quality of soil, and shocks to the environment such as soil runoff, pollution, or fire.
Observation was directed at a particular plot of the UBCOC forests area that measures 20 meters by 100 meters and consists of an east-facing slope in the northeast corner of the University of British Columbia campus in Okanagan, which was set aside for study in 2007. Conditions suitable for plant life exist across the plot of land, but not uniformly. For instance, give the slope of the observed…… [Read More]
Mexican-American War was fought between 1846 and 1848 and marked the first war for the United States that was primary fought on foreign soil. The war was initiated by the United States, with President Polk seeking to expand American territory under the doctrine of manifest destiny. This doctrine argued that the United States should spread across all of North America, and was used as justification military action such as this one. The major outcome of the war was a massive expansion of the United States across much of what is now the American Southwest. The U.S. absorbed New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah and California as the result of this conflict, something that shapes America in many ways today (History.com, 2016).
At the outbreak of the war, Mexico held much of the territory that now comprises the U.S. southwest. Mexico was, however, a weak country. Its government was headquartered in…… [Read More]
These waterfalls provide a contrast to Blue Mountain and other mountains. As mountains rise, waterfalls fall. Another question that this project is focused on is the different ways in which waterfalls and mountains are valued differently as well as how they are valued the same in other situations.
This is how the government of Ontario describes and honors the Niagara Escarpment:
Designated a UNESCO World Biosphere eserve in 1990, the Niagara Escarpment is an internationally recognized landform and is the cornerstone of Ontario's Greenbelt. A landscape of rich biodiversity, home to hundreds of Ontario's Species at isk, vital watersheds, agricultural areas and 450-million year old geological history, the Niagara Escarpment is a treasure to protect for future generations of Ontarians. (Niagara Escarpment)
Perhaps it is that waterfalls can be seasonal while mountains remain all year round. But for a mountain that is defined by snow as opposed to just by…… [Read More]
California's costal ocean region is characterized with both positive and negative attributes. The California Coastal egion is along the coast of the Pacific Ocean. This area is a beautiful, desirable area to live in, causing real estate to be among the highest in the United States. In fact, this area was one of the fastest to recover after the great recession of 2008, due primarily to its natural beauty. In addition, the per capita income for families in the area is also usually higher than the general population in the country. This fact is intuitive as higher income families are those best able to afford the beauty and natural elements in which the California costal region offers. There are many rivers and streams that lead out to the ocean. The popular edwood Forest is also within the vicinity of the costal region. There are beautiful mountains and sand…… [Read More]
Species within a given population will differentiate due to a sudden and dramatic geological or climatological change. If a volcano erupted on an island like one of those on Vanuatu, the populations of local geckos would start to differentiate depending on where members of that population were before and after the eruption.
Statement/Hypothesis: If a volcanic eruption led to lava flows on one side of the island, but not on the other side, then the gecko population would differentiate based on the availability of food sources and also based on the remaining predators.
Geological Event: A volcano erupts on a small tropical island, part of the Vanuatu group. The types of observations necessary for the evaluation of the impact of the volcano on local lizard (gecko) species include size (length), coloration and visual patterns, and vocalizations. Behavioral observations would include territories occupied, feeding patterns, and mating patterns.
Characteristics of…… [Read More]
formed to what their value is as well as the characteristics of diamonds.
Diamonds are forever! They are the most beautiful, extraordinarily brilliant, hardest, and highly desired out of all the gems. The word "diamond" holds many different meanings for many different people. The meaning of the gem depends on the occasion or interest one holds in the gem. On wedding and engagement ceremonies, diamonds are given to the couple because for one's fiancee or wife, a diamond is symbolizes purity and commitment to never-ending love. We often hear the brand mantra of De Beers "A Diamond is Forever." For the Sports Fan, a diamond is the focus of American baseball; to the gambler or bridge addict, it signifies a suit of playing cards; to the rich and famous, the commodity represents wealth and status; to the monarchist, its beauty, rarity and durability symbolize royalty. However, the question we…… [Read More]
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…… [Read More]