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Physics of Swimming
Streamlining "drag" effects a swimmer performance speed. Key words Friction a solid a fluid. Viscosity - density liquid. Drag forces Impulse related momentum. I trials a swimmer starting a suit, suit cap (hair creates drag), added a piece clothing swimmer trial show weight, drag slows swimmer .
Physics of Swimming
The physics of swimming
The density of water is 1000 times higher than density of air. Therefore, water is more resistant than air. Buoyancy is the force which acts on the swimmer upwardly, this is because pressure increases with water depth Toussaint, Hollander, van der Berg, & Vorontsov, 2000()
The weight of the water needs to be less or equal to the buoyant force in order for an object to float and therefore, the more buoyant a swimmer is the more advantageous he is.
For a swimmer to float, the pressure under him should be greater than…… [Read More]
Physics of Magnetism
An Overview of the Exciting orld of the Modern Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Fields
The Physics of Magnetism and Magnetic Fields
Today, magnets and magnetism literally help the world go 'round and these fundamental forces have provided the source for countless innovations that have improved the standard of living for many people. As can be seen in the graphic on the cover, magnetic field lines are a way to visualize the magnetic field a magnet produces. Magnets produce vector fields at all points in the space around it.
This field can be defined by measuring the force the field exerts on a moving charged particle, such as an electron.
The physics of magnetism require an understanding of the concept of an electric field,. There is a fundamental relation between the force on a charge q in an electric field: = q. A magnetic field is the…… [Read More]
A phase change is what occurs when matter moves from one of these states to the other. The melting of ice into liquid water, for instance, constitutes a phase change, just as the boiling of water into invisible water vapor, or the condensing of gaseous water vapor in the air into liquid water on a cool windowpane or glass of water, are also phase changes.
Phase changes generally require a great deal of energy, especially when considered to the relative to the specific heat of the matter at hand (Nave 2005). The specific heat is the amount of energy that is required to increase the temperature of a given unit of mass by one degree Celsius, but during a phase change most substances (which tend to have constant specific heats within a given phase of matter) require far more energy to be applied, stopping all change in temperature until the…… [Read More]
Physics of Swimming
Swimming is a sport as well as exercise done in a water body which involves the movement of every body part and dragging the movement against the water body. Individuals practicing swimming wear swimming suits, which are specially designed form of clothes used while in water based activity (Haphaestus, B., 126). Swim suits help in reducing drag in water which in turn improves the propel lance in water.
The knowledge of physics is applied in making swim suits, to have a highly measurable impact on swimming. Several modifications have been done to swimsuits to minimize the three drags while swimming, that is, pressure, friction and wave drug. All this have been improved with the modern technology and hence minimized drag force. How a swimmer overcomes drag forces while swimming applies the basic knowledge of fluids and pressure in physics.
Materials that are highly drag resistant such as…… [Read More]
The impotant technical facto that makes cuise missiles soa ove ocket-poweed missiles is that, as it beathes ai, it does not have to cay an oxidize and thus its ange is consideably longe compaed to a ocket poweed missile of equal weight. The ocket poweed missile is the fontunne on all othe aspects. Fo example it tavels much faste, it can fly low, it can have lowe ada coss sections, and it can have equal pecision. Besides, it is not only simple, but possibly moe dependable. Howeve the advantage of a cuise missile is much moe. In ode to bun its fuel, a ocket-poweed missile must cay oxygen. If case it uses a hydocabon as its fuel, the poducts of combustion ae cabon dioxide and wate vapo. Theefoe, the ocket-poweed missile should be caying sufficient oxidize to povide 2 oxygen atoms fo evey atom of cabon and 1 oxygen atom…… [Read More]
According to Newton, "To every action there is always opposed an equal reaction; or the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal, and directed to contrary parts," (Zimmerman, 2008). In the act of pushing a pencil, the energy placed into pushing the pencil does not simply disappear with the writing. Most people write on flat, hard surfaces, such as wooden or acrylic desks. hen these desks are met with the energy of the pencil, it creates friction which is essentially the next transfer move of the energy originating from the writer. This friction occurs dues to the hard surface being unable to continue moving the energy from the pushed pencil, and forces it to find new facets, (Benson, 2008). This frictions forces energy back onto the pencil and creates heat as well as sound vibrations and waves, which further transfer the energy. Although these noticeable signs…… [Read More]
Cosmological interpretations of the universe continue to predominate in many Eastern cultures, and a majority of Americans, knowing their zodiacal sign intimately, read their horoscope every morning with their coffee and Pop Tarts. Many people still celebrate Easter, although its connection with Ishtar might cause some of them pause, and Christmas and New Year's are modern ceremonial rituals connected with these early creation myths on a level that must be considered important to people today.
The research showed that ancient peoples were simply doing the best they could with what they knew about the universe with their creation myths. As the body of knowledge grew, these early myths were replaced with others that smacked of science but were still dominated by religious dogma that disallowed a comprehensive explanation of the facts. Clearly, early researchers such as Isaac Newton and Galileo were right on the money, but it took awhile…… [Read More]
Likewise, a bronze statute is created by the 'being' in the world as a piece of metal, or the matter of the raw material. It is also dependent upon the sculptor's art, which is itself a product of the artist's ability: his human intelligence, craft, and ability to use his hands.
However, although a dog may be bred to look a certain way, and to be a certain size, it still retains its integrity as part of natural matter. Aristotle uses the example of a wooden bed that is buried: because of its matter it will put forth shoots and grow as a tree, reflecting its matter and telos or purpose -- it will not grow into a bed, as this shape is artificially imposed upon the wood. A parallel in a dog might be putting a dog in a baby carriage and dressing it like a doll: altering the…… [Read More]
Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration
In the session long projects for this class, you will be asked to conduct experiments in a "virtual" laboratory.
We will use the falling-ball simulation (Background: University of Oregon, n.d.) to calculate the acceleration of gravity on the Earth, Moon, and Mars.
The most general equation for displacement is a = s0 + V0t + (1/2)at2
where's = displacement after time t s0 = initial displacement (location at t = 0)
V0 = initial velocity (velocity at t = 0)
t = elapsed time in seconds
a = acceleration in m/s2
If the object starts at point s0 = 0 with initial velocity V0 = 0, then the equation becomes
s = (1/2)at2
Solving for a in terms of s and t, we get a = 2s/t2
For a freely falling object in a vacuum, a is the acceleration of gravity, g. If we…… [Read More]
Temperatures ranged from 32 degrees to 50 degrees with either cloudless skies or skies with few cirrus clouds. Wind speeds and directions varied. Seven days were classified as overcast. Daytime heating is lessened because cloud cover blocks radiation penetration. This was evidenced in cooler temperatures following successive overcast days. Eleven days were classified as partly or mostly cloudy. Three days in November were characterized by morning fog. Approximately 1.75 inches of rain fell during the month, .5-inch during the period November 4-5, one inch during November 17-18, less than .5-inch during November 25-26, and less than .25 inches on the final day of the month.
Cirrus clouds are indicative of a warm front. Cirrus clouds were noted on the 1st, 12th, 13th, and 24th; warmer weather followed each day but on the 25th, when the clear sky turned partly cloudy and a small amount of precipitation fell. Cirrus clouds grade…… [Read More]
The Sun is one a vast collection of stars that make up what is called the Milky Way Galaxy. This galaxy travels through the universe along with about 40 other galaxies that make up what astronomers call the local group of galaxies. Most galaxies also reside in groups, which are called clusters. Groups and clusters are also grouped together into superclusters of galaxies, which all together make up our universe.
3. How does the author describe what is meant by "astronomical"?
The author describes what is meant by astronomical as where we are in the universe in relation to everything else that is in it. The universe is big and being able to ever know completely what is in it is nearly impossible. There are just too many things in it that we know about and more than likely a whole bunch of other things that we don't know about.…… [Read More]
The Physics of Aurora orealis
The solar wind consists of highly ionized electrons and protons emitted from our sun.[footnoteRef:2] When these charged subatomic particles interact with the Earth's magnetic field, it creates a spectacular light display called the Aurora orealis in the northern hemisphere and Aurora Australis in the southern hemisphere. These displays of light are best understood using particle physics. The force on a charged particle (F) is equal to the charge (q) times velocity (v) times magnetic field strength (), according to Lorentz force law, as long as the particle is moving parallel to the magnetic field. If the perpendicular and parallel components of the velocity vector are considered separately, the sine of the angle between the magnetic field strength and parallel component equal zero, therefore, the force acting on a charged particle is equal to q*vperp*. The path of the particle, if it were visible…… [Read More]
The line of best fit is very close to the actual data points in Graph 1, suggesting that these data points are very accurate and precise. At the same time, the lack of perfection suggests there are some possible sources of unmeasured and unwanted influence on the value of the charge-to-mass ratio. Careless error and systematic error are the two possible sources of influence in this experiment; observational errors due to a lack of brightness of the electron beam or other issues would fall under the category of careless error, while any lack of consistency or proper calibration in the apparatus would result in a systematic error.
Creating the proper environment for accurate observation, including darkening the room and using a high enough voltage in the magnetic coils (1500V) can create a situation where the electron beam is most visible, reducing the potential for careless error. Proper maintenance of…… [Read More]
Under favorable market conditions of extensive shallow water tables and high population densities, the treadle pump has been adopted by over a million small farmers who produce mostly irrigated cereal crops; likewise, farmers in Bangladesh have increased annual gross incomes by approximately $100 according to a recent IDE publication (Perry & Dotson, 2005).
A study by the Horticultural Export Development Club indicates that several horticultural products being grown in Malawi are in high demand in European markets, particularly Germany, the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands. These commodities include okra, beans, managementout, chilies, babycorn, sweet corn, asparagus, garlic, courgettes, aubergines (eggplant), sweet pepper, ginger, cherry tomato and mixed herbs; however, the production level of fruits and vegetables remains insufficient to meet domestic needs. The use of treadle irrigation pumps by Malawi farmers, though, has shown enormous promise by increasing the crop yields and profitability (Mataya & Tsonga, 1999).
According to…… [Read More]
The heat engine or heat pump moves heat from one location to another. It usually takes heat out of the air or from the ground and transfers it to a building, such as a house or office. The word "heat" means thermal energy not temperature. Rather than warming the house or office with a furnace that burns fuel, the heat is transferred from the air or ground by using this pump. The heat pump uses a chemical substance or machine to work. Heat pumps can be used for making spaces warmer or cooler. For example, air-to-air pumps use electricity to move heat. By doing so, a cool area becomes cooler and a warm area becomes warmer. In the cooler seasons of fall and winter, these heat pumps warm the inside of the homes. In the summer months, they transfer air that cools the buildings.
A vibration in an item…… [Read More]
The title of his patient was "Method and apparatus for controlling electric currents, yet the Noble Prize did not go to him. Probably the industry of that time did not realize the importance of his discovery. (Transistor: History and Development)
Serious research on semiconductors started only after the Second World War had started and that was due to the recognition then that the devices made from semiconductors could be used as direct replacements for the vacuum tubes that were then being used. The devices made from semiconductors were expected to be lighter, smaller and requiring much less power. The first group of scientists to take interest in this development was the radar systems scientists and the radars were viewed as being very important in the war. The initial discovery of transistors was also not the end and in 1950 itself, Shockley built a new system which was called a bipolar…… [Read More]
It is widely known throughout the world simply as the Landau School (Kojevnikov, 2004). Many generations of aspiring theoretical physicists have been trained by top researchers at the Institute in a highly conducive environments that is completely geared toward learning (Kojevnikov, 2004).
There are specific main fields for scientific research that the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics has been involved with throughout the past forty years (Kojevnikov, 2004). These all-important areas include:
Condensed matter theory
Quantum field theory
Nuclear and elementary particle physics
Mathematical physics (Kojevnikov, 2004).
The Landau Institute has survived throughout many Russian crises times - most notably those that took place throughout the 1990s (Kojevnikov, 2004). Some of the best experts left Russia to work at centers for science throughout the world. However, the large majority of them have kept up ties with Landau Institute, which has allowed them to form a world-wide…… [Read More]
Chemistry and Physics
(a) When an electrode is placed in the chloroplast, the nanoelectrode will have more activity because the chloroplast is the power-making part of a cell, as they capture the light energy and conduct photosynthesis for the plant cell. The electrons are the ions that expended during the process of photosynthesis, and by monitoring these ions then the nanoelectrode will respond more, as evident by the graphs. Electrons some of the light energy gathered by chlorophyll and then is stored in the form of ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. The rest of the energy is used to removed electrons from the water. The electrons are then used in reactions which turn carbon dioxide into organic compounds- mostly commonly referred to as the Calvin Cycle.
(b) Protons are also used in photosynthesis, as these are necessary ions for the electron transport chain or ETS. H+ ions, or protons, need to…… [Read More]
physics of baseball pitches. Physics is all around us even if we don't pay attention to it. There are differences in air pressures, differences in forces and torque that give rise to varied pitches today. Pitching the right way requires a person to be aware of all these proprieties so they make can use of it in the best way.
Baseball is one of the most favorite American past times. Ever since Babe uth hit that record, Americans have been tuned on the baseball and baseball players. If one really looks past the pitching and the batting, it is quite obvious that physics is involved in this game. Physics itself is present in almost everything we do and everything we use. There are different sorts of pitches that players use to make sure the batter doesn't make much out of it. If a player goes on to pitch…… [Read More]
heology is a branch of physics which revolves around the study of the deformation of the flow of matter. As one physicist explained, "heology is the study of the flow of materials that behave in an interesting or unusual manner. Oil and water flow in familiar, normal ways, whereas mayonnaise, peanut butter, chocolate, bread dough, and Silly Putty flow in complex and unusual ways. In rheology, we study the flows of unusual materials" (Morrison). For example, given the wide variety of the composition and structure of different varieties of cheese, from hard cheeses to soft cheeses, two different kinds of cheese are likely to have very different rheology.
The compressive vigor of a cheese is valued via the cheese's uniaxial compressive stress which is reached when a cheese fails during a compression test, with a uniaxial compressive load used. In a word: "large strain uniaxial compression indirectly measures…… [Read More]
To continue to rely on old models while new technology is available is negligence. Therefore the authors are adding to the knowledge base of this issue by offering a new model and pointing to a new direction for scientific research. Yet, they fail to do this in a manner that can be consumed by a wide readership. The need to review is based on that issue; the need to revise it is based on the very functional application of the research finding. Science can be interpreted in many ways, and the more common the denominator of language, the more widely available the knowledge will be. To keep such findings at the level where the researchers work from would be fine if that knowledge was only applicable to their inner laboratories. However, the findings have a very wide and very important application in the real world: to help cancer patients suffer…… [Read More]
Aristotle and the Six Modes of Causation
In Book II, Part 3 of Aristotle's "Physics," the Greek philosopher Aristotle discusses different definitions or notions of causation, which form a four-tiered taxonomy of different, though somewhat overlapping types of causes. The first kind of cause is the cause of a thing's source. Next, is the cause of a thing's essence. Third and fourthly, there is that what gives something motion and also what gives it rest.
Aristotle also notes that although "the modes of causation are many" when brought under heads they too can be reduced in number to "six." Modes of causation are ways that things are caused, as opposed to the definition or taxonomy of the causes themselves. Of the first of these six modes of causation, the first is how one thing that may be prior to another, such as a doctor that is the cause of health.…… [Read More]
The Mars exploration program announced by President Bush in 2004 relies on first establishing a prolonged human presence on the Moon, in conjunction with completion of the International Space Station by 2015. The President envisions returning to the Moon by 2020 at the latest, for the purpose of being able to launch robotic missions to Mars (Whitehouse, 2004). According to the American Physical Society and many independent scientists, the President's goal overvalues the symbolic significance of landing on Mars at the expense of research that is more immediately beneficial to human society, and a more prudent financial expenditure (APS, 2004). This is a view with which I am inclined to agree.
Abbate, M. (1992) Blueprint for Space: Science Fiction to Science Fact.
Smithsonian Institution Press: London
American Physical Society. (2004) Panel on Public Affairs, Nov./04
The Moon-Mars Program.
Engelbert, P., Dupuis, D. (1998) the Handy Space Answer Book.…… [Read More]
Masaru Emoto claims that positive changes to water crystals can be achieved through prayer, music, or by attaching written words to a container of water. In other words, he maintains that human consciousness affects the molecular structure of water.
Similar phenomena can be argued regarding "interviewer bias" where the race, gender, words, appearance, or other factors such as behavior of the interviewer may have an effect on the interviewee. Some wording effects may be understood in certain ways due to the experience or cultural background of the respondent, for instance, and he may misinterpret or misunderstand them. Wording effects can be reciprocal too with the interviewer misunderstanding words or tone of the respondent. All of these (and other factors) may serve to corrupt the study
4. For this film when you hear the word "atom or molecule" replace it with "person or individual" in your mind. Beyond the complexities of…… [Read More]
A diminutive sum of time prearranged for enjoyment, related to physics activities is more than reimbursed in increasing participation and interest on the measurement of the students. Physics lessons are generally increasing in life and often rotate around numerous innermost thoughts from which it specifics in the lessons which follow quite naturally, it can be mostly helpful in physics lessons to offer a repeatedly efficient theoretical chart of the lessons, into which the students can fit their hard won understanding of particular topics. Another technique which is effective in teaching physics is to involve students to work in problem solving groups. (C. Wieman and K. Perkins, 2005).
For the more difficult content in the thermal physics and reduced subject course, it is very significant to pursue a short theoretical presentation with one or more concrete calculations on carefully selected physical examples. While this might seem clear, that an amount of…… [Read More]
ELLs to Learn Kinematics: A Phenomenological Assessment
This study aims to discover the effective methods of teaching English language learners (ELLs) the basics of kinematics in an introductory course to physics. The students chosen from a selective sample had no incoming knowledge of kinematics and their language skills were limited. The teacher utilized three different methods and tested them in a phenomenological manner, using qualitative and quantitative data to analyze outcomes. The methods employed were visual learning, mathematical learning and role play learning. The results were measured through direct observation, interview and testing results. Pre-trial tests and interviews were conducted, enthusiasm was monitored by the teacher in the class, and the post-trial assessment tests and interviews with students were also conducted. The students showed that with each introduction of a new method, their learning increased and when the three methods were combined over the course of a week, their schools…… [Read More]
According to some experts oil is a finite resource and within the next 25 years a global peak will occur in oil production. At the same time, oil use is continually expanding as more and more industries, countries and global use demands additional oil. In fact, some experts believe that oil reserves will be depleted within the next thirty years (Sheehan, Cambreco, Duffield, Garboski, Shapouri, 1998, p. 2). Projections such as these, if they are found to be true, will present future Presidents of the United States with a continuing source of trouble that will necessarily have to be addressed, probably more than once. How those future (and current) Presidents address the issue of a depleting oil supply will likely shape the face of not only America, but the entire global community.
One expert offers a grim outlook regarding the future of energy around the world. In 2009, Ayhan…… [Read More]
Once this has been discussed, it is somewhat easier to translate Einstein's concept to the poet's own courageous scientific imagination, as scene in the scene from "eowulf" previously mentioned. Just as the modern scientist, the poet introduces and, subsequently, tries to understand and explain, the idea of chaotic events, events that cannot be explained by the traditional ideas.
Despite his own behavior aimed at avoiding conflict, eowulf cannot control all the forces and objects/individuals in his realm. This is why the conflict is triggered by one of his men ("ut a certain man / stumbled on it,/into the heathen hoard,/and took a cup,/a large, decorated treasure"). As mentioned, the event itself lacks the previous logic according to which the battles were fought because of the unprovoked attack of the enemy (Grendel, Grendel's mother).
Here, the event cannot be explained by the previous laws of physics (the attack is not caused…… [Read More]
Education in today's institutions is fragmented. Attempts at holistic and comprehensive understanding tend to fall short of practical usage consistently and often tragically. The purpose of this paper is to explore the discipline of physical science and how it relates or doesn't relate to other disciplines that are found in current academic studies. In this essay I will explore the difficulties and shortcomings of educational attempts to correlate and ultimately make sense of multi-disciplined explanations and knowledge.
Humanity has been blessed with the ability to communicate complex ideas and artistic expression. The goal of education is to organize and utilize these forms of communication in order to practically improve the human condition. This appears to be a very difficult task. Physics is a discipline which focuses on the reactions of strictly material influences. This discipline attempts to explain physical forces and to predict their outcomes. Why then is…… [Read More]
Properties of Light
Light is one of the most basic physical phenomena. It is observed by most people on a daily basis, and even people who lack formal understanding of the properties of light have some understanding of its properties. For example, most people have seen mirrors, rainbows, and know that glasses can improve vision, though they may not understand that reflection of light explains how mirrors work, that dispersion explains the formation of a rainbow, or that refraction of light is used to form optic lenses. This paper will describe the various properties of light and explain how it acts in various mediums. It will discuss: the nature of light, which is a particular but behaves like a wave; color; velocity; refractive index; reflection; refraction; dispersion; total internal reflection; diffraction; and interference. Taken together, these various properties help explain how light functions.
Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.…… [Read More]
Work, Energy, And Momentum
Work out the following problems. Be sure to show your work in detail. See the " uploaded file for examples of how the problems should be solved.
A freight elevator has a mass of 3,000 kg, including cargo. The elevator motor raises the load 50 m in 30 s. How much work is done by the motor? What is its power?
W= 3000kg *9.8m/s2*50m
What is the KE (in J) of a 2650 lb Honda Civic traveling at 100 mph?
Conversions from English to metric m=2650lb * 1kg/2.2 lb m=1204.55kg
100 mph * 1 hr/3600 sec * 1609.344 m/mi= 44.7 m/s
KE= 1/2 * 1204.55kg * (44.7m/s2)
KE= 1,203,399.7 J
A standard baseball weights 145 g. If it is thrown vertically with an initial velocity of 50 mph, what is its potential energy change at…… [Read More]
Hawking, Stephen William. The Univese in a Nutshell. New Yok: Bantam, 2001.
The espected physicist Stephen W. Hawking attempts to intoduce the aveage laypeson to the physical pinciples of the mateial univese in his book entitled The Univese in a Nutshell. Hawking is pehaps best known to the wold as the late 20th centuy's most compelling image of pue scientific genius, as Albet Einstein was the most compelling image of genus fo scientific aficionados duing the fist half of the 20th centuy. Of couse, Hawking took issue with some of Einstein's basic concepts. Hawking is famous fo this bit of scientific daing. Hawking is also famous fo possessing a billiant mind, encased in a body that has unfotunately been sticken by a teible neuological condition that paalyzes his ability to feely move and speak -- although, as this book makes clea, not to wite.
The Univese in a Nutshell is…… [Read More]
ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.
In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…… [Read More]
Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).
Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a…… [Read More]
Using both at the same energy improved temporal resolution, best used in cardiac imaging. hen used at different kilovoltages resulted in material differentiation (Vlahos 2007).
This dual-energy scanner, based on different attenuations and different photon energies will likely be used for pulmonary arterial angiographic and aortic imaging with, potentially, lower contrast volume. It will also likely be used for pulmonary enhancement maps and may possibly eliminate precontrast imaging and reduce radiation exposure (Vlahos 2007).
Utilizing the distinguishing qualities of attenuation, consistency or homogeneity, number and size of tumors found in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans of lungs and thyroid, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, liver, and ovaries can be evaluated with training.
Fitton, Steenbakkers, et al. worked on a study of the lymph nodes of 13 patients found to have lung cancer. The data was obtained under free breathing conditions, a protocol was determined for CT/PET registration and a comparison of the…… [Read More]
ouglas Adam's comic work of science fiction, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, satirizes both society and science. As the story opens, protagonist Arthur ent is railing against the local government for its decision to raze his home, which is in the way of highway construction. ent argues that he was never made aware of the decision, though officials assure him the plans had been on display for a sufficient amount of time, albeit "on the bottom of a locked filing cabinet stuck in a disused lavatory with a sign on the door saying 'Beware of the Leopard'"(Adams 2010, p. 9). Similarly, planet Earth is in the way of hyperspace bypass construction project, for which plans were also available for review. Bureaucratic red tape ensured the plans were never seen and ent flees the planet with his alien friend Ford Prefect before it explodes. They hitchhike their way…… [Read More]
In this interpretation Heitler accepts the modified Copenahgenist observer created reality, but adds that the act of observation dissolves the barrier between observer and the observed. The observer is a necessary part of the whole. Once observed, the object is now an inseparable part of the observer (leuler). Arntz addresses this bridge between the observer, the observer, and reality by asking "why aren't we magicians?"; indeed, if we create our reality and can change our reality simply through the act of how we perceive it, and how we choose to perceive it, we should be able shape our world and our place in our world. In Arntz' way, he is offering to the reader what so many self-help gurus have done -- put responsibility for one's reality in the hands of the person living that particular reality, and saying, 'here you go, you can change it.' Empowering, yes….but is it…… [Read More]
Bohr's work on the structure of atoms was awarded in 1922 with the Nobel Prize. After 1930, the activities within his Institute were increasingly focused on the constitution, transmutations, and disintegrations of atomic nuclei, and further developed an understanding of nuclear fission permitted by the "liquid droplet theory." These activities formed the basis for important theoretical investigations of nuclear physics that followed.
Problems encountered with quantum physics were clarified through contributions to the field made by Bohr. In particular, Bohr developed the "concept of complimentarily," whereby he demonstrated how the scientific outlook of the general populace has been greatly affected by changes in the field of physics, and how the scope of atomic physics reaches throughout all facets of human knowledge.
Bohr escaped to Sweden during the Nazi occupation of Denmark, and later spent the last couple of years of World War II in England and America. At this time,…… [Read More]
Scientific Principles: "Timeline in Optics"
It is very clear that Optics is the physical science that examines the source and broadcast of light, how it fluctuates, what effects it yields, and other marvels that are connected with this interesting science. Many science nerds may be unaware that there are two divisions of optics. One of those divisions is called the Physical optics. The physical optics is related to the properties and nature of light itself. Also, it is clear that the geometrical optics are what concentrates with the principles leading image-forming assets of mirrors, and lenses, other devices, for example optical data computers.
This "Timeline in Optics" puts the emphasis on important developments and events in the science of optics from prehistory to the start of the 21st century. It likewise consist of associated expansions in other fields (the evolution of processors) and interconnected highpoints in the human worldview.
Concept…… [Read More]
So increased voltage results in a drop in current. As the voltage continues to increase the junction begins to function as a normal diode as electrons travel by conduction through the p-n junction and no longer tunnel through it. Therefore the most important region for operation in a tunnel diode is the negative resistance area.
Used in reverse direction Esaki diodes are called back diodes and act as very fast rectifiers with a zero offset with extreme linearity for power signals and have an accurate square law characteristic in the reverse direction. As back diodes, with reverse bias at high reverse voltage, electrons actually flow in the opposite direction, as electron states on each side of the p-n junction become increasingly aligned, allowing electrons to tunnel through the p-n junction going the opposite direction -- this is called the Zener effect which also occurs in zener diodes.
Above is a…… [Read More]
The theory of relativity would go on to have tremendous impact on the modern world, from philosophical speculation and "relativity" to nuclear physics and the creation of the atom bomb.
In conclusion, the Michelson-Morley experiment, though repeated for nearly half a century later (and still replicated by students such as Rogers and Selvaggi), erased the idea of ether as a medium through which light waves traveled. Although their experiment provided no proof of the existence of ether, the conduction of the experiment was not viewed as a failure, but rather as a success -- for it opened the door to new postulations, and ultimately to Einstein's theory of special relativity. For his experiments, Michelson was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907. Yet, unhappy with his own tests, Michelson would participate in more experiments in the future, particularly with Dayton Miller. Even though Miller's tests showed evidence of ether, his experiments…… [Read More]
The Implicate Order and Explicate Order can be compared to a piece of holographic film and the image it produces. The film corresponds to the enfolded, or hidden, Implicate Order. The image, or hologram, (what is humanly perceived) is the Explicate Order. Thus, the tangible "reality" of our everyday lives is a kind of holographic image being projected from the "film" or source -- the Implicate Order (Dunlap, 2000).
The flow of time is part of the dynamic process of enfolding and unfolding. "As the present unfolds and becomes part of the past, it does not cease to exist, but simply returns to the cosmic storehouse of the implicate" (Talbot, 1990, p. 200). The event we call death is another example of what he is saying. Death is not the end -- it is simply moving out of the Explicate and into the Implicate.
Bohm (1987) suggests that consciousness flows…… [Read More]
Quantum mechanics is a theory that has emerged in the study of both chemistry and physics and has been received with a lot of enthusiasm. Nobel laureate physicist Philip Anderson goes as far as naming quantum mechanics the greatest invention of the last 2000 years, describing its impact saying,
The quantum theory forces a revision of our mode of thinking, which is far more profound than Newtonian mechanics or the Copernican revolution or relativity... It tells us that we really completely know the rules of the game which all these particles and quanta are playing, so that if we are clever enough we can understand everything about ourselves and our world. In other words, there is no "why" question about our everyday world that the quantum theory can't answer for is - Why is the sky blue? Why is glass transparent? What holds DNA together? Why does the sun shine?…… [Read More]
Dangling Particles, physicist Lisa Randall explains why the complexities and abstract nature of modern science only makes it even more incomprehensible to the layman. For example, virtually everything we know today about quantum mechanics at the smallest end of the spectrum of matter and everything we know about galaxy formation at the largest end of the spectrum requires advanced scientific training to conceptualize. A layperson relying exclusively on direct observation and on the traditional notions of the four dimensions cannot possibly understand what quantum physicists men by "strings" or about the nature or gravity and the particles whose theoretical existence allows scientists to deduce the existence of things (like additional dimensions) that cannot be observed directly in any way.
The other main idea of the author is that the very notion of what a theory is in the scientific context adds to confusion and misunderstanding. In everyday parlance, theory refers…… [Read More]
multiverse is a line of thought that that proposes the existence of multiple universes. The hypothesis advances the notion that the set of multiple universes are what together make everything that exists physically and ever existed. These include the whole concept of space and time and all the elements in the universe together with all the laws of physics and the constants that govern the laws. The multiple universes can also be referred to as the parallel universes. The relationship in a particular multiverse and its constituent universes within it depend on the certain multiverse hypothesis that is taken into consideration.
The hypotheses that explain multiverse are from various areas of study. Ranging from astrology, physics, philosophy, cosmology, and fiction. The word multiverse however, was coined by William James a psychologist in 1895. Other referrals have been derived to mean the same as multiverse.Such words include alternative timelines, alternative universes,…… [Read More]
After determining the resonance of the vowel sounds, Helmholtz set about reproducing them. He was no less clever here than he was in figuring out how to analyze the pitches of human speech. After completing this analysis, he combined the sounds of various combinations of pitchforks until he achieved the same resonance as the human vowel. No one before had ever mechanically reproduced human speech sounds in such a conscious and accurate manner before, nor thought of vowels as purely interactions of different pitches. Helmholtz combined a very objective mind and ear to a fantastic and precise knowledge of the physics of sound in order to develop these reproductions. His knowledge and research into physics was essential to his study, as sound is ultimately a physical phenomenon. But his research into the human biological ability to produce sound was also groundbreaking, proving the breadth of his knowledge and worth as…… [Read More]
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices
Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…… [Read More]
" It is this ability of Gamow to take complicated science and serve it to the reader in interesting bites that earned him a reputation as not only a brilliant scientist, but as a fine writer.
After all, "in order to understand the problem of life in general," he writes (234), "we must look for the solution in the structure and properties of the living cells." And he while delves deeply into the science of cell structure and cell division, he nonetheless returns to concepts that the lay person can understand; on 238-239, he is pointing out that all human cells "contain exactly the same number of chromosomes" but scientists have used "the little fruit fly" to help them understand "many things concerning the basic riddles of life." The cells of a pea plant have 14 chromosomes, corn cells have 20, the fruit fly has 8, and humans (including biologists)…… [Read More]
he second law, which states that rate of change of object's momentum is proportional to the force exerted upon it is the most practical law. his law is the logical continuation of the inertia law and explanation of Galileo's principle and transformations. Second law gives a prediction to what will happen with the object when a force acts on it: object's velocity will change and object will accelerate (with negative or positive acceleration). In order to understand the meaning of this law, mass is introduced. he mass of the object is a quantitative measure of inertia, which defines amount of matter contained in object. hat's why in modern interpretation the second law says that objects acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the total force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. hat's why mass of the object also defines object's resistance to acceleration.
In terms of…… [Read More]
The great Avicenna or Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, born in 980 was often known in the est by this Latin name. Among all the Islamic philosopher-scientists this Persian physician became not only the most famous but also an influential figure (Edward G, 1921). He was awarded royal favor for treating the Kings of Bukhara and Hamadan for illness which other physicians were unable to neither diagnose nor cure. He died in 1037 in Hamadan, where his grave is maintained (Edward G, 1921).
Out of his 450 works, only 240 have survived and among those surviving works, 150 are on philosophy, while the remaining majority 40 works are dedicated to medicine. Thus, his major contribution was in these two fields. However, he has also written on psychology, logic, mathematics, geology and astronomy (atan Afghanistan).
Although, he was educated and trained in the field of physics, he…… [Read More]
Vectors are defined in the video as a very basic idea, anything that has size and direction is a vector, some examples are velocity, where force moves something with mass. Newton's second law F=ma is a description that includes two vectors, force and acceleration, The description of vectors in a static system where forces are balances and pushing against one another is also a great demonstration.
Dark matter is a video that leaves as many questions as if offers answers, but is probably my most favorite video as it discusses something that is extremely interesting and elusive. The fact that 95% of mass is either dark energy or dark matter and only about 4% is "normal" matter (containing everything we know) is a staggering statistic. The fact that everything we know is affected in some way by electromagnetic energy and that dark matter is only very limitedly affected by or…… [Read More]
It is so much a copy that one could call it a clone of the original; in other words, it is a second original. If matter were to be thus transported, then we would have two of the original objects, should one be transported.
Alternative theories, based on the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, would be best followed up, if matter is the stuff which one wants to transport. The Heisenberg Principle states that it is impossible to know where any part of a physical object is at any point in time. Therefore, to know where every atom of our body is at any given time is impossible. If your blood is moving through your veins, then the atomic particles which make up your blood are moving rapidly from one part of your body to another and it is impossible to know at any particular moment where one of these atoms may…… [Read More]
Moreover, his theories regarding the gravitation were supposed not to have been made possible without the attempts of his predecessors, as Galileo, to understand the world. Thus, Newton's luck may be put on the fact that he has lived in a period of discoveries, and, as he himself stated, he had seen further than other men, it is because he stood on the shoulders of giants.
All in all, Newton has been considered for almost 300 years to be the founding father of modern physical science, his discoveries being unprecedented, just as those in mathematical research. eing a polyvalent personality, he also studied chemistry, history and theology; his main method in all domains being the investigation of all forms and dimensions.
Cohen, I. ernard, The Newtonian Revolution, Cambridge, 1980, 546 pages;
Koyre, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Harvard U. Press, 1965, 673 pages;
Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A iography…… [Read More]
Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.
According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…… [Read More]
Questions about place and role of reason puzzle generations of philosophers as they are among the fundamental questions of philosophy. In case it appears that everything is planned and all events are mutually connected it may witness for the divine origin of the universe and man. Laplace proposed the theory of absolute determinism which stated that every process which took place in the universe had a reason so that the next or previous stage of this process could be predicted and described in the absolute form.
Determinism of Laplace had a lot of strong points at the time when he developed this theory. First of all Laplas was a mathematician and physicist and the principle of sufficient reason corresponded to all dynamic processes he studied: motion, oscillations, etc. This principle laid in the fundamentals of classic mechanics and was applied for any dynamical system on the hand with…… [Read More]
Borislav, V., Goran, I. & ado, G. (2013). 'Localized surface plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays for sensing of dielectric environment at infrared frequencies.' Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 113, pp. 013110 -013119.
Choi, S.H., Young, K.L. & Kyung, M.B. (2011, January 17). 'Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors.' Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 2,
Fal, T.J. & Camley, .E. (2011, September). 'Non-reciprocal devices using attenuated total reflection and thin film magnetic layered structures.' Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, vol. 5, pp. 912-920.
Islam, M. & Kouzani, a.Z. (2011). 'Variable incidence angle localized surface plasmon resonance graphene biosensor.' Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE/ICCME May 22-25,
Harbin, China, 58-64.
Maharana, P.K. & Jha, . (2012). 'Chalcogenide prism and graphene multilayer-based surface plasmon resonance affinity biosensor for high performance.' Sensors and Actuators, B
vol. 169, pp. 161 -- 166.
Lee, J.L. (2009, November 7). 'Better…… [Read More]
Fans of science fiction are fond of recalling a remark by novelist Arthur C. Clarke, to the effect that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I am currently typing these sentences onto a laptop, where I am also currently watching a grainy YouTube video of the legendary magician Harry Houdini, performing one of his legendary escapes -- from a straitjacket, in this case. Houdini is probably the most famous stage magician of the twentieth century, as witnessed by the fact that his name is familiar to my generation although he died almost a century ago. If Houdini were to suddenly reappear in front of me right now -- in the flesh, I mean, and not merely on YouTube -- how would I explain to him that the way in which all of this is taking place? To someone who has been dead for a century, the…… [Read More]
Mechanics and Dynamics
Life without motion is better explained as death. A living being is said to be having life only when the walls of the heart engage in pumping the blood, when the blood circulates through the entire body, when nerves impulse electrically from brain to toe, lungs move to bring oxygen, food transports through the stomach and intestines, when the iris expands and contract, when the eyeball rotates, etc. Not only in the living beings, the riddles of the non-living items like recoiling of a fired gun, acceleration of an automobile, action of a spinning top, the motion of a space rocket can also be broken down in terms of the analysis of motion.
Dynamics" is a branch of study of motions and "Mechanics" contrary to the general idea of referring to people in uniforms with name over his pocket and having a tool box in his hand,…… [Read More]
It is noted that the corporeal world is the context to which this discussion specifically applies, with particles at the subatomic level not abiding the same principles. That said, a diagram included in the Nave explanation of Newton's laws helps to clarify that which is meant by the above equation. A man is shown swinging a golf club into a golf ball in one image and in the next image, he is shown swinging the club into moving truck. e take as a primary understanding from these images that the mass of the object struck will have a direct bearing on the force required to accelerate it. At an identical force, the man's swing might drive the golf ball several hundred yards while perhaps only denting the moving truck.
It was supplemented even further by the Third Law of Motion that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This…… [Read More]
Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the study's conclusion.
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Tucker,…… [Read More]