Physics Essays (Examples)

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Beowulf One of the Most

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40309862

Once this has been discussed, it is somewhat easier to translate Einstein's concept to the poet's own courageous scientific imagination, as scene in the scene from "Beowulf" previously mentioned. Just as the modern scientist, the poet introduces and, subsequently, tries to understand and explain, the idea of chaotic events, events that cannot be explained by the traditional ideas.

Despite his own behavior aimed at avoiding conflict, Beowulf cannot control all the forces and objects/individuals in his realm. This is why the conflict is triggered by one of his men ("But a certain man / stumbled on it,/into the heathen hoard,/and took a cup,/a large, decorated treasure"). As mentioned, the event itself lacks the previous logic according to which the battles were fought because of the unprovoked attack of the enemy (Grendel, Grendel's mother).

Here, the event cannot be explained by the previous laws of physics (the attack is not caused…… [Read More]


1. Einstein, Albert; Infeld, L. . The Evolution of Physics. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1938

2. Beowulf. On the Internet at Last retrieved on September 28, 2009
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Working Disciplines

Words: 788 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33900558

Working Disciplines

Education in today's institutions is fragmented. Attempts at holistic and comprehensive understanding tend to fall short of practical usage consistently and often tragically. The purpose of this paper is to explore the discipline of physical science and how it relates or doesn't relate to other disciplines that are found in current academic studies. In this essay I will explore the difficulties and shortcomings of educational attempts to correlate and ultimately make sense of multi-disciplined explanations and knowledge.

Humanity has been blessed with the ability to communicate complex ideas and artistic expression. The goal of education is to organize and utilize these forms of communication in order to practically improve the human condition. This appears to be a very difficult task. Physics is a discipline which focuses on the reactions of strictly material influences. This discipline attempts to explain physical forces and to predict their outcomes. Why then is…… [Read More]

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String Theory the Fundamental Forces

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81433491

This implies we live in a universe "in which six of the space dimensions have been collapsed or curled up in themselves." (Tipler 650). Since all of these dimensions are believed to be of the order of the Planck length they cannot be seen by any common experimental procedures currently in practice today.

Despite the attractiveness of string theory its utilization of large numbers of space dimensions raises many important questions regarding the formation of the universe, and questions about the possibility of ever verifying it in the lab. Considering the fact that many aspects of physics depend upon the existence of only three spatial dimensions, this might suggest that "three" is a deep principle within nature. Somehow, physics might demand that three dimensions of space grow infinitely while the others collapse on themselves; then again, the creation of our universe may have been utterly accidental in its outcome.

Clearly,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrow, John D. The Origin of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

Calle, Carlos I. Superstrings and Other Things. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics, 2001.

Davies, Paul and John Gribbin. The Matter Myth. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.

Filkin, David. Stephen Hawking's Universe. New York: Perseus, 1997.
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Properties of Light

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49230270

Properties of Light

Light is one of the most basic physical phenomena. It is observed by most people on a daily basis, and even people who lack formal understanding of the properties of light have some understanding of its properties. For example, most people have seen mirrors, rainbows, and know that glasses can improve vision, though they may not understand that reflection of light explains how mirrors work, that dispersion explains the formation of a rainbow, or that refraction of light is used to form optic lenses. This paper will describe the various properties of light and explain how it acts in various mediums. It will discuss: the nature of light, which is a particular but behaves like a wave; color; velocity; refractive index; reflection; refraction; dispersion; total internal reflection; diffraction; and interference. Taken together, these various properties help explain how light functions.

Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nelson, Stephen. "Properties of Light: Reflection, Refraction, Dispersion, and Refractive

Indices." Tulane University. N.p. 29 Oct. 2002. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.

Physics Planet. "Properties of Light." Physics Planet. N.p. 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.

Trevor-Jones, Andrew. "The Properties of Light." Reefkeeping Magazine. N.p. 2008. Web.
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Work Energy and Momentum Work Out the

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44052109

Work, Energy, And Momentum

Work out the following problems. Be sure to show your work in detail. See the " uploaded file for examples of how the problems should be solved.

A freight elevator has a mass of 3,000 kg, including cargo. The elevator motor raises the load 50 m in 30 s. How much work is done by the motor? What is its power?

W= F*d



W= 3000kg *9.8m/s2*50m

W= 1,470,000J



P= 49,000W

What is the KE (in J) of a 2650 lb Honda Civic traveling at 100 mph?


Conversions from English to metric m=2650lb * 1kg/2.2 lb m=1204.55kg

100 mph * 1 hr/3600 sec * 1609.344 m/mi= 44.7 m/s

KE= 1/2 * 1204.55kg * (44.7m/s2)

KE= 1,203,399.7 J

A standard baseball weights 145 g. If it is thrown vertically with an initial velocity of 50 mph, what is its potential energy change at…… [Read More]


Nave, C. (2010a). Momentum. Retrieved 2 August, 2010, from

Nave, C. (2010b). Work, energy, and power. Retrieved 2 August 2010 from 

Zobel E. (2010a). The Physics Department: Mechanics and Energy. retrieved 12 Nov 2010, from

Zobel E. (2010b). The Physics Department: Mechanics and Momentum. retrieved 12 Nov 2010 from
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Hawking Stephen William The Universe in a

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91268595

Hawking, Stephen William. The Universe in a Nutshell. New York: Bantam, 2001.

The respected physicist Stephen W. Hawking attempts to introduce the average layperson to the physical principles of the material universe in his book entitled The Universe in a Nutshell. Hawking is perhaps best known to the world as the late 20th century's most compelling image of pure scientific genius, as Albert Einstein was the most compelling image of genus for scientific aficionados during the first half of the 20th century. Of course, Hawking took issue with some of Einstein's basic concepts. Hawking is famous for this bit of scientific daring. Hawking is also famous for possessing a brilliant mind, encased in a body that has unfortunately been stricken by a terrible neurological condition that paralyzes his ability to freely move and speak -- although, as this book makes clear, not to write.

The Universe in a Nutshell is…… [Read More]

references to how understanding physics can impact human life on earth in the relative short-term as well as in space and far into the future. Hawking describes how statistical evidence points to the physical limits of population growth and electricity being reached on earth by the year 2600. But by applying the same statistical principles to knowledge as to population growth, to take a more comforting view of things, predicted human knowledge of how to preserve energy reserves could potentially carry the human race forward, faster to possibly attain solutions to this problem of geometric physical expansion.

There is, however, no question that having some background in physics helpful in understanding the text, even while Hawking tries to simplify basic quantum principles. For instance, as the author attempts to explain the rational behind an early and inaccurate Michelson-Morley experiment, when humans imagined that space was filled by a continuous medium called the "ether," he must go into a lengthy explanation how early physics saw "light rays and radio signals were waves in this ether, just as sound is pressure waves in air." (2) In this experiment, because no difference was found in the speed of the two perpendicular light beams, the experiment's observers concluded that ether was non-existent. Still, for a man bounded, essentially, in his own physical nutshell, Hawking has accomplished and understood a great deal in his life and is able to make at least a small 'kernel' of what he as understood, interesting and comprehensible in concrete, physical terms. Also, his book functions as a shorthand introduction to the history of physics, and the different people and concepts that played a role in physic's conceptual evolution over the short distance of human historical time.
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Inductive and Inventive Science

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69326111

ability to measure and track the results from any scientific experiment is extremely important to both the validity and truthfulness of the work. Scientists often have problems in certain sciences due to the scope of their investigation. As a result of these mismatches, indirect avenues of approach become necessary to measure and grasp the items of inquiry.

In physics, the atomic theory is based upon indirect measurements. The neutron, proton and electron are merely ideas that have been modeled due to the technology that is available to scientists. An electron has never been physically produced and only its characteristics have been noticed. This is an important distinction, because too often scientists take many of these long standing practices for granted and have assumed the presence of these particles, when there is compelling evidence there is not. Jessa (2009) reminded us that "This understanding the atom helped to fuel many other…… [Read More]


Jessa, T. (2009). John Dalton's Atomic Model. Universe Today, 24 Aug 2009. Retrieved from 

Keyes, J. (1946). Newton The Man. JOC/EFR 2006. Retrieved from

NASA (nd). What is a Spacesuit? Viewed 27 April 2014. Retrieved from

Weinstein, G. (2012). Albert Einstein's Methodology. Cornell University, 24 Sep 2012. Retrieved from
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Elusive Theory of Everything the

Words: 598 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42901217

Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).

Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a…… [Read More]


Fletcher, A. (2008). Life, the Universe and Everything: Investigating God and the New Physics. Denver, CO: Lulu Publishers.

Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010, September 27). The Elusive Theory of Everything. Retrieved October 2010, from Scientific American:

Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010). The Grand Design. New York: Bantam.

Pais, A. (1982). Subtle is the Lord.... The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Attenuation Means a Reduction in

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12165195

Using both at the same energy improved temporal resolution, best used in cardiac imaging. When used at different kilovoltages resulted in material differentiation (Vlahos 2007).

This dual-energy scanner, based on different attenuations and different photon energies will likely be used for pulmonary arterial angiographic and aortic imaging with, potentially, lower contrast volume. It will also likely be used for pulmonary enhancement maps and may possibly eliminate precontrast imaging and reduce radiation exposure (Vlahos 2007).

Utilizing the distinguishing qualities of attenuation, consistency or homogeneity, number and size of tumors found in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans of lungs and thyroid, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, liver, and ovaries can be evaluated with training.

Fitton, Steenbakkers, et al. worked on a study of the lymph nodes of 13 patients found to have lung cancer. The data was obtained under free breathing conditions, a protocol was determined for CT/PET registration and a comparison of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Attenuation of Sound Waves." NDT. Iowa State University Center for Nondestructive Evaluation. 2007. Website:

Bushong, Stewart C. And Archer, Benjamin R. Diagnostic Ultrasound, Mosby Inc., 1991.

Fitton, Isabelle; Steenbakkers, Roel; Zijp, Lambert, Duppen, Joop C.; Comans, Emile F.I.; Muller, Saar H.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Rasch, Coen R.N. And van Herk, Marcel. "Lung Dosimetry: Retrospective attenuation correction of PET data for radiotherapy planning using a bree breathing CT." Radiotherapy and Oncology, Vol 83(1), April 2007.

Kaiser, C.P. "GI/GU experts seek accord to describe 'incidentalomas': Radiologists parse lesion size, number, and attenuation to distinguish benign from malignant." Diagnostic, October 2007.;jsessionid=YEPBIRQ0TVYVMQSNDLPCKH0CJUNN2JVN?articleID=202200374.
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Newton Sir Isaac Newton Isaac Newton Bio

Words: 703 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18754207


Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (Bio, N.d.)

Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most recognizable names in all of science. He was a mathematician, a natural philosopher, an inventor, an English physicist, and pretty much an all around genius. His work included the study of how light reacts to reflection, formulating laws of universal gravitation and motion, and building the first ever reflecting telescope. Newton arguably contributed more to the science than any single person in the entire history of science. Newton's book, Principia, is considered to be among the most influential science books in the history of science, possibly of mankind. In this book he provided the foundation for classical mechanics. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which have been the background of classical physics for over three centuries. Since Sir Isaac Newton was such an influential mind, I thought it would be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bio. (N.d.). Isaac Newton Biography. Retrieved from Bio True Story:
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Hitchhiker's Guide Douglas Adam's Comic Work of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40220739

Hitchhiker's Guide

Douglas Adam's comic work of science fiction, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, satirizes both society and science. As the story opens, protagonist Arthur Dent is railing against the local government for its decision to raze his home, which is in the way of highway construction. Dent argues that he was never made aware of the decision, though officials assure him the plans had been on display for a sufficient amount of time, albeit "on the bottom of a locked filing cabinet stuck in a disused lavatory with a sign on the door saying 'Beware of the Leopard'"(Adams 2010, p. 9). Similarly, planet Earth is in the way of hyperspace bypass construction project, for which plans were also available for review. Bureaucratic red tape ensured the plans were never seen and Dent flees the planet with his alien friend Ford Prefect before it explodes. They hitchhike their way…… [Read More]

Dent and Prefect travel through space by hitchhiking, picked up by spacecraft within the improbable nanosecond during which contact could possibly occur. They travel from planet to planet in a "nothingth of a second," making their travel faster than the speed of light, given the distances over which they traverse. Although this mode of travel has been theoretical supported by the theory of special relativity, it has obviously never been done except within the pages of books such as Adams's. In reality, it seems as improbable as Adams' physics of improbability.

Some of the science in Hitchhiker is accurate, or nearly so. Dent's alien friend is from a small planet "six hundred light-years away in the near vicinity of Betelgeuse" (Adams, p. 22); Betelgeuse is, in fact, 640 light-years from Earth. On page 26, the Vogons admonish Earthlings for failure to involve themselves in the "local" affairs of Alpha Centuri, "only" four light years away; Alpha Centuri is 4.4 light years away (Dickinson 1999, Tyson, Liu and Irion 2000). On page 60, Adams refers to "a nice hot cup of tea" as an example of a strong Brownian Motion producer. Brownian motion refers to the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid. Tea could, in fact, serve as an example.

Some of the science is deliberately ridiculous, such as the computer called the "Bambleweeny 57 Sub-Meson Brain" (Adams, p. 60). Adams also blends science and satire. On page 33, he lets the alien Vogons debunk the theory of evolution by having them ignore nature and have elective surgery to "rectify the gross anatomical inconveniences" that made
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Bleep Do We Know Traveling

Words: 3658 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38931531

In this interpretation Heitler accepts the modified Copenahgenist observer created reality, but adds that the act of observation dissolves the barrier between observer and the observed. The observer is a necessary part of the whole. Once observed, the object is now an inseparable part of the observer (Bleuler). Arntz addresses this bridge between the observer, the observer, and reality by asking "why aren't we magicians?"; indeed, if we create our reality and can change our reality simply through the act of how we perceive it, and how we choose to perceive it, we should be able shape our world and our place in our world. In Arntz' way, he is offering to the reader what so many self-help gurus have done -- put responsibility for one's reality in the hands of the person living that particular reality, and saying, 'here you go, you can change it.' Empowering, yes….but is it…… [Read More]


Albert, David and Barry Loewer. "Interpreting the Many Worlds Interpretation." Synthese (2004): 195-213.

Arntz, William, Betsy Chasse and Mark Vicente. What the Bleep Do We Know. Deerfield Beach: Health Communications, Inc., 2005.

Bey, Hakim. "Quantum Mechanics & Chaos Theory: Anarchist Meditations on N. Herbert's Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics." 2010. Hakim Bey and Ontological Anarchy. 27 March 2010 < >.

Bleuler, K., Heitler, W. "The Reversal of Time and the Quantization of the Longitudinal Field in Quantum Electrodynamics." Progress of Theoretical Physics (1950): 600-605.
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Niels Bohr Niels Henrik David

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98400734

Bohr's work on the structure of atoms was awarded in 1922 with the Nobel Prize. After 1930, the activities within his Institute were increasingly focused on the constitution, transmutations, and disintegrations of atomic nuclei, and further developed an understanding of nuclear fission permitted by the "liquid droplet theory." These activities formed the basis for important theoretical investigations of nuclear physics that followed.

Problems encountered with quantum physics were clarified through contributions to the field made by Bohr. In particular, Bohr developed the "concept of complimentarily," whereby he demonstrated how the scientific outlook of the general populace has been greatly affected by changes in the field of physics, and how the scope of atomic physics reaches throughout all facets of human knowledge.

Bohr escaped to Sweden during the Nazi occupation of Denmark, and later spent the last couple of years of World War II in England and America. At this time,…… [Read More]


Niels Bohr - the Nobel Prize in Physics 1922." Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company, 1965. Retrieved 2/10/2007 at

Thomsen, Dietrick E. "Going Bohr's Way in Physics - Niels Bohr's Centennial." Science News 11 January 1986.
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Isaac Newton Ruba the Three Laws of

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55502743

Isaac Newton


The Three Laws of Motion: Isaac Newton's Greatest Contribution

To the World of Science

Isaac Newton is a renowned mathematician, scientist, inventor, professor, and public official who influenced the world of science with his extraordinary and brilliant theories on different phenomena in (primarily) the study of physics, astronomy, and optics. Born on the 4th of January, 1643, Isaac Newton's life as a young man in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire in England is unremarkable, and Newton, at a young age, did not show and possess the brilliant mind that he has while attending a formal school education at the Free Grammar School in Grantham (O'Connor and Robertson 2000). As a child, Newton did not seem to possess the intellectual strength that he was known for, and had a hard time living with his family during his childhood years because of the constant tension between him and his stepfather and mother.…… [Read More]


Following in Newton's Footsteps." 2001. European Space Agency Web site. 15 April 2003

Navaza, D. "Physics." Phoenix Publishing House Inc. 1996.

Newton's Laws." 2003. The Physics Classroom Web site. 15 April 2003

Newton's Three Laws of Motion." 2003. An Online Journey Through Astronomy. 15 April 2003
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History of Optics

Words: 1816 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32784836

Scientific Principles: "Timeline in Optics"

It is very clear that Optics is the physical science that examines the source and broadcast of light, how it fluctuates, what effects it yields, and other marvels that are connected with this interesting science. Many science nerds may be unaware that there are two divisions of optics. One of those divisions is called the Physical optics. The physical optics is related to the properties and nature of light itself. Also, it is clear that the geometrical optics are what concentrates with the principles leading image-forming assets of mirrors, and lenses, other devices, for example optical data computers.

This "Timeline in Optics" puts the emphasis on important developments and events in the science of optics from prehistory to the start of the 21st century. It likewise consist of associated expansions in other fields (the evolution of processors) and interconnected highpoints in the human worldview.

Concept…… [Read More]


Darrigol, O. (2012). A History of Optics from Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1 edition.

Fowles, G.R. (2009). Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover Books on Physics). New York City: Dover Publications; 2 edition.

J.Valasek. (1997). Introduction to Theoretical and Experimental Optics. Journal of Optics, 23(9), 34-45.

S, F.L. (2007). Introduction to Optics. Lansing: Prentice Hall.
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Quantum Tunneling Is a Function

Words: 2304 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53098140

So increased voltage results in a drop in current. As the voltage continues to increase the junction begins to function as a normal diode as electrons travel by conduction through the p-n junction and no longer tunnel through it. Therefore the most important region for operation in a tunnel diode is the negative resistance area.

Used in reverse direction Esaki diodes are called back diodes and act as very fast rectifiers with a zero offset with extreme linearity for power signals and have an accurate square law characteristic in the reverse direction. As back diodes, with reverse bias at high reverse voltage, electrons actually flow in the opposite direction, as electron states on each side of the p-n junction become increasingly aligned, allowing electrons to tunnel through the p-n junction going the opposite direction -- this is called the Zener effect which also occurs in zener diodes.

Above is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barrier Penetration." Hyperphysics. 2006. .

Quantum Tunneling." Canada Connects: Quantum Physics. September 4, 2006.

Sony History: The Esaki Diode." Sony History. 2007.

Scrupski, Steve. "Wide Application of Esaki Diode Near." Electronic Design. March 6, 2000.
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Michelson-Morley Experiment of 1887 Was

Words: 1759 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30271984

The theory of relativity would go on to have tremendous impact on the modern world, from philosophical speculation and "relativity" to nuclear physics and the creation of the atom bomb.

In conclusion, the Michelson-Morley experiment, though repeated for nearly half a century later (and still replicated by students such as Rogers and Selvaggi), erased the idea of ether as a medium through which light waves traveled. Although their experiment provided no proof of the existence of ether, the conduction of the experiment was not viewed as a failure, but rather as a success -- for it opened the door to new postulations, and ultimately to Einstein's theory of special relativity. For his experiments, Michelson was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1907. Yet, unhappy with his own tests, Michelson would participate in more experiments in the future, particularly with Dayton Miller. Even though Miller's tests showed evidence of ether, his experiments…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert a. Michelson -- Biography." 2011. Web. 25 Mar 2011.

Lombardi, G.G. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. 2007. Web. 25 Mar 2011.

Michelson, Albert a. "The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether."

American Journal of Science. 122 (1881): 120. Web. 25 Mar 2011.
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Existence the Nature of Existence

Words: 2390 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89704252

The Implicate Order and Explicate Order can be compared to a piece of holographic film and the image it produces. The film corresponds to the enfolded, or hidden, Implicate Order. The image, or hologram, (what is humanly perceived) is the Explicate Order. Thus, the tangible "reality" of our everyday lives is a kind of holographic image being projected from the "film" or source -- the Implicate Order (Dunlap, 2000).

The flow of time is part of the dynamic process of enfolding and unfolding. "As the present unfolds and becomes part of the past, it does not cease to exist, but simply returns to the cosmic storehouse of the implicate" (Talbot, 1990, p. 200). The event we call death is another example of what he is saying. Death is not the end -- it is simply moving out of the Explicate and into the Implicate.

Bohm (1987) suggests that consciousness flows…… [Read More]


Bohn, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Carson, R. (1962, 1994). Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Dunlap, C. (2000). The rhetorical construction of God: Mary Baker Eddy's journey. Doctoral dissertation. Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Herbert, N. (1987). Quantum reality: Beyond the new physics. New York: Anchor.
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Quantum Mechanics Is a Theory That Has

Words: 2133 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50477434

Quantum mechanics is a theory that has emerged in the study of both chemistry and physics and has been received with a lot of enthusiasm. Nobel laureate physicist Philip Anderson goes as far as naming quantum mechanics the greatest invention of the last 2000 years, describing its impact saying,

The quantum theory forces a revision of our mode of thinking, which is far more profound than Newtonian mechanics or the Copernican revolution or relativity... It tells us that we really completely know the rules of the game which all these particles and quanta are playing, so that if we are clever enough we can understand everything about ourselves and our world. In other words, there is no "why" question about our everyday world that the quantum theory can't answer for is - Why is the sky blue? Why is glass transparent? What holds DNA together? Why does the sun shine?…… [Read More]


Anderson, P. "Quantum Theory." In The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Ed. John Brockman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

Boslough, J. Masters of Time. London: Orion Books, 1992.

Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E., & Bursten, B.E. Chemistry: The Central Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1994.

Daintith, J. A Concise Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
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Dangling Particles Physicist Lisa Randall Explains Why

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79884753

Dangling Particles, physicist Lisa Randall explains why the complexities and abstract nature of modern science only makes it even more incomprehensible to the layman. For example, virtually everything we know today about quantum mechanics at the smallest end of the spectrum of matter and everything we know about galaxy formation at the largest end of the spectrum requires advanced scientific training to conceptualize. A layperson relying exclusively on direct observation and on the traditional notions of the four dimensions cannot possibly understand what quantum physicists men by "strings" or about the nature or gravity and the particles whose theoretical existence allows scientists to deduce the existence of things (like additional dimensions) that cannot be observed directly in any way.

The other main idea of the author is that the very notion of what a theory is in the scientific context adds to confusion and misunderstanding. In everyday parlance, theory refers…… [Read More]

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Multiverse Is a Line of Thought That

Words: 1503 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31300860

multiverse is a line of thought that that proposes the existence of multiple universes. The hypothesis advances the notion that the set of multiple universes are what together make everything that exists physically and ever existed. These include the whole concept of space and time and all the elements in the universe together with all the laws of physics and the constants that govern the laws. The multiple universes can also be referred to as the parallel universes. The relationship in a particular multiverse and its constituent universes within it depend on the certain multiverse hypothesis that is taken into consideration.

The hypotheses that explain multiverse are from various areas of study. Ranging from astrology, physics, philosophy, cosmology, and fiction. The word multiverse however, was coined by William James a psychologist in 1895. Other referrals have been derived to mean the same as multiverse.Such words include alternative timelines, alternative universes,…… [Read More]


Aurelien Barrau. "Physics in the Multiverse"

David Deutsch. "The Structure of the Multiverse."

Hawkin, Stephen. "The universe in a Nutshell."
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Hermann Von Helmolhtz The Acoustics

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68628569

After determining the resonance of the vowel sounds, Helmholtz set about reproducing them. He was no less clever here than he was in figuring out how to analyze the pitches of human speech. After completing this analysis, he combined the sounds of various combinations of pitchforks until he achieved the same resonance as the human vowel. No one before had ever mechanically reproduced human speech sounds in such a conscious and accurate manner before, nor thought of vowels as purely interactions of different pitches. Helmholtz combined a very objective mind and ear to a fantastic and precise knowledge of the physics of sound in order to develop these reproductions. His knowledge and research into physics was essential to his study, as sound is ultimately a physical phenomenon. But his research into the human biological ability to produce sound was also groundbreaking, proving the breadth of his knowledge and worth as…… [Read More]

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Isaac Newton Maverick With a

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9490001

These ideas are still taught today because the "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724).

Jay Pasachoff claims that Newton revolutionized astronomy by setting "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). Simplistically, this is the train of thought that birthed the law of gravity. Newton was the first person to ever realize the "universality" (41) of gravity. Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of this creation involves that fact that in order for this new law of gravity to work, Newton had to invent calculus. His brilliance lies in the fact that he was able to connect the fact that the same force that forced objects to the ground was the same force that moved objects in space. He was able to comprehend how the moon was "falling" toward the earth. Newton developed his law…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived October 5, 2008.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.

Pasachoff, Jay. Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing. 1991.
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Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets

Words: 1882 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63254444

Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Devices

Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…… [Read More]


Carlisle, R. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity -- From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. Hoboken,

NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Depalma, A. (2003, August 25). 'Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics.' The Scientist, vol. 17, no.

16, pp. 44-47.
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Infinity - By George Gamow

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35593630

" It is this ability of Gamow to take complicated science and serve it to the reader in interesting bites that earned him a reputation as not only a brilliant scientist, but as a fine writer.

After all, "in order to understand the problem of life in general," he writes (234), "we must look for the solution in the structure and properties of the living cells." And he while delves deeply into the science of cell structure and cell division, he nonetheless returns to concepts that the lay person can understand; on 238-239, he is pointing out that all human cells "contain exactly the same number of chromosomes" but scientists have used "the little fruit fly" to help them understand "many things concerning the basic riddles of life." The cells of a pea plant have 14 chromosomes, corn cells have 20, the fruit fly has 8, and humans (including biologists)…… [Read More]


Gamow, George. One Two Three...Infinity: Facts and Speculations of Science. New York: Dover Publications, 1961.

Harper, Eamon. "Getting a Bang Out of Gamow." GW Magazine (Spring 2000): p. 14. Accessed at

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "International

Partnership in Science: Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science." Accessed from
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Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13864367

The second law, which states that rate of change of object's momentum is proportional to the force exerted upon it is the most practical law. This law is the logical continuation of the inertia law and explanation of Galileo's principle and transformations. Second law gives a prediction to what will happen with the object when a force acts on it: object's velocity will change and object will accelerate (with negative or positive acceleration). In order to understand the meaning of this law, mass is introduced. The mass of the object is a quantitative measure of inertia, which defines amount of matter contained in object. That's why in modern interpretation the second law says that objects acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the total force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. That's why mass of the object also defines object's resistance to acceleration.

In terms of…… [Read More]

Third law states that forces, which occur in pairs, are equal in magnitude, but are oppositely directed. Third law is mathematical conclusion of the law of conservation of momentum (as it can be stated that acceleration is a derivative of velocity and force is a derivative of momentum). Third law states that though forces of interaction are equal, accelerations may be different as masses of objects may be not the same.

Laws of Newton were proved more than 200 years ago on the base of everyday experiments and they serve as excellent approximation to kinematics and dynamics of objects in everyday life. These laws form the basis of classical mechanics, or mechanics of idealized macro world. They can be applied without errors to objects, which have speeds much smaller than relativistic speeds (speeds which are close to the speed of light). But even in relativistic world the form and essence of Newton's laws is preserved if relativistic space transformations are followed.'s_laws_of_motion

Newton's three laws of motion
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Islamic Civilization

Words: 1612 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72587430

Ibn Sina

The great Avicenna or Abu Ali al-Husayn Ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina, born in 980 was often known in the West by this Latin name. Among all the Islamic philosopher-scientists this Persian physician became not only the most famous but also an influential figure (Edward G, 1921). He was awarded royal favor for treating the Kings of Bukhara and Hamadan for illness which other physicians were unable to neither diagnose nor cure. He died in 1037 in Hamadan, where his grave is maintained (Edward G, 1921).

Out of his 450 works, only 240 have survived and among those surviving works, 150 are on philosophy, while the remaining majority 40 works are dedicated to medicine. Thus, his major contribution was in these two fields. However, he has also written on psychology, logic, mathematics, geology and astronomy (Watan Afghanistan).

Although, he was educated and trained in the field of physics, he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Edward G. Browne (1921) Arabian Medicine, London, Cambridge University Press.

Philip K. Hitti (1970) History of the Arabs, 10th ed, London, Macmillan, pp 367-368

M.A. Martin (1983) in The Genius of Arab Civilization, 2nd ed, Edited by J.R. Hayes, London,

Eurabia Puplishing, pp 196-7
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Video Sequences on the Website

Words: 1212 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30454277

Vectors are defined in the video as a very basic idea, anything that has size and direction is a vector, some examples are velocity, where force moves something with mass. Newton's second law F=ma is a description that includes two vectors, force and acceleration, The description of vectors in a static system where forces are balances and pushing against one another is also a great demonstration.

Dark matter is a video that leaves as many questions as if offers answers, but is probably my most favorite video as it discusses something that is extremely interesting and elusive. The fact that 95% of mass is either dark energy or dark matter and only about 4% is "normal" matter (containing everything we know) is a staggering statistic. The fact that everything we know is affected in some way by electromagnetic energy and that dark matter is only very limitedly affected by or…… [Read More]


University of Nottingham. (ND). Sixty Symbols: Videos About the Symbols of Physics and Astronomy. Retrieved September 25, 2010, from
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Transporter Technology Transferring Light Over

Words: 3956 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53959622

It is so much a copy that one could call it a clone of the original; in other words, it is a second original. If matter were to be thus transported, then we would have two of the original objects, should one be transported.

Alternative theories, based on the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, would be best followed up, if matter is the stuff which one wants to transport. The Heisenberg Principle states that it is impossible to know where any part of a physical object is at any point in time. Therefore, to know where every atom of our body is at any given time is impossible. If your blood is moving through your veins, then the atomic particles which make up your blood are moving rapidly from one part of your body to another and it is impossible to know at any particular moment where one of these atoms may…… [Read More]

Works Cited Quantum teleportation. IBM Research, 1995. Website:

Bennett, Charles H.; Brassard, Giles; Crepeau, Claude; Jozsa, Richard; Peres, Asher and Wootters, William. Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and EPR channels. Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 70, pp 1895-1899. 1993.

Costello, Tom. 'Beam me up, General!' Could 'Star Trek' technology help transport troops? NBC News, Wednesday, Feb. 9, 2005.

O'Connor, Peter. Scientists report 'teleported' data. Associated Press. 17 Jun 2002. AO Australia and Antarctica. Found at:
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Issac Newton Isaac Newton Sir

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39308822

Moreover, his theories regarding the gravitation were supposed not to have been made possible without the attempts of his predecessors, as Galileo, to understand the world. Thus, Newton's luck may be put on the fact that he has lived in a period of discoveries, and, as he himself stated, he had seen further than other men, it is because he stood on the shoulders of giants.

All in all, Newton has been considered for almost 300 years to be the founding father of modern physical science, his discoveries being unprecedented, just as those in mathematical research. Being a polyvalent personality, he also studied chemistry, history and theology; his main method in all domains being the investigation of all forms and dimensions.… [Read More]


Cohen, I. Bernard, The Newtonian Revolution, Cambridge, 1980, 546 pages;

Koyre, Alexandre, Newtonian Studies, Harvard U. Press, 1965, 673 pages;

Westfall, Richard S., Never at Rest: A Biography of Isaac Newton, Cambridge 1980;

Isaac NEWTON, "The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy," University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1999;
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Environmental Impact of Depleted Uranium

Words: 2822 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30643309

Studies of the aftereffects of the Gulf War determined that every single U.S. 120 mm tank shell resulted, on average, in approximately five pounds of radioactive Uranium

Oxide dust. Likewise, each of the nearly one million 25 mm and 30 mm canon shells fired (mostly) by U.S. aircraft contributes a proportional share of Uranium Oxide dust per unit volume (Peterson, 2003).

Unlike the depleted Uranium itself (which emits mainly Alpha particles), the Uranium Oxide produced by the intense explosive heat of ordinance impact releases both Alpha particles as well as much more dangerously radioactive Beta particles (Fahey, 2000). Another very disturbing finding after the 1991 Gulf War was that Uranium Oxide aerosolized into extremely minute particles capable of ingestion both orally by physical transference, and by inhalation (Peterson, 2003).

Furthermore, several studies undertaken in the affected areas established that radioactive dust produced by the use of DU ammunition was capable…… [Read More]


Bertell, R. (1999) Gulf War Veterans and Depleted Uranium.

Diehl, P. (1999) Depleted Uranium: A by-product of the Nuclear Chain.

Fahey, D. (1999) Depleted Uranium Weapons: Lessons from the 1991 Gulf War.

Goodman, O. (2002) Nuclear Waste on the Highways; the New York Times Apr. 21/02. Accessed October 22, 2007, at
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Scientific Inquiry Into Extraterrestrial Life

Words: 2388 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83384088

Furthermore, he argues, a technological culture is not an inevitable feature of human evolution. If other cultures had achieved ascendancy, then science and technology would not have emerged as a reference point for measuring intelligence. SETI's requirement for an almost identical technology, although scientifically understandable, is based on an impoverished concept of intelligence.

According to Munevar, the development of a scientific culture, with access to radio communication, is highly contingent, requiring a number of lucky breaks from the environment and human natural and social history. In this context Munevar cites the development of mammalian intelligence. It is widely believed that the dinosaurs were wiped out by the immediate effects of an asteroid or cometary impact or possibly volcanic eruption. But mammals who survived the years of darkness caused by the dust of the impact or eruption then evolved to occupy the niche held by the dinosaurs. If the dinosaurs had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lamb, D. Discovery, Creativity and Problem Solving, Aldershot: Ashgate. 1991

Lamb, D. Crop patterns and the greening of Ufology, Explorations in Knowledge, XI, 2: 12-46. 1994

Munevar, G. Radical Knowledge, Aldershot: Avebury. 1981

Munevar, G. Extraterrestrial and human science, Explorations in Knowledge, VI, 2: 1-8. 2005
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Absolute Determinism

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86114518

Absolute Determinism

Questions about place and role of reason puzzle generations of philosophers as they are among the fundamental questions of philosophy. In case it appears that everything is planned and all events are mutually connected it may witness for the divine origin of the universe and man. Laplace proposed the theory of absolute determinism which stated that every process which took place in the universe had a reason so that the next or previous stage of this process could be predicted and described in the absolute form.

Determinism of Laplace had a lot of strong points at the time when he developed this theory. First of all Laplas was a mathematician and physicist and the principle of sufficient reason corresponded to all dynamic processes he studied: motion, oscillations, etc. This principle laid in the fundamentals of classic mechanics and was applied for any dynamical system on the hand with…… [Read More]


Laplace, Pierre Simon A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities Dover Publications 1996
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Graphene-Based Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance

Words: 1535 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80115453

[Read More]


Borislav, V., Goran, I. & Rado, G. (2013). 'Localized surface plasmon resonances in graphene ribbon arrays for sensing of dielectric environment at infrared frequencies.' Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 113, pp. 013110 -013119.

Choi, S.H., Young, K.L. & Kyung, M.B. (2011, January 17). 'Graphene-on-silver substrates for sensitive surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensors.' Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 2,

pp. 458-467.

Fal, T.J. & Camley, R.E. (2011, September). 'Non-reciprocal devices using attenuated total reflection and thin film magnetic layered structures.' Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 110, vol. 5, pp. 912-920.
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Communication History

Words: 4777 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38083267

Communication History

Fans of science fiction are fond of recalling a remark by novelist Arthur C. Clarke, to the effect that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I am currently typing these sentences onto a laptop, where I am also currently watching a grainy YouTube video of the legendary magician Harry Houdini, performing one of his legendary escapes -- from a straitjacket, in this case. Houdini is probably the most famous stage magician of the twentieth century, as witnessed by the fact that his name is familiar to my generation although he died almost a century ago. If Houdini were to suddenly reappear in front of me right now -- in the flesh, I mean, and not merely on YouTube -- how would I explain to him that the way in which all of this is taking place? To someone who has been dead for a century, the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abbate, Janet. Inventing the Internet. Boston: MIT Press, 1999. Print.

Babbage, Charles. Table of the Logarithms of the Natural Numbers from 1 to 108000 by Charles Babbage, Esq., M.A. London: Clowes and Sons, 1841. Print.

Babbage, Charles. "On a method of expressing by signs the action of machinery." Address to the Royal Society, 1826. Web.

Bryant, John H. "Heinrich Hertz's Experiments and Experimental Apparatus: His Discovery of Radio Waves and His Delineation of Their Properties." In Baird, Davis; Hughes, R.I.G.; and Nordman, Alfred. Heinrich Hertz: Classical Physicist, Modern Philosopher. Hingham, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998. Print.
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Mechanics and Dynamics

Words: 3543 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26188495

Mechanics and Dynamics

Life without motion is better explained as death. A living being is said to be having life only when the walls of the heart engage in pumping the blood, when the blood circulates through the entire body, when nerves impulse electrically from brain to toe, lungs move to bring oxygen, food transports through the stomach and intestines, when the iris expands and contract, when the eyeball rotates, etc. Not only in the living beings, the riddles of the non-living items like recoiling of a fired gun, acceleration of an automobile, action of a spinning top, the motion of a space rocket can also be broken down in terms of the analysis of motion.

Dynamics" is a branch of study of motions and "Mechanics" contrary to the general idea of referring to people in uniforms with name over his pocket and having a tool box in his hand,…… [Read More]


Introduction to Physics" Retrieved at Accessed on 03/27/2003

Statics and Mechanics" Retrieved at / Pages / P1M_CONCEPTS.html Accessed on 03/27/2003

Engineering Mechanics" Retrieved at . Accessed on 03/27/2003

Engineering Mechanics" Retrieved at http://www.tutorgig.Com/encyclopedia / getdefn.Jsp Accessed on 03/28/2003
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Philosophy of Science Hempel vs

Words: 1074 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66750317

Tollaksen is a researcher concentrating in the field of reverse causality, the idea that both the past and the future affect the present. His results, if fully accepted, defy any sort of reductionist explanation. A necessary reductionist viewpoint -- a reductionist assumption a holist might say -- is the flow of time, and all particles trapped therein, from low entropy to high. Causality is central to reductionism. Yet, in Tollaksen's experiment, by the time the decisions -- the causal phenomena -- are made, the measurements -- the affected phenomena -- are not only already over but all the reduced elements involved with those measurements already dissipated, destroyed, or gone wherever it is photons go when physicists are done with them. Tollaksen's experiment suggests that Pascal's barometer reads 30 inches of mercury not just because of what the atmospheric pressure is (at which it arrived by being what it was) but…… [Read More]


1. "Holism in Science" Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 28 March 2010

2. "Reductionism" Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web 28 March 2010

3. Merali, Zeeya "Back From the Future" Discover Magazine April 2010 pp. 39-44. Print.
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Newton Netwon's Laws of Motion

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53850521

It is noted that the corporeal world is the context to which this discussion specifically applies, with particles at the subatomic level not abiding the same principles. That said, a diagram included in the Nave explanation of Newton's laws helps to clarify that which is meant by the above equation. A man is shown swinging a golf club into a golf ball in one image and in the next image, he is shown swinging the club into moving truck. We take as a primary understanding from these images that the mass of the object struck will have a direct bearing on the force required to accelerate it. At an identical force, the man's swing might drive the golf ball several hundred yards while perhaps only denting the moving truck.

It was supplemented even further by the Third Law of Motion that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Casco, M. (1999). Newton's Laws of Motion. The M. Casco Learning Center. Online at .

Motte, A. (trans.). (1729). Axioms or Laws of Motion. Isaac Newton's Principia 1687.

Online at 

Nave, R. (2000). Newton's Laws. Hyperphysics. Online at http://hyperphysics.phy-
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Heat Loss Is Affected by

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68717877

Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the study's conclusion.

Working… [Read More]

(Vol. 2). New York: Pergamon Press.

Tucker, P. (2006, November/December). Building a More-Temperate World: New Materials

That Regulate Their Own Temperature Could Cut Energy Costs. The Futurist, 40, 11.
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Michelson Experiment How Did the

Words: 758 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40344034

If he adjusted the rate of rotation correctly he could be sure that the light upon returning to his lab hit the same mirror.

Michelson was able to calculate the speed of light from the speed of rotation of the wheel of a device at the center of a metal shack that he built, the distance that the light had traveled, and the angle of the light beam as it bounces back and forth through the mirrors (the Optics Institute of Southern California).

Michelson also attempted to measure the speed of light based on the movement of the earth. This was the Michelson-Morley experiment that proposes that the ether, a medium in space that is supposed to carry light waves (Astron Berkely Online), can affect the speed of light. The two scientists used Michelson's interferometer which splits a beam of light into two and sends them in a perpendicular direction…… [Read More]


Fowler, M. The Speed of Light.

Retrieved on May 10, 2005, from the Internet.

Web site: 

Speed of Light.
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Dennett Daniel Dennett Is an

Words: 1562 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64111275

Dennett says that the consciousness only plays tricks with our minds and makes the experiences to be assumed to be non-physical, which in turn raises the ontological problem of non-physical existence of everything. Dennett, therefore, would seem to offer to take into consideration the small factors in detail, which eventually build up to the bigger picture of the ontological problem of hard existence, to solve the problem. I have come to this conclusion based on the facts mentioned in the intentional stance idea and Dennett's other sayings.

Section Six

Dennett's intentional stance to describe the behavior of non-living objects blurs the important philosophical distinction between the living and non-living systems. Dennett's work states that there is no genuine reason in principle that non-living systems cannot display actual agency, as opposed to the pseudo-agency. If being alive is a necessary condition for having a mind, the argument that if a non-living…… [Read More]

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Existence on God

Words: 3572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69726706

God Exist?

The Case for God's Existence


Thomas Aquinas

Other Arguments

The Case Against the Existence of God

My Assessment

Many people go to churches, mosques, and synagogs each week to worship God and to pray. But does God hear those prayers? Does he exist? The debate over God's existence has gone on for centuries and is alive and well in our time. Philosophers, theologians, scientists, and ordinary people have weighed in on the argument. Theologians such as Aquinas and Anselm argued for the existence of God in the Middle Ages, but even in that time, others disputed their contentions. Even some who believe in God argue that proving God's existence through logic, science, or reasoning is impossible because even hard evidence has nothing more than faith behind it. Are the people who worship God wasting their time then? Does God impact their lives? That question can be difficult…… [Read More]


Anselm of Canterbury." The Internet Encyclopedia of Knowledge. 1996. Retrieved 10 December 2002 from

Bradley, Walter. "The Real Issue: The Scientific evidence for the Existence of God." 14 July 2002 Retrieved 10 December 2002 from

Burr, David. "Anselm on God's Existence." Medieval Source Book. 1996.

Retrieved 9 December 2002 from / source/anselm.html
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Statically Mechanics

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32588731


There are several theories in physics that apply probability theory to various problems. Examples of this can be statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. Physicist James Clerk Maxwell came up with a thought experiment in the late nineteenth century that has puzzled people for over a century. The thought experiment deals with how someone might be able to violate the second law of thermodynamics by creating a situation that might decrease entropy in the system. Entropy can be thought of as the tendency for any system to loose energy. Entropy is a function of state, like the internal energy. It measures the relative degree of order (as opposed to disorder) of the system when in this state. An understanding of the meaning of entropy thus requires some appreciation of the way systems can be described microscopically (Sethna).

Maxwell had the insight to think of two systems placed side by side.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callender, C. "Who's Afraid of Maxwell's Demon - and Which One?" N.d. UCDS. Online. 3 March 2014.

Sethna, J. "Statistical Mechanics." 2006. Cornell University. < >.

Universe Review. "Maxwell's Demon." N.d. Universe Review. Online. 3 March 2014.
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Genetic Algorithms Parallel Genetic Algorithms 1d Bin Packing Supercomputers

Words: 9676 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92159820

Solving the 1D Bin Packing Problem Using a Parallel Genetic Algorithm: A Benchmark Test

The past few decades have witnessed the introduction in a wide range of technological innovations that have had an enormous impact on consumers, businesses and governmental agencies. Computer-based applications in particular have been key in facilitating the delivery of a wide range of services and information, and computer processing speeds have consistently increased incrementally. Computer processing speeds, though, have a natural limit, with electricity being unable to travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore, even the optimal processing speeds attainable in the future will remain constrained in this regard, but there are some alternative approaches to computer processing that can further increase the functionality of computers, including parallel computing and genetic algorithms which are discussed further below.

Parallel Computing

In computing, the term "parallelism" is used to describe a system's architecture, in other words, "The…… [Read More]


Anderson-Cook, C.M. (2005). Practical genetic algorithms. Journal of the American Statistical

Association, 100(471), 1099.

Benkler, Y. (2004). Sharing nicely: On shareable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production. Yale Law Journal, 114(2), 273-274.

Blacklight. (2010, October 11). Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. Retrieved from http://www.
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The Scientific Commercial and Creative

Words: 1832 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82623759

Real trial-based evidence shows a
clear success in reduced cracking in cement which is reinforced thusly.
Our research tells that these reinforces cement bodies "have aspect ratios
of 500 or more and diameters - about the same size as the distance between
layers in hydrated cement - so that cracks in the matrix would quickly
encounter well-dispersed SWCNTs, inhibiting their growth." (Makar, 1) In
order for these findings to be used in any real-world setting, we must
continue to refine and broaden the field of empirical study on this
Beyond concrete, the far-reaching potential yielded by the
proliferation of the carbon nanotube is not simple exciting, but may prove
itself to be one of the most important revelations of its time. The sheer
diversity of its usability and the relative novelty in the exploration of
its properties suggests that its capacity for as yet unimagined
technological applications is still…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Adler, R. (2006). Carbon-nanotube 'Strings' May ID Single Molecules. New
Scientist. Online at

AzoNano. (2005). Prestigious award for Nano-fiber Reinforced Concrete.
Nanotechnology. Online at
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Taylor in Freedom and Determinism

Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71013654

If we assume that 1) and 2) are true, then hard determinism is valid. Free will then is only an illusion that man perceives as a result of the complexity of all interacting cause-and-effects. Although he thinks he has possible courses of action, his final choice has already been the sum result of these interacting variables. However, if either 1) or 2) is false then it breaks down the whole concept of hard determinism.

This paper further argues that 1) and 2) are both false. First, the cause-and-effect concept is only a human phenomenon. What we know as science is only a generalization of seemingly regular and repeatable events. For example, Newton's laws of motion had been considered the only way of explaining the movement of planets, stars, and galaxies. This generalization has been accepted for hundreds of years. However, Einstein's theory of relativity has shown inconsistencies in Newton's explanation…… [Read More]


Wikipedia Contributors (2008). "Determinism." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 14, 2008 at

Wikipedia Contributors (2008). "Free Will: Moral Responsibility." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 14, 2008 at
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Fingerprints vs DNA Is One

Words: 3159 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85872409

(Aronson, 2007)

The problems and future of DNA Testing

The scientific soundness of the DNA test has not been doubted at all. Courts have increasingly relied on the outcomes of DNA tests. The common man is at a loss to understand the complexities of the method, and as a result in jury trials it is not taken as standard proof but approached with hesitancy. Jurors are ignorant of science and the 'principles of modern genetics' and can get quite confused by all the jargon and confusing tactics of lawyers who are more interested in their cases rather than scientific truth. ("DNA Fingerprinting and Forensics," 2006) Thus the very process that can throw light on the proceedings and produce unfaultable evidence gets mired in sticky debates. The actual concern about the DNA test is not a confused jury but the process of collecting the data and analyzing it. There is no…… [Read More]


Aronson, Jay. D. (2007) "Genetic Witness: Science, Law, and Controversy in the Making of DNA" Rutgers University Press.

Champod, Christophe. (2004) "Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions"

CRC Press.

Lazer, David. (2004) "DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice"
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Magnetism and Electromagnetism Concepts and Explanations Magnetic

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81917524

Magnetism and Electromagnetism: Concepts and Explanations

Magnetic Polarity

Magnetic polarity states that all magnets have a North and South pole. Each pole is attracted to each other just as the polarity of the Earth is attracted to itself. The most effective magnets in production are referred to as North Pole Magnets, due to the fact that they only attract South Pole magnets. Magnets can be either North Pole magnets or bi-polar, meaning that they posses on of each pole. As far as polarity is concerned, opposite poles attract and similar poles repel each other. This is the most basic concept associated with magnetism, and one that can be replicated using electrical current or electromagnets.

Example: If a magnet is touched to another, the two opposite poles will attract and the two similar poles will repel each other. This can be seen in a very basic experiment using two bi-polar magnets.…… [Read More]