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theorist Jean Piaget. The writer uses two case studies, a nine-year-old and a 14-Year-old, and provides the reader with the results of the study conducted on the children.
Throughout history theorists have studied human behavior to try and determine what it is that makes people react the way they do. There have been many theories tossed about regarding the behavior of mankind and the impact the behaviors have on the world. One important theorist in the history of psychology was Jean Piaget. Piaget focused his work on children and believed the complete developmental process of life occurs during childhood. Piaget developed different stages of development that he believed occurred at recognizable ages and with repeated patterns. This theory has been tested again and again and in many cases has held itself to be true. This paper presents case studies of two children who are held against their Piaget age groups…
Understanding Adolescents’ Cognitive Characteristics Using Piaget Cognitive Theory
Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who focused on the study of cognitive development in human growth. From his studies, he developed the cognitive theory, which argues that there are four stages of human development (Greene, 2008). He identified these four stages as sensorimotor, pre-operational, and concrete operational, and the formal operational stage. The following study focuses on the operational stage to the protagonist as depicted by Starr Carter, an adolescent in novel ‘The Hate U Give’ as written by Angie Thomas. Piaget’s developmental theory will be helpful in identifying his cognitive characteristics at this stage.
Starr Carter is the sixteen-year-old protagonist girl in the ‘The Hate U Give’ where the author offers a first-person view of her character. Starr comes from the poor Garden Heights community but attends an affluent school in Riverton Hills. The schooling experience results in the split…
Beilin, H. & Pufall, P (2013). Piaget\\\\'s Theory: Prospects and Possibilities. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Greene, R. R. (2008). Human behavior theory & social work practice. New Brunswick, N.J: Aldine Transaction.
Shaffer, D. R., & Kipp, K. (2014). Developmental psychology: Childhood and adolescence. Australia: Cengage Learning
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…
Piaget's Stages Of Cognitive Development
Child Behavior Evaluations using Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
I was working at the library when two 15 to 16-year-old girls sat down at my table. Remembering that I had to do this assignment, I tried to pay attention to their behavior without seeming to. One of the girls opened up her laptop and began to work on what appeared to be homework, while the other girl sat down and quietly waited for her friend to finish the assignment. The homework seemed to require searching for information online in order to complete the assignment. Her patient friend seemed politely bored while waiting. At one point, the girl doing her homework apologized to her friend and stated that she was "… really sorry for taking so long." The girl doing the homework also received several text messages, which she silenced and ignored so that she could…
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
"Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)" (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html
Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110.
Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development
Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.
Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences
According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…
Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Class_Websites/761_Spring_04/Assets/course_docs/ID_Theory_Reps_Sp04/Bruner-Cherry.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].
William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at: http://www.takamatsu-u.ac.jp/library/06_gakunaisyupan/kiyo/no41/41_117-123_williams.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
This same concept presents a major challenge to Piaget's theories as well.
One of the key criticisms of Piaget's work can be found in his research methods. He used Qualitative research methods, which often do not stand up to the rigors of science. Many factors can influence the outcome of qualitative studies. For instance, sample bias may have been present in Piaget's original study. All of the children were from well-educated families. The sample size was small; therefore, the results may not apply to sample with different demographic profiles. It is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population.
In addition to sample bias, qualitative studies are prone to bias by the researcher. They may wish to "prove" their theories to the extent that they see patterns where none exist, or they may tend to leave out important information that does not coincide with their theory. There is no…
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.
Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.
Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.
Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.
Piaget vs. Vygotsky
Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism are both theories in the field of Cognitive Development which focuses on the development of how people attain knowledge about their surroundings and come to understand their world throughout their life span. Both psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, came up with their own theories on cognitive development. Piaget came up with the idea of Cognitive Constructivism, while Vygotsky came up with Social Constructivism, both of which have become the most studied theories in this branch of psychology.
Piaget focused on categorizing children's cognitive development into stages and made note of the different approaches that children at a given stage and age has toward acquiring new knowledge. Vygotsky's focus was on a more social perspective and suggested that children's ability to learn comes from their social and daily interactions with their surroundings and culture. It is this that helps them think and…
Martin, J. & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging the social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology. 1(4): 375-388.
Palincsar, A.S. (1998). Social contructivist persepctives on teaching and learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49: 345-375.
Davies, D. (2004). Child Development. Second Edition. Guilford Press.
Kall, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2010). Human development: A life-span view. Wadsworth Publishing.
Comparing the Theories of Piaget and Vygotsky
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky were both born in 1896 in Switzerland and ussia, respectively. Both men were born at the turn of the 20th century, one of the greatest and most prolific centuries in modern history. Both men were profoundly instrumental in shaping the perspectives and practices regarding education, socialization, and human development. The paper will examine the theories of each gentlemen, offering a comparative analysis and assessment of some of the greater concepts or schools of thought. The paper will additionally offer insight as to the value of incorporating their theories in the classroom as part of the teaching practice. Piaget is more known for Developmental Psychology, Constructivism, and Epistemology, while Vygotsky is more known for Cultural-historical psychology, and the Zone of Proximal Development. While individually distinctive, there is some conceptual overlap, as well as overlap in their intentions to…
Gallagher, Christina. "Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky." Muskingham University, Psychology Department, Web, Available from: http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm , 1999. Accessed 2013 February 04.
McLeod, Sean. "Jean Piaget." Simply Psychology, Web, Available from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html , 2009, 2012. Accessed 2013 February 04.
Some might say I am too exacting, too much of a perfectionist. But working with children has and will continue to make me more accepting of the need to 'break eggs' to make an omelet, to tolerate disorder to realize a goal. Even at the formal operations stage, an adult must know that his or her cherished philosophical goals and abstractions are not shared by everyone. It is necessary to motivate others through emotions as well as logic to make employees want to achieve critical objectives and benchmarks.
Learning how to convince other people, to make them share my ideals, has been a great learning experience for me in all of my leadership roles. A CEO, above all, cannot have the egocentric perspective of a child. Although it is expected of a child, a CEO must put aside such 'childish things' as concern for the ego, and instead focus on…
There are almost as many different varieties of issues that can impede a child learner from succeeding in a math class as there are particular remedies to ameliorate such a problem. One of the chief reasons that certain children find mathematics difficult is because they are overwhelmed by it. They find the concept of a never ending series of numbers (as well as similarly interminable operations which one can put them through and which are taught daily and tested weekly) beyond challenging to the point where it incites anxiety and fear.
Additionally, difficulties can arise from learning differences such as dyscalculia, or situations in which students may not be familiar with the language that the class is taught in (such as English Language Learners). These two factors can exacerbate the initial feeling of anxiety that math can produce in child learners. Moreover, it is important to realize that in…
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). "Piaget's theory of cognitive development." Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
The materials used consisted of standard wide-mouth beakers and taller and narrower graduated glass containers filled with various quantities of colored liquid. The liquid used was ordinary tap water containing blue food dye. The wide-mouth beakers had a maximum volume approximately three times that of the maximum volume of the taller glass containers. The height of the wide-mouth beakers was 5.5 inches and the height of the taller glass containers was 13 inches. The diameter of the wide-mouth beakers was 3 inches; the diameter of the taller glass containers was 1 inch.
Before conducting a demonstration using the liquid, the experimenter engaged the subject in sufficient conversation to establish a rapport. The experimenter then asked the subject to look at the empty containers and hypothesize which container would likely hold more fluid, recording those results. Subjects who indicated an awareness of the conservation at this stage were interviewed and asked…
e. between ages of 6 and 9 years of age). The fact that conservation was observed at higher rates among males, that non-conservation was observed at higher rates among females, and that transitional rates were roughly equal suggests that males achieve conservation earlier than females in general.
The implications of this research are that the most relevant age range for pinpointing the most common age of achievement of conservation is between the ages of 6 and 9 years of age. While the observed differences between males and females were less marked than the relative differences between different age groups, the results of the study also suggest that male children may be expected to achieve conservation earlier than females of comparable ages.
Limitations and Possible Areas of Further Experimentation
The principal limitation of the study was that the age ranges selected were too large to identify the age of achievement…
perfect, Piaget's theories a profound impact field cognitive development. Provide analysis model challenges . a.Define main stages Piaget's theory, age ranges. b.Discuss crucial processes children move stage .
Piaget's theory of cognitive development relates to four essential stages that children go through as they grow up. The first is the sensorimotor stage and it involves the time period between birth and the age of two. Children learn more about the world in this phase by interacting with objects and through their experiences. The second is the preoperational stage, entails children between the ages of two to (approximately) seven, and it has children acquiring more information through role-playing but still encountering issues because they cannot properly implement logics and as they have difficulty seeing things from other point-of-views. The concrete operational stage occurs from about seven to about eleven years old and has children behaving and thinking more logically. Even with…
Santrock, John W. (2006). "Life-Span Development (10th ed.)" McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.
Smith, Leslie, (2002). "Critical Readings on Piaget." Routledge.
theories emphasize mainly on student activity as opposed to teachers teaching. The argument is that a student's experiences coupled with study are areas where learning begins. This is closely associated with the change in psychological theories with regard to learning from behaviorism to constructivism. I use active teaching as opposed to passive teaching. Passive learning takes place when the student only takes in whatever the tutor avails. This form of learning is considered less effective compared to active learning, in which the student seeks out whatever he or she needs to understand. Thus, passive learning seems to promote surface learning instead of deep learning. Since deep learning entails the search for meaning in whatever is learnt, it is insightful (oberts, 2001).
I rely mostly on constructivism in my teaching. In constructivism, learners are considered sense-makers since they not only record the given information but also interpret it. This understanding of…
Roberts A. (2001). ABC of Learning. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://studymore.org.uk/glolea.htm
Smith, M.K. (2003). Learning Theory. The Informal Encyclopedia of Education. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-learn.htm
UNESCO (n.d). Most influential theories of learning. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/strengthening-education-systems/quality-framework/technical-notes/influential-theories-of-learning/
NDT Resource center. (n.d.). Teaching with the Constructivist Learning Theory. Retrieved 26 August 2015 from https://www.nde-ed.org/TeachingResources/ClassroomTips/Constructivist%20_Learning.htm
In other words, he uses the Piagetian method to examine the subrosa motivating factors that can split family businesses asunder.
In the 2009 work written by Kaye and his son Nick, he continues the family business. Their book cuts right to the chase in terms of examining a basic business issue and family issue, that is, trust. ithout it, financial, business and family planning is impossible. Indeed, one of the basic assumption that a parent makes is that the child can make their way in the world and that the parent can now relax a bit. Unfortunately, in today's world, many children have found themselves moving back in with the parents. This causes stresses in the parent and child relationship, especially as the parents grow closer to retirement. The subject of this study was very close at hand for Kaye Senior, that is, his son Nick. The freelance job he…
Kaye, Kenneth. (1982). The Mental and social life of babies: how parents create persons.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ibid. (2005). The Dynamics of family business: building trust and resolving conflict.
Moreover, as Piaget explains, children's behavior patterns are based on invention and representation, not merely innocent discovery, and not only sensorimotor groping. The transition from groping to actual invention is also supportive of Piagetian model of cognitive development.
Thinking Development -- Vygotsky and his Example (ZPD)
In general terms Lev Vygotsky argued that "situated social interaction" that is connected with "concrete practical activity in the material world" are the root drivers for cultural and individual development (Thorne, 1998). Vygotsky developed the "genetic law of cultural development," which stresses that the first cultural development for a child appears "twice or on two planes," according to the University of Helsinki. The first appearance for the young child is "interpsychologically," in interaction between people; and the secondly it appears as an "intrapsychological achievement" (Helsinki). Author Kurt L. Kraus explains that Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Activity Theory boils down to three elements: ontogeny, phylogeny, and sociocultural…
Kraus, Kurt L. (2008). Lenses: Applying Lifespan Development Theories in Counseling.
Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Paiget, Jean. (1974). The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International
Universities Press, Inc.
Piagetian, Ericksonian, And Freudian Stages of Development
Human beings progress gradually from childhood to adulthood, going through stages that are distinct, continuous, and improving. Developmental psychologists like Freud, Piaget, and Erickson came up with different theories concerning the stages that people often undergo as they grow from childhood. This study discusses the similarities and the differences between the three theories with examples of the stages mentioned by each given. The contrast and comparison will make people appreciate the importance of the three theories of human development
Erickson's theory had the highest number of stages of development compared to the other two. His theory covered eight main stages from birth to death of an individual. According to Erickson, the successful completion of a stage marked a good beginning of the next stage. Failure to fully exhibit and live a stage exhaustively will recur in the future through habits that will…
PIAGET vs. VYGOTSKY
Compared: Piaget and Vygotsky
Piaget vs. Vygotsky: The role of language in cognitive development
Jean Piaget's theory of human development is fundamentally a biological one: Piaget believed that all human beings go through a series of developmental stages, and the ability to understand certain concepts such as volume and mass is determined by the biological and developmental stage of the brain, more so than culture. If the child is not yet ready to learn certain spatial principles, he cannot do so, even with the best of teachers. The child interacts with the environment and is shaped by its contents to some extent, but there are natural constraints based upon the child's mentality.
In contrast, "unlike Piaget's notion that children's development must necessarily precede their learning," Lev Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological functions" (McLeod…
Kristinsdottir, Solrun B. (2001). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from:
McLeod, S.A. (2007). Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
maturation, and why is Piaget's theory a good example of a maturational theory of children's cognitive development?"
Maturation is the way an infant gets to learn to become a proper individual by various maneuvers all through the early stages in life. The term maturation has different connotations in the theory of development if viewed from different angles. There are many theories of development that have links or are a part of the theory of maturation. The theories that try to explain the cognitive development are the behavioral theory propounded by Skinner which says that learning is a result of the environment. By creating a better environment, learning can be directed and shaped. Children introduced to a better environment learn to give better responses and the behavior theory seem to work where special education is required. Freud and Eriksson believed that children came with drives that had to be channeled in…
Alexander, Patricia A; Winne, Philip H. (2006) "Handbook of educational psychology"
Anderson, Norman H. (1996) "A Functional Theory of Cognition." Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Constructivist Computerized Learning
Constructivist theories of knowledge development and learning have been around since the turn of the 20th century. But it may well be the advent of computerized and e-learning educational opportunities that offer this perspective its real chance to make a difference in the virtual world of learning and instruction. From Piaget to Papert, the core precepts of the constructivist understanding have been affirmed by what technology has to offer, even though researchers are just beginning to see what that means in practice. The current work reviews this transformation and what it might mean for the future of knowledge making and learning.
One of the most exciting aspects of the technological invasion of education is that the interactive and creative abilities of these tools allow students and teachers to design and develop their own relationship with knowledge. Computerized technologies of all sorts are simply fundamentally changing the game…
Ackermann, E. (n.d.). Piaget's Constructivism, Papert's Constructionism:What's the difference? Viewable at http://learning.media.mit.edu/content/publications/EA.Piaget%20_%20Papert.pdf .
Concept to Classroom (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Thirteen Online. Viewable at http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub4.html .
Cox, J. And Cox, K. (2009). Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University. Viewable at http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/coxk/eportfolio/EdTech%20504%20Final%20Synthesis%20K&J.docx.pdf.
Doolittle, P. And Hicks, D. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theoretical Foundation for the Use of Technology in Social Studies. Viewable at http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/learnth/DoolittleHicks5.pdf .
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
Children also gain an insight into the conservation of numbers, mass, and weight; which allows them to understand that just because the image of object changes that does not mean the nature of the object has to change with it. For example, children in this stage can tell that a cup of water is the same amount despite being poured into two different cups. Children also learn to classify objects by several features based on increased schemes from more external stimuli. Finally, the formal operational stage represents the state of the mind from eleven years onward. In this, there is logical abstract thinking, which goes beyond the child's immediate environment and incorporates abstract concepts. Children learn to test hypothesis using reason and the human mind looks forward into the future and the abstract hypothetical. According to Piaget, these stages are universal and occur within every individual.
There is another side…
Daniels, Harry. (2005). An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.
Minick, Norris. (2005). The development of Vygotsky's thought: an introduction to Thinking and Speech. An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.
Piaget, Jean & Inhelder, Barbel. (1999). The Psychology of the Child. Basic Books.
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…
Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm
Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.
Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
Both Piaget and Vygotsky approached the role of artifacts on the development of mind. Piaget believed action is used by the child in order to understand and construct their knowledge base. "To understand is to invent." In contrast, Vygotsky believed that understanding comes only through social interaction.
Role of Culture
Vygotsky believed that cultural artifacts pla a major role in illiciting an account of where the mind is. The ZPD reflects Vygotsky's view that learning is distinct from development, as the ZPD has been defined as "the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky 86). Piaget, on the other hand, does not have a clear set of issues and phenomena that appear because of culture, so it is hard to compare the two…
Crawford, Kathryn. Vygotskian Approaches to Human Development in the Information Era. Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62, 1996.
Driscoll, Marcy P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn, Bacon.
Hausfather, Samuel J. "Vygotsky and Schooling: Creating a Social Contest for learning." Action in Teacher Education. (18) 1-10, 1996.
Riddle, Elizabeth M., Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory, March, 1999. http://chd.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/constructivism/vygotsky.htm.
Disequilibrium in Learning
Piaget's concept of disequilibrium in learning makes a great deal of sense both in terms of child development and in terms of the general way in which humans tend to think and act. Piaget bases much of his theories on evolutionary biology, and so adaptation necessarily plays a certain role in his thinking. He theorizes that the student is always active and that learning is an action by which one constructs knowledge (hence consctructivism), but that at the same time humans tend towards stagnation, seeking to "continue in past patterns as long as possible" (Doll, 1993, p. 83) Piaget supposes that it is necessary for the teacher to create a sort of cognitive dissonance and discomfort which will shock the student out of their complacency and force them to evolve and learn. He calls this state of uneasiness which is necessary to learning "disequilibrium." The social aspect…
Doll, W.E. (1993). A Post-Modern Perspective on Curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.
Forman, E. & McPhail, J. (1993). "Vygotskian perspectives on children's collaborative problem-solving activities." In E.A. Forman, N. Minick, & C. Addison Stone (Eds.). Contexts for learning. Sociocultural dynamics in children's development. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Woolfolk, A. (2003). Educational Psychology. New York: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
educational principles derived Piaget's theory continue a major impact teacher training classroom practices, early childhood. Then discuss limitations preoperational thought Piaget's point view text.
Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget played an important role in shaping society's understanding of children's minds and of attitudes teachers would have to employ in order to effectively connect with students. Piaget made it possible for the world to comprehend how teachers needed to concentrate on how children thought in addition to knowing what the end product of their thinking would be. He emphasized the need to observe the important role of children's tendency to get actively involved in the learning process, as interest in discovering more is one of the principal elements assisting children in accumulating information. Another idea that Piaget introduced and is still widely used today relates to how teachers have to address each student in particular in order to effectively help them…
Freud's theories of development have been profoundly influential upon literature and popular culture. Freud's theory of the Oedipal and Electra complexes suggests that all children form a sexual connection with their mother as their first, primary emotional impulse. Gradually, culture comes to channel children's emotions into more appropriate ways, so that after the repressive phase of childhood, adolescents form sexual attachments to people outside the family. Freud's influence upon educational theory is somewhat limited, given his focus upon the 'family romance.' B.F. Skinner, in contrast, took a diametrically opposed view to Freud and instead emphasized the ability of outside, deliberate forces to 'condition' a subject to engage in behaviors, through a series of rewards and punishments.
While to some degree, Skinner's methods are evident in the behavioral management of children in the classroom, Lev Vygotsky is probably the most influential of the major theorists of childhood development on education…
Blake, Barbara & Pope, Tambra. (2008). Developmental psychology: Incorporating Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories in classrooms. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 1 (1) 59 -- 67. Retrieved: http://jcpe.wmwikis.net/file/view/blake.pdf
Bruno Bettelheim Attacks. (2008). YouTube. Retrieved:
The refrigerator mother. (2010). Neuroskeptic. Retrieved:
The idea behind constructivism is that the learner is building an internal representation of knowledge, a personal interpretation of experience. This representation is constantly open to change, its structure and linkages forming the foundation to which other knowledge structures are appended. Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience. Conceptual growth comes from the sharing of multiple perspectives and simultaneous changing of our internal representations in response to those perspectives as well as through cumulative experience (Bednar, 1991).
Therefore, as the days pass, an individual's perception of the meaning of new thoughts or ideas that he knows from other people may change everyday. He may gain new ideas everyday and may experience new things everyday. These experiences may influence his perception of the idea that he acquires from other people. This is the level where he creates his own opinion of this idea.…
Bednar, A.K., et al. (1991). Theory into practice: How do we link? G. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present and Future. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
Blosser, P. (1973). Principles of Gestalt psychology and their application to teaching junior high school science. Science Education, 57, 43-53
Cognitive Development." 2006 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_development.
Cognitive Development." 2006 http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~epritch1/pianalz.htm.
3. Early adulthood (17-45): characterized by greatest energy and abundance and likewise by greatest contradiction and stress. This is the era of drive, ambition, obligations, and attempts to succeed in all areas of life. Whilst potentially fulfilling, it can also provide enormous bouts of stress.
4. Midlife Transition (40-45): Levinson (in sync with Jung, Erickson, and Ortega) sees this era as constituting a sharp break between early adulthood and middle adulthood manifested by greater focus on others as opposed to self and by a more humane and reflective temperament and perspective.
5. Middle adulthood (40-65): Our biological capacities are somewhat weakened. Our focus transfers from ourselves to others, and we feel a responsibility for the future generation.
6. Late Adult transition (60 +) is a synthesis and linkage of both middle and late adulthood
Levinson defines "life structure" as consisting of the individual's relationship to significant others and/or to significant…
Finally, Levinson suggests that it is imperative to make key choices, form a structure around these choices, and to pursue values and goals. One's key choices are imperative to forming one's destiny.
Levinson, D. (1986). A conception of adult development, American Psychologist, 41, 1, 3-13
Cross Cultural Psychology
Comparing cross-cultural approaches to psychology:
An ecocultural vs. An integrated approach
The need to take into account different cultural perspectives when treating patients has become increasingly recognized within the profession of psychology. Cross-cultural psychology, in contrast to other branches of psychology, allows that the definition of what is psychologically 'normal' is often highly dependent upon one's cultural context. Two similar, but slightly different approaches to cross-cultural psychology include the ecocultural model and the integrative model.
The ecocultural model, posits "that the individual cannot be separated from his or her environmental context. People constantly exchange messages with the environment, thus transforming it and themselves" (Chapter 1 summary, n.d). Someone acculturated in a nation other than the U.S. will show different developmental features than someone acculturated in America. The United States' culture supports a particularly long adolescence, and leaving home and beginning a family is no longer…
Chapter 1 summary. (n.d). Retrieved:
Trommsdorff, G. (2002). An eco-cultural and interpersonal relations approach to development over the life span. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 6 (2).1-15 Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1057&context=orpc
It may even be impossible to retroactively identify every influence on the development of personality. However, contemporary psychologists already understand the general patterns in which major areas of psychological influence exert themselves on the individual.
More often than not, more than one avenue of psychological inquiry is helpful. Personality development in the typical patient may have been primarily influenced by Freudian issues in infancy and subsequent specific experiences in middle childhood, and secondarily by a particular negative experience or period of conflict in the nuclear family. Therefore, in the practical sense, measuring personality development means retroactively identifying the conceptually recognized potential influences along the full spectrum of psychological approaches. y matching behavioral (and other outwardly observable) manifestations of personality formation to the identifiable potential influences, it is often possible to pinpoint the most likely route of origin for major observable elements of personality.
Toward a Cross-Culturally Appropriate Theory of Personality…
Bradshaw J. (2002). Bradshaw on: The Family. Deerfield Beach, FL: HCI.
Branden N. (2001). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Princeton, NJ: Pearson.
Lewis M. And Feiring C. "Infant, Mother, and Mother-Infant Interaction Behavior and Subsequent Attachment" Child Development, Vol. 60, No. 4, (1989): 831-837.
Vygotsky vs. Piaget
The French developmental theorist Jean Piaget is notable because of his biologically-oriented, developmentally-driven concept of how children learn. ather than viewing children merely as small, less intelligent adults, Piaget was the first theorist to stress that children conceptualized the world in a very different way than adults -- in his view, due to biological limitations inherent to a child's brain. " He was more interested in was the way in which fundamental concepts like the very idea of 'number', 'time,' 'quantity', 'causality', 'justice' and so on emerged" (McLeod 2015). In Piaget's view, these were not concepts which were taught but rather emerged as part of maturation, just as a child grew taller and stronger with age. A child in the sensorimotor stage eventually achieves object permanence, according to Piaget, around 9 months, the child will look for a toy taken out of his or her viewing framework…
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
McLeod, S. A. (2014). Lev Vygotsky. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and rickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new tiquette Revolution for tots at…
Erik Erikson accepted the Freudian theory of infantile sexuality, but believed that other non-sexual issues were equally important in childhood development. He theorized that the infant moved from stages of "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust," followed by conflicts of "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt," "Initiative vs. Guilt," Industry vs. Inferiority, "Identity vs. Role Confusion, "Intimacy vs. Isolation," Generativity vs. Stagnation," and finally into the stage of "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." Personality malformation was likely to occur if the child's conflicts were not resolved, resulting in the child being stuck in one of these stages (Davis & Clifton, 2007, p.1). Jean Piaget, in contrast believed that the child's neurological capacity was the primary influence upon his or her ability to comprehend the world, as the child moved from the sensorimotor, to the preoperational, to the concrete operational stages, followed by the formal operational stage when the child could comprehend such concepts as 'here' and 'away,' and size, shape and mass ("Jean Piaget's Theory of Development,"2007). Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.
Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law and order conventional periods of development, and are thus eager to obey parents in exchange for approval while Erickson would see the desire to receive rule-governed behavior as a desire for affirmation of boundaries and trust in adult authorities. Freud would see such an obsession with control over oral and sanitary issues as a hold over from the anal and oral stages. The teacher of the class does show some acknowledgement of the existence of stages of childhood development, when she states that
Empirically-Based Theories Question/Prompt: Discuss 2 human growth development theories supported
One human growth and development theory that has been supported by research is Erikson's eight stages of life development (Slater, 2003, p. 53). One of the central notions of this theory is that the development of an individual continues for as long as he or she is alive. This idea is known as lifespan theory. Despite the fact that people are always developing, there are various stages that Erikson has identified that are common to the development of most people. The first five of these theories apply to teenagers and children; the final three are applicable to adults. For instance, stage five is the stage in which one has fully formed one's own identity and is now considered an adult. This stage is known as identity vs. role confusion, and is one that most teenagers have to face and surpass…
Dresner, O. (2007). Mourning and loss and the life cycle in the Book of Ruth. European Judaism. 40(2): 132-139.
Hochnerg, S. (2014). Isaiah 40 and Donne's "A valediction: Forbidding mourning": a case for possible influence. Christianity and Literature. 63(3): 325-335.
Ponds, K.T. (2014). Spiritual development with youth. Reclaiming Children & Youth. 23(1): 58-61.
Slater, C.L. (2003). Generativity vs. stagnation: An elaboration of Erikson's adult stage of human development. Journal of Adult Development. 10(1): 53-65.
Role of theory in research. Does it serve to connect components of the study? Is it a basis for selecting a research approach?
Raw data in and of itself is not useful or comprehensible. heory acts as a guiding force to make various bits of empirical evidence relevant and to provide a guide to how to use and interpret information. According to Michael Patton, "a theory says, 'hese are the things that you ought to pay attention to, 'and here's why you ought to pay attention to them, 'because they make a particular kind of difference in the world'" (Patton n.d.). In general, there are two major theoretical overviews to constructing research studies: deductive and inductive approaches.
Deductive research begins with a hypothesis about a particular phenomenon and attempts to either prove or disprove that theory. he theoretical overview is constructed before the actual research is conducted. For example, a…
The role of theory within research is to strengthen the research design, help to understand the phenomenon which is being investigated and the knowledge that emerges from that research (Creswell, 2007). All of these roles are significant when conducting research. The terms we learned within our first week come into play here as explained by Creswell (2013). Theory as a paradigm for example offers an assumption of what forms social reality (ontology), epistemology is what we accept to be valid evidence of this reality, the way we investigate is the methodology and by the way we gather this information or the method (Creswell, 2007).
Creswell (2013) explains that theory plays a part in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods of research. In quantitative research, theory is used to help explain or predict relationship between variables within the research (Creswell, 2013). Quantitative research theory seeks to test those variables using numbers and statistical analysis (Creswell, 2007). Mixed method research explains that it is the use
Children in this stage lack conceptions of size, volume, and mass so teaching a child about something like portion sizes of food in a discussion of nutrition would be ineffectual at this stage.
Concrete Operational Stage (ages 7-11)
During this stage, children can understand the concept of multiple stages or aspects of a problem, the concept of transferable size and volume, and also reversibility of things like numbers or steps of an action. A child at this stage can understand, for example, that a large plate of fries and a small plate of fries have the same amount of food, even though the portion looks smaller on the large plate. Also, the child at this stage is no longer egocentric. The child can understand that he or she must undergo a difficult treatment, even though it hurts, because the family wants the child to get well, or that he or…
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).
Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.
Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…
Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.
Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.
Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.
Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Style
I teach in such a way that students can gain the tools and experience to help them successfully contribute to the world today. In that respect, my teaching philosophy is based on empowering students so that they are equipped to both have aspirations and fulfill them in a way that is socially productive. Subsequently, one of the fundamental characteristics of my teaching philosophy is to encourage students, and provide the sort of nurturing and positive reinforcement that fosters confidence and enables them to firstly believe in themselves and in their own abilities. Thus, there is a definite aspect of care and care ethics that actuates the way I teach. This principle is well aligned with my belief in positive reinforcement as one of the fundamental ways of bolstering the learning prowess of students through techniques such as constructive criticism. Additionally, I also attempt to teach in…
Behav, A. (2006). On the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ . Retrieved from
Harmonic Accompaniment on the Development of Music Aptitude and Singing Achievement
The rationale of the scrutinize was to investigate the effect of xylophones harmonic accompaniment on the tone realization and tone improvisation of young children[aged eight].It provide the children cognitive development, multiple intelligence emphasis on music and bodily kinesthetic intelligence which will involve auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimuli.
It entails rhythmic development, music amptitude which test the effect of harmonic accompaniment on music development and music amptitude children vocal development and finally the effect of harmonic accompaniment on singing achievement.Even though result based on research on singing achievement between the children which had song instruction with a root melody accompaniment had no significant on tone attainment according to Gordon's (1982)IMMA, there was significance effect on singing achievement between children who received song instruction with root melody accompaniment.Xylophones which comes from a Greek word 'xylon'meaning wooden sound.It is from percussion family…
ATHERTON JS (2010) Learning and Teaching; Piaget's developmental theory [Online] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Accessed: 27 January 2011
Azzara, C.D. (1999). An aural approach to improvisation. Music Educators Journal, 86(3), 21 -- 25.
Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Gordon, E.E. (1979). Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Chicago: GIA Publications.
Learning Objectives for Adult Education
Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education
As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…
Berry, J.W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3(4), 324-36.
Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2012). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques for helping students question their assumptions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
High-Quality Elementary Education
hat ingredients go into a high quality education for elementary school children -- and what does the literature reveal? hat has been the impact of "No Child Left Behind" in terms of achieving that seemingly unachievable goal? These and other issues are covered in this paper.
Improving Elementary School Quality: Social-Emotional / Character Development
A research study in the peer-reviewed Journal of School Health reveals that a school-wide program involving a "social-emotional and character development education program" can "significantly improve" the quality of the education experience for elementary school children (Snyder, 2012, 11). The program, called "Positive Action," was conducted involving 20 elementary schools in Hawaii -- racially and ethnically diverse schools -- between the 2002-2003 school years and 2005-2006 school years.
In brief, the six-unit Positive Action (PA) program utilized in Hawaii involved 140 sessions -- lasting 15 to 20 minutes each -- per elementary grade…
Berk, L.B. (2013). Development Through the Lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Snyder, F.J., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I.J., and Flay, B.R. (2012). Improving
Elementary School Quality through the Use of a Social-Emotional and Character
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
This concept says that the low zone represents what the child already knows and can handle alone, and the high zone represents what the child needs mentoring for. With help, Sara could very well pick a gift appropriate to her mother's interest and taste. Because Jane at 10 has a broader experience of the world and more experience with her mother's likes and dislikes, her zone of proximal or potential development will be much larger, however she might very well take advantage of the more complete knowledge of people around her and try to buy or possibly make something really special.
Siegler: Information Processing Theories
Information processing theories have much the same foundations as constructivist or socialcultural theory but seem to focus more on exactly how attention and memory work and grow and change in the child. Attention improves a lot in early childhood although with the younger child, focus…
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression
This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS
Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…
Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480
Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm
Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm
The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
The concept of egocentrism in adolescence has been controversial for years. Many theorists have addressed the topic with differing beliefs and conclusions (McDevitt, 2002). Egocentrism in adolescence can be painful not only for the adolescence but for those who are within his or her life circle. It is all about concern that they are being watched. Teens often stop letting mom or dad go to their school, they do not want to be seen in public with them and they insist on wearing the popular name brand clothing or they believe that their life will be ruined.
There are several schools of thought regarding egocentrism in teens. Piaget believed that it actually began to dissipate during the teen years though he did develop a theory about why teens are preoccupied with what others think about them (McDevitt, 2002). According to Piaget it is actually a bit contradictory. It is…
Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents. (2nd Ed.) By McDevitt & Ormrod. Pearson-Prentice Hall 2002.
Learn the signs of early puberty http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/conditions/a/early_puberty.htm
Boys Delayed Puberty: How To Ease Fears by Charles Wibbelsman, MD
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.