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Nonetheless, based on the impact of pirating music, movies, and software, piracy can be considered as theft. The illegal copying and distribution of illegitimately copied material has huge financial impacts on the worldwide economy. As the rate of piracy continues to increase across the world, this practice continues to cost the global economy in billions of dollars. Piracy contributes to lost tax revenues that would be beneficial to local communities as hundreds of thousands of jobs in various industries are lost. The huge financial impact is also attributed to the fact that huge amounts are spent on dealing with this practice while it hinders innovation, research, and development. Therefore, piracy tends to hurt everyone i.e. manufacturers, consumers, employees, and many other business segments or people.
Piracy is theft because the main purpose of copyright is to incentivize the manufacture of creative works and materials (Kain, 2012). The increase in online…
Billy, M. (2011, March 5). Is 'Piracy' Theft? A Response to Mike LaBossiere. Retrieved June 28,
2012, from http://blog.mikebilly.com/2011/03/is-piracy-theft-a-response-to-mike-labossiere/
Kain, E. (2012, January 21). Does Online Piracy Hurt the Entertainment Industry? Retrieved
June 28, 2012, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2012/01/21/does-online-piracy-hurt-the-economy-a-look-at-the-numbers/
This education aims at stopping music piracy.
Thirdly, there is the use of technology to stop piracy. This is quite difficult because the advancement in technology leads to advancement in the music piracy. However, knowledge in technology leads to the introduction and use of Digital ights Management (DM) systems. These systems limit the number of computer devices that can play a song. As a result, there is a reduction in the number of people sharing unauthorized music through file sharing networks. In addition, musicians are adopting the introduction and use of a digital fingerprint on all the downloadable files they sell. The digital fingerprint enables to trace pirated music back to the source. This reduces the level of music piracy occurring through the internet. Fourthly, many musicians are resulting in litigation as a way of protecting themselves from music piracy (Wallace, 2012). They press lawsuits against the music pirates who…
Condry, I. (2004). Cultures of music piracy. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(3), 343-363. doi:10.1177/1367877904046412
Easley, R.F., Michel, J.G., & Devaraj, S. (2003). The mp3 open standard and the music industry's response to internet piracy. Communications of the ACM, 46(11), 90-96.
LaRose, R., & Kim, J. (2007). Share, Steal, or Buy? A Social Cognitive Perspective of Music Downloading. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(2), 267-277. doi:10.1089/cpb.2006.9959
Wallace, W. (2012). note: authorizing piracy on the cyber seas: an initiative to compensate right sholders of sound recordings by making music free. George Washington International Law Review, 44(1), 141-172.
Piracy, Counterfeiting, Patent Violation, The Price You Pay for Outsourcing China
Piracy, Counterfeiting and Patent violation
In this paper we will focus on piracy, counterfeiting and patent violation taking note of latest cases towards items such as in software, books, music and other related things. Here a huge emphasis will be given on China and how many different industries across the globe suffer losses due to the illegal practices carried out by Chinese manufacturers who tend to offer a copy of the original product at a relatively cheap price.
The meanings of terms piracy and counterfeit in today's age are relatively similar, i.e. To make an illegal copy of something. "Patent violation is a term which translates into any illegal practice which involves the usage or selling of any product without the permission of the patent holder who has the proper rights of that product." (Boyle 1997).
All of these…
Mowery, David. (1996). International Computer Software Industry. New York: Oxford Press.
Boyle, James. (1997). Shams, Software and Spleens. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Moody, Glyn. (2001). The Rebel Code. Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing.
Proctor, Robert. (2005). Handbook of human factors in web design. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Piracy in the Video Game Market
Sales of counterfeit video games are increasing worldwide. In 2003, video game executives joined a coalition of movie, software and music companies to appeal for help from the United States government, citing that they had lost a combined $20 billion due to piracy in 2002 (Kent, 2003).
Video game piracy "is more than a $1 billion industry," according to Douglas Lowenstein, president of the Interactive Digital Software Association, the trade organization that represents the games industry (Kent, 2003). "It is well over $2 billion worldwide if you include all piracy, which would include PC games."
For Microsoft Corp. And Sony Computer Entertainment, which respectively make the Xbox and PlayStation 2, piracy is a major problem. "Given the popularity of consoles on a worldwide basis, certainly a significant share of the losses is coming from the console side," Lowenstein said (Kent, 2003).
Worldwide, console piracy…
Kent, S. (July 3, 2003). Console Piracy: Poking Holes in Good Systems. GameSpy.com.
Kent, S. (July 19, 2003). Video game giants battle a mutual enemy: pirates. Chicago Tribune.
Reuters. (February 10, 2005). WTO Action Sought in Piracy Battle. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-wto10feb10,1,2060263.story?coll=la-utilities-technology& ; ctrack=3& cset=true.
Piracy and Copyright Infringement
hen people download music and movies illegally they are breaking federal law and they should be prosecuted. This paper backs up that thesis statement with reliable resource information and appropriate updates on the law and the consequences of copyright violation.
Through it's student-centered "HelpDesk" Illinois State University (ISU) advises students enrolled in ISU classes that there are a number of companies offering streaming music for download legally (Shoutcast, Live365, and more), and there are companies that offer software for downloading music (Download.com, FilePlanet, among others), Helpdesk explains. There are also "Literally millions of songs" available for download using "P2P" software and "they are easy to get," the HelpDesk continues (HelpDesk, 2011).
For example any student can download a file-sharing program like uTorrent; once installed, this software can make a search for a student's favorite song or movie or artist, and download that favorite song, artist or…
Illinois State University. (2011). Downloading and sharing copyrighted music, movies, and software. HelpDesk. Retrieved May 24, 2011, from http://helpdesk.illinoisstate.edu/kb/index.phtml?kbid=1159 .
University of Washington. (2010). Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing and Copyright Infringement: Are
You Vulnerable? Retrieved May 24, 2011, from http://www.washington.edu/students/gencat/policy/p2pshare.html .
U.S. Copyright Office. (2011). Copyright Laws. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-definitions.html#infringement .
Piracy in the Mediterranean
Piracy is often regarded as a something of an underground history, largely created by participants who operated outside the major thrust of geopolitical development. The criminal, disenfranchised or unaffiliated parties who have roved the sea taking advantage of vulnerable merchant ships or simply operating private trade, transport and smuggling activities are rarely thought of as prime movers of history. However, the 2010 text by Molly Greene, entitled Catholic pirates and Greek merchants. A maritime history of the Mediterranean, makes the case that the piracy that flourished throughout the Mediterranean in the 17th and 18th centuries would have a determinant effect on the distribution of sovereign, religious and economic power alike.
This assumption is underscored by the text's primary thesis. According to the review provided by Brummett (2011), "the book advances the thesis that the 'retreat of state', meaning the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires, from…
Brummett, P. (2011). Review: "Catholic pirates and Greek merchants. A maritime history of the Mediterranean." By Molly Greene. The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 62(3), 622.
Galeotti, M. (2012). Review: "Catholic Pirates and Greek Merchants: A Maritime History of the Early Modern Mediterranean." By Molly Greene. The Journal of Modern History, 84(1), 156-158.
Greene, M. (2010). Catholic pirates and Greek merchants: a maritime history of the Mediterranean. Princeton University Press.
Taken in isolation, consequentialist ethics would dictate that Yahoo allow the parents access to Mr. Ellsworth's email.
However, in today's legal environment, such actions cannot reasonably be taken in isolation. If Yahoo sets a precedent, they will be asked to release this information time and again in this circumstance. They would also need to defend against abuse of this by demanding proof of death, and other such burdening verifications. hile duplicating a right action many times over only yields multiple right actions, surrendering the account access could create a precedent by which privacy rights could be violated in other instances. If in those instances harm is done to living persons, then the consequences would flow back to that original decision, rendering it immoral. Thus, the morality of this decision is guided in part by the likelihood that this decision would start the company down this particular slippery slope.
Alexander, Larry & Moore, Michael. (2007). Deontological Ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved September 16, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Sinnot-Armstrong, William. (2006). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved September 16, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
The fact that the country's huge social instability and unemployment rate is somewhat alleviated by counterfeiting also encourages the police to ignore the problem.
Pfizer adopted a 4-prod approach to their problem - and this is actually a recommendation for all companies to adopt as means of problem-resolution:
the problem was delineated
Investigation was conducted into the extent of the problem
Plans were brainstorming
A specific plan was adopted and implements.
Their first step was to the problem in specifications and depth. Thorough investigation was conducted into all aspects of the problem in order to arrive at causes and to brainstorm possible solutions as well as to see which solutions had been effective in the past and which would have to be modified.
Pfizer's next step was to brainstorm ideas and draft plans. Their plans included distributing a draft plan that would deal with counterfeiting of company products in China.…
Bernstein, R & Munro, RH ( 1998) the Coming Conflict With China New York: Vintage Books, 60
Clark DL (2003) Product Counterfeiting in China and One American Company's Response. Defense Corporate Fellowship Program U.S. Army War College
Stop Online Piracy Act
One of the biggest challenges for a variety of firms is dealing with online piracy. ecently, Congress has been debating the different provisions of the Stop Online Piracy Act. This is a proposed regulation that is increasing the enforcement of existing copyright laws over the Internet. However, debate about the ethics surrounding the legislation has created tremendous amounts of animosity. To fully understanding what is happening, means examining different viewpoints. Once this takes place, is when we will highlight how this is impacting the way business law cases are argued.
Over the last several years, the issue of online piracy has been increasingly brought to the forefront. The reason why, is because the total amounts of economic losses have risen dramatically (with this accounting for $12.5 billion in the United States alone). At the same time, the total number of counties that are actively involved in…
Online Piracy in Numbers. (2012). Go Gulf.com. Retrieved from: http://www.go-gulf.com/blog/online-piracy
SOPA. (2011). House of Representatives. Retrieved from: http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/pdf/112%20HR%203261.pdf
Boyden, B. (2010). The Most Important Supreme Court Case in Copyright Law. Marquette University Law School. Retrieved from: http://law.marquette.edu/facultyblog/2010/11/01/the-most-important-supreme-court-case-in-copyright-law-sony-corp-v-universal-city-studios-1984/
Gaudiosi, J. (2012). Obama Says So Long SOPA. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/johngaudiosi/2012/01/16/obama-says-so-long-sopa-killing-controversial-internet-piracy-legislation/
Thus the workings of the bill should it become law could also be frustrated by numerous demonstrations carried out by Americans unhappy with the utilization of their tax dollars. Also, given other more important priorities, I doubt whether the government would be willing to expend enormous resources to make such a law fully functional. Hence in my opinion, resource constraints may end up frustrating SOPA's resolve to address online piracy and intellectual property theft.
It can also be noted that SOPA could end up being an exercise in futility given the internet's numerous data sharing avenues. Today, unlike 10 years ago, advancements in technology have made it possible for individuals to share and exchange data over a wide range of platforms including but not in any way limited to E-mail, instant messaging etc. Using these channels, users from all over the world can easily exchange data (including copyrighted material) undetected.…
This is to note that "Trinidad and Tobago alone account for 80% (1st quarter 2004) of all U.S. LNG imports, up from 68% in 2002. Therefore, any incident involving an LNG tanker along the Caribbean routes could harm not only U.S. energy security but also the economies of the Caribbean islands, affecting tourism and other industries." (Kelshell, 1) Such a trajectory has all the markings of an Al-Qaeda styled plot, which by its premise will take an interest in that which is likely to have such widely rippling destructive purpose.
The Caribbean trade routes are of particular interest to this discussion given their proximity to the United States continental mainland and their historical appeal to the activities and organization of pirates. According to Mitchell, "the Caribbean island chain stretches for 2500 miles in a convex arch from the Bahamas past the south east point of Florida and downward to the…
9/11 Commission, the. (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks on the United States. Online at http://www.911commission.gov/report/911Report.pdf .
ACLU. (2003). Surveillance Under the U.S.A. Patriot Act. American Civil Liberties Union. Online at http://www.aclu.org/safefree/general/17326res20030403.html
Associated Press (AP). (2006). Bush backs transfer of U.S. ports to Dubai firm. MSNBC.com. Online at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11474440/
Benjamin, Daniel. (July 2005). Why Iraq has made us less save. Time Magazine. Online at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1081392,00.html
S. law dating back to 1819 in more than a century (Gettleman, 2008).
Right of Innocent Passage
The other significant complication for enforcement action against maritime piracy arises in connection with the economic realities of maritime insurance and the concept of the right of innocent passage through sovereign territorial waters (Langewiesche, 2004).
Under the United Nations LOS, unarmed commercial vessels are permitted into the sovereign waters of signatory nations as necessary for reasonable access to established commercial shipping lanes. Those rights are predicated on the assumption that
commercial ships are unarmed and therefore pose no risk to the national security interests of sovereign nations (Langewiesche, 2004). The prospect of arming commercial vessels to safeguard them against piracy is a fundamental violation of current international law and exposes such vessels to denial of entry and even to hostile boarding and seizure by the navies of sovereign nations (Schoenbaum, 2004).
Banker, S. (2003). Enemies of Mankind: The Developing Threat of Modern Maritime
Piracy and Terrorism. Springfield, MO: Southwest Missouri State University.
Burnett, J. (2002). Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas.
New York: Dutton.
Chinese Piracy of U.S. Products
China, with a population of more than 1.3 billion, represents the largest consumer market in the world. Business interests in this market and the opening of China in the 1970s have lead to China's membership in the World Trade Organization as well as increased cooperation and interaction between the Chinese government, Chinese businesses and the international political and business community. This engagement has focused attention on China's intellectual property rights and has spawned increasing pressure for China to conform its laws and regulations to global standards and to actively enforce them. The motivation has been the flagrant Chinese piracy of intellectual property that has produced vast losses in potential revenue to many firms throughout the world, particularly the United States.
In 1995, U.S. copyright industries estimated that losses stemming from China's production, distribution and export of pirated products amounted to $2.3 billion. At this time,…
News Schmooze: China Gives Up Software Piracy. 07 Dec. 2001. ZDNet UK News. 09 Nov. 2003. http://news.zdnet.co.uk/software/0,39020381,2100572,00.htm .
Nintendo Unveils Piracy-Proof China Console." 30 Sept. 2003. ZDNet Australia. http://www.zdnet.com.au/newstech/security/story/0,2000048600,20279126,00.htm .
Testimony of Eric H. Smith President International Intellectual Property Alliance Before the U.S. China Economic and Security Review Commission." 28 Jan. 2002. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. 09 Nov. 2003. http://www.uscc.gov/tessmi.htm .
Stop Online Piracy Act
Dear Congressman Owens (NY),
The Internet was created by the United States of America's military in order to better communicate information between computers long distances apart without requiring physical connections; thereby creating a free and open space between the computers networked. This moment was the beginning of file sharing as it exists and is contested today. The Internet has clearly changed the way the entire world absorbs and disseminates information, and any attempt to close the faucet, so to speak is rendered impossibly even for the harshest of censorship regimes. As you are co-sponsor of the Stop Online Piracy Act, I urge you to reconsider your position on Internet privacy and the entire issue of SOPA in its entirety. I am a Chinese student studying in the United States who understands what government censorship means, and I would like to convey my opposition to the…
Google. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.google.com/takeaction/
Jerry, B. (2012, January 23). Time techland. Retrieved from http://techland.time.com/2012/01/23/why-we-wont-see-many-protests-like-the-sopa-blackout/
McDonald, M. (2012). Watch your language!. Retrieved from http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/13/watch-your-language-and-in-china-they-do/?ref=internetcensorship
Phillips, M. (2012, Jan 14). White house blog. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/01/14/obama-administration-responds-we-people-petitions-sopa-and-online-piracy
Downloading music, according to this argument is a kind of 'public performance' of the original work and musicians are claiming rights well beyond the fourteen year limit.
Illegal online file-sharing is fundamentally different from taping films on television or making cassette recording. Because the technology of file sharing is vastly superior, the downloaded product is virtually identical to a CD-quality song, or a song downloaded for a fee. Additionally, unlike a cassette or VHS tape that degrades in quality every time it is copied, sharing music can be transmitted person to person without any variation in quality.
Piracy is not a victimless crime: artists exert a tremendous amount of effort to create a piece of music and depriving them of their ability to profit from their hard work is just as much a crime of theft and stealing as is shoplifting a DVD from a store (Moore 2010). Fans…
Condry, Ian. (2004). Cultures of music piracy. International Journal of Cultural Studies. 7(3):
343 -- 363. Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://web.mit.edu/condry/www/pubs/Condry04-CMusPiracy.pdf
MGM Studios v. Grokster. (2004). Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2004/2004_04_480
Moore, Charles W. (2003). Is Music piracy stealing? Applelinks. Retrieved February 26, 2011 at http://www.applelinks.com/mooresviews/pirate.shtml
The Anti-Counterfeit Trade Agreement (ACTA), in particular, was pushed through the international legislative process with insufficient public input and opportunity to study and respond (Jolly, 2012). As a result, seventy-five law professors have signed an open letter to U.S. President Barack Obama urging him to reconsider U.S. ratification; they have also suggested that there may be serious constitutional problems with his signing the treaty in its current form on behalf of the nation (Jolly, 2012). They were joined by approximately 7 million people who signed an online petition promoted by Google and another 1.5 million people in Europe who have signed a similar petition opposing the ACTA (Jolly, 2012). On January 18, 2012, some of the world's largest websites shut down temporarily in protest over the proposed legislation (Jolly, 2012).
Undoubtedly, there is a need to prevent the illegal copying, distribution, and downloading of various types of intellectual property, especially…
Jolly, D. "A New Question of Internet Freedom." The New York Times (February 5,
2012). Accessed online:
Perlroth, N. "Hackers Step Up Attacks after Megaupload Shutdown." The New York
educing the Problem of Piracy in the Brazilian Music Industry
Music piracy is a rampant problem that results in enormous losses on behalf of the international music industry. One of the countries hit hardest by the effects of piracy is Brazil, which is the world's third largest pirate market behind China and ussia, as outlined in figure 1 (IFPI, 2002). What measures can be taken that will effectively reduce music piracy and furthermore increase sales of Brazilian music?
World's Largest Pirate Markets (IFPI, 2002)
For the last decade, Brazilian music has soared in popularity both on the home-front as well as internationally. Contemporary Brazilian music is sometimes referred to with the acronym 'MPB', which stands for 'Musica Popular Brasileira', or Brazilian Popular Music. Paiano (1995) describes how MPB is pop music enriched with Brazilian rhythmic, harmonic and melodic elements. However, there isn't one pure type of Brazilian music. The above…
Author Unknown) "What's in the Box? One of the Key Weapons in the Fight Against Illegal Downloads and Piracy is the Enhancement of the Musics Physical Packaging." Billboard, 115.12 (2003): 58.
Author Unknown) "In a Spin." Economist, 366.8313 (2003): 58.
Benz, M.; Gruenwedel, E.; Brandle, L.; "Music Biz Investment Forecast Remains Cloudy." Billboard, 115.10 (2003): 1.
Gomes, T. "Brazilian Market Sees Sales Drop 40%." Billboard, 113.37 (2001):53.
Peer-to-Peer Music Sharing Is Piracy
Although the practice is becoming increasingly commonplace, peer-to-peer music sharing is a serious criminal act that is legally defined as digital piracy (olfe and Higgins 33). According to olfe and Higgins, "Digital piracy is an emerging computer-related crime in the twenty-first century. Digital piracy is the unauthorized copying of digital goods [including] music for any reason, other than to back-up, without permission from and compensation to the copyright holder" (33). It is reasonable to suggest that the majority of individuals who participate in peer-to-peer music sharing practices are acutely aware of its criminality but continue to do so regardless because they are legion.
hile precise figures are not available, current estimates indicate that more than a third (37%) of all music compact disks (CDs) marketed worldwide have been pirated, causing a $4.5 billion loss to the music industry (olfe and Higgins 34). Moreover, in 2005…
Chiou, Jyh-Shen, Chien-yi Huang, and Hsin-hui Lee. 2005. "The Antecedents of Music Piracy: Attitudes and Intentions." Journal of Business Ethics 57:161-174.
Wade, Jared. 2009, February. "The Music Industry's War on Piracy." Risk Management 51(2): 10-14.
Wolfe, Scott E. And George E. Higgins. 2009, June. "Explaining Deviant Peer Associations: An Examination of Low Self-Control, Ethical Predispositions, Definitions, and Digital Piracy." Western Criminology Review 10(1): 43-49.
This will in turn lead to low selling price of most goods hence encouraging people to rely more on the goods because it is genuine and affordable. Pirated goods will therefore have no room to trade because the market will be flooded by genuine goods which are widely used by the citizens Wall Street, 2005()
In creating awareness i.e. using Anti-piracy, the government should increase education of public officials, customs and law enforcement officers to ensure products are not easily pirated while companies must take the lead in raising awareness, educating the public and decision makers on the harms and costs of product piracy. This kind of education helps to increase the effectiveness and discourage consumers from buying counterfeited and pirated products such as movies, music, softwares Smith and Telang, 2009()
Free trade zones provide some of the entry points of pirated goods into a country. Government can reduce or…
CHAUDHURI, S., GOLDBERG, P.K. & JIA, P. 2006. Estimating the Effects of Global Patent Protection in Pharmaceuticals: A Case Study of Quinolones in India. The American Economic Review, 96, 1477-1514.
CUMMINGS, a.S. 2010. From Monopoly to Intellectual Property: Music Piracy and the Remaking of American Copyright, 1909-1971. Journal of American History, 97, 659-681.
HAMISTER, J. & BRAUNSCHEIDEL, M. 2011. SOFTWARE PIRACY and INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS PROTECTION. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings of the Academy of Information & Management Sciences (AIMS), 15, 1-4.
PANG, L. 2004. Piracy/Privacy: The Despair of Cinema and Collectivity in China. boundary 2, 31, 101-124.
What do you think about software piracy? Is it much ado about nothing or a serious problem? How do you think piracy should be dealt with or prevented?
Software piracy is morally wrong, and it causes losses to the software developers because they do not receive the intended gains from their efforts (Siponen, Vance, & Willison, 2012). Software developing companies have reported huge losses because of piracy. Software piracy is the unauthorized reproduction and distribution of software for either business or personal use. Software piracy damages brands, creates unfair competition, and exposes the consumers to IT risks. It is a serious problem since software is intellectual property, which is protected under state and federal laws. Making a copy of the licensed program and sharing it with others is considered as piracy. The pirated copy could contain malware or viruses that would infect the user's computer and lead to great…
Siponen, M., Vance, A., & Willison, R. (2012). New insights into the problem of software piracy: The effects of neutralization, shame, and moral beliefs. Information & Management, 49(7), 334-341.
Objective argument: The Stop Online Piracy Act
The Internet has been called the new ild est: there is a great deal of profit that can be made, in terms of availability of information, but there are also many hazards, due to the lack of regulation. One attempt to create a 'kinder, gentler' Internet is the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA). The Act would create a kind of "national firewall by censoring the domain names of websites accused of hosting infringing copyrighted materials" (Losey & Meinrath 2011). Supporters of mainstream entertainment companies are strong supporters of the Act, which they hope will radically reduce the amount of pirated content available online. Copyright holders as well as the Department of Justice could 'take down' websites with an injunction, if there was evidence that the website was disseminating pirated content. If SOPA passes, it could enable the entire domain name of tumblr.com…
Gardner, Eriq. "New Version of 'Stop Online Piracy Act' As Controversial As Ever (Analysis)."
The Hollywood Reporter. 13 Dec 2011. [14 Dec 2011]
Losey & Meinrath. "The Internet's intolerance acts." Slate. 8 Dec 2011. [14 Dec 2011]
Another thing the company could do is to offer promotional products. These products would have an insignificant value but, by being free, they would serve their purpose of attracting customers. Among the promotional products could be posters of the artists (serving a double purpose: attracting CD customers and creating publicity for the record house and the artists), T-*****s, key chains or trinkets.
Applying this promotional strategy would generate additional costs for Universal Music Group and would require additional funding. The company should invest part of their revenues in acquiring the products, but most of their promotional costs would return in the company in the form of sales and profits.
3. Sell music in MP3 formats on the Internet
Last, but not least, Universal Music Group ought to find means of combining the new technologies in their favor. In order to do so, they could transform the audio files into MP3…
Sharing Copyrighted Digital Media Illegally is Like Piracy
Although precise figures are unavailable, the music industry claims that illegal file-sharing practices are costing the industry billions of dollars in lost revenues each year (Gunter 32). Advocates of unlimited file sharing counter that the practice allows consumers to sample music they would not otherwise consider purchasing and that music sales are actually increased by illegal file sharing (Gunter 32). Moreover, illegal file-sharing practices are said to have prompted the music industry to begin offering single songs, typically for 99 cents each, rather than forcing consumers to purchase an entire album (Gunter 33).
Notwithstanding these assertions to the contrary, though, many authorities agree that illegal peer-to-peer file-sharing practices are tantamount to high seas piracy, and have resulted in sharply diminished sales of music recordings in the United States and abroad (Oulett 108). According to the definition provided by Black's Law Dictionary, piracy…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Fitzhugh, Frank. (1998, September). "Pirates: Just Misunderstood Nice Guys?" Sea Classics 31(9): 9-12.
Gunter, Whiney D. File-Sharers and Copyright-Infringers: Threat or Menace. El Paso,
TX: LFB Scholarly, 2013.
The crossed bones were reference to the original Templar logo of a red cross with blunted ends -- and also to human mortality. But it also was a life-giving symbol, as Christ was crucified at Golgotha, the "Place of the Skull." Thus, the Templars did not fear death upon the earth, as they were one with Christ, where he died (Jerusalem) and the cross where he died. This fearless symbol often struck terror into the hearts of the Templar's foes in the Holy Land, as did the message of 'surrender or die' to the ships the pirate Templars were determined to attack.
Ironically, although their most famous public symbol is an image of mortality, according to Childress, the Templars live on, in the founding of the country of America as well as the piracy that existed on the high seas until the 17th and 18th century. His book suggests a…
Brown, Dan. The Da Vinci Code. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
Childress, David. Pirates and The Lost Templar Fleet: The Secret Naval War Between The Knights Templar and The Vatican New York: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2003.
Somali clans have made a unified pledge to address the piracy problem. The Somalia government also signed a $50 million dollar contract late last year with a private company based in the United States to engage in coastal patrols. These measures were possible because of a recent agreement to bring peace to the region, signed by warring clan leaders. The contract was a relief to many, as "Somali businessmen and international shippers said the only thing which has stopped piracy in the past is when western navies patrol the area" (Doyle, 2006). This is seen as a crucial step in rebuilding the nation's economic infrastructure.
Coffen-Smout, Scott. (1998). "Pirates, arlords and Rogue Fishing Vessels in Somalia's
Unruly Seas." Retrieved 8 May 2007 at http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/~ar120/somalia.html
Doyle, Mark. (5 Jan 2006). "Somali piracy is worst in world." BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2007 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4584878.stm
Coffen-Smout, Scott. (1998). "Pirates, Warlords and Rogue Fishing Vessels in Somalia's
Unruly Seas." Retrieved 8 May 2007 at http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/~ar120/somalia.html
Doyle, Mark. (5 Jan 2006). "Somali piracy is worst in world." BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2007 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4584878.stm
5 billion and 71,060 jobs in the U.S. (according to one of the country's most conservative think tanks that refuses to release information regarding its corporate sponsors)(RIAA par. 9). Though this might be the value of the music pirated, many illegal downloads are for songs tat people simply would not buy if forced to choose between paying and not having a particular song, meaning that little value is actually added to the music industry by ending piracy. In addition, the lack of ISP providers stepping up to assist the RIAA is both contrary to the RIAA's statements and further evidence of the industry's failure to effectively curb pirating online (RIAA par. 13; Sandoval).
RIAA. "For Students Doing Reports." 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009. http://www.riaa.com/faq.php
Sandoval, Greg. "Six Months Later, No ISPs Joining RIAA Piracy Fight." Cnet. 3 June 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009.…
RIAA. "For Students Doing Reports." 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009. http://www.riaa.com/faq.php
Sandoval, Greg. "Six Months Later, No ISPs Joining RIAA Piracy Fight." Cnet. 3 June 2009. Accessed 10 October 2009. http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-10256481-93.html
International Community's esponse to Somalian Piracy. To date, the primary response by the international community to maritime piracy off the coast of Somalia has been to employ combined international naval forces to protect commercial shipping (Maritime Piracy and elated Kidnapping for ansom, 2011). In addition, in January 2009, the international community launched a coordinated initiative targeted at stopping pirate attacks in Somali waters called the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011).
The Contact Group currently partners with the following: (a) EUNAVFO Operation Atalanta; (b) Combined Maritime Forces Combined Task Force 151; (c) NATO Operation Ocean Shield; and (d) National Counter-Piracy Missions (China, India, Japan, Malaysia, ussia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Yemen) (Counter Piracy and Maritime Security, 2011). The Contact Group could benefit from further collaborative efforts with the U.S., including the intelligence-sharing efforts described below.
Pursuant to the Piracy off the…
'Background note: Somalia.' 2011. . U.S. Department of State. [online] available: http://
'Counter Piracy and Maritime Security.' 2011. U.S. Department of State. [online] available:
Pirates off the coasts of Africa and Southeast Asia have put forth the argument that they are merely defending their coastlines from international shipping polluting their coastlines and violating their fishing rights. What do you think of this argument?
Piracy has a negative effect, not simply for the persons suffering from the attack, but also for the residents living in the areas from which the piracy springs. Piracy causes substantial economic losses for the populations in regions where piracy is a way of life. For example, "unlike pirates along Somalia's coast, who are often only after ransom, pirates in West Africa also steal goods, particularly oil. Many attacks end up with crew members injured or killed. But pirate attacks do not only result in killings and injuries, tragic as those are; they also damage the economy. In some cases, affected countries in West Africa have become less concerned…
An even more recent case of piracy, which occurred when a cruise ship was captured off the coast of Somalia, suggests the violence of piracy. Armed security personnel on the cruise ship traded fire with the pirates, who fled. Though no one was hurt, trading gunshots at sea was probably not what the passengers of the cruise ship had in mind when they signed up for the vacation (infield). It would not be surprising if the passengers and crew of the ship were forever scared by this frightening experience. These two incidents show that piracy today is not the piracy of literature; instead, it is a dangerous crime for both perpetrator and victim.
Thus, while pirates have traditionally been the beloved characters of adventures and children's novels, they no longer amuse and entertain us. Instead, they commit crimes that result in death and ruined lives. Because of this, Vandergrift wonders…
Winfield, Nicole. "Italy cruise ship fires on Somali pirates." Google News. 26 April
2009. The Associated Press. 26 April 2009.
In this short news article, the author describes Somali Pirates' attempt to take an Italian cruise ship, which carried around 1500 passengers and crew. The attempt was thwarted when the cruise ship's security guards fired on the pirates. No one was hurt.
He shall have an equal title to the fresh provisions or strong liquors at any time seized, and shall use them at pleasure unless a scarcity may make it necessary for the common good that a retrenchment may be voted.
ARTICLE III - None shall game for money either with dice or cards.
ARTICLE VI - No boy or woman to be allowed amongst them. If any man shall be found seducing any of the latter sex and carrying her to sea in disguise he shall suffer death.
ARTICLE VII - He that shall desert the ship or his quarters in time of battle shall be punished by death or marooning.
ARTICLE VIII - None shall strike another on board the ship, but every man's quarrel shall be ended on shore by sword or pistol in this manner. At the word of command from the quartermaster, each man being previously…
Pirate's Life. 16 November, 2006. http://blindkat.hegewisch.net/pirates/capcrew.html
Buccaneers, Pirates and Privateers. 16 November, 2006. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:PTNvwXluRTsJ:www.sarai.net/journal/06_pdf/05/03_vijayalaxmi.pdf+system+of+control+among+pirates&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=16&lr=lang_en
Pirate Code of Conduct. 16 November, 2006. http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/pirate-code-conduct.htm
Piracy, Then and Now. 16 November, 2006. http://blindkat.hegewisch.net/pirates/piracy.html
In the face of current economic slowdown, no industry is likely to survive if it sticks with its old business models and refuse to adapt to change. Besides economic problems, there are some other factors, which are forcing corporations to adopt new and better business strategies and discard old ones since they are not producing positive results. These factors include political conditions in the country, global rise in terrorist activities and rapid development of technology, most specifically the Internet. With American households and corporations getting wired at lightening speed, it is only logical to incorporate this technology in a new business model to make business strategies produce desired results.
Apart from technological change, companies are also required to focus more on pricing models. It has been noticed that with consumer spending shrinking, only those corporations that have a viable pricing model are likely to stay afloat.…
The Music Industry In a spin, The Economist, Feb 27th, 2003
Frank Rose, The Civil War Inside Sony, WIRED Magazine Issue 11.02 - February 2003
Jon Hilkevitch, FAA predicts airline industry recovery Chicago Tribune March 18, 2003
Shares fall but Easyjet figures grow, Birmingham Post, 01-09-2003, pp 22.
SOPA & PIPA Legislation
File sharing involving copyright infringement began as peer-to-peer operations, sometimes with the involvement of a central server that acts as a search engine. Recently there has been a rise in file sharing where the infringing content is actually stored on the central server, such as the now-defunct megaupload.com. Consequently, there is a conflict between the rights of content owners and the rights of ordinary users of the internet. The conflict here is that efforts to eliminate sites that enable online infringing may also eliminate legitimate internet activity. In the fall of 2011 the SOPA (Stop Online Piracy Act) and PIPA (Protect Intellectual Property Act) proposals were introduced into the U.S. Congress. Almost certainly, the SOPA and PIPA proposals to go after file sharers go too far in the other direction in violating the free speech rights of individual users and handing the web even more over…
Corey, G. et al. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 3011.
Howard, Alexander. "What You Need to Know About the Stop Online Piracy Act in 2012." The Huffington Post, December 23, 2011.
Ranney, Karen. "Digital Thieves Are Stealing from Me." The Hill, December 13, 2011.
ole of Technology in Corporate and Social esponsibility
Insider trading. The insider trading case that has become most prominent is that against aj ajaratnam who ran the hedgefund Galleon Group, and was charged along with his co-defendant, Danielle Chiesi, a former consultant with New Castle Funds, LLC ("Insider Trading," 2010). ajaratnam was convicted of 14 counts of insider trading, which makes this case the largest scheme concocted by a hedge fund ("Insider Trading," 2010). ajaratnam's sentence was 11 years in prison accompanied by a $10 million fine ("Insider Trading," 2010). ajaratnam was part of a "triangle of trust" that functioned as a deliberately corrupt business model in which inside information is fed through networks of experts to traders within various companies ("Insider Trading," 2010). Along with five others, ajaratnam worked with a network of consultants and insiders to net in excess of $20 million between the years 2006 to 2009…
Angwin, J. (2010, July 30). The new gold mine: Your secrets. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703940904575395073512989404.html A web of insider trading charges. (2010, April 1). The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/
Insider Trading, Times Topics, (2011, December 6). The New York Times. Retrieved http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/subjects/i/insider_trading/index.html
Representative Stearns introduces consumer privacy protection act. (2011, April 15). Privacy and information Security Law Blog. Hunton & Williams LLP. Retrieved http://www.huntonprivacyblog.com/2011/04/articles/representative-stearns-introduces-consumer-privacy-protection
technologies, modern media has the ability to absorb and become influenced by cultures from all around the world. The media of the eastern world, such as in Saudi Arabia and Nigerian have been influenced by the west, particularly the United States of America. Marwan Kraidy's (2009) "Reality Television, Gender, and Authenticity in Saudi Arabia" and Brian Larkin's (2004) "Degraded Images, Distorted Sounds: Nigerian Video and the Infrastructure of Piracy" deal with the westernization of Middle Eastern and African cultures which has been thwarted by the governments of those societies.
Marwan Kraidy (2009) explores the ramifications of a pan-Arab reality show called Star Academy which is broadcast in Saudi Arabia. In that nation, the program caused considerable problems because the political basis on which the Saudi government is run was undermined by the production. Star Academy was obviously influenced by western media, such as the television programs "Pop Idol" and "The…
Benklar, Y. (2011). Wikileaks and the Protect-IP Act: a new public-private threat to the internet commons. Daedalus, the Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 154-64.
Deibert, R. & Rohozinski, R. (2010). Liberation vs. control in cyberspace. Journal of Democracy. (21:4). 43-57.
Kraidy, M. (2009). Reality television, gender, and authenticity in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Communication. International Communication Association. 59, 345-66.
Larkin, B. (2004). Degraded images, distorted sounds: Nigerian video and the infrastructure of piracy. Public Culture. Duke University Press. 289-314.
Barbary Terror: America's 1815 ar against the Pirates of North Africa
During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815…
Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North
Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Arguably the deficiencies in processes and technologies throughout the distribution channel enable the unethical sharing of digital property by consumers in the first place. it's as if the incompetence of these channel partners' platforms, either from a website standpoint with the support of DM technologies or the reliance on faulty, often poorly designed DM systems, technologies and techniques create much opportunity to take digital and intellectual property and repurpose it illegally across P2P sites that seek to make all music egalitarian (Lysonski, Durvasula, 2008). it's as if the mid-tier of the distribution channel is leaving the door open wide enough from an intellectual property standpoint to allow for individuals to selectively choose which songs, digital products of all sort, and what platforms they want to repurpose them on (Levin, Dato-on, Manolis, 2007).
When the music distributors, both in the form of traditional forms including music stores selling CDs and non-traditional…
Altschuller, S., & Benbunan-fich, R.(2009). Is music downloading the new prohibition? What students reveal through an ethical dilemma. Ethics and Information Technology, 11(1), 49-56.
Banerjee, a., Faloutsos, M., & Bhuyan, L. (2008). The P2P war: Someone is monitoring your activities. Computer Networks, 52(6), 1272.
Norman E. Bowie. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Ross Dannenberg. (2006). Copyright Protection for Digitally Delivered Music: A Global Affair. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal, 18(2), 12-16.
Romanticism of Scott's Piracy with the Revolutionary realism of Cooper's Pilot
Great art is not supposed to come from anger or a sense of competition with authors. However, the first great sea tale The Pilot, by the merican author James Fenmore Cooper, was written explicitly out of anger, in reaction to a romanticized account of piracy and sea life. The Pirate by the Scotsman Sir Walter Scott was a romantic account of why men took to sea, out of romantic despair, with little concern for the real damage done to the naval code of conduct and safety as a result of piracy on the waters. Cooper, in contrast, knew intimately the difficulties of fighting military conflict from a navel perspective, and did not see piracy as something to be valorized. Rather than a plot motivated by love, where the sea was a subsidiary motivating force, Cooper resolved to tell a…
According to Robert Neeser, "it was in the course of an after-dinner conversation that the thought of writing a romance of the sea first came to Fennimore Cooper. The table talk had turned on the authorship of the Waverly Novels, which, in 1822, was still a matter of some uncertainty, and on its most recent volume, The Pirate, which had been published in December of the preceding year. The incidents of this story were brought forward as a proof of the thorough familiarity with sea life of the author, whoever he was. But Cooper contended that The Pirate was not the work of a sailor, but that of a landsman. His listeners could not be convinced by his arguments. He therefore determined to convince them by writing "a, sea tale, to show," he said, "what can be done in this way by a sailor." (Neeser, 1917) Rather than talk about the reasons men take to the waters, he would show the gritty reality of life on deck.
Indeed, Cooper was correct. Sir Walter Scott did not draw his inspiration for The Pirate from any events he witnessed at sea. Rather, Scott drew on his memories of a voyage to the Northern Isles in 1814, as guest of a commission inspecting Scotland's lighthouses. He thus drew his chronicled events from myths he heard from those on land, rather than his experiences on the water. He chose to set The Pirate in the seventeenth century in a remote part of the Shetland Islands, rather than on a boat. The pirate of the title, Basil Mertoun, is now conveniently retired. He turned to a life of thievery because of his anger at his wife when she betrayed him, not out of a desire to make a living. Merton lives as a tenant of Magnus Troil on land, with his son Mordaunt, whom he is not certain even belongs to him. (Walter Scott Digital Archive is an Edinburgh University Library, 2004)
Magnus's daughters Minna and Brenda form the main love interests of the tale, and their significance in the plot, such as when Minna is horrified when Cleveland open-heartedly confesses to her that he is a pirate, and Brenda's alliance with Mordaunt also shows how romance, rather than the realities of life at sea drives the plot. In fact, Mordaunt's lack of a corresponding figure in Cooper's subsequent sea tale highlights how issues of great importance to Scott, such as Merton's inability to reconcile himself to his lost
Because he was inexperienced in handling the bomb, the place was spared from killing the nearly three hundred individuals that were on board.
All these forms of attacks that have come from stated considered weak have brough up great conern for nations around the globe. A lot of people fear that the African country of Somalia might possibly be utilized as a base for fanaticism if an intensive determination is not made to help re- connect peace in the country. For nearly two decades, the people of Somalia do not have a real central government that is functioning and there have been many struggles that are against challenging clans that are inside the nation to gain as a regulator of the nation. n 2007, the slamic Courts Union (CU) put out the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia and then seized control of Mogadishu and its nearby locations. During December…
In spite of all of these efforts that had been made by the nation of Ethiopia and the African Union, Somalia was still going through many challenges that were inhibiting its aptitude to be able to purpose as a country.
One of the biggest obstacles to keeping the nation stabilized is the terrorist organization Al-Shabab, which has remunerated an insurrection that has went against what they recognize as the "western compulsory" TFG of Somalia. Al-Shabab is another terrorist that is believed to be caught up in the connection with Al-Qaeda and both have in common the extreme hatred for a lot of different nations but particularly the United States. In majority of the training camps of Al-Shabab, to show how much they hate the west, bullets from guns are shot at American pictures in stores. Some of the photos are the head of pictures of President Barack Obama which goes on daily. These believe that President Obama and the United States are a really big enemy to them. To show their anger they are always in the process of giving weapons and explosives to train young men to start jihad that is against the TFG and the U.S. And its associates in guard of their faith. Young men all over the world and that includes American citizens are always getting training in these facilities within Somalia. Americans for instance Omar Hammami, aka Abu Mansour Al-Amriki, and the first recognized American suicide bomber Shirwa Ahmed have been recruited by Al-Shabab to join their cause. Their aptitude to employee and train Americans and other residents for jihad all over the world has turned the group into a major threat not just to the United States but furthermore the whole world.
Al-Shabab was initially the brains behind the Somali UIC, which had been overthrown from its power by Ethiopian forces which took place in 2006 organizations. Al-Shabab was able to quickly re-group after the UIC's defeat and became an independent group in 2008. In the years that have followed, Al-Shabab along with Somalia's second biggest terrorist operation
5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
OLE OF THE U.S. 5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
foreign aid to Bahrain, where the U.S. Fifth Fleet is centered, constitutes directly to the U.S. Government's aims to maintain safety in the Persian Gulf. Bahrain is the only Arab state that has led one of the Coalition Task Forces that move around the Gulf, and has issued to move its flagship in support of the formation counter-piracy mission. As suggested by Edward & Marolda (1998) U.S. aids assists Bahrain, which have no oil wealth of its neighbors, get the training and equipment it requirement to operate alongside U.S. air and naval forces. U.S. military access to Bahrain also uplifts the operations in Iraq,…
1. Michael A. Palmer, On Course to Desert Storm: The U.S. Navy and the Persian Gulf (Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1992), 122.
2. OPLAN 1019 Arabian Gauntlet," GlobalSecurity.org. Available from http://www. globalsecurity.org/military/ops/arabian-gauntlet.htm (accessed November 1, 2009).
3. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 33.
4. Edward J. Marolda and Robert J. Schneller Jr., Shield and Sword: The United States Navy and the Persian Gulf War (Washington, D.C.: Naval Institute Press, 1998), 32-35.
The Dilemma of a Ethical Practices and Profitability of Trading with China
China continues to have one of the world's strongest and most resilient economies, achieving a 10.3% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in 2010 compared to the world average of 4.2% and the United States' 2.9%. U.S. Lawmakers continue to question the $4M in foreign aid that Congressional budgets are requesting for one of the fastest growing economies globally today (Pennington, 2011). Despite the rationalization that this significant amount of investment is necessary for clean energy primary research, the rationalization is weak when compared to the many economic challenges and hardships the U.S. continues to face (Pennington, 2011). As of October, 2011 the cumulative 2011 trade deficit with China is today at $217B, down from a high of $270B earlier in the year. Arguably China could more afford to provide foreign aid to the U.S., not vice…
Ho, C., & Redfern, K.. (2010). Consideration of the Role of Guanxi in the Ethical Judgments of Chinese Managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(2), 207-221.
M Islam, & M. Gowing. (2003). Some empirical evidence of Chinese accounting system and business management practices from an ethical perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(4), 353-378.
Lawrence, W., & Sun, W.. (2010). A Cluster Approach towards Enhancing Chinese- American Trade Opportunities. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 44-51.
Pennington, M. (2011, November 15). Lawmakers scrutinize u.s. foreign aid to china. Washington Times. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/nov/15/lawmakers-scrutinize-us-foreign-aid-china/
outlaw sea: The lawless sea of today's modern age
The word piracy commonly brings to mind men with peg legs, funny accents, and parrots on their shoulders. However, William Langewiesche's book The Outlaw Sea underlines the fact that piracy is still a way of life for many people even today. The book demonstrates that international waters are just as rife with danger and under-regulated as they were many centuries ago, despite the efforts of numerous nations and international agencies to bring pirates to justice. Piracy might seem to be used purely for economic reasons on its surface but it can also be deployed to fuel and support terrorism. Langewiesche's 2004 book is a clarion cry about the need to do something to address the problem before more lives are lost. However, there is little evidence that the ten years since the book was published have brought forth substantial improvements.
Barise, H. (2005). Somalia: Where pirates roam free. BBC. Retrieved:
Langewiesche, William. (2004). The outlaw sea. New York: North Point Press.
Piracy attacks rise 14% as Nigerian and Somalian coasts become more dangerous. (2007). ICC.
viewer ship of Hindi Films with respect to the Non-Asian population in the UK
The Hindi film industry or the 'Bollywood' as it has been referred to have made a significant mark not only in the Indian society, but has had far reaching influence among Indians residing abroad. We shall concentrate on the Hindi films in the UK with respect to the resident Indian population. The United Kingdom alone accounts for about a sizeable Indian population. It is only natural that Bollywood movies find a thriving and a huge revenue generating market in there. Hindi films have made a long standing presence in the British cinema houses for close to about thirty years now. This in itself is a notable achievement. It not only indicates the huge 'desi' presence in the United Kingdom, but also highlights the huge market and enthusiasm for films 'manufactured in bollywood.'
In addition to the…
Bollywood Ending' Retrieved at http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/2003_06/bollywood_ending.php . Accessed on March 18, 2004
The Indian Media and Entertainment Industry: UK Film Council' Retrieved at http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/filmindustry/india/. Accessed on March 18, 2004
Bollywood: Wikipedia - The Free Encyclopedia' Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BollywoodAccessed on March 18, 2004
Bollywood beyond Indian shores' Retrieved at http://www.indiantelevision.com/headlines/y2k4/mar/mar136.htm . Accessed on March 18, 2004
This particular employee is left with less time to perform his professional tasks. This translates into a delay in the project delivery schedule. Additionally, the project delays could generate major customer dissatisfactions, or the breakage of contractual terms, which could easily materialize in more severe organizational losses. Nevertheless, considering that the employee works overtime to reduce the chance of project delays, this time has to be remunerated; virtually, it translates into increased financial costs for the company. Then, the mobile telephone could be used to make quick telephones to competitors and as such sabotage the company's efforts and success chances.
3. Opponents of an IT Policy
Despite the validity of the arguments presented in favor of implementing a strong IT policy, fact remains that there exist also some reasons which make a strong IT policy less favorable within the context of the modern workplace. These are succinctly described below.
Finlay, W., Clarke, M.J., 1990, New Technology and the Modern Workplace: The Prospects for Industrial Accord, Economic Development Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 4
2007, Microsoft Admits Piracy Benefits, Computer Business Review, http://www.cbronline.com/news/microsoft_admits_piracy_benefits last accessed on December 9, 2009
2008, Effects of Software and Internet Piracy, Top SEO, http://www.topseo.org/2008/08/11/effects-of-software-and-internet-piracy / last accessed on December 8, 2009
2009, Internet Abuse in the Workplace, Staff Monitoring Solutions, http://www.staffmonitoring.com/P32/abuse.htm last accessed on December 8, 2009
But you can substitute the myth with the authentic, amazing, wonderful truth. n the end, think the truth would make a far better movie."
Bonanos, C. "Did Pirates Really Say 'Arr'?" Slate Publications. Cited in:
Defoe, D.A General History of the Pyrates. Dover Books, 1999.
McGinnis, R. "The Real Life and Fictional Characters Who inspired J.M. Barre's
Captain Hook." Literary Traveler, 2008. Cited in:
Cordingly, David. Cited in: http://www.davidcordingly.com
____. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books, 1997.
Johnson, C. Pirates: A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most
Notorious Pirates. Conway Maritime Press, 2008.
Leeson, P. "An Arrghchy: The Law and Economics of Pirate Organizations."
Journal of Political Economy. 115 no 6 (2007): 1049.
Ossian, R. (n.d.) "Book Review: A General History of the Pyrates." Cited in:
Pennell, C.R. Bandits at Sea: A…
Ibid, 11-14, 97-99, 206. See also Cindy Vallar, "Pirate Treasure." Pirates and Privateers -- the History of Maritime Piracy. n.d. Cited in: http://www.cindyvallar.com/treasure.html
Public dialog in a network age can cover a lot of topics. The network age is filled with a plethora of varying interests, ideas, subjects, and issues. Some of which relate to privacy, piracy, and even technology. People often forget what an impact the Internet has made in the last couple of decades, even in just 8 years. ANON came into existence, social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter came into popularity, and the recent concept of content creators has shaped the way people view and accept media. ith all these innovative ideas that came out, what kind of impression has it left on the public? hat were the origins of some of these topics? And moreover, has the Internet shaped the identity of people in the last decade?
Several events within internet history have made public dialog important. People need to discuss and analyze things in order to fully understand…
Abelson, Harold, Ken Ledeen, and Harry R. Lewis. "Naked in the Sunlight." Blown to bits: your life, liberty, and happiness after the digital explosion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2008. 19-29. Print.
Auerbach, David, and Gabriela Coleman. Here Comes Nobody: Essays on Anonymous, 4 chan and the Other Internet Culture. N/A: Triple Canopy, 2012. Print.
Castells, Manuel. "Occupy Wall Street: Harvesting the Salt of the Earth." Networks of outrage and hope: social movements in the Internet age. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2012. 156-177. Print.
Lanier, Jaron. You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. NYC: Vintage, 2011. Print.
Ethics in Software and Copyright Infringements in the Balkans
The first point one has to look at is the situation in these countries and their position in terms of development as also the size of the potential market. There are a total of eight countries and most of them have been in political turmoil till about ten years ago. These countries are all breakaway portions of other bigger countries, or the soviet empire. The software market is small but there are already participants in it from United States which means that there is a lot of future potential development. On the side of the governments there are definite efforts to legalize the situation of software, though full achievement will take quite sometime. At the same time, there are a lot of conflicts within the big names in the industry -- Microsoft and Linux -- and this is leading to advantages…
A country-by-country looks at the Balkans. (1999) The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from www.csmonitor.com/durable/1999/03/16/p12s2.shtml Accessed on 2 August, 2005
58 items found for Balkans. Retrieved from http://search.ebay.com/Balkans Accessed on 1 August, 2005
Jovanovski, Mirche. (2003) Government Chooses Microsoft, Irritating the Open Source Software Proponents. Retrieved from http://www.realitymacedonia.org.mk/web/news_page.asp?nid=2767 Accessed on 1 August, 2005
Mellon supports expanding subsidiaries with Altitude Software. (2005) Retrieved from http://www.strategiy.com/inews.asp?id=20050711092211 Accessed on 1 August, 2005
This is because the situational approach reinforces the basic reality that all humans have certain need whose degree varies across geography, size of company and even culture. This type of approach would enable the leader to undergo self-actualization and to develop a set of certain underpinned self-awareness. What follows is a good level of self-awareness and then mutual respect,. A high spirit of participation and democracy soon permeates. These elements are crucial for a leader in order for him/she to develop an effective organization (McGregor:1960).
The second recommendation relates to the change of leadership style at IAA to become one that is based on the motivation (Frederick Herzberg 1960).The motivational factors that are utilized are essential for the members of an organization in order to achieve a n acceptable level of job satisfaction and advancement. This can be achieved through the use of properly formulated company policies and administration. The…
RIAA (2010) "Who We Are."
Butler, S (2007).Report: Piracy Has Cost U.S. $12.5 Billion, Billboard magazine. August 21
Chemers, M.M. (2002). Meta-cognitive, social, and emotional intelligence of transformational leadership: Efficacy and Effectiveness. In R.E. Riggio, S.E. Murphy, F.J. Pirozzolo (Eds.)
Copyright Infringement & the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998
This paper looks into the issues of copyright infringement and circumvention of technology with reference to Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998. The author of this paper has carefully studied the law in question and has focused on various issues connected with this legislation. DMCA is a highly controversial law that has been staunchly opposed and actively supported by different section of the public and it has managed to attract great deal of media attention because of various lawsuits that emerged in this connection. The paper looks into some important Court cases for impartial and objective study of the law.
DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYIGHT ACT
INTODUCTION TO DMCA
There has been a long-standing debate on the issue of freedom of speech in the United States. While the Constitution of the country explicitly grants American citizens the right to share information…
Chris Taylor/San Francisco, Throwing The E-Book At Him A programmer is prosecuted for enabling users to break the security in reader software., Time, 08-20-2001, pp. 62+
Voss, David, DIGITAL SECURITY: Music Industry Strikes Sour Note for Academics., Science, 05-04-2001.
Neil Ferguson, 'Censorship in Action, Why I don't publish my HDCP results', Aug 15, 2001 http://www.macfergus.com/neils/dmca/cia.html
Lev Grossman, Business/The Future of Copyright: Digital Divisiveness., Time, 08-28-2000, pp. 40.
NAPSTE INC. SHUTDOWN
For few years, Napster.com was every music lover's favorite site. This was where they could do download their favorite music and share MP3 files with other online users. Napster Inc. was the brainchild of a college dropout Shawn Fanning. Being highly ingenious, he utilized his computer skills to develop a file sharing software and named it Napster. This software enabled users to share music files with each other and thus for sometime they were glad to have found an economical way of listening to their favorite songs. Little did they know that this file sharing would lead to a major lawsuit against Napster, which would result in the closure of the company. Napster was nothing but great software, which made use of compression technique known as MP3, facilitating economical transfer of music files from one computer to another.
The problem arose when groups like Metallica, Dr. Dre…
Brown, Janelle, "The music revolution will not be digitized," 9th April, 1999
Costello, Sam "Digital music security initiative nearly ready, September 22, 2000
MAMER, Karl, DOWNLOADABLE MUSIC HERE TO STAY., The Toronto Sun, 10-08-2000, pp C15.
Case Study: MP3 Downloading and Napster:
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity
An innovation in IT (information Technology) has revolutionized the method organizations store, record and retrieve information. Moreover, a large percentage of business organizations has taken the advantages internet technology to offer their businesses online where customer's data such as credit cards, SSN (social security number), tax information, and other personal information are recorded in the organizational databases. A major benefit that internet technology offers to organizations is that it assists businesses to transact businesses globally without establishing entities in other countries. The strategy has assisted organizations to achieve competitive market advantages. Despite the benefits associated with IT, businesses face the ethical implications in business transactions because they are faced with a hacking dilemma.
The primary goal of ethics is to promote ethical practices that will enhance availability, confidentiality, and integrity of organizational informational resources. To achieve this objective, employees are to demonstrate a highest…
Resources Management Association.
Whitman, M.E. & Mattord, H.J. (2014). Principles of Information Security. New York. Cengage Learning.
Edward MacCoyd, for example, the director of digital policy for the Association of American Publishers, is "troubled" by the "striking" findings. His company regards the problem as so serious that they hired the law firm Covington & Burling to search for sites offering pirated textbooks and send requests to remove the content.
According to the firm's officials, and notably Peter Anaman, substantiates the general consensus regarding the seriousness of the problem. Although only a small percentage of the student sample have declared their success in downloading pirated books, Covington & Burling find thousands of sites per month that offer illegal material to students and any other interested parties.
Young (2008) also notes that the company Audible Magic is a sign of the increasing significance of the piracy problem. Audible magic manufactures software for the purpose of identifying illegal file sharing particularly on campuses. The newest version of the software includes…
In conclusion, it is clear that textbook piracy is becoming a significant legal and ethical student issue. The rapid development of technology has made it easy for students to use illegitimate material without any recrimination. Hopefully more software such as that developed by Audible Magic will, if not entirely eliminate, then at least curb the problem experienced by so many campuses.
Young, Jeffrey R. (2008, Sept.). Downloading Pirated Textbooks Becomes Commonplace on Campuses. The Chronicle of Higher Education: Information Technology. http://chronicle.com/free/v55/i04/04a01201.htm
The initial MP3 founders backed by the open source model coded the MP3 software that speeded up the recognition of the MP3 audio format. (Behind the Files: History of MP3) at the time of writing the code for MP3 format, an array of compression intensities can be programmed. To take an example, an MP3 made with 128 Kbit compression intensity will have enhanced sound reproduction quality and bigger file size compared to a 56 Kbit compression, hence indicating that lesser the compression intensity, the lesser the reproduction of sound quality. (What is MP3, How does it work, what is (MPEG)
This accounts for growing acceptance of the MP3 format music files with the Internet devoted music enthusiasts since it is the perfect medium for receiving music files through the Internet compared to WAV/AIFF files with takes much longer time to get downloaded. (What is MP3, How does it work, what…
Allbriton, Christopher. King of All MP3 Players. 2004. Retrieved at http://popularmechanics.com/technology/audio/2002/9/king_of_mp3_players/ . Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Apple hits 100 million iTunes mark. July 13, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200407/s1152412.htm. Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Blanchette, Kasie. Effects of MP3 Technology on the Music Industry: An Examination of Market Structure and Apple iTunes. April 23, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.holycross.edu/departments/economics/website/honors/blanchette_thesis.pdf . Accessed on 30 September, 2004
Brain, Marshall. How to Break Into the Music Business. Retrieved at http://www.mp3mall.net/php/howto.php?id=9. Accessed on 30 September, 2004
That most people do not "have the facts" about copyrights should surprise nobody. Let's be real here -- copyright law is complex, often vague or nuanced, and there are multiple different copyright regimes. No reasonable person would believe in this 24-hour rule, but there should be zero expectation that anybody other than copyright lawyers would have a firm grasp of copyright law.
That people do not know about copyright law by no means is the driving factor for unauthorized copyright usage -- let's dispense with the childish, loaded word "piracy." We're talking about people who are using software, not hijacking, raping and murdering it. The Moores and Esichaikul (2010) highlights a couple of things that are worth considering in this discussion. First, they note that people like to share software, and that this sharing is a far more common occurrence than, say, people who would violate most other…
Asongu, S. (2014). Fighting software piracy: Which IPRs laws matter in Africa? Institutions and Economies. Vol. 6 (2) 1-26.
Moores, T. & Esichaikul, V. (2010). Socialization and software piracy: A study. Journal of Computer Information Systems. Vol. Spring 2011, 1-8.
Stropkova, A. (no date). The ethical dimension of software piracy. In possession of the author
It has made joint ventures with Hollywood that have done quite well at the box office. The Indian movies are not only seen in India, but the industry has also made arrangements for showcasing their productions at International platforms, as these movies are dubbed and on aired in many other languages all over the world. In the past, most of the movies that were produced in India were Masala movies with no solid plot and mere glitz and glamor. However, now since these movies are sold all over the world and shown in cinemas throughout the world, the approach of the producers and directors is now changing. Keeping in view the demand of realism from the audience, the directors and producers now try to come up with a plot that is close to reality and something that the people can actually relate to. For example, the film called Slumdog Millionaire…
Anonymous. BW Help: What is Bollywood? Bollywood World, 2010.
Grant, Andrew. What is Bollywood? About.com, 2013.
Hoad, Phil. Will Hollywood ever conquer Bollywood? The Guardian, 2012.
Kapoor, Kritika. Not just India, Bollywood faces heat abroad too. TNN, 2012.
Civil penalties, if pursued by an organization such as the IAA, can range from a minimum of $750 per song to thousands of dollars per song. Due to the civil lawsuits filed by the IAA, piracy awareness rose from 35% to 72%. The IAA has since stopped its broad-based end user litigation program [IAA 2010].
The Internet has also facilitated the disturbing trend of cyber-bullying and cyber-harassment. Attempts to curb cyber-harassment may prove difficult as "cyber-bullies" may be anonymous and therefore, difficult to identify. In "Cyber-Bullying in Schools: A esearch for Gender Differences," Qing Li states that school violence is a serious social problem that is persistent and acute during middle school [LI 2006]. Cyber-bullying, as defined by Tanya Beran and Qing Li in "Cyber Harassment: A New Method for an Old Behavior," is defined as "the repeated and intentional use of various forms of technology such as cell-phones, pagers,…
BERAN T., LI Q. 2005 Cyber-Harassment: A Study of a New Method for an Old Behavior
JOURNAL of EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING, Calgary, AB, Canada.
CYBERBULLING RESEARCH CENTER 2010 Accessed 3 December 2010
Vargas outlines a broader pattern in the consumer world which informs the proposal here, indicating that there is a splintering of all marketplaces between online and retail outlets which is changing the way that the latter must conduct business. These are ideas that direct the strategy here suggested for Midwest University.
Accordingly, key terms which will be considered in the proposal are those of 'file-sharing,' 'intellectual property,' and 'online piracy.' In the current online file-sharing context, everyday university students have essentially become bootleggers, according to legal research and assertion by both the music industry and the United States Congress. These are sources which appear to favor the music industry institutions, but in actuality, take a narrow perspective that is damaging to compromise for all parties. The program proposed here will be informed by a desire to overcome this hindrance to cooperation through a carefully constructed mediation whereby the university determines…
Borland, J. (April 9, 2003). Music Industry: Piracy is choking sales. CNET News. Online at http://news.com.com/2100-1027-996205.html .
Vargas, M. (2005). Cyberspace vs. Parking Mall Space. About the Retail Industry. Online at http://retailindustry.about.com/library/weekly/aa001101b.htm.
The European country continues to negotiate numerous terms of agreements with the global organizations and is increasing its efforts to align its technologies to those required in the international context.
Another impediment in the path to successful trade between the United States of America and ussia is given by the rampant legislature. Take for instance the case of an American entrepreneur who would like to open a new business subsidy in Moscow and conduct import and export operations. He would have to go through an estimated number of 20 to 30 governmental agencies and acquire somewhere between 50 and 90 licenses.
A following reason for the tense relationships between the countries is revealed by different approaches in financial regulations. Whereas the United States promote an open circulation of capital, the officials at Kremlin deny it. As a consequence, ussian entrepreneurs have limited access to funding and investments on both national…
Dinmore, G., U.S. And Russia Miss Deadline on Trade, Financial Times, 30 October, 2006
Wilson, J., the Fast Food Phenomenon, Russia's Other Booming Market, 2004, http://220.127.116.11/sras/news2.phtml?m=262,last accessed on April 4, 2008
The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2008, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.htmllast accessed on April 4, 2008
Background Note: Russia, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, U.S. Department of State, 2007, http://www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/3183.html. Ast accessed on April 4, 2008
Although video games began to attract players around forty years ago, technological advances in the last ten years made gaming especially popular. The use of sophisticated auditory and visual characteristics, the ability to multi-play online, incorporation of color-rich graphics, and the increased speed have changed the gaming industry dramatically in the last decade (Sublette & Mullan, 2012). Online gaming has built its own virtual world where players possess virtual property, buy and sell, steal, fraud, and protect their intellectual property -- to name but a few of their regular activities besides gaming. These features raise a number of questions with regards to criminal justice system. How to regulate transactions in the virtual world is a nascent issue in the courts, sometimes lawyers being unable to draw clear lines because of the nature of online gaming.
Online gaming's unique feature is that it allows players from different corners of…
Kane, S.F. (2009) Virtual judgment: legal implications of online gaming. IEEE Security & Privacy, 7(3): 23-28.
Sublette, V., & Mullan, B. (2012). Consequences of Play: A Systematic Review of the Effects of Online Gaming. International Journal Of Mental Health And Addiction, 10(1), 3-23.
Ying-Chieh, C., Chen, P.S., Jing-Jang, H., Korba, L., Song, R., & Yee, G. (2005). An analysis of online gaming crime characteristics. Internet Research, 15(3), 246-261. doi:10.1108/10662240510602672
(Attention: Because I do not have the full citation information for the 3 articles provided, I have referred to them as follows in the text. Powerpoint, Japan PDF and Carbon PDF. You will need to insert the correct citation and add a Works Cited page, if that is required.)
As the global supply chain evolves and matures, there are several considerations to take into account in the areas of transportation and distribution. The global economy is in full swing, and exports are outpaced world GDP significantly. This high demand food goods has resulted in an increased need for more international shipping options, especially maritime transport -- moving materials by ship. Changing to a more international system is not without consequences, however, including the quite serious possibilities of piracy, terrorism and a substantial negative effect on the environment. For managers in charge of logistics and supply chain management, the "right…
Compulsory Licensing of Patents
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the causes and affects of the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical products. Initially, the paper highlights the fundamental positions, attitude, inclination and concerns of the developed world and the under developed world with regard to the intellectual property rights of the pharmaceutical products. The paper also concentrates on the subject of the intellectual property rights of the biotechnology products (plants); this is because plants are the major source of almost all pharmaceutical products being used today. Furthermore, it is a matter of fact that the patentability of plants has been given a lot of attention by the developed world, in particular United States of America, as well as, the developing World. The paper also exposes the priorities of both the developed world and the under developed world, priorities that have been a major hurdle in all previous negotiations on…
Bernard Pecoul et al., Access to Essential Drugs in Poor Countries: A Lost Battle? 281 JAMA 361, 365 (1999).
David P. Fidler, International Law and Global Public Health, 48 KAN. L. REV. 1, 29 (1999).
David Benjamin Snyder, Comment, South Africa's Medicines and Related Substances Control Amendment Act: A Spoonful of Sugar or a Bitter Pill to Swallow?, 18 DICK. J. INT'L L. 175, 190 (1999).
David P. Fidler, Symposium on Globalization at the Margins: Perspectives on Globalization from Developing States: Neither Science Nor Shamans: Globalization of Markets and Health in the Developing World, 7 IND. J. GLOBAL LEG. STUD. 191, 212-213 (1999).