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Police Administration; Structures, Processes, And Behaviors 8th Edition
The Evolution of Police Administration
Over the centuries, police administration has evolved in several important respects including how police have been organized and what they considered their core strategy for providing value to the communities they serve (Perry, 2001). It is argued that the present police work is not very different from previous police work performed by the London Bobbies in 1829 and the New York cops in 1845. During this time, police dealt with alcoholics, wayward children, thieves and smugglers just like now. It is upheld that police organizations were initiated based on the government's response to the inevitable consequences of urbanization and industrialization. Therefore, policing initiatives were actions taken by the ruling elites to bring under control the working classes and other dangerous as well as submissive individuals. Based on this, the police force is viewed as the repressive arm…
Dobbin, F. (1994). Cultural Models of Organization: The Social Construction of Rational
Organizing Principles. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Driscoll, C.J. (1915). Discussion of Police Administration. Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York, 5(3), 62-65.
Edersheim, E.H. (2007). The Definitive Drucker. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Decision Making Process
Discuss the persons/organizations that would/could place pressure on a police administrator in the decision making process of that administrator. For each of the influencing persons/organizations, discuss if their inputs should be used in the decision making process."
Police administration could face pressure or conflict from many different sources both internally and externally. One of the tasks that the administrative management team has to handle is the internal workings of the police force. They have to make decisions based on historical rates of crime and special events to staff the region in which they patrol. They must deal with salaries, expenses, training, repairs and a host of other necessary functions to keep the operations moving and the public safe.
Another organization would be the public in general. The police force is ultimately accountable to the public and therefore must constantly justify its actions with a level of transparency…
Martinelli, T. (2006, October 10). Unconstitutional Policing: The Ethical Challenges in Dealing with Noble Cause Corruption. Retrieved from Police Chief: http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display&article_id=1025&issue_id=102006
U.S. Department of Justice. (2007, November). Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve. Retrieved from COPS: http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/buildingtrust.pdf
Closed systems develop operational focus and direction of resources completely independently. Openness in this regard is especially important in community policing..
Open-looped systems, on the other hand, are systems that include a feedback mechanism, whereas open-looped systems do not. Therefore, in the context of policing, open-looped systems would invest less in monitoring the results of operational strategies and procedures and would typically implement changes based mainly on the basis of compliance with hierarchical direction in the form of orders.
By contrast, closed-loop systems monitor the results of existing operational design for effectiveness and provide a mechanism for two-way communication between first-line patrol officers and their supervisors, as well as at every level of command.
Unlike open-looped systems, closed-loop systems implement change in relation to the objective measurement of results and emphasize bottom-up communication as well as -to-bottom communications.
4. According to the book, identify and describe the six basic functions…
The current study aims to examine the effect of the lack of supervision and detachment between administration and low-level supervisors and beat officers and how this leads to low morale and motivation. Imperatively, low level of morale and motivation results in low productivity, which might give rise to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data.
Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale and motivation. The…
Policing in America:
As compared to the 1920's, policing in the United States has had to change over the years in order to cope with the numerous changes in the society.
Most of these changes have occurred during the 20th Century because of the rapid technological advancements and globalization. During this period, telephones, car ownership, and use of personal computers have become commonplace in the society. While these are positive changes, they have also contributed to significant changes that are sometimes negative in relation to law enforcement.
With the innovations of computers and telecommunication technologies in America, the police force and other criminal justice practitioners has really improved in terms of opportunity and challenges. These technologies have empowered the police force in the sense that they can now collect, store, study, and share records with stakeholders within and outside administration. The innovations of these technologies have created opportunities in the…
Reichert, K. (2001, December). Use of Information Technology by Law Enforcement. Retrieved from University of Pennsylvania website: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/jerrylee/programs/fjc/paper_dec01.pdf
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
If the economic/machine and affective/affiliation models are combined then the result would resemble the growth-open system theory of motivation (Cordner, 2013). The term 'open' in this model is meant to imply employees are influenced by their environment, including the environmental factors existing outside the workplace. The term 'growth' indicates that individuals will transition through several levels of need fulfillment depending on whether more basic needs have been met. This 'needs' hierarchy is based on the work of the psychologist Maslow, who proposed the first needs that must be fulfilled are the most basic, such as food, clothing, and shelter. If these needs are being met then an individual will next seek to protect themselves from threats to their physical and psychological health. The subsequent levels, according to Maslow, would be social needs, feeling valued and personal fulfillment, in that order. Since most police officers earn enough to meet their basic…
Cordner, G.W. (2013). Police Administration (8th ed.). New York: Anderson Publishing.
Policing Services and Programs:
Even as policing services and programs are being restructured across the globe, understanding this change in customary terms is rather difficult. In these new policing services and programs, the difference between public and private domains of policing is also problematic. However, understanding the ongoing changes is dependent on distinguishing between the authorization of policing and the way these services are provided. This is because of the fact that those who authorize policing services and programs may differ from those who provide these services (Bayley & Shearing, 2001). The restructuring of policing incorporates the weaknesses of the public police and is due to increases in crime, social structure, ideas and culture, character of government and the nature of economic systems. Due to the ongoing restructuring of policing, the role of the public police is significantly changing adopting a governmental rather than individual agenda. Furthermore, policing services and…
Bayley, DH & Shearing, C.D. (2001, July). The New Structure of Policing: Description,
Conceptualization and Research Agenda. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/nij/187083.txt
Cohen, B. & Leinen, S.H. (2009). Research On Criminal Justice Organizations: The Sentencing
Process. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reports/2009/R2018.pdf
You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u
Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.
Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=75936
Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.
McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.
Stress Associated with Policing
A look at some of the stresses that are associated with police fulfilling their job duties in the line of fire
Stress on the Job 4
The police profession is a highly stressful endeavor that often places officers in highly stressful situations on a regular basis. Police work is one of the few jobs out there where the employees must deal with murders, accidents, and the constant threat of personal injury. The effects of this environment can be cumulative and build up over time. Furthermore, many police officers are resistant to finding suitable outlets to deal with the effects of stress in a clinical setting or through counseling. There are many common objections for officers seeking help for the psychological issues that can emerge through the course of service. These include items such as it is not consistent with the image of masculinity that…
Anderson, B. (N.d.). Confidentiality in Counseling: What Police Officers Need To Know . Retrieved from PTSD Resources for Survivors and Caregivers: http://www.giftfromwithin.org/pdf/confide.pdf
Glass, I. (2010, September 10). Transcript. Retrieved from This American Life: http://www.thisamericanlife.org/radio-archives/episode/414/transcript
University of Buffalo. (2008, September 29). Impact Of Stress On Police Officers. Retrieved from Physical and Mental Health: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080926105029.htm
Vogel, D., Wester, S., & Larson, L. (2007). Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors That Inhibit Seeking Help. Journal of Counseling and Development, 411-422. Retrieved from Iowa State.
Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.
Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…
The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org: http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html
Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.
Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.
Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html
Sheriffs usually have smaller staffs, and so they may have more duties and responsibilities than a police chief, who has a larger staff to handle some of his or her responsibilities, such as training or PR.
Often, sheriffs are responsible for county jails, which take in prisoners and suspects from the surrounding area, and transfer them to county courts when the time for trial comes. The sheriff is responsible for his officers and their patrols, which may entail covering outlying areas that are farther away from the main station. Sheriff's officers are called deputies. Many sheriffs' departments have disappeared as state and county police take over the duties of sheriffs.
If the sheriff is responsible for the county jail, he or she is also responsible for providing officers to transport prisoners, guard the county courts, and serving warrants and other legal documents. Usually, the sheriff and city police do not…
II. Performance Management in England and Wales:
In Wales and England the National Policing Plan 2004-2007 was published in November 2003 with the stated aim of the plan being to: "Deliver policing to high national standards and for communities to be increasing engaged in the policing of their area." The stated plan is inclusive of a "framework for local police planning in England and Wales over the next three years." Within the scope of the plan are 'five key priorities' for the police service' which are: Provision of a 'citizen focused service to the public'
Tackling anti-social behavior and disorder as well as continuing to bring a reduction to 'burglary, vehicle crime, robbery and drug related crime' are said to be in line with the Government's Public Service Agreement targets Stated as the Performance Police Authority Role is the holding together of the police force on behalf of…
Eigerman, M.R. 1988, "Who should be responsible for business strategy?" Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 9, no. 6, p. 40.
Gummer, B. 1992, "Ready, fire, aim! Current perspectives on strategic planning,"
Administration in Social Work, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 89.
Cross, K.F. & Lynch, R.L. 1992, "For good measure," CMA Magazine, vol. 66, no. 3,
Regardless of the fact that no serious criminal activity transpired in most cases, it detracted from the quality of life of some residents of buildings immediately adjacent to such congregations (Conlon, 2004).
In other situations, such as peaceful gatherings of small groups of students outside bars every weekend night, residents of buildings overlooking the bars were subjected to loud conversations, cigarette smoke, music from vehicles until well after typical closing times of 4:00AM every weekend night, at a minimum. Giuliani's zero-tolerance approach to "unlawful assembly" of the type previously and ordinarily ignored as a technical violation not worth enforcing prohibited these gatherings for the benefit of residents who wished not to be disturbed all night long three or four nights a week in many "trendy" neighborhoods. Furthermore, the broken windows analogy also applied to those situations, by virtue of the frequency with which altercations and brawls break out in conjunction…
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Bantam
Nolan, J., Conti, N, McDevitt, J. Situational Policing. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 74 No. 11 (Nov/05).
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Discretionary Situations for a Police Chief
Discretion in the Police Department
Discretionary Situations in Criminal Arrests: "Stop" and "Frisk," acial Profiling
The expectation is that public administrators apply a balancing act in the decision making process. Focus for this study is on law enforcement administrators, especially police chiefs, on their responses to their officers' discretion to criminal arrests. The argument put forth is that police discretion is limited by managerial and information technology monitoring methods, which direct police officers to adhere to set up procedures (Chan, 2003; owe, 2007). Given that police officers usually have the opportunity to make a decision on whether to apply laws. This concept paper finds that there is a close relationship between management decisions and use of discretion. It is on this basis the research will focus on the police chief's management decisions and the use of discretion in two major scenarios.
A police department…
Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318, 325-26 (2001). In Nirej, S.S. (2011). Redistributive Policing. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 101(4), 1171-1226.
Chan, J. (2003). Policing and New Technologies. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of Policing. New York: Willan, 655-679.
Frase, R.S. (2005). Sentencing Guidelines in Minnesota, 1978-2003. In Tonry, M. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 32, p131, p201.
Harcourt, B.E. (2007). Against Prediction: Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age. 1st ed. University of Chicago Press, 119.
In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…
Frank Serpico -- NYPD Police Officer 1960-1972
At the time that Frank Serpico served as a New York City Police Department (NYPD) police officer, corruption was rampant throughout the entire police department, the first and largest police department in the United States (Delattre. 2006). That corruption existed at all levels of the department from the street to the office of the Police Commissioner. Patrol officers routinely extorted bribes or stole money and drugs from criminals, even returning the drugs to the street by selling them to other dealers. Those types of practices were standard operating procedure to such a degree that police officers (like Fran Serpico) who refused to participate became social exiles among their fellow officers out of suspicions that they could not be trusted (Delattre, 2006). After trying unsuccessfully to report the problems to superiors, Serpico eventually contributed to a New York Times report detailing police corruption in…
Delattre, E. (2006). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington, DC:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:
Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's
NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.
Just as pre-employment…
Chase, H.W. And Ducat, C.R. (1978) Corwin's the Constitution and What it
Means Today. Princeton: Princeton University Press
German, M. (3/6/05) an FBI Insider's Guide to the 9/11 Commission
Report GlobalSecurity.org; Retrieved February 26, 2007, at http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2005/guide-iii.htm
11. What is community policing? How does it differ from traditional policing?
Community policing emphasizes positive situational contacts between police personnel and the general public and de-emphasizes enforcement-based approaches to policing. It differs from traditional policing mainly in that it is a means of reducing crime through enhanced public involvement in communities and in that it strongly promotes the initiation of police-civilian contacts outside of the enforcement realm (Caruso & Nirode, 2001).
12. What is the nature of the drug problem in the United States? Is today's drug problem any different or worse than the drug problem in the past?
The most important drug problem today is the questionable value of criminalizing private recreational drug use, particularly in relation to marijuana, which cannot be justified or logically distinguished from the permissive approach to cigarette and alcohol consumption. Evidence from Europe suggests that even enforcement of criminal laws prohibiting the use…
Schmalleger F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Intelligence Unit Memo
Police Chief I.B. Friendly
Incorporating Intelligence Unit into Department
In modern law enforcement, the sophistication of modern criminal activity, particularly post-September 11th, causes a necessary paradigm shift for 21st century police departments. This shift requires that departments rethink the power of information -- the manner in which it is collected, analyzed, and then used to fulfill the goals of the department. In fact, in 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing released by the hite House describes the need for fusion information centers as a vital way to succeed in modern law enforcement and critical to the safety of the local community as well as the nation (Porter, 2008).
Historical Background - Prior to 1960, even large, urban Police Departments did not have intelligence units. Resources were combined so that Detectives were at the hierarchy of information analysis; and every member of the department was open to…
Corrections - Report of the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. (1973, March). Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=10865
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011, June). Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Retrieved from FRI.gov:
evidence, it seems possible that an altercation occurred between the husband and wife and the two of them are 'covering' up this incident. deally, a detective with expertise in domestic violence cases should be in charge of the investigation. Separate officers should interview both the wife and husband before the couple has a chance to 'get their stories straight,' and note any inconsistencies between the two accounts. The other officers involved should attempt to exclude any other possible explanations for the injuries, eliminating the possibility that a so-called burglary did occur. The patrol officer who has established a rapport with the children should clearly be a presence during the interview process, given that children can be notoriously difficult interview subjects and it is helpful to have a comforting figure to support them. nterviewed independently, the children might be more forthcoming than either parent about the details of the husband's assault…
I agree with Jones (2008) and his assessment that police bureaucracies are complex by their very nature. Even if there is an attempt to enact change in a top-down fashion, the multifaceted nature of police organizations means that changes tend to occur in a non-linear format. Also, police organizations are affected by many situational variables and constraints that can inhibit reforms such as the different perspective of officers in the field and managers with less exposure to physical risks. There is also an institutional culture which can be very insular and resistant to change yet which may be necessary to brave some of the stressors of modern policing. Crime itself is a multifactorial problem and as complexity science allows, causal relationships in regards to criminal behaviors are difficult to determine. This is one of the advantages of de-centralized approaches such as community policing, which creates a more atomized and responsive structure for police organizations.
DENISE ARTHUR M4D2
The concept of 'strategic management' is interesting when applied to policing because it takes some of the models previously only relegated to business and applies them to modern-day policing. The police must serve the public like effective business organizations must serve customers. The concept of 'systems thinking' takes into consideration the dynamic social environment in which police organizations must operate, in contrast to the usual static approaches embraced by many government organizations hemmed in by bureaucratic cultures. By decentralizing authority police organizations can be more adaptive.
police management affect the way police officers use force?
The Force Continuum
Style of Leadership and Management
Proper Management of Police esources
Innovations in Excessive Force Training
Protection of its citizens is the fundamental mission of any government. And on the forefront of this mission are the law enforcement officers who are in fact the most visible arm that the government utilizes to protect the citizens and also to preserve public order ("Police Use of Excessive Force: A Case Study of Lethal (Deadly) Force," 2016).
And to achieve these missions, the police are given authorities that are unique in civil governments as well as granted by the society - authority to control the behaviors of the citizens with the ultimate aim of protecting them from harm. Hence in a manner that is most direct, the behavior of the members of the society are controlled and managed by the police personnel…
Atherley, L., & Hickman, M. (2014). Controlling Use of Force: Identifying Police Use of Excessive Force through Analysis of Administrative Records. Policing, 8(2), 123-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/police/pau003
Banker, R., Chang, H., & Pizzini, M. (2004). The Balanced Scorecard: Judgmental Effects of Performance Measures Linked to Strategy. The Accounting Review, 79(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2308/accr.2004.79.1.1
Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA [etc.]: Sage Publications.
Belasen, A., Eisenberg, B., & Huppertz, J. Mastering leadership.
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
Community- and problem-oriented policing have risen as the most important mediums for improving the efficiency of police efforts in communities and as ways of reformation of police organizations.
Community-oriented policing has turned out to the symbol of police in America. In every area of the United States, community policing has emerged as an adaptive style of policing. It is considered as a powerful organizing vehicle for the public protection. If truth be told, it has become an accepted principle for law enforcement agencies. Community-oriented policing promises to thoroughly change the relationship among the police department and the public, deals with community problems, and improves the living conditions of the neighborhoods (Greene, 2000).
The main idea behind community-oriented policing is that the enforcement of law should be focused, proactive and sensitive to the community. It tends to break down the barriers between the law enforcement department and the…
Greene, J.R. (2000). Community Policing in America: Changing the Nature, Structure, and Function of the Police. Criminal Justice, 3, 299-370. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_3/03g.pdf
Stephens, G. (2005). Policing the Future: Law Enforcement's New Challenges. The Futurist, 39(2), 51+. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-129170684/policing-the-future-law-enforcement-s-new-challenges
The Key Elements of Problem-Oriented Policing (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing . Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=elements
"What is POP?" (n.d.). In Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved December 15, 2012, from http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop
Memo: The need to increase our members of the city police force
ecently, there has been a heated debate in the city council regarding crime rates. epresentative Brown has alleged that crime rates are skyrocketing and says that increased members of the police are necessary to engage in effective policing. Although members of our force have taken umbrage at these allegations that we are not performing our duties in an effective manner, I would contend that this is a critical juncture for law enforcement in our town. Although the actual crime rates have not been going up, there is still a vital need to increase members of our force. Our city is changing, and the police force must change with it likewise.
Our city is classified as a mid-sized metropolis of approximately 75,000 residents. However, for the past several years we have been steadily expanding at…
Broken windows theory. (2012). Google. Retrieved:
In addition, today's police officer faces different challenges from police officers of even two decades ago. One of these 21st century problems facing law enforcement is terrorism. Almost every community across the nation has some building or government location that could be considered a target of terrorism, and large metropolitan areas have many of these targets within their boundaries. Because of this, police models may have to change to be more involved in preventing terrorism from occurring, rather than responding once a terrorist act has been committed. Community policing can aid in this by allowing community police officers to become familiar with their neighborhoods and citizens, and knowing exactly what targets lay in their area. To create better police officers, training in terrorism and how to recognize typical terrorism suspects must be stepped up and addressed in all communities.
Perhaps the biggest challenge facing many officers is the use of…
Bucqueroux, B. (2007). Community criminal justice: What community policing teaches. Retrieved from the Policing.com Web site: http://www.policing.com/articles/ccj.html26 March 2007.
Gianakis, G.A., & Davis, G.J. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Leuci, R. (1999). 13 the enemies within: Reflections on institutionalized corruption. In Police and policing: Contemporary issues, Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (Eds.) (2nd ed., pp. 216-219). Westport, CT: Praeger.
In places such as Richmond, that have an already checkered past in their relationship with the public, the public perception is further damaged by the rise in crime. This is true of the police department in the rest of the country as well. The rise in crime affects the perception of the public with regard to the police department, and not the government. In actions such as racism and extralegal searches the police department and not President Bush is implicated. Many of the harmful effects of current police actions and policies are the result of government policies. The police has thus become somewhat of a scapegoat as a result of the latest government policies.
The profile of violent crimes has also changed dramatically and dangerously. Fewer police officers mean more violent criminals, which raises the crime rate.
Government policy, rising crime rates, and police actions have therefore combined into a…
Barbash, Fred (2005, June 28). Court Backs Town In Lawsuit Over Domestic Violence. In Washington Post online (Washingtonpost.com).
Lucas, Scott (2001, April 23). Good cop, bad cop - police violence against African-Americans - police in movies and TV - Timothy Thomas. In New Statesman.
Maclin, Tracey. (1998, Summer). Terry v Ohio's fourth amendment legacy: Black men and police discretion. In St. John's Law Review.
Seron, Carroll (2004, Dec). Judging Police Misconduct: "Street-Level" versus Professional Policing. Law & Society Review, Blackwell Publishers.
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…
1. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory states that every individual has different levels of needs that must be met for them to reach their ultimate potential. The basic level includes the necessities of life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, while the more advanced levels require such things as positive social relationships and self-esteem. An officers job can be difficult, especially over a number of years. The reality that most officers eventually face is how to deal with stress and staying motivated. Applying Maslow's model can be beneficial to ensure that as many officers needs are as possible so that they can be resilient in their roles and maintain a positive attitude.
2. Herzberg's Hygiene/Motivators Theory
The hygiene/motivators theory considers satisfaction on two different dimensions. Factors such as salary, benefits, work environment, and others may lead to a satisfied officer who is not necessarily a…
police protection at schools in light of the sniper attacks as well as the school shootings that have occurred over the years. The paper presents a study proposal and a critique of literature about the public's desire and willingness to support police protection being placed in elementary and middle schools on a daily basis. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
One of the things that Americans pride themselves on is the freedom that is afforded by living here. That freedom includes the refusal to become a police state or anything that represents a police state. Currently the nation is at a crossroads however, when it comes to the students in schools. For the last several years students have been shooting students, strangers have been shooting students and most recently the DC sniper has targeted students. Parents are becoming less and less sure of the school's abilities to…
Colavecchio, Shannon (2001). OFFICERS GET SCHOOLING IN PREVENTING CAMPUS VIOLENCE., The Palm Beach Post, pp 1A.
____(1998). HOUSE PASSES MALONEY SCHOOL COPS BILL., States News Service,.
Gold, Maria (2002). Police Presence in Schools Is An Asset, Report Says; Resource Officers Handle Mostly Minor Incidents., The Washington Post, pp T04.
____(2002). MORELLA ANNOUNCES FEDERAL COPS IN SCHOOLS GRANT FOR MONTGOMERY COUNTY., Capitol Hill Press Releases,.
If the worst case scenarios should ever unfold and terrorists have released materials into the air that are radioactive, the SOD works with the New York City's Department of Health so that officers have proper training in the use of air-monitoring "meters" (Holden, p. 5).
New York City's Department of Health has in place a program called "Biowatch" that is designed to alert the SOD when any calls come in reporting the presence of a biological substance. As mentioned previously in this paper, during the crisis of September 11, 2001, one of the major obstacles to effective first responder action was the breakdown in communication technologies and in lines of authority. However the NYPD's Operations Division (OD) is now trained to be the communications link between the executive command and the police officer on the street. The OD coordinates all personnel specifics and directions; in fact the OD is referred…
Dunn, Vincent. (2004). Three Years Later -- What Has Changed Since 9/11/01. Retrieved July
8, 2010, from http://www.vincentdunn.com/Changes-9-11-04.pdf .
Finley, Bruce. (2005). Alerts Go Out, Statewide System Falls in Line. The Denver Post.
Retrieved July 9, 2010, from General OneFile / Galegroup.com.
The assertion makes little sense that "criminal justice employees are unmotivated," for a number of reasons. The first is that there are thousands of different organizations and millions of people working in criminal justice. It would be near impossible to discern any particular trends about their motivation levels, and those trends would not hold outside of a given position or organization. The reality is that motivation is a fairly complex issue. Everybody has some sort of motivation for going to work, even if that motivation is to maintain their security with respect to food and housing. But most people have other motivations as well. Understanding what motivation in the workplace actually is, and how it can be used to explain or enhance performance, begins with avoiding such careless and blanket statements.
There are a number of ways to improve the motivation of criminal justice workers. The text highlights a…
Kasper, J. (2010). Choosing the best people for promotion and special assignments. The Police Chief. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CPIM0910/index.php#/70
Stojkovic, S., Kalinich, D., & Klofas, J. (2015). Criminal justice organizations administration and management. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Zettlemoyer, D., Jacobs, R. (2010). Transforming a police agency by connecting training, performance and assessment to promotion. The Police Chief. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CPIM1110/#/54
Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities
Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police
Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations
The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…
IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf
Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Reuters.com. Retrieved from http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/01/15/one-third-of-americans-believe-police-lie-routinely/
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
Identify examples of problems dealing with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority.
Problems with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority are also issues with merged departments. Smaller departments may not have had the training opportunities that larger departments had, and their officers may not be as prepared or well versed in some areas, such as detective work or gang activities. This can affect pay scale, and different departments may have different scales that do not mesh into one overall scale. Benefits may be cut to save costs during a merger, too.
Which hiring standards related to the different departments in the merged cell are affected?
Hiring standards such as recruits from the police academy, educational requirements, and seniority are all effected by a merger. Each department may have different standards, and some officers may not meet requirements of more stringent agencies.
Polygraph and psychological exams are not required for some…
.....justice' transcends the scope of a majority of arguments. A discourse on its many connotations offers dynamic players on opposite sides of law enforcement lines a peaceful way to promote fairness via exchanges and interface. The requisite interface transcends the "no justice, no peace" principle. However, defining the term 'justice' would be a fine way to begin (Walton 10).
State and federal level regulation safeguards citizens of the nation against abuse as well as other similar violations on the part of law enforcers and other governmental authorities. Police abuse victims may individually sue both policemen and the local governmental bodies employing those officials (Advice Company Staff 3).
Usually, law enforcement officers are sued by society under the 1871 Civil Rights Act, §1983. The Act expressly forbids individuals who act on legal authority against infringing others' civil rights. Further, law enforcers are provided legal safeguards (e.g., "qualified immunity" that often shields…
There were actually more cars stolen during the sting operation than in the same time frame the previous year. While much stolen property was discovered, the public's perception of the police department and their ethics may have been damaged by the sting operation, and as the study notes, it can also actually lead to more organized crime groups, retaliatory violence, and even overzealous policing (Langworthy, 1989, pg. 43). Thus, this may forward the organizational goals of the department to solve more crimes and recover more stolen cars, but in this case, the sting operation really backfired. It cost more to complete than in the vehicles recovered, and the police department got a bad public perception because of the sting. The organization did not weigh the disadvantages of the policy, and so, it was a bad policy decision that cost the organization in the end, in both perception and function.
Langworthy, R.H. (1989). Do stings control crime? An evaluation of a police fencing operation. Justice Quarterly, Vol. 6 No. 1, 27-45.
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
In this regard, Garner adds that, "A safety-smart leader realizes that while a $10 flashlight purchased in bulk at the local discount store may put out enough light to read a driver's license, a 20,000 candlepower light that sets the department back $90, may make all the difference in the world when the officer holding it faces an armed offender one dark night. Little things like that are not lost on the troops" (p. 92). In fact, as to budget priorities, Garner (1998) suggests that officer training and safety considerations should be at the very top of the police manager's list: "A competent police manager encourages and demands an organizational environment where safety is valued, taught and practiced. He mandates that supervisors and managers role model, inspect, reward and correct for safety. He assures that the very best safety training and equipment is made available to his personnel" (p. 92).…
Borrello, a. (2009, March). In defense of the police manager. Law & Order, 57(3), 64-65.
Carrick, G. (2003, April). Traffic safety in the new millennium. Law & Order, 51(4), 44-45.
Coulton, G.F. & Feild, H.S. (1995). Using assessment centers in selecting entry-level police officers: Extravagance or justified expense? Public Personnel Management, 24(2), 223-
Garner, G.W. (1998, December). A leader's role in officer safety. Law & Order, 46(12), 91-92.
ole of Education in Police Management
The police force in any country has a vital role to play in terms of achieving its intended mission of crime prevention, protection of life and property and apprehending violators of peace. The police force, therefore, are the upholders of justice and peace, and to that extent, it is they, more than anyone else who need to practice an underlying code of ethics that is true to the spirit of democracy: "...the mission 'to protect and serve' is not so simple...require distinct and separate skills artistry of police work lies in the ability to handle explosive situations without resorting to force." (Delattre, 1989, p. 25-26) The practice of justice in police work does not only involve overt criminal acts but various types of community service including assisting the sick and injured or defusing domestic tension and violence. Now, the fact is, even if the…
Delattre, E.J. (1989). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Washington D.C.
Morn, Frank. (1995). Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education.
Thibault, E.A., Lynch, L.M. & McBride, R.B. (1995). Proactive Police Management.
Criminal Justice Administration. The question ."How augmented reality unmanned aerial vehicles/systems function incorporated a law enforcement agency?." 500 words APA format 3 references
The contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering technology today and more and more domains start to depend on new technologies. In the current environment, law enforcement agencies need to be effectively prepared to deal with criminals and this means that they need to focus on adopting a series of technologies in order to achieve success in their field of work. Augmented reality and unmanned aerial vehicles/systems are especially intriguing when regarding the use of technology in the context of law enforcement and by considering these two concepts, law enforcement agencies are probable to significantly decrease crime rates.
Augmented reality can be particularly effective when coupled with facial recognition, as these two would provide law enforcement with the ability to rapidly detect criminals. y…
Cowper, T.J. & Buerger, M.E. "Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
"An Easy Explanation Of Augmented Reality and The Practical Uses For The Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.examiner.com/article/an-easy-explanation-of-augmented-reality-and-the-practical-uses-for-the-technology
"Considerations in Selecting a Small UAV for Police Operations." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.aeryon.com/applications/whitepapers/224-whitepaperpolice.html
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
There should also be refresher courses given every year so that officers do not forget about their ethical responsibilities. t is important in the police arena that ethical behavior is top priority and that everyone is as ethical as they can be.
Web Field Trip
Tonry, M. (1997). ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165043.pdf
The article ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines is a very comprehensive guide to what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be incorporated into sentencing guidelines. This article defines what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be used in sentencing guidelines in order to help those offenders who may not otherwise benefit from traditional sentencing practices. The guide also discusses the problems that can occur when implementing these types of sanctions and what can be done to try and avoid the issues that can occur. The overall gist of the article is to…
Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings. (2010). Retrieved
The article Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings is a good discussion of how the use of intermediate sanctions used for certain offenders can lead to cost savings. In today's economy money for correctional institutions is at a low just like it is for everything else. Because of this it is becoming more and more important for corrections in general to cut costs. This article is a very good discussion on how intermediate sanctions can be used to help cut expenses in the criminal justice system. The article discusses how these types of sanctions can be used for certain offenders in order to benefit them the most while reducing the amount of money that it takes to lock every offender up for a specific period of time. This article also discusses the drawbacks that come along with implementing intermediate sanctions and how these issues can be addressed ahead of time in order to mitigate their effects.
Indeed, even the most outspoken critics of law enforcement will likely be the first to dial "9-1-1" when their homes are being burglarized or members of their families are being attacked, but the fact remains that many police department remain primarily white and male in composition. The impetus for effecting substantive changes in the composition of the nation's police forces will therefore need to be mandated in order for things to change in any meaningful way. The desirability of developing a more diverse police force that reflects the demographic composition of the larger communities they serve has been recognized as an important element in this regard. For instance, as Hood, othstein and Baldwin (2004) emphasize, "Any geographically extended political system can set standards from the center, but diversity in law enforcement is often seen as both necessary and desirable" (p. 175). Although it may be necessary and desirable, there are…
Barlow, David E. And Melissa Hickman Barlow. 1999. "Cultural Diversity Training in Criminal Justice: A Progressive or Conservative Reform?" Social Justice 20(3-4): 69-70.
Bedi, K. And R.K. Agrawal. 2001. "Transforming values for principle-centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel." Journal of Power and Ethics 2(2): 103.
Broadnax, Walter D. 2000. Diversity and Affirmative Action in Public Service. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Culver, Leigh. 2004. Adapting Police Services to New Immigration. New York: LFB Scholarly Publishing.
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
The decree also requires a negotiation with the police union and representation by attorney. (Simmons, 2008) Thus there are problems and countermeasures that could effectively bring down the power of investigating complaints.
(d) Critique the effectiveness of citizen oversight as a police management tool, and early warning device:
The tracking system essentially consists of identifying personnel who are exhibiting chronic misconduct patterns. This system could check the unconstitutional violations both with the citizens and within the department as a whole. The intervention systems are good in managing the police and are based on the principle of preventing misconduct by monitoring the police. It was as stated by the Christopher Commission's analysis of one thousand eight hundred Los Angeles police officers showed that the top five percent of the officers were involved in 20% of complaints and the top 10% accounted for 33%. (Simmons, 2008)
Following that the early warning system…
Alexander, Arthur. (2005) "Panel Polishes Police Oversight System"
The Register-Guard, p. d1.
Fielding, Nigel. (1995) "Community Policing."
Clarendon Press: Oxford.
As a result, more small town police departments today have access to online resources and law enforcement networks. Not surprisingly, these innovations have provided small town police departments with access to the same level of online resources as their larger urban counterparts. For instance, a seminal study by Wasby (1975) found that there was a lack of communication of important Supreme Court decisions to small town police departments. The findings of the Wasby study were likely made obsolete by police administrators' higher educational levels today and by the introduction of Supreme Court opinions and case commentaries on the Internet, thereby providing easy access by small town police departments (Zalman & Smith, 2007).
Likewise, in their analysis of small-town police department information needs, Winn, Bucy and Klishis (1999) emphasize that even in "low-tech, nonmilitarized" settings, small-town police departments are increasingly experiencing the need for the same type of technology that their…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Blumenson, E. & Nilsen, E. (1998, March 9). The drug war's hidden economic agenda. The Nation, 266(9), 11.
Falcone, D.N., Wells, L.E. & Weisheit, R.A. (2002). Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25(2), 371-384.
Feagin, J.R., Vera, H. & Batur, P. (2001). White racism: The basics. New York: Routledge.
It is however also a challenge that cannot be ignored in the light of not only cultural change, but also political issues. Establishing trust within the police department itself, as well as between the police and its public is vitally important for current and future security issues.
With the targeted psychological support and counseling for all police officers, as well as a restructured reward and promotion program, I believe it is possible to encourage and effectively recruit all sectors of society to this profession. It is clear that there is no lack of talent, power or skill, but that problems occur mainly as a result of social and cultural values amongst existing police officers. The police force would however be more effective if it were more representative of the society of the 21st century. False beliefs regarding racial minorities or women no longer have a place in the United States.…
Bouza, Chief Anthony V. The Police Mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime and the criminal justice system. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
Couper, David C. "Seven seeds for policing." In the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1994.
Polombo, Bernadette Jones (Assisted by Nancy Demarais). "Attitudes, training, performance and retention of female and minority police officers." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
Trostle, Lawrence C. "Recruitment, hiring, and promotion of women and racial minorities in law enforcement." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
Community Policing: Successful Implementation of Change
The adoption of a community policing strategy within police agencies is often a change that is instituted with much protest and unrest among officers. In order for community policing to be successful however, it has to be presented to organizations and individual police agents as a mechanism of positive change and law enforcement improvement.
Community policing is often in fact adopted by police agencies as a mechanism for improving internal and external relations and delivering optimal service to communities within a given area (Fielding, 1995). According to Fielding (1995) community policing can "evoke images of police-community relations in stable, consensus based and homogenous neighborhoods where crime is a mere irritant" (p.25). However, it is sometimes met with resistance among agents and officers alike.
Thus a suitable environment for change has to be created in order to ensure successful implementation of community policing aims. A…
Davis, J.J. & Gianakis, G.A. "Reinventing or repackaging public services? The
Case of community-oriented policing." Public Administration Review, 58(6): (1998)485
Fielding, N.C. "Community policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1995.
Hartnett, S. & Skogan, W.G. "Community policing, Chicago style." New York: Oxford
The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).
The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces
One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…
Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:
Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
Performance Gap Policing
A performance gap exists when the police department's performance does not meet organizational expectations or citizens expectations. Management is a critical success factor for managing a performance gap when it exists. Many police administrators are contemplating community policing projects due to performance gaps. In order to solve the problem of a performance gap, police agencies must look internally and externally for solutions. They must develop an action plan that includes organizational goals and community goals in order to narrow the gap and foster a collaborative and successful work environment.
Many view community policing as an answer, as a means of "developing communication with the public and interest groups" and encouraging active participation from community members and police agents to further the best interests of the community as a whole (Fielding, 1995). Community policing strategies are being widely adopted in many police agencies as a means of improving…
Bouckaert, G. & Halachmi, A. "Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector: Toward service, effort and accomplishment reporting." Westport: Quorum: 1996.
De Vries, M.S. & Van Der Zijl, V.DH "The implications of community policing for police-citizen relationships." International Journal of Public Administration 26(8-9), 2003:1017.
Fielding, N.C. "Community Policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press:1995
Reiner, R. The Politics of the Police; Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2000
Privatizing Prison Administration
Description of the Financing System.
Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).
According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…
Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison
Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.
Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.
Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at
The United States judicial system is ranked among the most sophisticated systems in the world. Each and every day there are thousands of people who include officers for law enforcement, judges, lawyers, accused criminals and officials in the government take part in the system with the hope that they will settle disputes and work towards the achievement of justice. This system is quite remarkable since it operates successfully in a country which is quite large and diverse. There are various elements of the criminal justice system in the U.S. these include criminal courts, arraignments, trials, sentencing, booking, bargaining of a plea, jury, punishment, appeals and so on. Within these systems there are elements that work quite well when it comes to the completion of the entire judicial process (Silverman, 2012).
The existence of criminal courts within the judicial system of the U.S. is an element that has made…
Silverman, J. (2012). How the Judicial System Works. Retrieved August 22, 2013 from http://www.howstuffworks.com/judicial-system.htm
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
The field is generally that of social control, informal and formal, and it sits in a surround, the larger political forces in a city or a nation (Manning 2008, p. 87).
The most prominent of these political pressures is a public, at least in the United States, that is ostensibly averse to constant monitoring as well as the continued militarization of the police force though the deployment of technologies such as those used in special operations. In their editorial regarding intersection cameras and automatic license plate scanners, the editors of McClatchy propose that, "somehow there has to be a way to take into consideration the uncomfortable feeling people get when they believe they are being spied on with the justifiable methods of making law enforcement more efficient" (McClatchy 2010). They suggest the place to start is the database where recorded video and license plate data is kept anywhere from a…
Editorial: balance public concerns, police technology. (2010, December 30). McClatchy
Tribune Business News.
Manning, P.K. (2008). The technology of policing: crime mapping, information technology, and the rationality of crime control. New York, NY: New York University Press, 87-88.
Moriarty, L.J. (2005). Criminal justice in the 21st century. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas
The contemporary policing is very different from the policing system in the last two decades, this is due to the changes that have taken place across the globe on the types of crimes that are witnessed. Consequently the type of criminals who are confined in our penitentiaries are radically different from those of the yester years, hence the need to have a totally different system of correction administration as well. This then comes with the challenges that the correctional administration are bound to face every now and then.
Since there are quite a number of terrorists and the terror propagators that are of late held within the U.S.A. correctional facilities, it is true then that this comes as a new challenge to the correctional managers.
In this regard, the managers are looked upon to ensure that the correction facilities are be equipped with specialists in the field of…
Howard Sapers, (2009). Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2008-
2009 Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.oci-bec.gc.ca/rpt/annrpt/annrpt20082009-eng.aspx#_ftn14
Human Rights Watch, (2009). Mental Illness, Human Rights, and U.S. Prisons. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.hrw.org/news/2009/09/22/mental-illness-human-rights-and-us-prisons
Kenneth L. Appelbaum et.al, (2011). A National Survey of Self-Injurious Behavior in American Prisons. Psychiatric Services Vol. 62, No. 3. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?Volume=62&page=285&journalID=18
Role of Leadership in Police Management
Police organizations have historically emphasized the use of authoritarian types of administration and Machiavellian leadership practices. Even today, many police organizations have behavioral orientations reflective of dominance, individual achievement and masculinity.
However, recent challenges such as developing community-oriented policing and transforming a traditional police culture that typically emphasized operational "efficiencies," to one that promotes team collaboration, innovation, and "effective" processes suggest the need for new leadership patterns within law enforcement agencies.
In all organizations, effective leadership is necessary, as a lack of it can be detrimental to an organization's success. In many cases, organizations faced with bankruptcy have turned their businesses around by replacing ineffective administrations with efficient, dynamic leadership. In addition, military leaders have used various leadership styles to turn ineffective military units into highly effective and motivated teams.
While the importance of good leadership is not a new one, it is one…
Blake, Robert. (1964). Mouton, Jane. (1964). The Managerial Grid. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing.
Bucqueroux, Bonnie. (2002). Leadership vs. Management. Policing.com. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.policing.com/articl/lead.html.
Hansen, Paul. (2002). Developing Police Leadership. Rochester, New York: Irondequoit Police Department.
Hersey, Paul. (1984). The Situational Leader. New York, New York: Warner Books.
Local Police Response to Terrorism
The Council of State Governments
The council of State Governments is a body of representatives of all states, Territories within the ambit of the U.S. And Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It is an organization that provides vital data and statistics towards excellence in running the matters of the state. It seeks to enable the three apex institutions, viz., legislature, judiciary and the executive with intellectual inputs with a national perspective, innovative technological tools grooming effective and quality leadership and maintaining the autonomy of the states at the same time. It provides as a base for resolution of intra and inter-sate conflicts and mutually beneficial action plans.
Terrorism is an illegal act of force or violence to exact on any public domain to put the government under duress and thereby extract social or political mileage and seek objectives for a particular community or group. Terrorism,…
Chapman, R., Baker, S., Bezdikian, V., Cammarata, P., Cohen, D., Ph.D., Leach, N., Schaprio, A., Scheider, M., Varano, R., Boba, R. (2002). Local Law Enforcement Responds to Terrorism Lessons in Prevention and Preparednes. The Police Foundation, Washington D.C.
Ed. Harris, (2001). (Director of emergency communications, Austin Police Department).Telephone Interview.
Flynn, Edward, (2001). (Chief of Police, Arlington County Police Dept.)Letter.Washington Post.
Gene Voegtlin and Jennifer Boyter. Legislative Alert -- State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs Face Cuts. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2014 from http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=233&issue_id=32004