Police Intelligence Essays (Examples)

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Police Function the Functions of Policing at

Words: 1068 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95497490

Police Function

The Functions of Policing at the Local, State and Federal Levels

The functions of police work are highly complex and filled with myriad unpredictable challenges. Officers must place their safety and their lives at risk every day in the interests of maintaining order, protecting the pubic and apprehending law-breakers. The result is an occupation that is filled with stressors, pressures and dangers. One way that the structure of modern police-work helps officers to contend with these conditions is through the division of jurisdictions. American law enforcement is a sector comprised of many interdependent and overlapping agencies. And correspondent to the broader structure of American governance, this overlapping is somewhat hierarchical in nature, with jurisdictions generally determined by the unit of civil incorporation with which a precinct or department is affiliated. Therefore, at the local, state and federal level, responsibilities are generally divided among these different types of policing…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gaines, L.K. & Kappeler, V.E. (2011). Policing in America. Elsevier.

Kappeler, V.E. & Gaines, L.K. (2009). Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective. Elsevier.

Wright, A. (2002). Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practices. Taylor & Francis U.S..
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Intelligence Unit Memo Police Chief I B Friendly

Words: 1120 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82796390

Intelligence Unit Memo

Police Chief I.B. Friendly

Incorporating Intelligence Unit into Department

In modern law enforcement, the sophistication of modern criminal activity, particularly post-September 11th, causes a necessary paradigm shift for 21st century police departments. This shift requires that departments rethink the power of information -- the manner in which it is collected, analyzed, and then used to fulfill the goals of the department. In fact, in 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing released by the hite House describes the need for fusion information centers as a vital way to succeed in modern law enforcement and critical to the safety of the local community as well as the nation (Porter, 2008).

Historical Background - Prior to 1960, even large, urban Police Departments did not have intelligence units. Resources were combined so that Detectives were at the hierarchy of information analysis; and every member of the department was open to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corrections - Report of the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. (1973, March). Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=10865

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011, June). Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Retrieved from FRI.gov: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=10865

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011, June). National Crime Information Center. Retrieved from Fas.org: http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/doj/fbi/is/ncic.htm

Gaines, L., & Worrall, J. (2010). Police Administration. Clifton Park, PA: Cengage.
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Intelligence Policing and Challenges it Faces

Words: 4020 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83441126

police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?

Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, R 1994, "Intelligence-led policing: A British perspective," in A Smith(ed) Intelligence-led policing: International perspective on policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement intelligence Analyst.

Anderson, R 1997, "Intelligence-led policing: A British Perspective," In Intelligence-led policing: International Perspective on policing in the 21st Century: Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst.

Bennett, T 1994, 'Community policing on the ground: developments in Britain,' in D.P. Rosenbaum(ed) The challenge of community policing: Testing the promises, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.

Carter, DL and Carter, JG 2009, "Intelligence-Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy," Criminal Justice Policy Review 20, no. 3: 310-325
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Intelligence Led Policing Sounds Like

Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54503020

6). The question then becomes, who protects the American public from the CICC?"

Currently law enforcement groups at all levels are protective of the information singularly gathered. If these groups were to share all information at every level the information, whether true or not, can be used in a manner that would take away the constitutional right of American citizens to be considered innocent until proven guilty. In today's world of capable technology assisting law enforcement, analysis of criminal intent and mischief is readily available to all entities.

Sharing the resulting information from such analysis with all other law enforcement will open the door to mismanagement and corruption. Such corruption is already evident in many law enforcement entities and to provide them with additional cannon fodder would be a huge mistake.

orks Cited

Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)

http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/intelsharingreport.pdf, Accessed December 15, 2007
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Police Psychology

Words: 2519 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52776718

Police Psychology

Scenario:

You are a police psychologist for a major metropolitan area. You are also a member of its hostage negotiation team. You have been called to a crisis incident at 3:15 P.M. On a Friday. It is in a residential area about three blocks from a middle school and a public library. The information you have at this time is that the subject is a 42-year-old male who is holed up in his house with his wife, son, and a family friend. He has murdered his next-door neighbor and is threatening to kill those in the house if his demands are not met. One of his demands is for immunity from the murder charge if he surrenders without harming any of the people in the house. His other demands are a case of beer and some fast food. He wants his demands met or "something will happen."u

Introduction…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alaxander, D., & Klein, S. (2010). Hostage-taking: motives, resolution, coping and effects. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 176-183.

Cooper, H. (1981). Hostage-takers. Retrieved from National Criminal Justice Reference Service:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=75936 

Goldaber, I. (1979). Typology of Hostage-Takers. Police Chief, 21-23. Retrieved from Hughes, J. (2009). A Pilot Study of Naturally Occuring High-Probability Request Sequences in Hostage Negotiations. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 491-496.

McMains, M., & Mullins, W. (2010). Crisis Negotiation (4th ed.). New Providence: Lexis/Nexis/Anderson.
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Policing Comparison of Policing Tactics

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71490106

At this time there is no uniform consensus about what agencies have authority in the Middle East. The Dubai police are working with agencies including the Department of Homeland Security to establish a more democratic policing system. Despite their best efforts however, there still exist many groups within the Middle East that adopt radical approaches to policing. Not every agency agrees on uniform democracy, and some still prefer an authoritarian approach to policing (Exum, 2006, p. 1). This can and often does lead to greater violence within the region, with in many cases people living within the regions of the Middle East still lacking freedom of expression and living in fear of violent punishment for any crimes committed.

As Exum (2006) noted in his overview of policing in the Middle East, a bus driver was at one point withdrawn from his vehicle and beaten as well as sodomized as a…… [Read More]

References

Exum, Andrew. (2006). "Hizballah at War: A Military Assessment." The Washington

Institute for Near/East Policy, Accessed 3, May 2007: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/templateC05.php?CID=2574

Institute of Race Relations. (2007). "The politics of fear: Civil society and the security state." Institute of Race Relations, Accessed 3, May 2007:

http://www.irr.org.uk/2004/june/ak000011.html
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Police Communication Technology the Need

Words: 1786 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27318766



Conclusion:

The police adapting to rapid changes in technology is felt in two ways -- primarily in using the technology that comes with new inventions for the police like better weapons, communication networks and so on for which they have to be thoroughly trained. The specialist has also to be trained in many issues like cyber crimes, and use of sophisticated computers and machines for crime. Police with an up-to-date mass communication system can be easily mobilized and can have faster response to events. The negative aspects of technology cannot be wished away and there must be research done to overcome these defects in communication with the public and also reliance must be placed on more robust methods of data access.

eferences

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in…… [Read More]

References

Buzawa, Carl G; Buzawa, Eve S. (1992) "Domestic Violence: The Changing Criminal

Justice." Auburn House: Westport, CT.

Couldry, Nick; Mccarthy, Anna. (2004) "Mediaspace: Place, Scale, and Culture in a Media

Age." Routledge: New York.
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Policing Challenges to Policing in the 21st

Words: 888 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92231395

Policing Challenges

Challenges to policing in the 21st century

Policing has taken a different dimension from the traditional policing habits of maintaining law and order and combating the usual crimes to handling new forms of crime, which can be termed as white collar crimes. The society is faced with criminal activities which are as a result of the advanced level of technology use across the globe. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012). This is an era where the criminals are technologically savvy and use this as a tool to commit crimes without the use of force or inflicting any bodily harm to the victims…… [Read More]

References

Patricia Linn, (1999). what are the five types of Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 from  http://www.ehow.com/list_7245606_five-types-crime_.html .

Interpol, (2012). Cyber Crimes. Retrieved April 3, 2012 fromhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime.
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Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41646569

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]

References

Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
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Police Law Enforcement Agencies or the Police

Words: 780 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19893591

Police

Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.

Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org:  http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html 

Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.

Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.

Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html
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Intelligence Community A History of

Words: 3041 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54262272

This would create a reactionary agency which, rather than gathering intelligence to the extension of its security, would approach what would come to be known as the 'containment theory,' using whatever resources and tactics were at its disposal to deflect against the spread of communism.

At its time, the 1947 Act would be seen as projecting considerable vision. As one conservative think-tank reports on this idea, "until fairly recently, CIA considered its appropriate time horizon to be fairly long. It was, I believe, generally longer than the focus of either the Defense Intelligence Agency or the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). The Directorate of Intelligence made forecasts in some areas that went out 20 years, and collectors and analysts tried to anticipate events 'over the horizon' -- situations policymakers did not then know they were likely to be worrying about in the future. CIA did this because…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Answers. (2009). United States Intelligence, History. Answers Corp. Online at  http://www.answers.com/topic/united-states-intelligence-history 

Bush, G.W. (2002). The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. The White House.

Federation of American Scientists (FAS). (2008). A Framework for Reform of the U.S. Intelligence Community. Federation of American Scientists. Online at http://www.fas.org/irp/gentry/chapter2.html

Johnson, L.K. (2007). Strategic Intelligence. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Policing in the Future One

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93963499

One of the major things that management can do is increase traffic control. From the Department of Motor Vehicles, which screens people before issuing identification, to officers in routine traffic stops and roadblocks that look for suspected terrorist activity, management can change policies in a manner aimed at increasing detection. (Riebling, p.8). The more routine contact that the police have with members of society; the more likely they are to uncover possible terrorist activity.

Finally, the community at large faces new challenges in the wake of 9-11. Americans have a tremendous amount of civil rights, which generally exceed those that have received constitutional protection. Prior to 9-11, the majority of community members who avoided criminal activity would be able to avoid interactions with the police. However, now that law enforcement has had to broaden its emphasis and take a closer look at the community, the average citizen can anticipate greater…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Connors, Timothy and Georgia Pellegrini, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: Policing Terrorism in the United States. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.

Riebling, Mark, Ed. Hard Won Lessons: The New Paradigm- Merging Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism Strategies. New York City: Manhattan Institute, 2006.
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Intelligence Practical Exercise

Words: 2535 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14146722

Intelligence Practical Exercise

Geospatial Intelligence Analysis

GEOINT which means Geospatial Intelligence is a system which is used to analyse an environment for intelligence and operational purposes. (GEOINT Analysis, 2017).

Describe the Environment: Collect key data that defines the precise destination for the planned mission. Geographical, government and cultural limitations must be established. In most cases, the gathered data could consist of vectors, heights, natural landmarks such as rivers, mountains etc., longitude and latitude locations and several others. All these are the basic requirements of the GEOINT invention.

Outline the Effects of The Environment: Elaborate thoroughly on the mission location identified in the previous step. Locate and define its natural state, any existing structures and its cultural atmosphere. Account for all possible factors that might have an effect on a mission in the location such as roads, people, buildings, plants, climate, language, government, cultural divides or social factors. Add this new…… [Read More]

References

Ali Rathore, S. (2016). Brussels Attack - Lessons Learned. A JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM RESEARCH.

Brown, G., Carlyle, M., Salmeron, J., & Wood, K. (2005). Analyzing the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure to Attack and Planning Defenses. Tutorials inOperations Research, 102 - 123.

GEOINT Analysis. (2017). Retrieved from National Geospatial Intelligence Agency:  https://www.nga.mil/ProductsServices/GEOINTAnalysis/Pages/default.aspx 

International Nuclear Safety Group. (2010). The Interface Between Safety and Security at Nuclear Power Plants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
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Viewing the Function of Policing It Increases

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92961918

viewing the function of policing. It increases understanding of the policing function at different levels hence minimizes conflict and confusion over issues in policing. It is obvious the levels of policing discussed herein are very dependable on each other. Policing like other professions obtains knowledge through experience. It follows that modern police officers look for effective policing strategies through the guidance of the police history lessons (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). The challenges confirm that police history is incoherent, and the lessons are hard to learn. Such histories are generated by thousands of police departments in response to local conditions and the pursuit for their visions. While varied policing perspectives are a viable source of lessons, few trends shaping the function of policing at the local, state, and federal levels exist. In this case, interpretation is imperative.

Perspectives of the policing function

Local

In the U.S., policing is civilian, extremely…… [Read More]

References

Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Dantzker, M.L. (2009). Police organization and management: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Langworthy, R.H., & Travis, L.F. (2013). Policing in America: A balance of forces. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
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Criminal Intelligence Analysis

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30034119

Crime Intelligence Analysis:

To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals

Corrections/Police -- Intelligence

Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.

Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.

The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…… [Read More]

References

Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.

Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). National Gang Threat Assessment. Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82294288/National-Gang-Threat-Assessment-2005 (accessed June 3, 2012).

Osborne, D. Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: JMIC Press, 2006.
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Policing The 21st Century Has

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12616969



There various technological measures that have been used to enhance the effectiveness of police officers include crime laboratories and finger printing. The other technological measures used in policing include the two-way radio used in police cars to help the officers to multiply their productivity in responding to and dealing with incidents. Police agencies across the nation are obtaining new technology that is developed to lessen response time and speed of information dissemination. The use of these efforts has helped in improving patrol function and capitalizes on the impact of community policing programs.

Homeland Security and Law Enforcement elationships:

The relationships between intelligence, law enforcement, and homeland security organizations at the federal, state, and local level have continued to experience a revolution since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Before these terrorist attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created the wall at the federal level between law enforcement and intelligence. Furthermore, none of…… [Read More]

References:

Foster, R.E. (n.d.). History of Police Technology. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.police-technology.net/id59.html 

Johns, C. (n.d.). Police Use of Less-than-lethal Weapons. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from  http://www.cjjohns.com/lawpowerandjustice/commentaries/llethal.html 

Schmidt, M.S. & Goldstein, J. (2012, April 9). The Dangers of Police Work. Retrieved December 4, 2012, from http://www.professionalsecurityarkansas.com/cms/the-dangers-of-police-work/

Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Center for the Study of Intelligence, 53(3). Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
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Police Management Throughout History Police Management Has

Words: 5721 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39703152

Police Management:

Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]

References:

Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.

"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."

(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from  https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf 

Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
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Policing Issues Affecting 21st Century Law Enforcement Officers

Words: 2520 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77159469

Militarization of Police

The 21st century has provided in a very short time, major changes to the way society interacts and operates. Governmental structures and institutional principles have also greatly swayed in recent decades. It is apparent that the world is drastically changing and evolving into a new form of culture and society that presents many problems and issues, especially in cases of the law and law enforcement.

The law is changing rapidly and the requirements that are placed on law enforcement professionals in this extremely turbulent time in history have grown and expanded to many different areas of responsibility. Terrorisms and the threat of massive societal upheaval are potential threats to the current and accepted way of life and the burden to protect society from these threats often falls I the hands of law enforcement professionals.

The purpose of this essay is to explain the gradual and sustained militarization…… [Read More]

References

Baker, A. (2011). When the Police Go Military. The New York Times, 3 Dec 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/04/sunday-review/have-american-police-become-militarized.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Balko, R. (2013). Too Many Cops Are Told They're Soldiers Fighting a War. How Did We Get Here? ACLU, 9 July 2013. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/blog/criminal-law-reform-free-speech-technology-and-liberty/too-many-cops-are-told-theyre-soldiers

Bernick, E. (2013). It's Past Time to Scaled Back Police Militarization. The Washington Times, 18 Sep 2013. Retrieved from  http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/sep/18/bernick-its-past-time-to-scale-back-police-militar/ 

Clark, J.P. (1972). The functions of the police in modern society. Contemporary Sociology, 1(3), 243 -- 244.
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Police Corrupted

Words: 5292 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92625669

Course Number
Police Corruption
A Problem with the law
Name
[Date]

Summary
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…… [Read More]

References
Aremu, A. O., Pakes, F., & Johnston, L. (2011). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence on the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian Police. Police Practice and Research, 12(3), 195-208. Retrieved July 30, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2010.536724#.U9sFVvldWa8
Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct, complaints, and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
California Innocence Project. (n.d.). Police Corruption Cases \ Police Misconduct Statistics \ CIP. Retrieved August 1, 2014, from http://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/police-misconduct
Einstein, S., & Amir, M. (2003). Police corruption: paradigms, models, and concepts: challenges for developing countries. Huntsville, TX: Office of International Criminal Justice.
Gottschalk, P. (2012). White-Collar Crime and Police Crime: Rotten Apples or Rotten Barrels? Critical Criminology, 20(2), 169-182. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10612-011-9133-0
Lee, H., Lim, H., Moore, D. D., & Kim, J. (2013). How police organizational structure correlates with frontline officer's attitudes toward corruption: a multilevel model. Police Practice and Research, 14(5), 386. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15614263.2011.635483#.U9sEofldWa8
Punch, M., & Gilmour, S. (2010). Police corruption: apples, barrels and orchards. Criminal Justice Matters, 79(1), 10-12. Retrieved July 31, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09627250903569890#.U9sFwldWa8
Roleff, T. L. (2003). Police corruption. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
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intelligence handling processes

Words: 1735 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37715243

gathering and using knowledge as a basis for making decisions in formal settings is an old one. If one is to gain advantage over their rivals, it is essential to gather updated knowledge that is also accurate with regard to what they intend to do and their capabilities. The principle applies across a wide range of fields including military strategies, politics, criminal intelligence circles and business. Further, it is a continually evolving process. It has been changing in response to socio-cultural factors, higher advanced analytical skill requirements, organizational demands, and even technology. Review of the roots of intelligence and the analytical procedures as a pre-occupation and profession is a consultative activity. Such analysis of the background of intelligence processes helps us to understand the past, the present and help anticipate the future. We also learn, in the process, that intelligence gathering is an ever evolving field. Consequently, if the practice…… [Read More]

Bibliography

CIA. (n.d.). Signals Intelligence Activities. Retrieved from cia.gov:  https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/Policy-and-Procedures-for-CIA-Signals-Intelligence-Activities.pdf 

Erickson, M. H. (1929). Study of the Relationship Between Intelligence and Crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.

Manget, F. F. (2006). INTELLIGENCE AND THE CRIMINAL LAW SYSTEM. STANFORD LAW AND POLICY REVIEW, 415.

Ratcliffe, J. H. (2007). Integrated Intelligence and Crime Analysis. Police Foundation.
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Intelligence in Homeland Security There

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56760027

Integrated agreements will assist in targeting the maximum federal funding at the greatest risk counties, cities and states where through the addition of more funds, security of citizens will be increased (U.S. Congress 2010). U.S. Department of Homeland Security should uphold on what it considers being right. It should be firm on actions vital to the country's ability to respond to such issues. It should issue a mandate on funding for the activities, interoperable communications and should not ignore its own requirements. As a result, local and state governments will succeed in achieving interoperable communications (Studeman, 2002).

The DHS must ensure that localities and states attain a certain degree of appropriate interoperable communications. Activities and actions should be given proper funding. In addition, Department of Homeland Security should allow local and state governments to be flexible and make decisions on how they intend to achieve the standard. The DHS enterprise…… [Read More]

References

Pincus, W. (2007). An Admonition on Intelligence. New York: ProQuest

US Congress (2010). Congressional Record, V. 153, Pt. 1, January 4, 2007 to January 17, 2007.

New York: Government Printing Office

Studeman, M. (2002). Strengthening the Shield: U.S. Homeland Security Intelligence. Kingston:
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Police & Firefighting Policies Since

Words: 3190 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96818096

If the worst case scenarios should ever unfold and terrorists have released materials into the air that are radioactive, the SOD works with the New York City's Department of Health so that officers have proper training in the use of air-monitoring "meters" (Holden, p. 5).

New York City's Department of Health has in place a program called "Biowatch" that is designed to alert the SOD when any calls come in reporting the presence of a biological substance. As mentioned previously in this paper, during the crisis of September 11, 2001, one of the major obstacles to effective first responder action was the breakdown in communication technologies and in lines of authority. However the NYPD's Operations Division (OD) is now trained to be the communications link between the executive command and the police officer on the street. The OD coordinates all personnel specifics and directions; in fact the OD is referred…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dunn, Vincent. (2004). Three Years Later -- What Has Changed Since 9/11/01. Retrieved July

8, 2010, from  http://www.vincentdunn.com/Changes-9-11-04.pdf .

Finley, Bruce. (2005). Alerts Go Out, Statewide System Falls in Line. The Denver Post.

Retrieved July 9, 2010, from General OneFile / Galegroup.com.
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Comparing the Modern Nature of Policing in the USA UK and Germany

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33289036

Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany

The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.

Criminal Justice in the United States

The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…… [Read More]

On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.
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Future of Policing

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98563965

Future of Policing

The objective of this study is to examine the future of policing and specifically the trends that are currently affecting policing policy. This work seeks to answer as to some foreseeable critical issues that may affect policing in the future and what changes may need to be made to effectively address these critical issues.

The work entitled "55 Trends Now Shaping the Future of Policing" (Cetron and Davies,2008) states that in excess of every 100 adults in the U.S. were in prison at the start of 2008, according to a report published by the Pew Center on States analyzing data from the Justice Department" and stated as well is that the prison population had tripled in only three decades reaching 1.6million with 723,000 in local jails. Simultaneously the number of police officers has either not changed or declined. For example stated is that in oston "here were…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cetron, MJ and Davies, O (2008) 55 Trends Now Shaping the Future of Policing. The Proteus Trends Series. Volume 1, Issue 1. 2008 Feb. Retrieved from:  http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/proteus-55-policing.pdf 

Ferguson, AF (2012) Predictive Policing: The Future of Reasonable Suspicion. UDC David A. Clarke School of Law. 2 May 2012. Retrieved from:

 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2050001 

Video Changes the Future of Policing (nd) Solution Brief. Retrieved from: http://www.motorola.com/web/Business/Solutions/Business%20Solutions/Incident%20Scene%20and%20Event%20Management/Intelligent%20Video%20Surveillance%20and%20Control%20(iVSC)/_Documents/StaticFiles/Video%20Changes%20the%20Future%20of%20Policing.pdf
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Predictive Policing Is a Trend That Uses

Words: 1381 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45992088

Predictive policing is a trend that uses technology to predict hot crime spots and send police to the area before a crime is committed. By using data mining and crime mapping, police are deployed to areas based on statistical probability and geospatial predictions. This technology is based on the same technology used by businesses to predict sales trends and customer behavior patterns. Now, police departments can use the same technology to predict crime patterns and work to reduce crime in their area.

Predictive policing is putting officers where crimes are more likely to occur. "…it generates projections about which areas and windows of time are at highest risk for future crimes by analyzing and detecting patterns in years of past crime data." (Goode) The data mining generates projections using past crime data to analyze which areas and the time of the day, week, or month, etc. that crime is likely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

CrimeSolutions.gov. (n.d.). Compstate (Fort Worth, Texas). Retrieved from CrimeSolutions.gov: http://www.crimesolutions.gov/ProgramDetales.aspx?ID-87

Goode, E. (n.d.). Sending the Police Before There's a Crime. Retrieved from The New York Times: http:www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/us/16police.html

Pearsall, B. (2010, Jun). Predictive Policing: The Future of Law Enforcement? Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: http://www.nij/journals/266/predictive.htm

Shurkin, J.N. (2011, Sept 13). Santa Cruz cops experiment with predictive policing. Retrieved from TPM Idea Lab: http:idealab.talkingpointsmemo.com/2011/09/santa-cruz-cops-experiment-with-predictive-policing.php
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Terrorism Impact on Police Mission

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2291969

terrorism has impacted the police mission in the U.S. Be sure to provide examples. Describe at least two disagreements that exist regarding the appropriate law enforcement behavior to fight terrorism and maintain personal liberties?

Terrorism and the events connected to September 11, 2001 have impacted the world in ways we could never imagine, affecting the way we view our safety and the way that we view ourselves. State and local police forces have been impacted as well, being confronted with new tasks and new dangers. Just as the Federal government created an entire new department of Homeland Security, police departments were faced with massive changes as well. For instance, these changes were: "coordinating homeland security at the state level; collecting, analyzing and sharing critical information and intelligence; protecting critical infrastructure and key assets; securing the nation's borders, air and sea ports; collaborating with federal and local law enforcement on task…… [Read More]

References

Csg.org. (2011). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from Csg.org:  http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf 

Delattre, E. (2011). Character and Cops: Ethics in Policing. Washington DC: AEI Press.

FBI.gov. (2011, May). Police Corruption. Retrieved from FBI.gov: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/may_2011/law_enforcement_professionalism

Ncjrs.gov. (2006). The Impact of Terrorism on State Law Enforcement. Retrieved from ncjrs.gov:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/216642.pdf
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Decentralization of U S Police and the Affects

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47392513

Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society

Law Enforcement

The American police force is one of the strongest and most effective in the world. What makes it so? There have been recent changes to the hierarchy and structure of the police force, particularly since the terrorist attack in New York City on September 11, 2001. One such change has been increased decentralization of law enforcement. How is this shift characterized? What are the implications for law enforcement, the citizens it serves, and American society in general? The paper will address the affects of decentralization upon how investigations are conducted and affects upon society in general.

The Decentralization of U.S. Police and the Affects upon Society

Typically, when citizens consider the subject of decentralization, it is in regards to governance. The governance may be on a national level, such as a decentralized government, or the decentralization can be highly…… [Read More]

References:

Cheikbossian, G., & Marceau, N. (2007) "Why is Law Enforcement Decentralized?" Centre Interuniversitaire sur le Risque, les Politques Economiques, et l'Emploi, University of Quebec, 1 -- 26.

Kaminski, R.J., & Martin, J.A. (2000) "An analysis of police officer satisfaction with defense and control tactics." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 23(2), 132 -- 153.

King, W.R. (2000) "Measuring police innovation: issues and measurement." Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 23(3), 303 -- 317.

Marx, G.T. (2001) "Police and Democracy." Policing, Security, and Democracy: Theory and Practice, Volume 2. Office of International Criminal Justice, Huntsville, TX. Web.
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Criminal Justice - Policing Criminal

Words: 1074 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52654718

To the extent that crime is a function of larger social issues, it is unrealistic to expect those underlying social problems to be rectified by law enforcement efforts. Even with respect to specific incidence of criminal behavior, law enforcement authorities must address two competing interests that fall within the purview and responsibility of law enforcement.

Specifically, poverty, unwanted pregnancy, lack of educational and vocational opportunities, and perceived social "disenfranchisement" within communities contribute heavily to crime in those areas but none of those social factors are capable of being redressed directly by law enforcement authorities. Likewise, even within the realm of law enforcement responsibilities, emphasis on quality-of-life-oriented policing and crime prevention-oriented policing conflict with the goal of preventing crime in light of empirical evidence and anecdotal experience demonstrating that efforts directed at the former do not necessarily achieve the goals of the latter appreciably.

In that regard, directed police patrols and…… [Read More]

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Value of Educating Police Officers

Words: 1077 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85552772

POLICE OFFICE EQUIE ASSOCIATES DEEGEE CIMINAL JUSTICE CLOSELY ELATED FIELD?

POLICE OFFICES, DEGEE IN CIMINAL JUSTICE, AND OTHE QUALIFICATIONS

Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications

Police Officers, Associates Degree in Criminal Justice, and Other Qualifications

Police officers are individuals empowered by the government to limit civil disorder, protect property, and enforce the law. They are normally charged with the detection and prevention of crime, apprehension of criminals and maintenance of law and order. The minimum training and education required in order to become a police officer mainly varies among individual agencies, departments, and states. The education requirements largely depend on the position or rank that the individual is seeking. This report endeavors to explain whether the police officer is required to have at least an Associates' degree in Criminal Justice or any other close related field. It also explains whether police officers' education level plays a…… [Read More]

References

Bottoms, A.E., & McClean, J.D. (2013). "Defendants in the criminal process." Hoboken: Taylor and Francis

Carter, D.L., & Jamieson, J.D. (1978). "Issues and trends in criminal justice education." Huntsville, Tex.: Institute of Contemporary Corrections and the Behavioral Sciences, Sam Houston State University

Cryderman, B.K. (1986). "Police, race and ethnicity: a guide for law enforcement officers." Toronto: Butterworths

Nemeth, C.P. (1989). "A status report on contemporary criminal justice education: a definition of the discipline and an assessment of its curricula, faculty, and program characteristics." Lewiston, NY, USA: E. Mellen Press.
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Roles & Duties of Police

Words: 1167 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20993584

By devoting resources towards the prevention of crime, Anacortes authorities therefore help to ensure that the community remains relatively free from crimes in the first place.

Crime fighter

Unfortunately, despite these best efforts, no community is totally free from crime. Large urban areas in particular have shown an increase in violent and drug-related crimes. hen these crimes happen, police officers are tasked with ensuring that the perpetrators are apprehended, so that they are prevented from engaging in more criminal activity, and so that justice could be meted out.

This role is seen in the amount of resources that the Los Angeles Police Department devotes towards responding to gang-related criminal activities.

Last month, the Harbor Gateway area of Los Angeles reeled from the killing of 14-year-old Cheryl Green, an African-American resident who wandered into the Latino territory of the area. Two members of the 204th Street Gang were quickly arrested and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kimberley Jackson. (2006). "On the beat." Anacortes American January 16: 6.

McGreevey, Patrick and Richard Winton. (2007). "FBI joins L.A. policing effort in war on gang crime." Los Angeles Times January 19: 1.

Radin, Charles a. (2007). "Police boost forces to stop unruly fans." The Boston Globe. January 20: A1.

San Antonio Police Department. (2006). Downtown foot and bike patrol. Retrieved January 20, 2007, from Official Website of the San Antonio Police
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Terrorism & Police Organizations Global

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74232381



Law Enforcement Practice, Procedure, Training, and Administration Standards:

Local police departments range in size from those employing fewer than ten officers to those employing over 30,000 officers, as in the case of New York City's

NYPD, the largest local police agency in the country. With absolutely no existing national standardization for police training, state and local police department training ranges from six-month long, live-in police academies such as those of the largest state police agencies and much smaller, independent local police academies with much shorter training programs. At some of the smallest local sheriff departments, officers may still be sworn into their positions by direct Sheriff's appointment, without prior training of any kind. In between those two extremes, police training and certification in different states range from four-week long, self-sponsored community college certification programs to independently run police academy training programs run by municipal police departments themselves.

Just as pre-employment…… [Read More]

References

Chase, H.W. And Ducat, C.R. (1978) Corwin's the Constitution and What it

Means Today. Princeton: Princeton University Press

German, M. (3/6/05) an FBI Insider's Guide to the 9/11 Commission

Report GlobalSecurity.org; Retrieved February 26, 2007, at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2005/guide-iii.htm
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Proactive Policing

Words: 6206 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42132239

Proactive Policing

There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.

Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.

Outline of the Paper

The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971

Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.

Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political

Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
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CIA Introduction to Police Theory the Objective

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52222047

CIA Introduction to Police Theory

The objective of this report is to introduce a plan, which will set out the priorities to ensure professional delivery of law enforcement services by law enforcement personnel with this particular police department. This plan will target several critical issues including professionalism and ethical behavior among law enforcement officers since it is critical to maintain integrity in the department and to gain and retain the respect and cooperation of the community in which these officers serve. In addition, prompt and efficient service delivery is a crucial issue for today's law enforcement.

Problems Associated with Service Delivery

It is noted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police that problems exist in today's law enforcement agencies relating to such as racial profiling, citizen complaints on intake investigation issues, as well as problems associated with early identification and intervention strategies. (1999) Finally, the IACP notes that there…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Core Criminal Intelligence Training Standards for United States Law Enforcement and Other Criminal Justice Agencies (2011) Prepared by The Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Intelligence Working Group. Retrieved from:  http://it.ojp.gov/documents/criminal_intel_training_standards.pdf 

Ethics Training in Law Enforcement (1999) A report by the Ethics Training Subcommittee of the IACP Ad Hoc Committee on Police Image and Ethics. International Association of Chiefs of Police. May 1999. Recommendations From The President's First Leadership Conference. Retrieved from: http://www.theiacp.org/PoliceServices/ExecutiveServices/ProfessionalAssistance/Ethics/ReportsResources/EthicsTraininginLawEnforcement/tabid/194/Default.aspx

Organizational Integrity Issues for the Law Enforcement Agency (1999) Curriculum Content Summary. Model Policy on Standards of Conduct. IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center Standards of Conduct. Retrieved from: http://www.theiacp.org/PoliceServices/ExecutiveServices/ProfessionalAssistance/Ethics/ReportsResources/OrganizationalIntegrityIssuesfortheLawEnforc/tabid/195/Default.aspx

Police Leadership in the 21st Century: Achieving and Sustaining executive Success (1999) International Association of Chiefs of Police. May 1999. Recommendations From The President's First Leadership Conference - Reflections on Leadership. Retrieved from: http://www.theiacp.org/PoliceServices/ExecutiveServices/ProfessionalAssistance/Ethics/ReportsResources/PoliceLeadershipinthe21stCentury/tabid/190/Default.aspx
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History Policing the Law Enforcement Industry America

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61646033

History Policing, the Law Enforcement Industry America, Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America; a critical analysis

A critical analysis: History Policing; the Law Enforcement Industry America; Police ole Society and the Functions Policing America

History of Policing

Formalized local government-based policing in America began in the late 1820s in the largest American cities. Early police officers were not considered to be professional with respect to social status. In fact, the terms professional and police were not likely to appear together. Policemen in this historical period were typically not much more than watchmen. It wasn't until the turn of the 20th century that professionalism began to characterize American police. It is mostly agreed that the professionalization of the police in the United States began with the efforts of August Vollmer. (Douthit, 1975).

Vollmer was the first Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, elected as the town Marshall in 1905.…… [Read More]

References

911 Commission Report (2004), Washington, D.C.: GAO.

Crank, John P. (2003), "Institutional Theory of Police: A Review of the State of the Art," Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 26 (2): 186- 207.

Douthit, Nathan (1975), "August Vollmer, Berkeley's First Chief of Police, and the Emergence of Police Professionalism," California Historical Quarterly, 54), spring: 101-124.

Goldstein, Herman (1979), "Improving Policing: A Problem-Oriented Approach," Crime and Delinquency, 25: 236-58.
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Organized Crime Related intelligence

Words: 3194 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92951106

Organized Crime elated Intelligence

Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)

The Frumentarii

The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…… [Read More]

References

Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.

Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress:  https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/ 

Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.

Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from  https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
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Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework Terrorism Has Been

Words: 2343 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38436637

Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework

Terrorism has been the greatest threat to American soil since the end of the Cold ar, and the country has responded to these threats by creating an elaborate counterterrorism and intelligence framework. This counterterrorism strategy must use every possible tool in America's arsenal, and must meet the highest standards in excellence for the duty it is tasked to perform. The nature of terrorist threats in America in the 21st century is the fact that nobody knows where and why terrorism may appear.

Three agencies will form the core of the new counterterrorism and intelligence gather efforts coordinated by the Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2012) These three agencies are the CIA, the FBI, and the DOD, and each already fulfills necessary functions in America's fight on terror. hile still operating within the legal framework that surrounds each agency, I look to improve the overall effectiveness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coker, M. (2012, March 6). U.S., Yemen Restart Training. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204276304577265321207513952.html

Homeland security. (2012, February 3). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240598490142.shtm

Intelligence.gov. (2012). Seventeen Agencies and Organizations United Under One Goal. Retrieved from website: http://www.intelligence.gov/about-the-intelligence-community/

Lee Myers, S. (2012, March 22). www.nytimes.com. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/world/us-intelligence-report-warns-of-global-water-tensions.html
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Minorities in Policing Facing the

Words: 1622 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22847343

It is however also a challenge that cannot be ignored in the light of not only cultural change, but also political issues. Establishing trust within the police department itself, as well as between the police and its public is vitally important for current and future security issues.

With the targeted psychological support and counseling for all police officers, as well as a restructured reward and promotion program, I believe it is possible to encourage and effectively recruit all sectors of society to this profession. It is clear that there is no lack of talent, power or skill, but that problems occur mainly as a result of social and cultural values amongst existing police officers. The police force would however be more effective if it were more representative of the society of the 21st century. False beliefs regarding racial minorities or women no longer have a place in the United States.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bouza, Chief Anthony V. The Police Mystique: An insider's look at cops, crime and the criminal justice system. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.

Couper, David C. "Seven seeds for policing." In the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, March 1994.

Polombo, Bernadette Jones (Assisted by Nancy Demarais). "Attitudes, training, performance and retention of female and minority police officers." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.

Trostle, Lawrence C. "Recruitment, hiring, and promotion of women and racial minorities in law enforcement." In Diversity, Affirmative Action and Law Enforcement edited by George T. Felkenes and Peter Charles Unsinger. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1992.
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Central Intelligence Agency Cia Its Creation and

Words: 3902 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37654514

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Central Intelligence Agency

The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)

The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…… [Read More]

References

About CIA. (2013, January 10). Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html 

Canon, D. (1980). Intelligence and ethics: the CIA's covert operations. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 4(2), 198-199. Retrieved from http://mises.org/journals/jls/4_2/4_2_6.pdf

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) website:  https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf 

Cia.gov (2009). Components of the CIA -- Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/additional-publications/the-work-of-a-nation/cia-director-and-principles/components-of-the-cia.html.
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Is it Time for a Domestic Intelligence Agency in the United States

Words: 3243 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25518633

Domestic Intelligence Agency

The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency

In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.

The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"

Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burch, James. "A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative

Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security, Homeland Security Affairs 3, No. 2 (June 2007).

CNN. "U.S. policymakers mull creation of domestic intelligence agency, CNN.com, Oct

20, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/20/domestic.intelligence.agency / (accessed July 8, 2013).
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Humint Intelligence Collection

Words: 2457 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48588530

human intelligence particularly in the context of Afghanistan war. Afghanistan is a Muslim Asian state which has been victimised by external forces of USA and ussia. The internal state of Afghanistan is very unfavourable for the development of country and it is most likely that for rehabilitation, it needs the assistance of many other countries.

In the context of human intelligence, it is important to mention that this topic has not been much explored in the literature. The reason can be its possible connection with the car, while the literature mainly casts light upon the causes and outcomes of the war. The strategies are mostly confidential and it takes centuries to explore them.

The paper will explain the concept of human intelligence and its implications in war against the countries. The paper revolves around USA policies and practices maintaining focus on its invasion in Afghanistan in the background of Iraq.…… [Read More]

References

1. Hastedt, Glenn and Guerrier, Steven. 2010. Spies, Wiretaps and Secret Operations. USA: ABC-CLIO.

2. Holmes, Dave and Dixon, Norm. 2001. Behind the U.S. War on Afghanistan. Australia: Resistance Books.

3. Lansford, Tom. 2003. A Bitter Harvest: U.S. Foreign Policy and Afghanistan. England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

4. Rothstein, Hy. 2006. Afghanistan and the Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare. USA: Naval Institute Press.
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Criminal Justice Zero-Tolerance Policing the

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57745828

In addition, research shows that arrests actually dropped in San Diego after implementing COP policies, and even more dramatic, citizen complaints against police officers dropped, as well. Thus, COP activities seem to be more citizen-friendly than zero-tolerance policies, and they seem to bring dramatic drops in crime, as well.

Problem-oriented policing targets specific problem areas of crime, such as drug-trafficking neighborhoods or youth-oriented crimes. This type of policing strives to understand why crimes are occurring, and get to the root of the crime problem in specific areas. In Boston in the 1990s, youth-oriented homicide was a growing problem, and the city developed a POP program to address it. Called the "Boston Gun Project," the project targeted youth aged 24 and under, and it researched why there was a gun problem with youth in Boston, and then developed intervention and evaluating the impact of the intervention. It involved many different law…… [Read More]

References

Braga, a.A., Kennedy, D.M., Waring, E.J. And Piehl, a.M. (2001). Problem-oriented policing, deterrence, and youth violence: An evaluation of Boston's operation ceasefire. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 38 No. 3, 195-225.

Eck, J.E. And Spelman, W. (1987). Who ya gonna call? The police as problem-busters. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 33, No. 1, 31-52.

Greene, J.A., Kelling, G.L. And Bratton, W.J. (1998). Should zero-tolerance/broken windows policing be encouraged? Issue 16. 306-328.

Lurigio, a.J. And Rosenbaum, D.P. (?) the impact of community policing on police personnel. Police Organizational Reform. 149-153.
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How Community Policing Has a Positive Effect on Suburban Communities

Words: 1340 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48331808

Community policing arose from dissatisfaction with traditional policing. According to Brogden (1999), traditional police work focuses primarily on fighting serious crime. Proponents of community policing claim that this framework of policing has failed to serve the needs of the community and that traditional police work ignores the factors that most communities regard as priority. Fleming (2005) adds that traditional crime control methods failed to adequately address crime. Brogden (1999) explains that traditional policing "has been faced with several inter-linked crises -- of operations (policing practices are highly ineffective at dealing with crime): of efficiency in crime prevention, especially in the failure to enlist the potential of citizens and communities in this process of crime prevention, and in dealing with the symptoms rather than the causes of crime; of professionalism (the lack of relations between higher police pay, codes of conduct, and effectiveness); and of accountability" (p. 173). Fleming (2005) adds…… [Read More]

References:

Alldredge, P. (2009). The Contradictions of Neighborhood Watch: The Growth and Success of a Failed Crime Prevention Strategy. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association, 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2006). Does neighborhood watch reduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 437-458. doi:10.1007/s11292-006-9018-5

Brogden, M.M. (1999). CHAPTER 10: Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In, Policing Across the World (pp. 167-186). Taylor & Francis Ltd. / Books. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Community policing. Office of Justice Programs: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=81#terms_def
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Ethics Terrorism and the Future of Policing

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33398920

Ethics, Terrorism, & the Future of Policing

The devastating attacks on United States soil that took place on September 11, 2001, became the turning point for all police activity. The police mission went from protecting people against day-to-day violence, to protecting a society from foreign attack. Terrorism is defined as "the systematic use of terror [fear] especially as a means of coercion" (merriam-webster.com). It was this idea that something that could not be fully understood, such as a terrorist attack, could indeed cause so many people to be afraid. However, this changed what it meant to be in law enforcement. Despite problems that do exist on a local level, the focus has shifted from making sure that any threat of a potential attack could be prevented. Personal liberties have been violated, discriminatory profiling has risen, and corruption within police force has elevated -- all in the name of terrorism prevention.…… [Read More]

References:

Baker, Al. (2012) Independent agency gets new powers to prosecute New York police officers. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/28/nyregion/civilian-complaint-review-board-gets-new-powers-to-prosecute-new-york-police.html?_r=2&scp=1&sq=police%20abuse%20of%20power&st=cse

Foster, C., Cordner, G., Frakes, K., Collins, P., & Mayberry, L. National Institute of Justice, (2005).The impact of terrorism on state law enforcement. Retrieved from The council of State Governments and Eastern Kentucky University website:  http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/Misc0504Terrorism.pdf 

Nalle, D. (2011). Repeal or revise. Retrieved from http://www.rlc.org/2011/01/31/repeal-or-revise-the-problems-with-the-patriot-act/

Rayman, G. (2010). New york's finest cover-up. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com/2010-10-13/news/nypd-cover-up-cabbie/
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Cops and Pops Community- and Problem-Oriented Policing

Words: 1575 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67097917

COPs and POPs

Community- and problem-oriented policing have been touted by some as representing the biggest changes to policing implemented at the end of the 20th century (reviewed by Maguire and King, 2004). However, as Maguire and King point out, defining these policing innovations is not a straightforward task since there may be as many variations as there are police agencies. This essay will define and contrast these two policing strategies in an attempt to better understand how crime control strategies have changed.

Community Policing

Department of Justice's website devoted to community-oriented policing (COPs) defines community policing as having three components: community partnerships, organizational transformation, and problem solving (Community Oriented Policing Services, n.d.). Under this definition, community not only includes residents, but also other government agencies, groups, nonprofits, service providers, businesses, and the media. Proper implementation of community policing requires police organizational transformation that may impact every corner of the…… [Read More]

References

Clarke, Ronald, V. And Eck, John E. (2005). Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from www.cops.usdoj.gov/pdf/CrimeAnalysis60Steps.pdf.

Community Oriented Policing Services. (n.d.). Community policing defined. Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from  http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=36 .

Goldstein, Herman. (2001). What is POP? Center for Problem-Oriented Policing. Retrieved 22 Jan. 2013 from  http://www.popcenter.org/about/?p=whatiscpop .

Lombardo, Robert M., Olson, David, and Staton, Monte. (2010). The Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy: A reassessment of the CAPS program. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 33(4), 586-606.
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History of the Police History

Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63144804

Peel's Metropolitan Police were the first modern police force (Grant & Terry, 2012).

Modern police forces were established in the United States in the 1830s and 1840s. As in England, the old system of law enforcement broke down due to urbanization, industrialization, and immigration. Americans borrowed most of the features of modern policing from London: the mission of crime prevention, the strategy of visible patrol over fixed beats, and the quasi-military organizational structure (Walker & Katz, 2011).

The terrorist attacks of 9/11 have resulted in some police agencies becoming involved in matters related to homeland security. Since these attacks police departments have been expanding into new areas of investigation and working more closely with federal law enforcement, intelligence agencies, and the military. Additionally, departments have increased their levels of surveillance over their communities, and are paying more attention to the safety of critical infrastructure (Walker & Katz, 2011).

The first…… [Read More]

References

Grant, H.B. & Terry, K.J. (2012). Law enforcement in the 21st century, 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

Walker, S. & Katz, C.M. (2011). The police in America, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Terrorism Response and Local Police

Words: 3075 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3887390

Local Police Response to Terrorism

The Council of State Governments

The council of State Governments is a body of representatives of all states, Territories within the ambit of the U.S. And Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. It is an organization that provides vital data and statistics towards excellence in running the matters of the state. It seeks to enable the three apex institutions, viz., legislature, judiciary and the executive with intellectual inputs with a national perspective, innovative technological tools grooming effective and quality leadership and maintaining the autonomy of the states at the same time. It provides as a base for resolution of intra and inter-sate conflicts and mutually beneficial action plans.

Terrorism

Terrorism is an illegal act of force or violence to exact on any public domain to put the government under duress and thereby extract social or political mileage and seek objectives for a particular community or group. Terrorism,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chapman, R., Baker, S., Bezdikian, V., Cammarata, P., Cohen, D., Ph.D., Leach, N., Schaprio, A., Scheider, M., Varano, R., Boba, R. (2002). Local Law Enforcement Responds to Terrorism Lessons in Prevention and Preparednes. The Police Foundation, Washington D.C.

Ed. Harris, (2001). (Director of emergency communications, Austin Police Department).Telephone Interview.

Flynn, Edward, (2001). (Chief of Police, Arlington County Police Dept.)Letter.Washington Post.

Gene Voegtlin and Jennifer Boyter. Legislative Alert -- State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance Programs Face Cuts. International Association of Chiefs of Police. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2014 from http://policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=233&issue_id=32004
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POP and ILP Policing

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49207356

...London, England have employed different models of policing to help combat crime. London is a great place to see compare two different models of policing and see how they have performed. Those two models are problem-oriented policing and intelligence-led policing. This essay will compare and contrast the two models and see if they are compatible with each other or if one model outperforms the other.

Problem-oriented policing (POP) is vastly different from intelligence-led policing (ILP). Problem-oriented policing for example has roots in the United States whereas intelligence-led policing has British roots. POP has been used by American police officers as a means of developing strategies that minimize and avert crime. Under the model, there are expectations for the police to systematically examine issues within a community, search for potential solutions, and assess the effect of such efforts (Braga, 2010).

POP allows police to attempt to alter any underlying condition within…… [Read More]

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Compstat and Its Potentials in Policing

Words: 1417 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43189669

COMPSTAT

FOR MORE EFFECTIVE POLICING

Random Police Patrolling vs. IT Policing Application

The research supported by the National Institute of Justice of the U.S. Department of Justice presented eight major hypotheses on crime prevention by the police (Sherman et al., 1990). The third was random patrolling, which assumed that the more random patrols in public places, the greater the perceived "omnipresence" of police force to discourage crime. Early beat officers checked on specific areas at specific times according to strictly supervised patterns (Reiss, 1992 as qtd in Sherman et al.). The adoption of the Rapid 911 response scheme in automobiles gradually replaced random patrolling. The basis was the perceived unpredictability of patrolling patterns, which would create police omnipresence to discourage crime in public places. Finding of a research came up with weak evidence on the effect of patrolling either in number or variations. It concluded that patrol presence in big…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

EndVAWNOW (2012). Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT)

analysis. UN Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: Virtual

Knowledge Centre to End Violence against Women and Girls. Retrieved on April 19,

2014 from http://www.envawnow.org/en/articles/1055-strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-and-threats-SWOT-analysis-.html
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Diverse Policing DQ

Words: 2544 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84929638

Diverse Policing

Criminal Profiling

While this opinion might be considered unpopular, the reality is that these repetitive stops are reasonable. These repetitive stops represent a phenomenon known as criminal profiling. Criminal profiling is done simply because it does catch criminals. For example, criminal profiling was precisely what helped police investigators catch a criminal known as George Metesky, a bomber who had eluded the police for over 15 years. The frustrated police force asked investigator James Brussel (the assistant commissioner of mental hygiene) to come up with a detail description of the subject based on crime scene photos, notes, and other details provided. Brussel came up with the following description of the subject: "He would be unmarried, foreign, self-educated, in his 50s, living in Connecticut, paranoid and with a vendetta against Con Edison -- the first bomb had targeted the power company's 67th street headquarters" (Winerman, 2004). As experts do admit,…… [Read More]

References

Belkin, L. (1990, March 20). Airport Drug Efforts Snaring Innocents Who Fit 'Profiles'. Retrieved from NYTimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/1990/03/20/us/airport-drug-efforts-snaring-innocents-who-fit-profiles.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

Bruce, B. (2012, April 17). Muslim Woman Forced To Remove Headscarf In Jail. Retrieved from Fox2now.com:  http://fox2now.com/2012/04/17/muslim-woman-forced-to-remove-headscarf-in-jail/ 

Debatewise.org. (2013). The Police Should Use Racial Profiling To Tackle The Problems Of Illegal Immigration. Retrieved from Debatewise.org:  http://debatewise.org/debates/2242-the-police-should-use-racial-profiling-to-tackle-the-problems-of-illegal-immigration/ 

Goyette, B. (2010, October 7). Racial Profiling Is Ineffective and Wrong, So Why Does It Keep Happening? Retrieved from genprogress.org:  http://genprogress.org/voices/2010/10/07/15828/racial-profiling-is-ineffective-and-wrong-so-why-does-it-keep-happenin/
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Criminal Justice Critique on Policing

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56388160



This study indicates that introducing new policing methods can be extremely problematic, (at least in the CMP organization), and that it can lead to dissention in departments and even in executive areas. It also shows a shift in overall thinking and governance to a more liberal outlook, both on crime and in the public, and it seems this shift is likely to continue. This seems to be a result of an overall shift in the public's awareness and needs in policing, and it should continue in the future. This seems to be continued in the public outcry and legislative response introducing legislation to get tougher on crime, as well.

Finally, the final article expresses the views of Canadians on three key issues: sentencing severity, the purposes of sentencing, and mandatory sentences of imprisonment. Canadians over the past 30 years have felt these issues are too lenient, and this continues, even…… [Read More]

References

Deukmedjian, J.E. (July 2006). From community to intelligence: Executive realignment of RCMP mission. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 523-542.

Office of the Prime Minister, (2006). Tackling crime: Stronger laws. Retrieved from the Government of Canada Web site: http://www.tacklingcrime.gc.ca/stronger_laws_e.asp19 Oct. 2007.

Roberts, J.V., Crutcher, N. And Verbrugge, P. (2007). Public attitudes to sentencing in Canada: Exploring recent findings. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. 75-107.
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U S Intelligence in China the

Words: 4682 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99778763

"

The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.

Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.

Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.

Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):

297-9.

Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
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KGB Summary of Soviet Intelligence

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50115287

S.-Soviet partnership lasted only a year and a half. With World War II over and the OSS disbanded in October 1945, the Cold War was looming on the horizon.

Conclusion

The research showed that the KGB was established in 1917 and was official deactivated in 1991. The research also showed that the KGB was not the stuff of the James Bond movies, but rather was characterized by an enormous sense of internal rivalry, a profound sense of paranoia and a desire on the part of many of its agents to defect to the West at their first opportunity. In this environment, it was little wonder that the KGB would resort to some of the tactics it used to achieve its mission, and it is reasonable to assert that current ussian intelligence agents will have taken a lesson or two from their KGB predecessors as they seek to maintain hegemony with…… [Read More]

References

Andrew, Christopher and Vasili Mitrokhin. 1999. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books.

Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Kalugin, Oleg D. 2002. "Window of Opportunity: Russia's Role in the Coalition against Terror." Harvard International Review 24(3), 56.

Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, p. ix.
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Ethics in Law Enforcement Sometimes Police Officers

Words: 1373 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69717510

Ethics in Law Enforcement

"Sometimes [police officers] may, and sometimes may not, lie when conducting custodial interrogations. Investigative and interrogatory lying are each justified on utilitarian crime control grounds. Police are never supposed to lie as witnesses in the courtroom, although they may lie for utilitarian reasons similar to those permitting deception & #8230;" (Skolnick, et al., 1992)

Is it ethical for law enforcement officers to use deception during the interrogation process? It appears that when officers are attempting to extract a confession from a suspect, deception is, in many cases, commonly applied strategy. Does a code of ethics conflict with the way in which law enforcement conducts its interviews and interrogations? hat do the courts say about deceptive interrogation tactics? These issues will be reviewed in this paper.

Deception in the Interrogation Room

Is it ethical to lie to obtain the truth? No. Do the ends justify the means?…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braswell, Michael C. (2011). Justice, Crime, and Ethics. Maryland Heights, MO: Elsevier.

Leo, Richard A. (2009). Police Interrogation and American Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard

McMullen, Patrick M. (2005). Questioning the Questions: The Impermissibility of Police

Deception in Interrogations of Juveniles. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2),
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Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework

Words: 2548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99197542

Counterterrorism

Counter-Terrorism

Counter-Terrorism Framework

The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to counter-terrorism frameworks. First, the author is asked to provide a revised framework for the national terrorism prevention and response agencies in the United States. Per the parameters of the assignment, there are to be at least three agencies involved in the revised framework. Subsequent to that, the author is asked to answer to how and when the agencies will interact and why. The author is asked what tools can be used to help the agencies function and do their jobs and that will be included in the framework summary. The author is asked to wrap up the paper by enumerating at least three policy and/or procedural recommendations that should be implemented to make the existing framework gel and function more effectively.

evised Framework

The existing framework for law enforcement and…… [Read More]

References

Boehm, E. (2013, August 20). New audit finds IRS can't keep track of its own software Watchdog.org. Watchdog.org - The Government Watchdog. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from  http://watchdog.org/101977/new-audit-finds-irs-cant-keep-track-of-its-own-software/ 

Cillizza, C. (2013, May 21). Everything you need to know about the IRS scandal. The Washington Post: National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines - The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2013/05/21/what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-about-the-irs-scandal/

DOJ. (2004, November 1). Special Report: A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Prior to the September 11 Attacks. Welcome to the United States Department of Justice. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/oig/special/0506/chapter2.htm

Poulson, K. (2013, August 29). New Snowden Leak Reports 'Groundbreaking' NSA Crypto-Cracking | Threat Level | Wired.com. wired.com . Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/08/black-budget/
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Local Police Response to Terrorism in the City of Norfolk Virginia

Words: 2365 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33902516

Norfolk Virginia is a medium sized city, and like many other local communities, has had to adapt to the new reality that the events of September 11, 2001 have forced the nation to accept. In the wake of the attacks a federal Commission was charged with exploring the causes, events, and lessons to be learned from the tragedy. This commission recommended a dual path approach to keeping the nation safe: firstly confronting terrorism outside the United States and improving and then maintaining adequate defenses against potential terrorist attacks. In the years following the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Virginia, the city of Norfolk, in conjunction with both the state of Virginia and the federal government has implemented a number of new policies to deal with the threat faced by the community.

Essay

The events of September 11, 2001 have had a significant…… [Read More]

References

"2009 Virginia Terrorism Threat Assessment." (March 2009). Virginia Fusion Center.

Commonwealth of Virginia Department of State Police. Retrieved from http://rawstory.com/images/other/vafusioncenterterrorassessment.pdf

"9/11 Commission Report." (2004). The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks

Upon the United States. Retrieved from http://www.9-
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Intellectual Functioning Your IQ Wechsler Adult Intelligence

Words: 3350 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51020723

Intellectual Functioning

Your IQ

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Stanford -- Binet Intelligence Scales

Analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Stanford -- Binet Intelligence

Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Precautions

esults from Studies

The performance IQ

Assessment of Intellectual Functioning

Psychological testing -- also known as the psychological assessment -- is basically the foundation of how psychologists are able to get a better understanding a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals -- to try and regulate the core components of a person's psychological or mental health difficulties, personality, IQ, or some other element. It is likewise some kind of process that aids and identifies not just flaws of a person, but also all of their strengths. Psychological testing are done to measure a person's performance at a particular point in time. Psychologists discuss about an individual's…… [Read More]

References

Arrigo, B.A. (2009). Police corruption and psychological testing: A strategy for preemployment screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 12(3), 23-45.

Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., & Stancliffe, R.J. (2010). The mental health of young children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(21), 21-34.

Gonzalez-Gordon, R.G., Salvador-Carulla, L., Romero, C., Gonzalez-Saiz, F., & Romero, D. (2012). Feasibility, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability: A structured psychiatric interview for intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 21(6), 111-120.

Maeda, S., Kita, F., Miyawaki, T., & Takeuchi. (2012). Assessment of patients with intellectual disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to evaluate dental treatment tolerability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 24(9), 253-259.
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Gathering National Security Intelligence

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22344843

Collecting National Security Intelligence

Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).

Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…… [Read More]

References

"Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines." (n.d.). Operations Security -- Intelligence Threat Handbook. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://fas.org/irp/nsa/ioss/threat96/part02.htm

Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency website:  https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
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Corrections Police Law Enforcement Police Technology

Words: 3819 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94009628



The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:

Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.

Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today

Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.

VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:

The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te

Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04

Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm

NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt