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Policymaking in Health Care
Words: 362 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16961867
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Policymakers are elected officials who play a crucial role in the establishment of policies that address various societal concerns. Policymakers initiate different policies depending on the specific issues to be addressed by the legislation. In most cases, these officials propose policies, which undergo the different stages in the policymaking process before being enacted into law. An example of a policymaker who has played a crucial role in the development of a policy to address a healthcare issue is Representative Michael Burgess. Rep. Burgess is a Republican representative from Texas’ 26th congressional district where he has served since January 2003 (Burgess, n.d.). Prior to joining the U.S. House of Representatives, Burgess practiced medicine for approximately three decades. I selected this policymaker because of his wealth of experience in the medical field as well as his service as a Congressman. Additionally, he has sponsored several bills to address different issues in the…

Burgess, M.C. (2017). Biography. Retrieved from U.S. House of Representatives website: 
GovTrack. (2017, March 15). H.R. 315: Improving Access to Maternity Care Act. Retrieved September 13, 2017, from 
Midwife. (2014, June 1). Maternity Care in the US: Statement of the Problem. Retrieved September 13, 2017, from 

Policy Problem & Proposal Policy Problem the
Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4531209
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Policy Problem & Proposal

Policy Problem

The United States faces a $1.4 trillion national deficit, and partisan debate about how to address it is threatening economic stability on top of the shaky "recovery" from the 2009 financial crisis. Yet American corporations continue to enjoy tax loopholes that reduce their taxes to unprecedented low levels. epublicans argue that corporations must retain their preferred tax status in order to maintain and create jobs. This tax policy has been known by a number of names: supply-side economics, trickle-down theory, and horse and sparrow theory. It has not been without its critics, yet, irrationally, the practice of permitting tax loopholes continues to prevail from time-to-time.

"As for the growth enhancing effects of lower tax rates, just look to the 2000s for the latest persuasive evidence to the contrary. After the Bush tax cuts on the progressive rates paid by the wealthy, GDP between 2001…


Advance Pricing Agreement Quarterly Reports, Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved 

Announcement and report concerning advance pricing agreements. (2011, March 29). § 521(b) of Pub. L. 106-170, Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999. Retrieved 

Brehm, J., and Gates, S. (1997). Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic

Response to a Democratic Public. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan

Policy and Politics
Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70841231
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Policy and Politics

Policy and decision-making are complex issues. Even for what might appear to be a simple decision, there many underlying factors that influence the final outcome. Some of these factors are obvious, but some can be elusive and hidden from all of the parties. Policies are not instituted in a flash and the process of policymaking should not be taken lightly. This makes the process of policy making a slow one at best. The many facets of the issue must be discussed and debated for often long periods of time. Policymaking is wrought with many problems for which there is no obvious right or wrong answer. Deborah Stone addresses these paradoxes in The Art of Political Decision-making.

Stone's work stands apart from many authors that focus on the application of their model in only a few specific applications. One example is einhart and einhart (2011) who recently discussed…


Reinhart, C. & Reinhart, V. (2011). Limits of Monetary Policy in Theory and Practice. Cato Journal. 31 (3): 427-441.

Stone, D. (2001). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making, W.W. Norton, third edition.

Thorson, K.(Producer) (2002-2008). The highlights of 100 [Television series episode]. HBO.

Retrieved from

Policy of Choice Patient Safety
Words: 1298 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56839984
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Policy of choice: Patient Safety
The provision of healthcare services is a complex responsibility that the professionals in healthcare risk management must never take lightly. Hospital regulations and accreditation standards make the safety requires complex and inevitable (PSQH, 2014). With formal procedures and policies, it is possible to promote and encourage compliance with regulation and high safety standards in the workplace. These policies also make quality healthcare and patient safety easier to deliver. Well articulate policies will alleviate variability in nursing practice that is likely to lead to compromises in care and eventual harm to the patient. The financial situations that require more attention for patient care may make it difficult to continuously review procedures and policies. Failure to update and develop policy can cause negative consequences for the patients (PSQH, 2014).
Patient safety policy is significant for the fulfillment of several professional requirements including:
· Adherence with the set…

Tourism Development and Policy Planning
Words: 2661 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24172507
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Policy, Planning and Development for Tourism

Policy Planning Paper

An emerging outstanding social and economic booster of the present age is tourism. But, major obstacles and chances facing the sector still demand a universal sense of commitment and proper strategic awareness. To completely utilize the existing chances and the mutual gains brought by tourism in Australia, it will be necessary for the sector and its various partners to show a sense of strategic planning.

Currently, tourism is a vital driving force of the economy of South Australia.Up to December 2013, 5.6 million visitors who stayed overnight in 18,000 businesses involved in the tourist sector spent $5.1b. This accounted for 31,000 direct employment opportunities for South Australians. That makes tourism important to the states regional economies asit accounts for 44% of spending on tourism even though only a small percentage of South Australians, 23%, live in this state's regions. With the…

Reference list

"South Australia's Strategic Plan" [Online] Available at: [Accessed 21 October 2010].

"South Australian Tourism Commission PLAN 2012-14" [Online] Available at: [Accessed 21 October 2010].

"South Australian Tourism Plan 2009 -- 2014" [Online] Available at: <> [Accessed 21 October 2010].

"South Australian Tourism Plan 2015-2020" [Online] Available at:> [Accessed 21 October 2010].

Policy Analysis Critique Rationale for the Chosen
Words: 3283 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5406651
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Policy Analysis Critique

ationale for the chosen policy

Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).

It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…


Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.

Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.

Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.

Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.

Policy Study
Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 10143162
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Policy tudy

eattle has been a leader in the United tates in trying to eradicate the homeless problems that arise in every city. ince the 1970's, the citizens of the city have agreed to tax increases (more than four times (Farestart, 2009) to address this issue. The following case analysis looks at the city's policy regarding finding shelter for all homeless families and single women.

Major Policy Concepts

Most analysts agree that the primary reason that there is a great degree of homelessness in eattle is the lack of affordable housing in the city (Kerns, 2011). The policy in the case suggests that the homeless be given greater access to affordable housing and shelters. However, there is a problem stated with this part of the policy also. Housing in eattle is not just expensive for the citizens of the city, it is expensive to build for the city government (Tong,…

Shay, S. (2011). Homeless 'One Night Count' numbers decrease. West Seattle Herald. - numbers-decrease

SKCCH. (2012). Everyone counts. Retrieved from 

Tong, C. (2011). Seattle homelessness a long-standing problem with no easy solution in sight. The International Examiner. - homelessness-a-long-standing-problem-with-no-easy-solution-in-sight/

Policy Analysis Authentic Assessment
Words: 1896 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91936938
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Policies and Emergency Management

ABSTACT/INTODUCTION: As a representative democracy, the United States tries to include as many people and interests into its decision-making processes as possible. Seldom has this practice been more challenged than since the country's intensive focus on emergency planning and preparations because of the rash of high-profile incidents that have brought about death, destruction, fear and critical assessments of our national capabilities, including the 9/11 terror attacks (Perry and Lindell, 2003). For the most part, the main sources of action in this regard have come from the federal government, which has been adopting various mandates and incentives to invite more effective systems of readiness. But state and local agencies and private and public organizations have also found their places in these steadily improving processes even though they continue to struggle with the many complexities they face of being ready for all types of conditions. Large and small…


CAN HealthPro (2007). Emergency Management Planning, Health Care. Viewable at .

ERCMExpress (2006). Creating Emergency Management Plans. U.S. Department of Education. Vol. 2, No. 8. Viewable at .

ESRI (2005). Improving Emergency Planning and Response with Geographic Information Systems. White Paper. Viewable at .

FEMA (2012). Communications and Information Management. Viewable at .

Policies and Practices
Words: 1174 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93961909
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Policy and Practice

acial disparity in arrests and convictions in Georgia are is a significant and growing social problem. Yet, legislation and policy seems to be lacking in an attempt to solve or even begin to reverse the increasing trend. Georgia has been a special focus of several human rights organizations for some time with regard to the disparity associated with arrests, convictions and sentencing but especially with those having to do with drug laws. In 1996 Human ights Watch (HW)a nonprofit organization that seeks to bring awareness to legal and policy issues that are applied unfairly to minorities determined that Georgia has one of the worst race records in the nation with regard to new drug enforcement laws as well as extremely disproportionately applied mandatory sentencing laws with regard to those laws.

HW determined through careful examination that between 1990 and 1995 3% of whites who qualified for mandatory…


Georgia's Supreme Court Chief Justice's Commission on Indigent Defense, 2002,

Human Rights Watch, 1996 Human Rights Violations in Drug Law Enforcement in Georgia. 

Human Rights Watch, 2008, Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States. 

Tonry, Michael. Malign Neglect New York: Oxford University Press. 1996.

Policy Statement
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 54906340
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Policy Statement for Early Childhood Program

Superior Early Childhood Center for Excellence

Motto: Young Children Are Excellent and Superior-Especially When They Attend this Center!

Drop Off, Pick Up and Late Pick Up Policies for Parents, Caregivers and Students

Dear Caregivers:

Thank you for rewarding our facility and teachers with the opportunity to serve you and the children you entrust with us. We know that it is a difficult decision to choose a center for early childhood education. We assure you that you have made the best possible choice. Our students often go on to become Nobel Prize Winners, Leaders of the Free World and even the occasional A-list celebrity. Because we have many brilliant young minds attending and the quality of our education and facility is important to you and to us we must work with caregivers to insure a clear understanding and agreement of our policies for Drop off,…

Policy Networks a Prevalent Feature Democratic Governanc
Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4598035
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Policy Networks a Prevalent Feature Democratic Governanc

The issue I have selected related to policy networks pertains to utilizing marijuana for medicinal purposes in the state of Florida. At present, the usage of marijuana within this state is illegal -- regardless of the purpose. There are staunch advocates against legalizing marijuana or any other illegal substance which may be used as a recreational drug within this state. The most eminent form of opposition more than likely comes from current Florida governor ick Scott, which not surprising considering that networks frequently involve "local and national governments" (Thatcher, 1998, p. 389). However, the issue of medical marijuana has recently come to the attention of state legislators and government officials due to a form of marijuana known as "Charlotte's web," which is exceedingly low in THC (the active ingredient in the substance that produces euphoric "highs") yet high in cannibidiol, which is known…


Jordan, G. (1990). Sub-governments, policy communities, and networks: refilling the old bottles? Journal of Theoretical Politics. 2(3), 319-338.

Klas, M.E. (2014). Florida house to propose bill to legalize strain of marijuana for seizures. Retrieved from

Thatcher, M. (1998). The development of policy network analyses. Journal of Theoretical Politics. 10(4), 389-416.

Policy & Strategy Competitive Advantages
Words: 317 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90822022
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As a strategist for JetBlue I would find differentiation to be the most difficult. The discount airline business is highly commoditized and vigorously competitive. Sources of differentiation are scarce. All competitors have almost equal access to the same technology and same routes. Competitors attempt to differentiate based on service levels, yet none of their service initiatives are a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Furthermore, differentiation is not the main driver of profitability in this sector. Cost control is, but many of the major costs such as airplane leases, landing fees and fuel prices are relatively fixed so acute focus must be placed on the more controllable areas, including those which affect the same service levels upon which differentiation is built.

orks Cited

Sandberg, Kirsten. (2005). inning Customers Through People and Technology: A Conversation with Jeffrey Rayport. Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved April 8, 2008 at

Works Cited

Sandberg, Kirsten. (2005). Winning Customers Through People and Technology: A Conversation with Jeffrey Rayport. Harvard Business School Press. Retrieved April 8, 2008 at

Policy Studies the Study of Public Policy
Words: 2628 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77093155
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Policy Studies

The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)

The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…


Daniel Mc Cool: The Theoretical Foundation of Policy Studies: Prentice Hall Press

Macrae Duncan: Policy Analysis for public decisions: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group Inc., 1985

Clarke E. Cochran: American Public Policy: An Introduction: Wadsworth Pub Co: August 1998

Van Horne, Carle E: Politics and Public Policy: CQ Press.

Policy Brief About EU-Russia Relations
Words: 3997 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66068719
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The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.

The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…


Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.

BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007.  (accessed 13 December 2007)

Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.

European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007.  (accessed 13 December 2007)

Policies Human Resources Management Is Basically Something
Words: 6716 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6197402
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Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.

The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.

In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…


Corrective Action: Professional and Support Staff. March 1, 2002. Retrieved From  Accessed on 5 November, 2004

Employee Conduct, Disciplinary Discharge Guidelines. Retrieved From  Accessed on 5 November, 2004

Policy and Practice in Social
Words: 3108 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33731707
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Programs and Services

§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.

Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)

The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…


Alternativestodv. (2013a) "Administrative Staff" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from 

Alternativestodv. (2013d) "History of the organization" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from 

Alternativestodv. (2013c) "Financial Information" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from 

Alternativestodv. (2013b) "ADV Federal 990 form" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from

Policy Formulation in a World
Words: 5010 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31469771
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This balkanization is partially driven by the lack of integration between various segments of itself, and this is primarily a technological limitation. Yet the far broader and more difficult challenge in this regard is the segregating of knowledge not just for profit, but for lasting competitive advantage between nations. On the one hand there is the need for competitive differentiation in company's offerings, yet in others including the sharing of primary research in medicine and biomedical fields and stem cell research there is the ethical responsibility to share these insights gained to foster solutions to the world's most pressing medical problems. M. Van Alstyne and E. Brynjolfsson, researchers on the growth patterns and threat of Internet balkanization from MIT, remark in their conference paper from a 1996 conference that the balkanization of science is a significant threat. The two MIT researchers cite the studies they have completed showing how despite…


ESRI (2006). Environmental Systems Research Institute. Retrieved from the Internet on July 14, 2006. (

Gates Technology Foundation (2005). Interviews and on-site visits with GIS planners and network technicians while donating servers, laptops, and desktop computers for a major PC manufacturer. Onsite interviews in Seattle, Washington. April, 2005.

HHS (2006). Federal Register Data on Poverty Line Statistics by size of household. January 24, 2006. See table 1 of this document.

Pew Center for Internet Research (2006). Key statistics downloaded from the Internet on February 14, 2006.

Policy Direction and Politics
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95261738
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Policy Direction & Politics

Stone captures for me the crux of policy paradox with this statement: "…each type of policy instrument [e.g., inducements, rules rights, for example] is a kind of sports arena, each with its peculiar ground rules, within which political conflicts are continued" (2001, p. 13). Extending the metaphor, arena sports are based on a rational rule-bound game structure that -- as soon as the whistle blows -- is overwhelmed by messy, conflicting and reciprocal interplay. And so it is with policymaking. The calculated, rational market approach to policymaking that was developed to counter the "profound disgust for the ambiguities and paradoxes of politics" does not match what happens in the real world, where political tensions force the hand of those who would create better governance (Stone, 2001, p. xi). We have only to look at the context surrounding the Obama administration to know that this is so…


Frederickson, H.G. (2010). Social equity and public administration: Origins, developments, and applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Kingdon, J.W. (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Longman.

Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. Russell Sage Foundation.

Stone, D. (2001). Policy paradox: The art of political decision-making.(rev.ed). New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Co.

Policy Strategy Innovation a Policy Strategy of
Words: 3068 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43523017
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Policy Strategy Innovation

A Policy Strategy of Innovation

Organizational survival and success are predicated on the establishment of a strategic orientation and a set of clear, realistic and relevant policies intended to drive this strategy. From these features, an organization will ultimately derive goals, procedural norms, role designation, organizational culture, leadership orientation and a host of other defining features. It is thus that the Policy Strategy driving a company will ultimately come to define the company itself, with the resultant productivity, reputation and industry position helping to project a certain identity, image or set of consumer expectations. As the discussion hereafter will show, many times the selected policy strategy of an organization can be the long-term difference between success and failure. As a subsequent section of this discussion will show, there is a direct connection between a meaningful policy strategy and the opportunity for long-term viability and success.

This is…

Works Cited:

Apple. (2007). Steve Jobs: CEO Apple. Apple Press Info.

Boyd, D. (2009). Corporate Innovation Strategy Template. Innovation in Practice.

Crum, R. (2006). As iPod sales slow, Apple looks to next big thing. Bradenton Herald.

Goodell, J. (2003). Steve Jobs: The Rolling Stone Interview. Rolling Stone.

Policy Issues in Education Settings AB Association
Words: 1478 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30979536
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Policy Issues in Education Settings AB

Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU). (2010). "A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning"

Retrieved from:

"The A-P-L-U-Sloan National Commission on Online Learning was formed in May 2007 to engage the A-P-L-U Presidents and Chancellors in a discussion about the utility of online education as a means to achieve broader institutional priorities, such as diversity, retention, internationalization and accountability." This resource specifically examines the policy and infrastructural issues dealt with by four-year colleges and universities experimenting with online learning and/or hybrid courses. The longitudinal study is meant to offer comprehensive data about the specific challenges of integrating online learning into traditional college experiences.

C.J. Bonk, The Perfect E-Storm: Emerging Technologies, Enhanced Pedagogy, Enormous Learner Demand, and Erased Budgets (London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2004)

This is a comprehensive publication reviewing the infrastructural challenges, including policy concerns, effecting colleges who integrate e-learning…

Policy Reform to Promote the
Words: 7175 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 67566472
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In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.

Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)

According to the…


Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).

CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).

Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).

Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.

Policy Book Termination of Employment
Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Company Manual Paper #: 75377645
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4. Exit interview

As the decision to terminate the employment relationship has been made and even set in motion, the employee is asked to participate in an exit interview. This interview is generally held throughout the last days the employee spends in the organization and it focuses on retrieving feedback related to the reasons as to which the employee has chosen to leave; his feelings and opinions regarding the time he spent in the company; the team, the managerial team, the company policy and so on. "Ultimately, the goal of using EIS is to determine the reasons for company turnover, help to identify training and development needs, create strategic planning goals, and identify those areas in which changes need to be made" (Knouse, Beard, Pollard and Giacalone, 1996).

5. eturn of company property

Aside from the exit interview, there are two more aspects to consider -- the return of company…


Dell'Omo, G.G., 1997, Managerial use of dismissal: organizational-level determinants, Personal Psychology, Vol. 50, No. 4

Glant, T., 2002, Against all odds: Vira B. Whitehouse and Rosika Schwimmer in Switzerland, American Studies International, Vol. 40, No. 1

Knouse, S.B., Beard, J.W., Pollard, H.G., Giacalone, R.A., 1996, Willingness to discuss exit interview topics: the impact of attitudes toward supervisor and authority, Journal of Psychology, Vol. 130, No. 3

McGough, L.S., 2003, Starting over: the heuristic of family relocation decision making, St. John's Law Review, Vol. 77, No. 2

Policy & Strategy There Are
Words: 393 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63015774
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Cons are that SBUs add a layer of management, the SBU executive. This gives rise to organizational complexity at high levels, including potential conflicts with regards to senior management roles and performance recognition.

A line of business structure has the benefit of being very product-focused. This allows decisions to be made at a level much closer to the day-to-day operating environment of each product. This structure, however, encourages duplication of staff functions. Moreover, each business line is removed that much further from the corporate objectives, and corporate executives risk losing touch with individual lines of business, leaving them unable to respond or react to problems quickly.

Matrix structures combine two or more other structures. This encourages cooperation across business and functional units, and refocuses everybody on what is best for the company as a whole, rather than their individual area. This in turn creates a system of balances. However, matrix…

References no author listed) (2008). Five Formal Organization Structures. Family Business Institute. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at

Policy and Strategy Comparing Powerful
Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12584738
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Suppliers also exert significant influence in terms of their ability to demand higher prices in scarcity, and can use product quality as a differentiator. From the standpoint of a company relying on suppliers, the use of quality management audits (LaLonde, addatz, 2002) can be an equalizing force in the balance of power in a relationship with a supplier. Given the fact that buyers have significantly greater influence on the continual income stream of a company and the potential of replacing a supplier or discontinuing an unprofitable product, loss of profits from a supplier would be more recoverable from relative to that of a powerful buyer.


Patricia C. La Londe, Janet . addatz. (2002). Tools for improving customer-supplier relationships. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 25(3), 12-18. etrieved March 21, 2008, from ABI/INFOM…


Patricia C. La Londe, Janet R. Raddatz. (2002). Tools for improving customer-supplier relationships. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 25(3), 12-18. Retrieved March 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 281227431).

Policy Extension
Words: 1679 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21719184
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Policy Extension

General Context

The company was established in 1886 and since its inception the technology developed by Daimler has revolutionized the automotive industry (Daimler AG, 2014). Daimler's initial product line started with a motor carriage and a three wheeled vehicle. The quality, safety and comfort of Daimler's vehicles have impressed their customers, establishing the standards of the industry.

With automotives being a physical product, it is very easy to measure them. Standards of the industry are established and brought to public notice, allowing all customers to understand them and rapport to them. In this industry products are physical received by customers and they enter customers' possession once all contractual and financial aspects have been attained. Product reception takes place under the terms established by the seller and agreed by the buyer.

There are several ways customers can address in order to find out information about the price and characteristics…

Reference list:

1. Tradition (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from .

2. Product Responsibility (2014). Daimler AG. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from .

3. Lis, B. et al. (2012). Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies. International Journal of Economic and Financial Issues. Retrieved November 20, 2014.

4. The Automotive Industry (2014). Business and Economics Research Advisor. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from .

Policy Initiative of No Child Left Behind NCLB
Words: 1092 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A2 Outline Answer Paper #: 69589532
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Policy Initiative/No Child Left Behind (NCLB)

This paper will examine the NCLB (No Child Left Behind) policy initiative.

The Policy

On 8th May, 2002, George W. Bush signed the NCLB Act into law. The Act represents the 1965 ESEA's (Elementary and Secondary Education Act's) most extensive reform ever. The federal government's role in kindergarten to secondary school education has been redefined through the Act, which is expected to help forge the achievement divide between minority and disadvantaged pupils and their fellow pupils. A nationwide Act such as the NCLB guides state standard development (Case Assignment Module ). These represent a form of course benchmarks, having a significant influence on course planning and development. This title's aim is ensuring every child has an equal, significant, and fair chance at obtaining superior quality education as well as (at least) reaching proficiency on difficult state-level academic tests and achievement benchmarks (Title I -…


(2010). Advancement Project. Test, Punish and Push Out: How Zero Tolerance and High-Stakes Testing Funnel Youth into The School. Retrieved July 14, 2016, from 

Case Assignment Module

Fuller, B., Wright, J., Gesicki, K., & Kang, E. (2007). Gauging Growth: How to Judge No Child Left Behind? Educational Researcher, 36(5), 268-278. Retrieved, from 

(n.d.). Home -- U.S. Department of Education. Title I - Improving The Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged. Retrieved July 14, 2016, from

Policy of Containment After World
Words: 427 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87995523
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The Soviets desire to establish their "sphere of influence" in Eastern Europe and disagreement with the U.S. over the fate of Germany was another reason. The U.S. retaliated by issuing the Truman Doctrine in 1947 that authorized U.S. aid to anti-Communist forces in countries threatened by Communists. The Soviet testing of the atomic bomb in 1949 and its tacit approval of a North Korean attack on South Korea that led to the Korean War further soured relations between the two nations. The Vietnam War in which the U.S. intervened militarily to prevent a Communist take-over of the country was another area of conflict between the U.S. And the Soviet Union. (Bell, 2001)


Containment." (2006). Nuclear Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. etrieved on November 18, 2006 at

Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- An International History. London: Oxford University Press Inc.

The U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty…


Containment." (2006). Nuclear Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Retrieved on November 18, 2006 at 

Bell, P.M.H. (2001). The World since 1945 -- An International History. London: Oxford University Press Inc.

The U.S. represented democracy, individual liberty and capitalism, while the U.S.S.R. was the first Marxist state committed to a command economy and the spread of the communist revolution around the world

Food Policy What Are the
Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71616525
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Identify and analyze the role/s of various key stakeholders in policy development, implementation and evaluation. The roles of key stakeholders in policy development, implementation and evaluation all revolve around their own objectives. The "actors" in policymaking can be divided into five distinct categories: elected officials, appointed officials, interest groups, research organizations, and the mass media (Finders University, 2010; 35).

Non-government organizations (NGO) play a big role in the propagation of interest in food policy (Finders University, 2010; 36). NGOs can being many different types of people together for a cause (such as the case in Lang's (1997) article). The coming together of middle-income individuals, politicians, scientists, activists -- among other groups -- "helped to set the scene for public vigilance regarding the actions of government and food industry" (2010; 36).

When it comes to problems in policies, the media is a major factor. The media is incredibly adept at sensationalizing…


Flinders University. (2010). Graduate Studies in Public Health. "Food Policy for Public

Health Practice." Guide To Learning.

Klijn, E. (1996). Analyzing and Managing Policy Processes in Complex Networks: A

Theoretical Examination of the Concept Policy Network and Its Problems.

Supervisory Development Plan Developmental Goals
Words: 1892 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 8411472
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Implementation of the Developmental Plan

The practical implantation of the supervisory development plan initiates from the learning strategies that have been defined in order to achieve the goals that the supervisor has set for himself. This developmental plan is not practiced for a specific period, rather it is an ongoing and permanent process that one should consider with gravity to become an effective supervisor. The training programs are also an approach that an individual can enroll to, but the application or implementation ought to be at the workplace.

Tracking of motivational techniques and skills which produces the maximum results enables the individual to be an effective supervisor. Besides, the weak areas that have been identified in the performance gap should also be considered with gravity and measures should be taken to improve and enhance those skills in which the individual is lacking.

The implementation phase must not eliminate or prohibit…


Lu, H.L. (2007). Mentor Teachers, Program Supervisors, and Peer Coaching in the Student Teaching Experience: A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Mentor Teachers, Program Supervisors, and Interns. USA: ProQuest.

Young Adults Housing Policy Does the Welfare
Words: 1528 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58399271
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Young Adults Housing Policy Does the Welfare System Encourage or Discourage Young Adults to ecome Pregnant in UK

The specific purpose of this research is to scrutinize the impacts of the UK enefits System on the growing demographic of teenage mothers. ut in order to track down the list of genuine impacts, one must first understand how the system works. Generally speaking, each credible or qualified group is broadly categorized into whether they are taxable or non-taxable. That is to say, those groups of deserving people such as the sick or the low income groups are entitled to the various bonuses they receive, provided that they fulfill a certain taxation criteria. {Inland Revenue, 2001}

Literature Review

Ingham (2005) in this article gives a detailed background and development of the Teenage Pregnancy Policy in England over the last few years which has become part of the National Policy. It gives the…


Arai, L. (2003).British policy on teenage pregnancy and childbearing: the limitations of comparisons with other European countries. Critical Social Policy, SAGE Publications, Vol. 23(1): 89 -- 102; 030496.

Ingham, R. (2005, September).Teenage Pregnancy Policy in England. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, Journal of NRSC, Vol. 2, No. 3.

Journal of Child Health Care, (2001, December). Review: Teenage pregnancy: a reflective analysis

5: 143-149,

Nursing Policy Issue Analysis The
Words: 2765 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29173480
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" (Allen 2008) This means that nursing educators are also a key stakeholder.

Other stakeholders include healthcare facility administrators, corporate trustees and public office holders, who will often have entangled or competing interests relating to the profitability of operations and the political expediency of policy orientation. This will also be true of the various professional advocacy groups, nursing associations and lobby groups that will vie for influence in the discussion on any legislation relating to the nursing shortage.

Policy Objective:

A primary policy objective is to endorse any legislation that would aggressively enforce better recruitment of nursing students, better training of existing nurses, improvements in working conditions for nurses and mandated nurse-to-patient ratios. These objectives are underscored by evidence of the opportunities to save lives facilitated by mandated ratios. According to the text by Health Services Research (HSR) (2010), "key findings of the study reportedly include that 10-13% 'fewer surgical…

Works Cited:

Allan, L. (2008). The nursing shortage continues as faculty shortage grows. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 35-40.

Berkowitz, B. (2012). The Policy Process. .

Cullen, E.; Ranji, U. & Salganicoff, A. (2010). Addressing the Nursing Shortage.

GovTrack. (2010). S. 1031: National Nursing Shortage Reform and Patient Advocacy Act.

Attendance Policy in an Alternative School
Words: 8552 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1590486
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Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis

As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.

The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…


ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.

ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.

ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service

Public Policy Themes Public Policy
Words: 2791 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37131748
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An examination of the four basic steps of policymaking reveals this quite clearly.

The first step in the policymaking process is the agenda setting that must come before policies are even considered. Bringing problems to the attention of policy makers and thus setting the policy agenda is accomplished by many different players with different aims, from citizen groups to businesses to media organizations and many others. All of these groups r individual representatives (and sometimes simple individuals) can use a variety of methods for setting the agenda, form private meetings with policy makers to speaking at town hall meetings or city councils to engaging in media or public awareness campaigns. In larger governments, lobbying is a major source of agenda-setting activity, as the interests of groups that engage lobbying services are brought to the direct and immediate attention of government representatives in what amounts to a pay-for-play system. The political…


Gerston, L. (2010). Public Policymaking: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E.


Texas Constitution and Statutes. (2011). Government Code Chapter 573. Accessed 14

October 2011.

Political Science Foreign Policy Theory
Words: 2840 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73106188
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Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.

Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.

Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…

references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press

Public Policy Depending Upon the
Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34533831
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Any program termination will have a domino effect, thus affecting many people. Oftentimes, programs/policies are reformed, rather than terminated in which the decision may be contingent upon which political party is in office. Hence, the epublican Party has a tendency to seek reformation/termination of public welfare program, whereas the Democratic has a tendency to extend program benefits to assist the public. The inefficient use of federal funding has spawned much debate and controversy. Consequently, this has and continues to create dissension between the government parties and among the American people. Although evaluation is a key component of the policy cycle, the process of conceiving, developing, implementing and modifying public policies requires time and money. This policy development process is often organic and irregular, due to the inherent complexity of public policy problems and the need to address competing interests. As such, evaluating public policy is time-consuming and labor intensive --…


Dodaro, G.L. (2009). GAO: Promoting accountability and transparency in government. GAO Reports, 1.

Hastak, M., Mazis, M.B., & Morris, L.A. (2001). The role of consumer surveys in public policy decision making. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20(2), 170-185.

Kilpatrick, Ph.D., D.G. (2000). Definitions of Public Policy and the Law. Retrie ved from 

U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). (n.d.). About GAO. Retrieved from

Formulation of Health Policy
Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56670625
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Health Policy and Law Formation:

The process of legislation is characterized with some similarities and differences depending on the specific lawmaking body and the manner through which policymakers are elected and their respective functions and work. Generally, this legislative process includes drafting the bill, introduction of the bill to the respective house, discussions regarding it, any amendments, voting, and enactment into law or vetoed. In addition to undergoing this process, the formation of a public policy or law experiences various challenges depending on the specific state and municipality where the policy is formed.

In relation to public health policy, such laws originate from various sources before proceeding to policy development, which follows several stages. Some of these major stages in policy development include problem identification, setting of agenda, formation of the policy, implementation of the policy, policy evaluation, and policy termination or change. On an issue of health promotion or…


Evans, C.H. & Degutis, L.C. (2003, December). What it Takes for Congress to Act. American

Journal of Health Promotion, 18(2), 177-181.

Megerian, C. & Renshaw, J. (2011, June 24). N.J. Assembly Passes Landmark Employee Benefits

Overhaul. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from

Cultural Policy Decentralization
Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18444265
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Decentralization of Cultural Arts Funding

This is an essay discussing the decentralization of cultural arts funding. Essay is written as: I am the Executive Director of a state arts agency. The state has two large urban areas with surrounding suburbs, the rest is rural. The State Legislature, in response to constituents' complaints that too many state funds are being funneled to "elite cultural institutions in the cities" is considering instituting a decentralized funding strategy. I have been hired as a consultant to make a recommendation to adopt or refute a decentralized funding strategy. Discussed are the political and theoretical motivations behind the argument for decentralized arts funding. Also discussed are views on decentralization trends in arts funding and the potential effects on artists, arts organizations and arts audiences, the effects on rural, urban, and suburban areas are described, as well as ways this trend might affect the current system or…

Works Cited

American Canvas: The Evolving Cultural Landscape." National Endowment for the Arts.

Madden, Stephanie; Bowen, Missy. "Design for Success: Young

Aspirations/Young Audiences."

Thompson, Shirley. "Young Aspirations/Young Artists." .(accessed07-20-2002.

anti obesity programs and policies
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21964702
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Few other public health issues have drawn as much attention, and garnered as much support for policy and programming as obesity. Obesity programs have been initiated and implemented at the federal and state levels, and all fifty states currently have early childhood education physical activity and healthy eating regulations and policies (The State of Obesity, 2018). All the major national public health research organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health likewise inform and promote obesity-related policies and programs. Government agencies like the Food and Drug Administration and the USDA also have distinct policies and programs. In spite of the abundance of both private and public funding for anti-obesity research, policy development, and programming, the majority—two-thirds—of American adults are overweight or obese, and more than a fourth of all healthcare costs in the nation are consumed by obesity-related issues (Levi, Vinter, Richardson, et…

Organizational Policies on Sport Wellness
Words: 777 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 79926676
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Grade Level in Texas

The Physical Education (PE) curriculum guide for Texas provides different knowledge and skills for every grade level K-8. The objective for kindergarten level is the learning basic body control while moving across different settings (Texas Education Agency, n.d.). For grade 1, the objective is the objective is to continue enhancing basic body control while developing essential movement skills and fitness components that relate to health. The objective for grade 2 is to demonstrate vital components of essential movement skills and become more effective in locomotive skills. For grade 3, the objective is to show maturity in more essential movement patterns while for grade 4 it is to learn to detect the elements of health-related fitness and sources of information for health fitness. For grade 5, the objective is to demonstrate competence like enhanced accuracy in calculating skills in dynamic situations and grade 6's objective is to…


HIGH5 Sports Nutrition. (n.d.). Drugs Free Statement. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from

Texas Education Agency. (n.d.). Chapter 116. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Physical Education. Retrieved from Texas Government website: 

World Wrestling Entertainment. (2013, July 23). Abuse and Drug Testing Policy. Retrieved November 17, 2016, from

America and Health Policy Issues
Words: 2406 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78222777
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Health policy issues are now becoming more contentious throughout the world. The advent of the internet has created a much needed awareness of human rights and liberties. No longer are countries able to fully sheath society from information. A critical component of this information relates directly to health care and the overall well-being of societies constituents. Policy issues relating to health are now becoming paramount to voters and decisions makers. The Affordable Care Act is one of many illustrations that detail the desire for universal healthcare for all. In addition, many countries are mandating a standard health care system for all of their citizens irrespective of socio-economic status. Although costly, it appears that many constituents are willing to pay for the ability to extend healthcare to all. Outside the universal healthcare within individual countries, many are now looking to address worldwide health epidemics. Aspects such as food shortages, proper treatment…


1) Bell, B, Thornton, K. (2011). From promise to reality achieving the value of an EHR. Healthcare Financial Management, 65(2),51-56

2) Jamoom, E., Patel, V., King, J., & Furukawa, M. (2012, August). National perceptions of ehr adoption: Barriers, impacts, and federal policies. National conference on health statistics.

3) Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (1995) history to 1920 table of contents and text search

4) Pollack, A. (2015, September 20). Drug Goes From $13.50 a Tablet to $750, Overnight. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from

Constructionist Policy Design Approach
Words: 2416 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12886647
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Constructionist Policy Design Approach

Policy design approach can be described as mechanisms or measures that are utilized to develop and implement policies in light of specific goals. These goals provide the specific issues that need to be addressed by the policy during implementation. According to Schneider & Ingram (1997), some of the most essential components of public policy include problem definition, goal articulation, probable benefits, target population, policy directives or rules, and tools to be utilized in implementing the policy directives. In most cases, policies are developed and established to help address some aspects of social behavior in order to enhance the quality of life and experiences of people. There are different policy design approaches that are utilized in the development and enactment of policies including the constructionist policy design approach. This approach suggests that policies are developed and implemented based on the social realities of citizens. This approach can…


Burnier, D. (1994). Constructing Political Reality: Language, Symbols, and Meaning in Politics. Political Research Quarterly, 47, 239-253.

Schneider, A.L. & Ingram, H.M. (1997). Policy design for democracy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Soss, J. (1999). Lessons of Welfare: Policy Design, Political Learning, and Political Action. American Political Science Review, 93, 363-380.

Soss, J. (2005). Making Clients and Citizens: Welfare Policy as a Source of Status, Belief, and Action. In Deserving and entitled: social constructions and public policy. (Albany: State University of New York Press, pp.291-328).

Constructionist Policy Design View
Words: 2860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93021299
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Constructionist Policy Design Approach

Policy design approach can be described as mechanisms or measures that are utilized to develop and implement policies in light of specific goals. These goals provide the specific issues that need to be addressed by the policy during implementation. According to Schneider & Ingram (1997), some of the most essential components of public policy include problem definition, goal articulation, probable benefits, target population, policy directives or rules, and tools to be utilized in implementing the policy directives. In most cases, policies are developed and established to help address some aspects of social behavior in order to enhance the quality of life and experiences of people. There are different policy design approaches that are utilized in the development and enactment of policies including the constructionist policy design approach. This approach suggests that policies are developed and implemented based on the social realities of citizens. This approach can…


Burnier, D. (1994). Constructing Political Reality: Language, Symbols, and Meaning in Politics. Political Research Quarterly, 47, 239-253.

Schneider, A.L. & Ingram, H.M. (1997). Policy design for democracy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.

Soss, J. (1999). Lessons of Welfare: Policy Design, Political Learning, and Political Action. American Political Science Review, 93, 363-380.

Soss, J. (2005). Making Clients and Citizens: Welfare Policy as a Source of Status, Belief, and Action. In Deserving and entitled: social constructions and public policy. (Albany: State University of New York Press, pp.291-328).

Canadian Public Policy Creation Influences
Words: 609 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34409938
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Public policy development is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders and institutions. Moreover, the nature of public policy development varies depending on whether the policies are foreign or domestic. Holloway (2006) points out the three key influences on foreign policy in Canada, including information coming from foreign embassies with direct access to international issues and affairs. Other influences on foreign policy include formal analysis, which often takes place domestically. Finally, bureaucratic machines regulate messages incoming to government offices (Holloway, 2006). Yet the influences on Canadian domestic policy include ancillary issues ranging from shifts in social norms and values to recent judicial action. For example, Pal (2013) points out the role of both the courts and public opinion on the legalization of same-sex marriage. The three most important influences on Canadian public policy in general include public opinion (expressed in terms of values and norms), the courts (expressed through judicial action),…


Holloway, S.K. (2006). Canadian Foreign Policy. Peterborough: Broadview.

Pal, L.A. (2013). Beyond Policy Analysis. Nelson.

Corporate Universities -Investigation of Their Development
Words: 16387 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62224137
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In summary, we recommend that the IESBA reconsiders the proposals in the Exposure Draft and provides more guidance on safeguards applicable to sole practitioners and small accounting firms to ensure that the benefits of the changes outweigh the costs to SMEs. Under a principle-based approach, there should be safeguards and practical relief for all practitioners rather than rules-based outright prohibitions. The rewrite of this Independence component of the Code is substantially rules-based rather than principles-based. In this regard, we also encourage the IESBA to prioritize the redrafting of the entire Code using a similar drafting convention to that used by the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in its Clarity project" (IESBA Exposure Draft of Sections 290 and 291 of the Code of Ethics on Independence - Proposed Additional equirements in relation to Internal Audit Services, elative Size of Fees and Contingent Fees 2007).

There will also be an all-time…


Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, a. (2004). "Organizational behavior," 6e; [Chap. 17]; [Chap. 18]. Accessed December 19, 2007, from MBA520, eResource, week 5, eBook Collection database.

McShane, and Von Glinow. (2005). "Organizational behavior" (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

); Muret, Don. (1999). "Former Disney VP stresses teamwork at cafe." Amusement Business, 111(49), 22. Accessed August 17, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.

Frazee, Bonnie. (2004). "Organizational Behavior and the Learning Process" Accessed December 19, 2007, at

Analyzing Law Policy and Management Brief
Words: 1648 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20626585
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policy, law and management. It is based on a particular background that has been provided.

Law, Policy, and Management Brief: Models of Court-Agency Interaction

Courts play a very significant role as they interact with administrative agencies. Administrative agencies are beyond the influence of the technical processes that are applied in courts of trial. The rules that are used in court trials are not applicable in the proceedings of agencies. Moreover, agencies also have the power to outline the rules that will govern the proceedings of the agency when there is no statutory provision. The agencies have been given broad discretion when it comes to creating rules to govern proceeding (Administrative Agency Adjudications - Administrative Law).

However, the agencies do not have the power to act like the legislature when creating procedural rules. The jurisdiction of agencies is the power that the law gives them to make judgment in controversies. In…


Administrative Law - Administrative Law. (n.d.). Administrative Agency Adjudications - Administrative Law. Retrieved June 12, 2016, from 

Ansell, C., & Gash, A. (2007). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory,18. Retrieved, from 

Bazelon, D. (1976). The Impact of the Courts on Public Administration. Indiana Law Journal,52(1). Retrieved, from .

(2008). SHRM Online - Society for Human Resource Management. Leadership Competencies. Retrieved June 8, 2016, from

Public Organization the Word Policy Refers to
Words: 891 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1700290
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public organization, the word "policy" refers to the direction that the organization is taking (, 2014). The organization has a mandate which serves as a broad sense of direction, but the policies it enacts are more specific actions that it undertakes. At some government levels, policy can be more generalized, such as a policy of promoting free markets, for example.

Organizations set policies, so the strategic direction that the federal government is taking with respect to environmental issues will affect other agencies or public organizations. For example, if the federal government has a policy to take strong action on climate change, it will initiate a number of policy initiatives that will seek to change the actions of the other public organizations. Many organizations can be affected by a policy, depending on the type of policy that the government enacts. A broad policy like one of budget cutting in order to…

References (2014). Policy. Retrieved July 9, 2014 from 

Slaper, J. & Hall, T. (2011) The triple bottom line: What is it and how does it work? Indiana Business Review. Retrieved July 9, 2014 from 

Le Grand, J. (2003). Motivation, agency, and public policy: Of knights, knaves, pawns and queens. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

It Security Policies Dealing With
Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3694882
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What is the purpose of ISACA?

ISACA is dedicated to promoting and advance information security control and audit. Educating individuals to improve and develop their capabilities in the field of information systems control and audit is its primary purpose. ISACA encourages the exchange of information, and problem solving techniques amongst its members. Communication to information system professionals, management and system auditors the need to have necessary controls that ensure effective use of IS resources and organization. ISACA also promotes newsletters that ensure its members are kept informed of new trends in information security control and audit, which can be helpful to their employers and themselves.

Why should companies use COBIT?

COBIT is a governance framework for it that was developed by ISACA. It provides tools that help in bridging the gaps in business risks, technical issues and control requirements. Nowadays many business processes are dependent on it, thus to manage…


Warren, M.J. (2001). A Risk Analysis Model to Reduce Computer Security Risks among Healthcare Organizations. Risk Management, 3(1), 27-37.

Company With a Fairly Strong Sustainability Policy
Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26627313
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company with a fairly strong sustainability policy is Wal-Mart. The company publishes a fairly extensive report about its sustainability practices. One of the interesting things about Wal-Mart's sustainability practices is that they seem very focused on efficiency, with efforts dedicated to waste reduction. This is important to the company in that by reducing waste they are lowering their costs.

The concept of sustainability, however, is the measure here. Wal-Mart's stakeholders with respect to sustainability are mostly internal, with external stakeholders being suppliers and then the world in general. The suppliers are active partners in Wal-Mart's sustainability efforts, as they must work closely with the company to ensure that sustainability initiatives are met.

Other stakeholders are more generic in nature, and do not appear to have been consulted. Environmental advocacy groups do not appear to have contributed to this effort. In general, Wal-Mart's overall business practices are not especially sustainable, given…


Delshad, A.B. (2012). Revisiting "Who influences whom?" agenda setting on biofuels. Congress & the Presidency, 39(2), 177 -- 198.

Huston, A., Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1994). Media, children and the family: Scientific, psychodynamic and clinical perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.

Levy, G. & Razin, R. (2012). Dynamic legislative decision making when interest groups control the agenda. London School of Economics. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from 

Steel, B., List, P. Lach, D., & Shindler, B. (2004) The role of scientists in the environmental policy process: A case study from the American West. Environmental Science & Policy, 7, 1 -- 13.

Web-Based Professional Development
Words: 12713 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88201524
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oanoke County School System Faculty and Staff's Perceptions egarding the Use of Web-Based Professional Development

Educational Thesis

Implications for Improvement of Practice

Introduction (could be longer. Include mandatory teacher ongoing certification standards)

Ongoing staff development has long been a vital part of the educational environment. It is the means by which the faculty and staff of a school system are kept current in educational trends, technologies and philosophies. In a diverse society, social pressures felt in the classroom are continually making the teaching process more challenging.

In the past few years alone, the advance in computer capabilities and in-home computer gaming equipment has affected the attention span of the average student. Elementary and secondary education students have a different paradigm as to what is interesting. Thus the challenge in the classroom to grab, hold, and mold the students attention have changed. An effective teacher must be aware of these changes,…


Blackboard. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2002, at 

Blair, J (2001). Teacher-Training Programs Turn to Cyberspace. Education Week Online,. Retrieved October 26, 2002, at

Charles, C.M., & Mertler, C.A. (2002). Orientation to Educational Research (4 ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Guskey, T.R. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Policy Considerations in the Development
Words: 2511 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90446476
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What is the nature of these service shortfalls and how do these service limitations potentially impact older adults' "quality of life" outcomes in both the short- and long-term?

1. Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms

2. Lack of elder population neglect prevention mechanisms

3. Lack of culturally relevant elderly care programs

4. Lack of enough physicians to take care of the elderly population

5. Lack of elderly-population empowerment programs

Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms

A review of literature indicates serious "gaps" in the mechanisms used in the prevention of elderly population abuse cases. Even though the Elder Abuse and Neglect Act clearly indicate that all suspected cases of abuse directed against the elderly population be reported, very little efforts exist at the establishment of hotlines to be used in reporting these cases. This means that very few cases of abuse are reported. This gap in the aging-related…


Administration on Aging (AoA). (2003). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.

Administration on Aging (AoA). (2005). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.

Gelfand, D.E. (2003). Aging and ethnicity: Knowledge & services. New York: Springer Publishing.

Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks: A Guide to Programs and Services. New York: Springer Publishing Co.

Policy From the Department of Job and
Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44349245
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Policy from the Department of Job and Family Services

A recent policy was implemented by Anytown's Department of Job and Family Services regarding the issue of child endangerment, that the children of a household in which there are certain offenses will be removed until the parents or caretakers can show themselves to have been rehabilitated. To explain this decision, the Department of Job and Family Services referred to the social learning theory. This policy paper will address the moral and ethical issues involved in implementing this new policy, consider the impact of implementing such a policy, and conclude by discussing whether the Department of Job and Family Services correctly interpreted and applied this theory in planning and implementing this policy.

There are several ethical and moral issues that could arise from implementing this new policy. First, has the theory been applied correctly? Social learning theory does, in fact, imply that…


Fraiberg, S., Adelson, E. & Shapiro, V. (1980). Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problem of impaired infant-mother relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14, 3, 1975; reprinted in Clinical studies in infant mental health: The first year of life, Fraiberg, S. (Ed.). New York: Basic.

Lawrence, CR; Carlson, EA; Egeland, B (2006). "The impact of foster care on development." Development and psychopathology, 18(1): 57 -- 76.

Lieberman, A.F., Padron, E., Van Horn, P., and Harris, W.H. (2005). Angels in the Nursery: The intergenerational transmission of benevolent parental influences. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(6), 504 -- 520.

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Policy Why Do You Agree Disagree The Group
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67021509
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policy? Why do you agree/Disagree?

The group disagrees with the proposal. The group's decision on the issue is based on the fact that when adult responsibilities and roles are given to the adolescent at an earlier age citing early maturity among the modern adolescents, it might subject the society into all sorts of vices and immoral behaviors. The freedom to assume adult roles at an early age when they are still exploring various aspects of life may break the family bondage and the parental guidance which is crucial at the development stage which helps in transforming and shaping the teenagers into mature and responsible adults. They social policies should not be reviewed so as to let the adolescents pass that stage under proper guidance. It is at this stage when their bodies experience a lot of transformation and seek guidance to make the right choices in life. We should not…

Policy and Recommendation on a Child's Unstructured Play
Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69189844
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Unstructured play in childhood


The effect of lack of unstructured play on children's development

Unstructured play as a form of therapy for children was readily accepted when it was first introduced in both homes and schools. In fact, sand-play in its early form was used to allow children interact, enhance their creativity and develop their social skills (Frost & Norquist, 2007). esearch shows that a fundamental aspect of human development is attained in the early childhood stages. As such, any measures to facilitate future development of an individual needs to be cultivated in the early stages of their lives (Miller & Almon, 2009). Over time, unstructured play -- once a highly regarded child development measure -- has lost its meaning and place (Miller & Almon, 2009). Increasing cases of poor child development evidenced by volumes of mental illness antisocial behaviors and physical challenges…


Barros, R.M., Silver, E.J., & Stein, R.E. (2009). School recess and group classroom behavior. Pediatrics, 123(2), 431-436.

Campbell, K.J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2007). Strategies which aim to positively impact on weight, physical activity, diet and sedentary behaviours in children from zero to five years. A systematic review of the literature. . Obes Rev., 8(4), 327-338.

Cleland, V., & Venn, A. (2010). Encouraging physical activity and discouraging sedentary behavior in children and adolescents. J Adolescent Health, 47(3), 221-222.

Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, & Council on School Health. (2006). Active healthy living: prevention of childhood obesity through increased physical activity. Pediatrics, 117(5), 1834-1842.

Policy for XYZ
Words: 1914 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 51677632
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Employment Law Policies for XYZ

Describe and explain all the possible employment laws that could govern the employment at XYZ.

Job discrimination. Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964 prohibits hiring, firing or pay discrimination based solely upon a person's race, religion, sex or national origin. It also prohibits sexual harassment. Employees and applicants must be treated equally and harassment will not be tolerated.

Age discrimination. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prevents discrimination against applicants or employees older than 40 because of their age. A person's age or proximity to retirement cannot be taken into account when making decisions on hiring, firing, pay, benefits or promotions.

Disability discrimination. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits job discrimination against qualified people with disabilities who can reasonably perform a job's function. If hired, managers need to work with H to help create reasonable accommodations for disabled employees.

Overtime/minimum wage.…


Cornock, M. (2012). What to do when an employer acts unfairly. Nursing Standard, 26(38), 63.

Cullen, L. (2007). The Diversity Delusion. Time, 169(19), 74.

Henneman, T. (2011). Making the Pieces Fit. Workforce Management, 90(8), 12-18.

Hutson, B. (2012). How Is Your Relationship with Your Boss, Do You Know? Black Enterprise, 42(11), 56.

Policies on Child Abuse and Neglect
Words: 792 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21124910
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Social Policy: Child Abuse and Neglect

One of the essential components of the social work profession is safeguarding children from neglect and abuse. Professionals in this field work towards ensuring that children are protected from abuse and neglect in order to promote their development and growth into healthy, well-being adults. To achieve these goals, social work professionals carry out several initiatives including creating, implementing, and evaluating policy initiatives. The various initiatives adopted by social work professionals are targeted towards lessening child abuse and neglect as well as providing necessary resources and support that enhances children's development and well-being. The development of policy initiatives that target reduction of child abuse and neglect is crucial because policies govern the practices of social work professionals when offering support and resources for promoting children's development and well-being.

Given the significance of policies in helping social workers to lessen child abuse and neglect, several policies…

Policies Must Be Selected and Analyzed These
Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25111482
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policies must be selected and analyzed. These should ideally be aligned with organisational values. Such values are achievement, balance, cooperation, creativity, integrity, loyalty, personal development and results. Loyalty in this context refers to mutual respect. The first policy to be analyzed is the assessment policy, which "outlines the framework in which learning is assessed within TAFE NSW." The policy outlines the objectives of the policy, the audience for the policy, the context including legislative requirements, and the responsibilities and delegations. In general, these policies are congruent with the organisational values. For example, mutual respect is found in policy 4.1.2, which outlines "explaining the relevant Student Assessment Guides and supporting information to students," so that there is transparency and respect between the instructors and the students.

The values of achievement and results are met with policies like 4.1.7, which states "monitoring and improving the quality of assessment." There is TAFE Quality…