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Leading Effective Public Policy Implementation
How can I increase my own sense of meaning and task alignment?
At the Department of Housing and Urban Development, I am always acutely aware of the fact that the decisions leaders make will have a material impact upon ordinary people's lives. However, it is very easy to let bureaucracy stymie even the best of intentions. When frustrated, leaders must remember the long and short-term goals of the Department: to improve the lives of individuals and communities through the provision of safe and affordable housing and other forms of development. Every task must be connected to the higher mission and purpose of the Department. Intensive soul-searching is required, given the vital role of HUD. As said by leadership guru David Quinn in his book Deep Change, "figuring out where you are and where you need to go and then launching an effort to get…
Quinn, R. (1996). Deep change. Jossey-Bass.
Responding to the housing crisis. (2010). HUD. Retrieved from:
Strategy Implementation and Control
The successful implementation of strategies within an organization is possible when instituted via the organizational design, culture, employees, and control systems. The benefits of such strategies are felt when they are successfully implemented through these elements. Even the best-conceived strategy may fail when the stakeholders like employees, culture, or structure fail to coordinate or implement as expected. The following study considers and analyzes how Overstock Company implements its current strategy in order to realize the success it so desires.
Overstock Company has specialized in the online retailing trade, and it has grown over time to be a leader in this business sector. It has developed a large market share and made a name for its business empire. Overstock enjoys its success now because of implementing the control systems strategy in its approach to its online business. Amongst the three organization systems essential to controlling strategy implementation,…
Kumar and Narain's "Public policy and governance in India." The quality of evidence in this particular article is somewhat adequate. The author's reference some credible sources that shed insight into the changes in public policy taking place in India. However, they also reference other articles within this same journal, which seems somewhat dubious. The content discussed within this article is mostly appropriate. However, the authors have tasked themselves with detailing a wide selection of public policy issues in India, and do not explore these issues in depth. The writing style for the target audience is largely inappropriate. There are numerous grammatical and spelling errors littered throughout the article. The potential bias of the authors is demonstrated in the fact that they refer to other articles in the journal that published their article as references for certain aspects of India's public policy. In summary, this article does not meet professional standards…
Kumar, A., Narain, V. (2014). Public policy and governance in India. Vision. 18(4),257-260.
The Principles of Machiavelli in American Policy
The first chapter in The Practice of American Public Policymaking lays out what the book examines in the succeeding chapters. First, Briggs and Helms (2015) define policymaking as “the activities, actors, institutions, practices, and technologies that combine to ‘deliver the goods’ to the American people” (p. 3). Public policy is defined as “the art and science of producing results” (p. 3). Thus, the book is primarily about American public policymaking and the focus is on conception and practice, which means that both the development and the implementation of policy are covered in the following chapters. Implementation is especially important because it refers to the process of monitoring and evaluating policy. Policy and management should be part and parcel, according to the authors as “there is no policy without implementation” and there is no awareness of the success of a policy without evaluation (Briggs…
Dietary Guidelines: Policy Implementation
As noted by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF), the dietary guidelines for Americans (last issued in 2015), have tremendous influence upon public policy and how Americans eat, as well as public healthcare. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) are used in setting the standards for the National School Lunch Program, on which many children are dependent for their main source of nutritional calories for the day at low or reduced cost. Physicians are influenced by its guidelines, and ordinary Americans are influenced by the guidelines when they make decisions in the grocery store.
As noted by the RWJF, a number of significant modifications were made in the most recent 2015 guidelines, including limiting the sugar added to the individual’s diet to no more than 10% of daily calories (Goldman, 2015).…
The study of public policy gained significant importance in the late fifties and sixties. However, policy science did not come into existence all of a sudden. It started to emerge when social scientists started researches on a wide range of sociopolitical problems. After the World War II, significant developments were made in the areas of operations research, economics and social psychology. These developments proved to be helpful in formulating new ways for more systematic and empirical investigations of policy making. Although, a considerable level of research was done in the areas of sociopolitical studies but the clear concept of a policy science was first introduced in 1951 by Harold Lasswell. "Lasswell's seminal work identified six basic characteristics of an emerging field of study, concerned with explaining policy making and policy executing process. (McCool)
The study of public policy gained momentum in the late 1960s. With the introduction of…
Daniel Mc Cool: The Theoretical Foundation of Policy Studies: Prentice Hall Press
Macrae Duncan: Policy Analysis for public decisions: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing Group Inc., 1985
Clarke E. Cochran: American Public Policy: An Introduction: Wadsworth Pub Co: August 1998
Van Horne, Carle E: Politics and Public Policy: CQ Press.
Policy Problem & Proposal
The United States faces a $1.4 trillion national deficit, and partisan debate about how to address it is threatening economic stability on top of the shaky "recovery" from the 2009 financial crisis. Yet American corporations continue to enjoy tax loopholes that reduce their taxes to unprecedented low levels. epublicans argue that corporations must retain their preferred tax status in order to maintain and create jobs. This tax policy has been known by a number of names: supply-side economics, trickle-down theory, and horse and sparrow theory. It has not been without its critics, yet, irrationally, the practice of permitting tax loopholes continues to prevail from time-to-time.
"As for the growth enhancing effects of lower tax rates, just look to the 2000s for the latest persuasive evidence to the contrary. After the Bush tax cuts on the progressive rates paid by the wealthy, GDP between 2001…
Advance Pricing Agreement Quarterly Reports, Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-apa/
Announcement and report concerning advance pricing agreements. (2011, March 29). § 521(b) of Pub. L. 106-170, Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999. Retrieved http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-utl/2010statutoryreport.pdf
Brehm, J., and Gates, S. (1997). Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic
Response to a Democratic Public. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan
Policy and Science
Fiddler on the oof
Science has traditionally been presented as the a priori fact-finding, theory-establishing stage one of policy making. Stage two of this conventional approach has policy makers utilizing the "empirical truths" that science offers in support of policies to be enacted to solve a policy problem. Yet both policymaking and empirical research are -- by their very nature -- ongoing human endeavors. Policymakers want the best that science has to offer -- when they need it -- for decision-making, policymaking, and policy implementation. Science marches to its own tune, with agendas set by dynamics such as funding for research or public and private priorities and pressures (Kingdon, 1984). And, increasingly, in a funding environment that is cooling off, the ability to do research is often determined by its application -- public service adding a positive valence -- and the ability to enact policy is dependent…
Haller, S.F. And Gerrie, J. (2007). The role of science in pubic policy: Higher reason, or reason for hire. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 20,(2).
Kingdon, J.W. (1984). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.
Pressman, J.L. And Wildavsky, A. (1984). Implementation. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Wildavsky, A. (1979). Speaking truth to power: The art and craft of policy analysis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown Publishers.
Policy Direction & Politics
Stone captures for me the crux of policy paradox with this statement: "…each type of policy instrument [e.g., inducements, rules rights, for example] is a kind of sports arena, each with its peculiar ground rules, within which political conflicts are continued" (2001, p. 13). Extending the metaphor, arena sports are based on a rational rule-bound game structure that -- as soon as the whistle blows -- is overwhelmed by messy, conflicting and reciprocal interplay. And so it is with policymaking. The calculated, rational market approach to policymaking that was developed to counter the "profound disgust for the ambiguities and paradoxes of politics" does not match what happens in the real world, where political tensions force the hand of those who would create better governance (Stone, 2001, p. xi). We have only to look at the context surrounding the Obama administration to know that this is so…
Frederickson, H.G. (2010). Social equity and public administration: Origins, developments, and applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Kingdon, J.W. (1995). Agendas, alternatives, and public policies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. Russell Sage Foundation.
Stone, D. (2001). Policy paradox: The art of political decision-making.(rev.ed). New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Co.
Policy, Politics and Global Trends in Health Sector
Why the Public Policy Issue Was Chosen?
According to the report released by National Priorities and Goals -- aligning efforts meant to transform America's Health care (NQF, 2009; Partnership, 2008). NPP (National Priorities Partnership) came up with 6 priorities. If the priorities are addressed, it could improve the quality of health care delivered to the U.S. citizens. NPP consists of 48 major U.S. health care organizations, which work with NQF (National Quality Forum). It identifies and advances priorities geared at improving health care in the future (NQF, 2009). NPP has identified palliative care as one of the six priorities that can help improve patient-based utilization outcome. This article provides the background to help identify steps to assist match the medical treatment of the patient and family objectives. It concerns itself with access to quality hospice services and palliative care (Meier, 2011). This…
AHRQ. (2002). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP): Hospitalization in the United States. Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hcup/factbk6/factbk6c.htm
American Hospital Association. (2009). AHA Hospital Statistics. Chicago: American Hospital Association.
ANA. (2008). Organizational Affiliate Criteria. Silver Spring: American Nurses Association.
ANA. (2015, December 10). Palliative and Hospice Nursing Panel. Retrieved from American Nurses Association: http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Professional-Issues-Panels/Palliative-and-Hospice-Nursing-Panel
Policy Analysis Critique
ationale for the chosen policy
Avian influenza is a virus causing lethal infection in human beings (Sims et al., 2003). It can be transmitted from patients to other human beings. It is a deadly virus with track record of 6 deaths in Hong Kong in 1997. That incident was just the start of this health issue. The virus spread enormously and caused H5N1 infection numerous times in Hong Kong. The dawn of 21st century witnessed multiple instances of H5N1 virus (Ellis et al., 2004).
It was expected that the virus could be found in the poultry animals and was infectious. In order to prove it, there were certain laboratory tests conducted on chickens. These tests helped prove the presence and effects of H5N1 virus (Shortridge et al. 1998). Subsequently, it was proved that the chickens were highly pathogenic (Shortridge et al., 1998). It was also proved that…
Ellis TM, Bousfield RB, Bissett LA, Dyrting KC, Luk GS, Tsim ST, Sturm-Ramirez K, Webster RG, Guan Y, Malik Peiris JS. Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002. Avian Pathol, 2004 Oct; 33(5): 492 -- 505.
Ferguson NM, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Anderson RM. Public health risk from the avian H5N1 influenza epidemic. Science 2004; 304:968-9.
Ferguson NM, Galvani AP, Bush RM. Ecological and immunological determinants of influenza evolution. Nature 2003; 422:428-33.
Fielding R, Leung GM, Lam TH, Lam WWT. The use of live animal markets and perception of risk among the Hong Kong population. Department of Community Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, 2004.
etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
McClain, P. (1990, Winter 1990). Agenda Setting, Public Policy and Minority Group Influences: An Introduction. Policy Studies eview, 9(2), 263-272. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Nakamura, . (1987, August). The Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch. Policy Studies eview, 7(1), 142-154. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Weimer, D. (2008, November). Theories of and in the Policy Process. Policy Studies Journal, 36(4), 489-495. etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.2008.00280.x
David Dery. (2000, March). Agenda Setting and Problem Definition. Policy Studies, 21(1), 46. etrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
obert Nakamura. (1987, August). The Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch. Policy Studies eview, 7(1), 146. etrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
As cited in Nakamura, the Textbook Policy Process and Implementation esearch, 146.
As cited in David L. Weimer (2008, November). Theories of and in the Policy Process.…
Birkland, T. (2004, March). "The World Changed Today": Agenda-Setting and Policy Change in the Wake of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks. Review of Policy Research, 21(2), 179-200. Retrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1111/j.1541-1338.2004.00068.x
Carroll, B., & Carroll, T. (1999, January). Civic Networks, Legitimacy and the Policy
Process. Governance, 12(1), 1. Retrieved September 28, 2009, from Academic Source Complete database.
Dery, D. (2000, March). Agenda Setting and Problem Definition. Policy Studies, 21(1), 37-47. Retrieved September 28, 2009, doi:10.1080/014428700114008
eattle has been a leader in the United tates in trying to eradicate the homeless problems that arise in every city. ince the 1970's, the citizens of the city have agreed to tax increases (more than four times (Farestart, 2009) to address this issue. The following case analysis looks at the city's policy regarding finding shelter for all homeless families and single women.
Major Policy Concepts
Most analysts agree that the primary reason that there is a great degree of homelessness in eattle is the lack of affordable housing in the city (Kerns, 2011). The policy in the case suggests that the homeless be given greater access to affordable housing and shelters. However, there is a problem stated with this part of the policy also. Housing in eattle is not just expensive for the citizens of the city, it is expensive to build for the city government (Tong,…
Shay, S. (2011). Homeless 'One Night Count' numbers decrease. West Seattle Herald. http://www.westseattleherald.com/2011/01/30/news/homeless-one-night-count - numbers-decrease
SKCCH. (2012). Everyone counts. Retrieved from http://homelessinfo.org/one_night_count/
Tong, C. (2011). Seattle homelessness a long-standing problem with no easy solution in sight. The International Examiner. http://seattlepostglobe.org/2011/02/03/seattle - homelessness-a-long-standing-problem-with-no-easy-solution-in-sight/
Human esources Management is basically something that encompasses various activities in an office environment, some of them being: what sort of employees does a company need, what are the best methods to recruit as well as train these personnel, making sure that the performance levels of these people is at its optimum best, and also making sure that the rules regarding management issues are followed to the letter by the employees. Some other issues are those of employee compensation, employee benefits, and so on.
The first step in a human resources management policy is that of 'ecruitment' of the company's employees.
In order to prepare an Advertisement for the purpose of recruitment, certain guidelines must be followed. These are: there must be included, in the advertisement, a complete job description. This must state the 'job title' or 'rank' or 'position'. This means that the person who is interested will…
Corrective Action: Professional and Support Staff. March 1, 2002. Retrieved From
http://atyourservice.ucop.edu/employees/policies/staff_policies/spp62.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
Employee Conduct, Disciplinary Discharge Guidelines. Retrieved From
http://www.rpi.edu/dept/hr/policy/empconductguide.html Accessed on 5 November, 2004
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
" (Devine, 2007)
Summary and Conclusion
Policy evaluation enables educators to make determines as to the accountability of the system and the conditions needed to expand the capacity of the educational institution to provide high quality curriculum and instruction as well as in the formulation of assessment and toward the increase of learning of students. This brief study has demonstrated how the competing and opposing forces locally, statewide and federal serve to formulate policies and ultimately to test the soundness and effectiveness of those policies. Policy evaluation is critical for educational institutions and use of the four dimensions of policy making offers a framework that enables the comprehension of policymaking toward the enhancement of education and improvement of the educational institution.
Cooper, .S, Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). etter policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Pearson Education, Inc.
Cooper, ruce S., Fusarelli, Lance D, & Randall, E. Vance…
Cooper, B.S, Fusarelli, L.D., & Randall, E.V. (2004). Better policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Pearson Education, Inc.
Cooper, Bruce S., Fusarelli, Lance D, & Randall, E. Vance (2003). Better policies, better schools: Theories and applications. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Devine, Jack (2007) Four Dimensions of Educational Policy Theory: Normative, Structural, Constituentive and Technical. Associated Content 31 Dec 2007. Online available at: http://188.8.131.52/article/500765/four_dimensions_of_educational_policy.htmlLuxemburg, Fred C. And Irby, Beverly J. (2006) the Principalship: Vision to Action. Political and Policy Context. Thomson -- Wadsworth. U.S. Online available at: https://classshares.student.usp.ac.fj/ED453/R12%20Political%20and%20Policy%20Context.pdf
Fullan (2001) in Luxemburg, Fred C. And Irby, Beverly J. (2006) the Principalship: Vision to Action. Political and Policy Context. Thomson -- Wadsworth. U.S. Online available at: https://classshares.student.usp.ac.fj/ED453/R12%20Political%20and%20Policy%20Context.pdf
An examination of the four basic steps of policymaking reveals this quite clearly.
The first step in the policymaking process is the agenda setting that must come before policies are even considered. Bringing problems to the attention of policy makers and thus setting the policy agenda is accomplished by many different players with different aims, from citizen groups to businesses to media organizations and many others. All of these groups r individual representatives (and sometimes simple individuals) can use a variety of methods for setting the agenda, form private meetings with policy makers to speaking at town hall meetings or city councils to engaging in media or public awareness campaigns. In larger governments, lobbying is a major source of agenda-setting activity, as the interests of groups that engage lobbying services are brought to the direct and immediate attention of government representatives in what amounts to a pay-for-play system. The political…
Gerston, L. (2010). Public Policymaking: Process and Principles. Armonk, NY: M.E.
Texas Constitution and Statutes. (2011). Government Code Chapter 573. Accessed 14
October 2011. http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/
The strongest case in the criminal law annals for race-based affirmative action occurs in "drug possession offenses," Heffernan writes. The drug busts show "compelling evidence of discrimination against blacks," the author insists; moreover, he claims that many law enforcement personnel have admitted that they practice "a kind of affirmative action: they admit that they selectively enforce anti-drug laws in the black community." The justification for busting black people in the inner city is that "heightened enforcement is good for the community," and further, the reason so many African-American men are caught dealing drugs is that is much easier for police to find crimes among poor people -- this assumes that many blacks in inner cities are low income -- because poor people "are more likely to commit those crimes in public places" (Heffernan, p. 225).
All of the issues that Heffernan has referenced contribute to the reason that the…
Eckholm, Erik. (2010). Congress Moves to Narrow Cocaine Sentencing Disparities. The New
York Times (p. a-16). Retrieved February 2, 2011, from General Reference Center Gold.
Heffernan, William C., and Kleinig, John. (2000). From Social Justice to Criminal Justice:
Poverty and the Administration of Criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press U.S..
Health Policy and Law Formation:
The process of legislation is characterized with some similarities and differences depending on the specific lawmaking body and the manner through which policymakers are elected and their respective functions and work. Generally, this legislative process includes drafting the bill, introduction of the bill to the respective house, discussions regarding it, any amendments, voting, and enactment into law or vetoed. In addition to undergoing this process, the formation of a public policy or law experiences various challenges depending on the specific state and municipality where the policy is formed.
In relation to public health policy, such laws originate from various sources before proceeding to policy development, which follows several stages. Some of these major stages in policy development include problem identification, setting of agenda, formation of the policy, implementation of the policy, policy evaluation, and policy termination or change. On an issue of health promotion or…
Evans, C.H. & Degutis, L.C. (2003, December). What it Takes for Congress to Act. American
Journal of Health Promotion, 18(2), 177-181.
Megerian, C. & Renshaw, J. (2011, June 24). N.J. Assembly Passes Landmark Employee Benefits
Overhaul. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://www.nj.com/politics/index.ssf/2011/06/assembly_passes_landmark_emplo.html
Oganizational Stuctue & Policies
Oganizational Stuctue and Policies
Community centes can be the heatbeat of a neighbohood -- a vibant, enegetic space whee people ae guaanteed a wam welcome, find needed suppot, and exploe options fo impoving thei lives. Yet many community centes ae located in aeas of few economic suppots and substantive need. This means that duing the nighttime hous the community cente may be a pinpoint light in a hazadous o bleak milieu. Staff and voluntees give geneously and happily of thei time at Bightwood Community Cente. Safety fo Bightwood staff, neighbohood membes, and pogam paticipants is uppemost on the minds of the Executive Diecto, the Assistant Diecto, and the Boad of Diectos. Accodingly, a ecommendation has been fowaded to establish a policy equiing staff and othes who ae engaged in pogam activities duing the evening hous to leave the community cente in goups, neve going solo into…
references in order to increase the probability that adaptive behaviors are fostered. By practicing safe behaviors such as the one addressed in the policy, the staff of Brightwood Community Center can be confident that they are not presenting any temptation to individuals who might choose to rob or harass them should the be in a vulnerable situation. The policy doesn't really establish winners and losers, nor does it cost anything to enact. Basically, the consequences of the policy are that the probability of safety for staff is enhanced. Diversity in human behavior, cultural values, and socio-economic variables are reflected in the safety policy; and the policy speaks to the human right of safety in the community. The overall strengths of the policy are that it is simple and easy to implement, and the policy is realistically grounded in the actual attributes of the Brightwood neighborhood. The only apparent weakness in the policy is that some occasions may present exceptions that make it difficult for all staff members to comply, however, exceptions are expected to be rare -- and generally could be worked around. A potential recommendation for a policy modification could be to ensure that a sturdy male is present each evening when the staff leaves the facility: this could either be a security guard or a volunteer, such as one of the members of the Ten Point Coalition.
This exercise illustrated the importance of writing policy with due consideration of the context. For instance, knowing what external policies exist can be a fundamental assistance to creating a policy that is supported by community values and the weight of several years of curfew policy to verify the decision of the agency to adopt and implement the policy. The hierarchical structure of the agency ensures that important issues receive due consideration and that authority is coupled with responsibility -- a factor that can have substantive influence over compliance to policy. Methodically considering the various factors that influence policymaking and policy implementation can result in stronger policy with fewer unanticipated side effects.
I am currently writing a handbook of policies and procedures for my practicum, so there is nothing in writing yet, so your answers will come from interviewing CL Day and Izera Day (obviously you won't really be interviewing them).
The policy I would like the paper to discuss is how at the end of the night, everyone walks out in a group. Brightwood is not a safe area, so at nighttime it is important to walk out as a group.
Health policy issues are now becoming more contentious throughout the world. The advent of the internet has created a much needed awareness of human rights and liberties. No longer are countries able to fully sheath society from information. A critical component of this information relates directly to health care and the overall well-being of societies constituents. Policy issues relating to health are now becoming paramount to voters and decisions makers. The Affordable Care Act is one of many illustrations that detail the desire for universal healthcare for all. In addition, many countries are mandating a standard health care system for all of their citizens irrespective of socio-economic status. Although costly, it appears that many constituents are willing to pay for the ability to extend healthcare to all. Outside the universal healthcare within individual countries, many are now looking to address worldwide health epidemics. Aspects such as food shortages, proper treatment…
1) Bell, B, Thornton, K. (2011). From promise to reality achieving the value of an EHR. Healthcare Financial Management, 65(2),51-56
2) Jamoom, E., Patel, V., King, J., & Furukawa, M. (2012, August). National perceptions of ehr adoption: Barriers, impacts, and federal policies. National conference on health statistics.
3) Rosenberg, Charles E. The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America's Hospital System (1995) history to 1920 table of contents and text search
4) Pollack, A. (2015, September 20). Drug Goes From $13.50 a Tablet to $750, Overnight. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/21/business/a-huge-overnight-increase-in-a-drugs-price-raises-protests.html?_r=0
Health Policy Letter
The health policy being proposed
Medicines are primarily used to avert chronic ailments, infectious viruses and alleviate pain. If used incorrectly and without necessary instructions, medicines can instigate harmful outcomes in a human body.
Errors with medicine use are prone to occur at work, hospital, pharmacy and even home. Pediatric patients are often prone to experience iatrogenic injury due to underlying medication errors. Nurses are tasked with enhancing and alleviating patients from pain as opposed to contributing to it. Medication errors greatly contribute to increasing health-related risks to patients. The issue has become a global concern due to escalating medical costs, protracted hospital stays and mortality rise in rates. Averting medical errors is a key responsibility of both hospitals and governments. In order to curb medication errors, strategies implemented have ranged from using information technology, critical incident analysis and concentrated input from medical professionals (Simpson, Lynch, Grant,…
Ballard, K. A. (2003). Patient Safety: A Shared Responsibility. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8(3).
Buppert, C. (2011, December 27). What Are the Consequences of Violating Medication Policies? Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/755655
Cheragi, M. A., Manoocheri, H., Mohammadnejad, E., & Ehsani, S. R. (2013). Types and causes of medication errors from nurse's viewpoint. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 228-231.
Hughes, R. G., & Blegen., M. A. (2008). Medication Administration Safety. In R. Hughes (Ed.), Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD):: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (U.S.).
Corrections/Police -- Criminal Justice -- The Brady Act
Seven-Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis
The Seven Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis was employed to examine The Brady Act. In Stage 1, Analyzing the Problem: the problem was found to be at least four serious gaps in the existing Brady Act. Those gaps include: the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online; the lack of strong federal law criminalizing gun trafficking; the ready availability of military-style weapons and high-capacity magazines with more than 10 rounds; and the Tiahrt Order passed by Congress and preventing the public from knowing the identities of gun traffickers and how they operate.
Though the Brady Act suffers from several gaps, the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online was addressed. Stage 2: Setting…
Cornell University Law School. (1997). Printz v. United States (95-1478), 521 U.S. 898 (1997). Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/95-1478.ZS.html/
Cornell University Law School. (2008, June 26). District of Columbia v. Heller (No. 07-290), 478 F. 3d 370, affirmed. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/07-290.ZS.html
Haberman, M. (2016, January 21). Gun control groups say Bernie Sanders is the wrong candidate to support. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2016/01/21/gun-control-groups-say-bernie-sanders-is-the-wrong-candidate-to-support/
Kessler, J., & Trumble, S. (2013, August 5). The virtual loophole: A survey of online gun sales. Retrieved from www.thirdway.org: http://www.thirdway.org/report/the-virtual-loophole-a-survey-of-online-gun-sales
Japan was once on a stellar track to economic prosperity. The end of the twentieth century saw promising chances for the island nation's economy. In 1991, the government spending was one of the lowest the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED) and 31.6% of the nation's GDP (Utt 2008). That same year, Japan's national income was at 86% of the U.S. gross national per capita income, a big improvement from just 20 years ago when the nation was only making 66% of the U.S. per capita income. This was an impressive feat for the nation to embark on. Yet, this was to change in the following years dramatically. During the later decade of the 1990s, the Japanese government took on the practice of vastly increasing government spending as a way to stimulate an economy that was beginning to lag. As the growth of the economy began to go stale,…
Associated Press. 2009, 'North Korea 'Panic' After Surprise Currency Revaluation,' Guardian [Online] Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/03/north-korea-won-currency-revaluation
Bozyk, Pawel. 2006. Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy, Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Chait, Jonathon. 2010, 'The Budget-Cutting Cycle: Delusion, Failure, Recimination,' the New Republic, [Online] Available at http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-chait/78735/the-budget-cutting-cycle-delusion-failure-recrimination
Eberstadt, Nick. 2007, the North Korean Economy: Between Crisis and Catastrophe, Transaction Publishers.
S. resident George W. Bush. Thus, when the blast in Bali, at the
southern point of Indonesia, directed the fury of 9/11 at a popular
attraction to Australian holiday-makers, Australia became a nation
motivated in foreign policy by the apparent threat of global terrorism.
This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the
United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of
Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid. During the lead-
up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only
second to Britain's rime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War
cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the
alleged provocations made by the U.S. and later proved false. Howard
echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a
February 2002 appearance that the Australian government was firm in
Proportionate Response to the Terrorist Threat? Studies in Conflict &
Terrorism, 28(4), 321 - 339.
Wesley, Michael & Allan Gyngell. (2007). Making Australian Foreign
Policy. Cambridge University Press.
What is the nature of these service shortfalls and how do these service limitations potentially impact older adults' "quality of life" outcomes in both the short- and long-term?
1. Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
2. Lack of elder population neglect prevention mechanisms
3. Lack of culturally relevant elderly care programs
4. Lack of enough physicians to take care of the elderly population
5. Lack of elderly-population empowerment programs
Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
A review of literature indicates serious "gaps" in the mechanisms used in the prevention of elderly population abuse cases. Even though the Elder Abuse and Neglect Act clearly indicate that all suspected cases of abuse directed against the elderly population be reported, very little efforts exist at the establishment of hotlines to be used in reporting these cases. This means that very few cases of abuse are reported. This gap in the aging-related…
Administration on Aging (AoA). (2003). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
Administration on Aging (AoA). (2005). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
Gelfand, D.E. (2003). Aging and ethnicity: Knowledge & services. New York: Springer Publishing.
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks: A Guide to Programs and Services. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
Policy Evaluation of the Non-Experimental Evaluation Design Approach in Education
A program can be described as a set of activities that are coordinated and run in tandem over a significant period, and aimed at delivering a specified outcome to a client/s. The terms: policy, strategy, initiative, intervention and project are often interchangeably used with the word program. Programs are discrete funded activities that are different from the usual daily operations and activities. These sets of activities are designed to achieve specific objectives within provided timeframes and resource allocation. Regular core business operations and activities are typically outside the scope of programs.
The systematic evaluation of the value/worth of an item (abstract or concrete) is called evaluation (Trochim, 2006). Evaluation is intensive, systematic, objective and rigorous. It draws judgments about the effects and merits of a program. The policy discussed here gives direction for evaluation of programs. This policy is intended…
policies must be selected and analyzed. These should ideally be aligned with organisational values. Such values are achievement, balance, cooperation, creativity, integrity, loyalty, personal development and results. Loyalty in this context refers to mutual respect. The first policy to be analyzed is the assessment policy, which "outlines the framework in which learning is assessed within TAFE NSW." The policy outlines the objectives of the policy, the audience for the policy, the context including legislative requirements, and the responsibilities and delegations. In general, these policies are congruent with the organisational values. For example, mutual respect is found in policy 4.1.2, which outlines "explaining the relevant Student Assessment Guides and supporting information to students," so that there is transparency and respect between the instructors and the students.
The values of achievement and results are met with policies like 4.1.7, which states "monitoring and improving the quality of assessment." There is TAFE Quality…
Policy from the Department of Job and Family Services
A recent policy was implemented by Anytown's Department of Job and Family Services regarding the issue of child endangerment, that the children of a household in which there are certain offenses will be removed until the parents or caretakers can show themselves to have been rehabilitated. To explain this decision, the Department of Job and Family Services referred to the social learning theory. This policy paper will address the moral and ethical issues involved in implementing this new policy, consider the impact of implementing such a policy, and conclude by discussing whether the Department of Job and Family Services correctly interpreted and applied this theory in planning and implementing this policy.
There are several ethical and moral issues that could arise from implementing this new policy. First, has the theory been applied correctly? Social learning theory does, in fact, imply that…
Fraiberg, S., Adelson, E. & Shapiro, V. (1980). Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problem of impaired infant-mother relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14, 3, 1975; reprinted in Clinical studies in infant mental health: The first year of life, Fraiberg, S. (Ed.). New York: Basic.
Lawrence, CR; Carlson, EA; Egeland, B (2006). "The impact of foster care on development." Development and psychopathology, 18(1): 57 -- 76.
Lieberman, A.F., Padron, E., Van Horn, P., and Harris, W.H. (2005). Angels in the Nursery: The intergenerational transmission of benevolent parental influences. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(6), 504 -- 520.
Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Evidence-Based Protocol Implementation
Influencing Multiple Systems Through Evidence-Based Change as advance practice nurse, work informed factors direct reach, influence extends context labor. Likewise, propose a nurse leader influenced multiple systems, turn, impact groups.
Nurses are encouraged to utilize and incorporate in their daily practice evident-based practice. The Evidence-based practice (EBP) is considered to be a scientific standard that determines and guides on the best clinical measure (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber). EBP has grown in its relevance to clinical decision making and support to the nursing profession since it facilitates efficiency in provision of care and quick recovery to patients. Successful implementation of EBP calls for monitoring of existing practices, documentation of relevant procedures and evaluation of possible change practices in clinical and nursing care (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber).
Possible adjustments needful for patient's care protocol
Immediate care for patients coming from SICU is critical to their recovery from the procedure they undergo.…
Grossman, S., C. Bautista, and L. Sullivan. "Using Evidence-Based Practice to Develop a Protocol for Postoperative Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients." Dimensions Of Critical Care Nursing 21.5 (2002): 206-14. Print.
LoBiondo-Wood, G., and J. Haber. Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier, 2006. Print.
Melnyk, B., and E. Fineout-Overholt. Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins 2005. Print.
Schmidt, N.A., and J.M. Brown. Evidence-Based Practice for Nurses: Appraisal and Application of Research. (Eds.) United States: Laureate Education, Inc. custom ed., 2012. Print.
Fall Reduction Project: An Evaluation of the Implementation Process
Chapter 3: Implementation
Blank hospital had a significant increase in falls in the inpatient acute care setting. For this reason, the need for an immutable and comprehensive fall strategy was identified at the hospital following an evaluation of the various costs (both financial and ethical) associated with falls deemed preventable. Towards this end, a fall prevention project was undertaken. I was responsive for overseeing the fall prevention project implementation.
1. Description of Steps
· Pre-implementation phase
· Implementation phase
· Sustainment phase
1.1. Pre-implementation Phase
The pre-implementation phase took a total of 2 months. In essence, pre-implementation phase was meant to prepare the entire facility for the actual phase of implementation. Towards this end, various steps were undertaken. These will be highlighted below.
1.1.1. Identification of Improvement Opportunities
This was founded on the collected fall data. There was an…
Public administrators now play an increasingly prominent role in policy decision-making. This is to the point where their names and likenesses become inadvertently attached by the media to a policy and its implications. A current case in point would be Defense Secretary Donald umsfeld and the role he plays in shaping America's policy towards Iraq. Due to the media's focus on his opinions regarding that policy, the general public has come to identify him as one of the individuals most responsible for developing and supporting it.
The war in Iraq had always been a contentious issue for both the U.S. And the world since before its inception. Now the situation in postwar Iraq has become the latest hot topic for debate. It continues to cause political battles to be fought along party lines between American policymakers in the Bush administration and those in Congress. The main issue now is in…
Sammon, B. (2004, Dec. 4). Rumsfeld agrees to stay on as defense chief. The Washinton Times. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the Washington Times Website.
Bush comments on Thompson terror worries.( 2004, Dec. 4). The New York Times.
Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the New York Times Website. .
To increase effective demand, Keynesians believe the government must balance the economy with deficit and increase expenditure. However, the constant alternation between booms and recession is causing the booms to get shorter while the recessions become longer. This phenomenon is the result of empirical evidence that indicates that in the end, the interest rates decrease.
However, this situation creates a problem of capitalism as the rich increase their wealth while financial deficit worsens. Minsky adopted the perspective of Keynesians, hypothesized financial instability, as the finance and money that connects the present with the future, but the future is uncertain. Minsky finds the problem of financial stability is in financing. However, financial instability increases under contemporary capitalism, which increases economic crisis. This leads to the conclusion that to solve economic crisis, there is a need to reduce financing and take up investments in real economy.
This is in contrast to the…
Cynamon, B.Z. And S.M. Fazzari (2008) "Household Debt in the Consumer Age: Source of Growth- Risk of Collapse," Capitalism and Society, Revised Chapter 6.
Cynamon, B.Z. And S.M. Fazzari and Setterfield, M "Understanding the Great Recession" CFS Chapter 1.
Fazzari, S.M. "The Legacy of Hyman Minsky and the Great Recession" Video Lecture, Washington University in St. Louis
Setterfiled, M. (2010) "Wages, Demand, and U.S. Macroeconomic Travails: Diagnosis and Prognosis," CFS Book.
Strategy to Improve the Performance of Jacobi Hospital / Implementation Plan for Jacobi Hospital
Potential Short- and Long-Term Financial Impact of HCAHPS Scores on Jacobi Hospital
Solid finances in the current period as well as progress and viability are seen as some of the objectives of most organizations. It is in the best interests of patients to have good management in hospitals as indicated by the relationship between hospital performance and management scores. The HCAHPS scores may not seem to have an effect on the hospital in the short-term and mid-term. However, in the long run, negative effects may be felt in terms of bad image and loss of customers. Where the scores are low time after time, patients may look for other hospitals, which are clean, well maintained and the patients are treated well. This would impact the hospital's finances negatively, in the long-term. HCAHPS, therefore, affect both short-term…
Arnwine, D. L. (2002). "Effective governance: the roles and responsibilities of board members. "Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 15(1), 19-22.
Caramanica, L. (2004). "Shared Governance: Hartford Hospital's Experience." "Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 9(1), Manuscript 2. Available on www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004/No1Jan04/HartfordHospitalsExperience.aspxaspx
Murphy, M. (2015).HCAHPS: The True Impact of Patient Satisfaction. Medical Scribe Journal.Retrieved from http://scribeamerica.com/blog/hcahps-true-impact-patient-satisfaction / on 16th November, 2015.
Orginski Law. (2012). New York Hospitals Score Low on Safety Survey. The Law Office of Gerald Oginski, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.oginski-law.com/news/new-york-hospitals-score-low-on-safety-survey-20120307.cfm
Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change
Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied. Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental. Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Students…
Aluede, O., Adeleke, F., Omoike, D., & Afen-Akpaida, J. (2008). A review of the extent, nature characteristics and effects of bullying behavior in schools. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 151-163.
Buck, L., & Willer, B. (2008). Advocacy for young children. In S. Feeney, A Galper, and C. Seefeldt Eds. Continuing issues in early childhood education (pp. 391-405). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.
Hirschstein, M.K., Edstrom, L.V.S., Frey, K.S., Snell, J.L., & Mackenzie, E.P. (2007). Walking the talk in bullying prevention: Teacher implementation variables related to initial impact of the steps to respect program. School Psychology Review, 36(1), 3-21.
Jacobsen, K.E., & Bauman, S. (2007). Bullying in schools: School counselors' responses to three types of bullying incidents. Professional School Counseling, 11(1), 1-8.
Policy ecommendation in Combating Terrorism
Policy Project Part 1: Project outline
In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government and the international community reviewed typologies for the financing of transnational terrorism and examined ways to combat such financing. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that al Qaeda and other terrorist groups apparently affiliated with or inspired by al Qaeda have worked quite economically, using low-budget methods to operate. After reviewing two typologies, this part of the paper discusses applicable legal mechanisms for preventing and prosecuting the financing of transnational terrorist networks and considers proposals for improving the effectiveness of efforts to combat foreign-affinity terrorist financing (euter & Truman, 2004; Carter, 2008).
The evolving effects of globalization and the transnational nature of terrorism have combined to create almost limitless possibilities for terrorists looking to finance operations (Sheppard, 2008). One problem with combating terrorist financing is that many forms of…
Alexander, Yonah, and Donald J. Musch, eds. (2012). Terrorism, Documents of International and Local Control. Vol. 35. Dobbs Ferry, New York: Oceana.
Andreas, Peter, and Ethan Nadelmann. (2013). Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carter, Barry E. (2008) International Economic Sanctions: Improving the Haphazard U.S. Legal Regime. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cesari, Jocelyne. (2009) Muslims in the West after 9/11. New York: Routledge.
"What do vendors seem to know and not know aout implementing ERP systems? How much influence should vendors have in an organization's ERP decision?"
"What do vendors seem to know and not know aout implementing ERP systems? How much influence should vendors have in an organization's ERP decision?"
Prolems in ERP Implementation
The Role of Vendors
"What do vendors seem to know and not know aout implementing ERP systems? How much influence should vendors have in an organization's ERP decision?"
There is commercial software packages called enterprise resource planning aimed at integrating different types of data and information that flows through the company. The information includes financial and accounting data, data related to human resource, data related to supply chain and data aout customers. ERP systems are a great solution for the prolem of usiness integration for managers struggling since long with nonconforming information systems conflicting operating practices,…
bibliography: 2001-2005. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 19, 386-446.
Kenett, R.S., & Raphaeli, O. (2008). Multivariate methods in enterprise system implementation, risk management and change management. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 9 (3), 258-276.
Sari, K. (2007). Exploring the benefits of vendor managed inventory, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 37, no. 7, 2007, pp. 529-545.
Somers, T.M., & Nelson, K.G. (2004). A taxonomy of players and activities across the ERP project life cycle. Information & Management, 41, 257-278.
Stratman, J. (2007). Realizing benefits from enterprise resource planning: Does strategic focus matter? Production and Operations Management, 16(2), 203-216.
Statement of the Policy
The policy of the United States on abortion was one set forty years ago in a landmark decision, in the 1973 case oe v. Wade, which legalized abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Brief History of the Policy
In the case of oe v. Wade, a single woman by the name of oe brought class action that challenged the constitutionality of the criminal abortion laws in the state of Texas. In this case a licensed physician by the name of Hallford, who had state prosecutions against him pending was allowed to intervene. A childless couple, known as the Does, attacked the laws and based the alleged injury on the future possibilities of contraceptive failure, stating that were not prepared for becoming parents and the health of the wife. The court ordered the abortion statutes void "as vague and overbroadly infringing the plaintiff's…
Roe v. Wade (1973) SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 410 U.S. 113. APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS. No. 70-18 Argued: December 13, 1971 - Decided: January 22, 1973. Retrieved from:
Catholic Perspectives on Culture, Society and Politics (2007) Vox Nova. Retrieved from: http://vox-nova.com/2007/05/22/abortion-and-economics/
Dionisio, L. et al. (2006) A Political, Public & Moral Look at Abortion. Retrieved from: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jackson/social.issues/papers/AbortGrI.htmlhttp://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Norrander, B. And Wilcox, C. (1999) Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy. Policy Studies Journal, Vo. 27, No. 4, 1999. Retrieved from: http://academic.udayton.edu/grantneeley/Morality%20Policy/norranderandwilcox-psj.pdf
Metrics, Implementation, and Enforcement (Security Governance)
How can you determine whether there has been a malware outbreak?
The threat situation today has become more dangerous than in the past. Security and safety threats have been increasing in an alarming rate; there are more than 70,000 brand new bits of malware recognized daily. Well-funded cybercriminals have been currently making advanced malware that has been made to bypass present security options by launching prior to the operating-system and then evading antivirus defence (Mitre, 2012). Consequently, danger vulnerability has hit unprecedented degrees that need a brand new method of security and safety. With built-in security and safety options from McAfee as well as Intel, one might gain an additional layer of safety that is effective aside from the operating-system to avoid attacks instantly whilst successfully managing security over to a system of endpoints. These revolutionary options gather world-class processor chip technologies from Intel…
McAfee Labs (Q1 2012).
Intel IT Centre. (2012). Planning Guide: Preventing Stealthy Threats with Next-Generation Endpoint Security -- A Proactive Approach from Intel and McAfee. Intel IT and McAfee.
Mitre. (2012). Standardizing Cyber Threat Intelligence Information with the Structured Threat Information eXpression (STIX). Mitre Corporation.
Jones, D.R. (2011). Managing Cyber Threats Risk Management & Insurance Solutions. Roach Smith and Howard Burton.
Nurse Implementation Plan
It is important to understand that plans do not simply manifest themselves into existence and a specific implementation effort is needed to ensure that the evidence presented in research efforts can be used to practical ends. Although the solution appears to be clear and succinct, putting into this plan into action requires a plan of its own. To do this effectively, Lewin's model of change theory can assist in describing "how" this plan will be put into action and significantly complement "what" needs to be done in order to realize success.
The plan itself is simple and revolves around and addresses Lewin's trinity of components in his change Model. Lewin essentially proposed that change occurs in three distinct stages where an old idea is "unfrozen," then processed and eventually "refrozen." This simple model of understanding the mental processes apply both at a collective level and…
Jansson, I. et al. (2010). Factors and Conditions that Influence the Implementation of Standardized Nursing Care Plans. The Open Nursing Journal, 10 Oct 2010. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024554/
Jeanes, A. (2009). Improving hand hygiene compliance. Nursing Times, 18 Feb 2009. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2012/10/04/g/p/i/030218Improving-hand-hygiene-compliance.pdf
Knutsen, R. (2013). Nurses, Hand Hygiene and Infection Control. Advanced Health Care Network, 6 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Nurses-Hand-Hygiene-Infection-Control.aspx
Child Policy in China
Button, G. (2011). China's One-Child Policy and the Population Explosion. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 10(4), 467-474.
Button is an accomplished author of various scholarly texts and is a holder of a masters of science in education and a bachelor's degree in international studies. In the past, Button has worked as a Research Assistant at the University of Denver, and more recently, he assumed the position of Volunteer at Peace Corps. Button is therefore qualified to comment on topical issues revolving around history, political science, as well as economics.
In his article, Button explores not only the genesis of the One-Child Policy but also its implementation and relevance. The author also critically analyses the criticism that has been leveled against the One-Child Policy in the past. He concludes that although the said policy has contributed significantly to the country's economic growth, it has also been…
Public Policy and Service
Currently, I work on homeland security issues, with a focus on enforcing Federal egulations. My overall plan is to remain with the government with the likelihood of retiring from a governmental agency. My professional philosophy revolves around the nature of service, and I believe that my skills, enthusiasm and patriotism all combine in a better way by using my skills to help the United States.
Before this recent job change, I was a bank regulator. I transferred to Homeland Security because of its importance in the contemporary environment and its mission to protect America at home and abroad. When one stops to reflect a moment, we see that the world is a far different place than it was prior to the events of 9/11. In fact, as a direct response to the terrorist attacks on the United States in September, 2011, the Office of Homeland Security…
National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from ncs.gov: http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/nat_strat_hls.pdf
Connor, M., Pokora, J. (2012). Coaching and Mentoring at Work: Developing Effective Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education/Open University Press.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012, March). Get A Homeland Security Job. Retrieved from dhs.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/how-do-i/get-homeland-security-job
Dunleavy, P., & Carrera, L. (2013). Growing the Productivity of Government Services. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
" (Allen 2008) This means that nursing educators are also a key stakeholder.
Other stakeholders include healthcare facility administrators, corporate trustees and public office holders, who will often have entangled or competing interests relating to the profitability of operations and the political expediency of policy orientation. This will also be true of the various professional advocacy groups, nursing associations and lobby groups that will vie for influence in the discussion on any legislation relating to the nursing shortage.
A primary policy objective is to endorse any legislation that would aggressively enforce better recruitment of nursing students, better training of existing nurses, improvements in working conditions for nurses and mandated nurse-to-patient ratios. These objectives are underscored by evidence of the opportunities to save lives facilitated by mandated ratios. According to the text by Health Services Research (HSR) (2010), "key findings of the study reportedly include that 10-13% 'fewer surgical…
Allan, L. (2008). The nursing shortage continues as faculty shortage grows. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 35-40.
Berkowitz, B. (2012). The Policy Process. .
Cullen, E.; Ranji, U. & Salganicoff, A. (2010). Addressing the Nursing Shortage. Kaiseredu.org.
GovTrack. (2010). S. 1031: National Nursing Shortage Reform and Patient Advocacy Act. govTrack.us.
The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.
No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…
Bruno, Jeanne-Marie (2004). "Implementing Diversity in a Meaningful Way." American Works Association Journal, Vol. 96(10), 47.
Lehigh University (2005). Lehigh University Home Page. Retrieved on 8 February 2005, from http://www3.lehigh.edu/path/visitors.asp .
Lehigh President's Speech. (n.d.) "Diversity Speech."
These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.
Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/arctic_policy-canada-politique_arctique.aspx?lang=eng
Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138:statement.
Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-12/
The most appropriate products that could be used by MMC to achieve this objective would be: IP San and a Snap Lock. An IP San is a fiber optic channel that can provide secure real time data to each location. Where, software and security applications can be adapted to the current system that is being used. The Snap Lock is: a security software that can be used to provide an effective way for each location to retrieve, update and change information.
Support for why these procedures and products are the optimal approach for this organization
The reason why these different procedures and products were selected was: to reduce the overall risk exposure of the company's external threats. The current system that is being used by MMC increases risks dramatically, by having a number of different systems, where financial information is stored. If any one of these systems is vulnerable, there…
IP San (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protocols/ip-san/ip-san.html
Snap Lock Compliance and Snap Lock Enterprise Software. (2010). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/products/protection-software/snaplock.html
Mason, J. (2010). How to Bullet Proof Your DR Plan. Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Net App website: http://www.netapp.com/us/communities/tech-ontap/tot-data-recovery-plan-0908.html
Policy Process Part I
Policies are constantly being reviewed and considered to assist in enhancing the federal, state, and local health care systems. Each of the reviewed and considered policies has the potential to affect every individual on a daily basis, so careful consideration must be exercised when policies are proposed. The careful consideration requires an understanding of the process through which an idea or topic ultimately becomes a policy and legislation. An example of a topic in the health care industry that may be used to form a policy is health workforce shortages. This topic can become a policy because the United States health sector is currently experiencing an increase in workforce shortages in federal, state, and local levels. The current laws do not have adequate measures or procedures that would deal with this issue effectively. Therefore, policy makers should develop and implement legislation that specifically focuses on health…
Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(1). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553404_4
Buchan, J. & Aiken, L. (2010). Solving Nursing Shortages: A Common Priority. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(24), 3262-3268.
Gebbie, K.M. (1994, June). Formulating Public Health Policy: The Case of AIDS. American
Journal of Public Health, 84(6), 888-889.
According to Majchrzak (1984, p. 55), variables can have a range of focal points; from the very wide to the very narrow. Economic stability is an example of a variable with a wide focus, while preschool IQ scores is an example of a narrowly focused variable. The wider the focus, the greater the potential for specifying a number of indicators to measure them.
The operationalization of variables will then depend upon the research questions. The first stage of this process is then to define the variable in precise terms, while the second stage is to select indicators by means of which the variable can be measured (Majchrzak, 1984, p. 56).
When taking the example of teacher training, the variable can for example be operationalized in terms of the certification level of teachers as determined by their official credentials. Indicators towards this end could be elements such as number of years…
Dantzker, M.L. And Hunter, R.D. (2006). Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Primer. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Majchrzak, A. (1984). Methods for Policy Research. California: Sage Publications.
Steets, J. (2004). Developing a Framework: Concepts and Research Priorities for Partnership Accountability. Global Public Policy Institute: Research Paper Series No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.gppi.net/fileadmin/gppi/Steets_Paper_1_04082005.pdf
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Subsequently, assessment for Singapore, China and Switzerland are now in progress. These indicate a progressive and positive outcome of the regulatory framework. The RCAP does not work in isolation, as these assessments do not guarantee successful implementation; hence, it works with sound supervisory and industry practices accompanied by rigorous enforcement and analysis of the expected prudential outcomes.
RCAP studied the effect of the regulations on the banks as well as the variations across the banks in terms of the risk-weighted assets. From the assessments, it indicates that, while some variations in risk-weighted assets are natural and desirable, the extreme variations diminish the comparability of the capital ratios. Consequently, the Basel committee is undergoing further analysis to determine the areas that the standards can modify to reduce the extreme variations that are apparent. In the considerations, three policies emerge; these are, to improve the public disclosure and regulatory data collection to…
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision;, Banking Supervision Report to G20 Finance
Ministers and Central Bank Governors on monitoring implementation of Basel III
regulatory reform April 2013 http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs249.pdf
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision Progress report on Basel III implementation April
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
Second, the specific connection points thoughout the netwok also need to be evaluated fo thei levels of existing secuity as well, with the WiFi netwok audited and tested (Loo, 2008). Thid, the Vitual Pivate Netwoks (VPNS) and the selection of secuity potocols needs to be audited (Westcott, 2007) to evaluate the pefomance of IPSec vs. SSL potocols on oveall netwok pefomance (Rowan, 2007). Many smalle copoations vacillate between IPSec and SSL as the copoate standad fo wieless connections, defining the advantages and disadvantages as the table below has captued.
Table 1: Technical Analysis of Diffeences between IPSec and SSL
Site-to-site VPN; mainly configued in a hub-and-spoke design
Authenticates though digital cetificate o peshaed key
Dops packets that do not confom to the secuity policy
Authenticate though the use of digital cetificates; dops packets if a fatal alet is eceived
Lin, Y., Chen, S., Lin, P., & Lai, Y.. (2008). Designing and evaluating interleaving decompressing and virus scanning in a stream-based mail proxy. The Journal of Systems and Software, 81(9), 1517.
Robert Loew, Ingo Stengel, Udo Bleimann, & Aidan McDonald. (1999). Security aspects of an enterprise-wide network architecture. Internet Research, 9(1), 8-15.
Loo, a. (2008). The Myths and Truths of Wireless Security. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 51(2), 66.
OpenReach (2002) IPSec vs. SSL: Why Choose?. Jan. 2002. Open Reach. Security Tech Net. 20 Mar. 2007. Accessed from the Internet on October 6, 2009 from location:
Politics Trumps Policy
How would you respond? Would you just capitulate and end some or all of these programs?
Explain your answer.
A written response would be provided to the new governor that would include an outline of all current programs supplemented with reasoning and statistical effectiveness of each. A break even analysis for each program will also be provided where the actual program outcome statistics with the inclusion of the 30% reduction in recidivism over two years and the cost savings of such a rate reduction in both the short- and long-term to the state and the community. The programs themselves were thoroughly researched and required significant defense for development and implementation, some of the material used to allow support for implementation will clearly need to be used to demonstrate to the new governor the importance and potential of these programs. To respond to the concerns associated with the…
Azzolino, S., Johnson, C., Thornton, T., & Turley, A. (2004, December). Jail drug and alcohol treatment program reduces recidivism in nonviolent offenders: A longitudinal study of Monroe County, New York's, jail treatment drug and alcohol program. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 48(6), 721-728.
Carter, F.C. (2008). Offender employment is the key. Corrections Today, 70(4), 108.
Jensen, E.L., & Reed, G.E. (2006). Adult correctional education programs: an update on current status based on recent studies. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 44(1), 81-89.
Rion, J. (2009)Professional development: the key to retention. Corrections Today 71 (2), 8-12.
They need to estimate the cost of poduction, pesonalization as well as the milling of the new chip cads.
The budget should include the cost associated with the updating of teminals, Point of Sale (POS) devices and ATMs, in all types of envionments. These must howeve be consideed as new ongoing expenses and should include installation and maintenance of compliant teminals. Howeve, the costs of infastuctues elements ae not as they used to be in the past and have been continually educing. These consideations must be clealy noted in the budget
The budget should include the cost equied by the banks in upgading the system so as to be able to deal with elements of the new standads and its coesponding featues that could entail many changes in almost all potals that ae in communication with the system. The budget must also include the cost associated with staff…
references in Malaysia:
An empirical investigation
This suggests that fine-tuning the model may be required in order to identify optimal approaches. For instance, Gionnani and oodford add that, "It is only if we ask whether the same policy continues to be optimal when we vary the statistical properties of the disturbances that we can hope to find an advantage of one representation of the policy rule over the other (1427).
Gionnani points out that rather than restricting the analysis to the Taylor rules component of the new Keynesian model, an optimal model should determine a robust optimal monetary policy rule within a larger family of rules that is sufficiently flexible to implement the optimal plan in those cases where the parameters are known with certainty. A study by Leeper reports that optimal monetary policy behavior in the simplest forward-looking version of the popular class of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models with nominal rigidities. oodford (2003) exhaustively…
Blanchard, Olivier and Jordi Gali. (2007). "Real Wage Rigidities and the New Keynesian
Model." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 39(1): 35-7.
Dotsey, Michael and Andreas Horstein. (2006, Spring). "Implementation of Optimal Monetary
Policy." Economic Quarterly 113-34.
leadership a tool implementing public policy. For Application Assignment
One of the most prominent tools or practices that John Bury should utilize to help reinforce environmental legislation from a non-regulatory perspective is to issue tax breaks to citizens who decided to contribute to practices that are environmentally sound. For instance, those that donate funds to various groups that are set up for the purpose of counteracting environmental effects should be able to write off such donations and get a 'break' on their income taxes as a result. Presenting tax incentives will be an effective means of getting people to adhere to environmental regulations because they will be able to see a direct benefit to doing so in their financial statements at the end of the year. There are no regulations for this practice, and it will certainly resonate with more financially conscious individuals -- who are typically the people involved…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses. www.yosemite.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eerm.nsf/vwAN/EE-0568-04.pdf/$file/EE-0568-04.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013). Criminal enforcement overview. www.2epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/enforcement/criminal-enforcement-overview
No author (1997). Appendix C: regulatory and non-regulatory tools. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/aml/policy/app_c.pdf
Superintendents must deal with student populations that change yearly as school choice options alter. These alterations will influence schools that have to present school choice, and schools that do not get Title 1 funds. The child who uses school choice does not have to attend another Title 1 school. They may decide to go to a school that does not get Title 1 funding (Whitney, 2011).
Evaluation of the Effect and Effectiveness of NCLB
Holding schools and school districts responsible for the level of education that they supply is the chief principle of the No Child Left Behind Act. The key to the Act's approach is the make use of measurement tools like standardized tests to be given on a regular schedule, the utilization of benchmarks, and a scheme of encouragements and punishments linked to the generation of higher test scores. On some accounts, the outcomes of this law have…
Cleary, Robert E. (n.d.). The NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT of 2002. Retrieved from http://www.cosmosclub.org/web/journals/2004/cleary.html
Garrett, Rose. (2010). The New NCLB Blueprint: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Retrieved from http://news.change.org/stories/the-new-nclb-blueprint-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
History and Overview of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/356.bourgeois/overview_of_the_no_child_left_behind_act
Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson, Martinez, Felipe, O'Day, Jennifer, Stecher, Brian, Taylor, James and Cook, Andrea. (2007). State and Local Implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act
Making Sense of Social Policy: Why Social Policy Affects Everyone
Social policy is a rather vague term because the word 'social' can have different meanings for different people (Human Services 311, p. 1). Social policies, in and of themselves, affect individuals at different stages in their lives. They also cover quite a broad range of issues -- ranging from children's issues, family and work issues -- such as retirement/pension policies and unemployment (i.e., social benefits), as well as policies regarding the physically disabled. Perhaps this is the reason that many seem so baffled about the term 'social policy' and what it specifically refers to. There really isn't anything confusing, however, about the term. Social policy can really be thought of simply as a study that has to do with the people's welfare. But to clarify, social policy isn't merely about making people happy, but it is…
Canadian Council of Chief Executives. (2011). Issues. Accessed on 7 December 2011
Human Services 311. (2011). Unit 4. Values and Policy-Making: The What and Who of Social
Policy and Its Definition. Human services 311.
Team Plan Strategy for Program Implementation
Success University (SU) a medium sized undergraduate institution located Southern California. SU offers Associates Bachelors programs Business, Psychology Education San Moreno campus online. SU decided launch programs Fall.
Strategies for as unified team
The members of the task force team will be selected internally to maintain the university culture and ensure that the team does not need training on the values, mission and vision of the university.
Strategies for as unified team
Including an already existing employee base will also boost their morale and ensure commitment to projects needs. The need for recruiting internally is because the ability of the faculty members is known and one can easily target them for an ideal position. The proposed members of staff to form the task force will also go through a vetting process from their colleagues. This will further go to advice the leader on the…
Balmer, J.M.T. (2001). Corporate Identity, Corporate Branding and corporate marketing European Journal of Marketing 34(4), 248-291.
Barney J.B., & Hesely W.S. (2008). strategic management and competitive advantage concepts and cases second eds. upper saddle river: pearson prentice-hall.
Lorenzen M. (2006). Strategic Planning for Academic Library Instructional Programming. Illinois West Publishing.
Michael A., & Jude K. (2005). Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Organizations. Second Edition. . Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
1. Executive summary
While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.
Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…