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Violent Political Action and Selective Incentives
Violent Political Action
Everybody who has the family wants to worry only about personal and family life and to have a peaceful society. These people will never like to indulge in war with others and to sacrifice their peace. Unless there is a big threat to their survival, people tend to be peaceful. The question arises why would someone sacri-ce self-interest to take part in violent group actions. In business also, people might involve in violent behavior when they feel threat to their job or career. Often some employees are deprived of facilities, opportunities and fair performance appraisals thus they can become more violent.
Standard models of decision making
The decision making models in business may be rational, adaptive, planned, collective participation, intuitive, and/or emergent. All these models use facts and some procedures to come to a conclusion. No decision making model offers complete…
Decision-making & Managing Conflict, (n.d.), Retrieved from:
Ginges, J, and Atran, S., (2009), "What motivates participation in violent political action:
selective incentives or parochial altruism?" Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 115-123
POLITICAL ACTION & HOW DO AENDT AND NIBUH ECOMMEND GOING ABOUT POLITICAL ACTION?
The objective of this work is to answer the question of what is political action and how do Arendt and Nibuhr recommend going about political action.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines political action as "action designed to attain a purpose by the use of political power or by activity in political channels; specifically: such action by organized labor through recognized political means (as participation in party organization, in elections, and by lobbying) -- contrasted with direct action." (2015, p. 1) There are varying view of what constitutes political action such as those held by Arendt and Niebuhr.
Niebuhr and Political Action
The view of Niebuhr on political action is that the "only adequate account of the limits and possibilities of just and humane politics depended on a religious conception of history and life. The Christian faith was not an…
Political Action (2015) Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Online. Retrieved from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/political%20action
Patterson, E. (2008) Christianity and Power Politics Today: Christian Realism and Contemporary Political Dilemmas. Palgrave MacMillan. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=AY_FAAAAQBAJ&dq=political+action:+Niebuhr&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Thiele, LP (2009) The Ontology of Action: Arendt and the Role of Narrative. Project Muse. Vol 12, Issue 4. Retrieved from: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/summary/v012/12.4.thiele.html
Hannah Arendt (nd) Philoso-hy Talk. Retrieved from: http://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/hannah-arendt
Communicating in Small Groups
Christian fellowship ministry is the replication and continuation of ministry of Jesus Christ and of His Holy Spirit through His disciples on earth today. Each ministry is formed as a small group or team and in fulfillment of the teachings of the Holy Bible, which read: "But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus, his Son, purifies us from all sin (1 John 1:17). " A Christian who has a true and strong fellowship with God is drawn to a fellowship with other Christians who, like himself or herself, walk in the same light, have received forgiveness and have a personal relationship with God.
The Scriptures say that, before Jesus Christ began His public ministry, John the Baptist was already preaching and had a small group of followers, whom John…
1. Doyle, CR. (2002). Small Groups. Free Christian Leadership Training.
A accessed 28-02-03). http://www.freechristianleadertraining.org/small-groups.htm
2. Beebe, Steven A. And John Masterson. (1999). Communicating in Small Groups. 7th edition. Allyn and Bacon Companion Website. http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_beebe_commgrps_7
United States Congress, and the lens used in this case study analysis includes political theories. Viewed through this lens, the organization will be analyzed in terms of who has what power in the organization, who has access to agendas and control over information, what power coalitions or alliances exist, and how the unit attempts to influence other units and create upward influence in the organization. As Morgan (2006) points out, all organizations can be perceived as political systems concerned with and dependent on political activity. The United States Congress happens to take that concept of political systems a step further because the precise and overt purpose of the organization is political activity. To achieve its goals, Congress does exhibit the universal political traits of organizations that hinge on the relations among "interests, conflict, and power," (Morgan, 2006, p. 152). It is how the stakeholders in the organization pursue their interests,…
Donges, P.& Jarren, O. (2014). Mediatization of political organizations. Chapter 10 in Mediatization of Politics. Esser & Stromback (Eds.): 181-199.
Hirsch, A.V. (2016). Experimentation and persuasion in political organizations. American Political Science Review 110(01): 68-84.
Merchant, P. (n.d.). 5 sources of power in organizations. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-sources-power-organizations-14467.html
Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organization. Sage.
The personal is the political. Spiritual values undergird secular norms. It is impossible to totally segregate religion from social engagement. At the same time, fusing religion and politics can be dangerous business. As Massaro (2012) points out, the two most obvious perils associated with the improper blending of Church and State include sectarianism and theocracy. Sectarianism, denounced by the Vatican, refers to deliberate isolation from the world, in self-sustaining and cohesive communities. As attractive as it may be to form religiously minded societies apart from the world, the real work—the hard work of creating the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth—cannot be done in those types of settings. Sectarianism is akin to apathy for the remainder of the planet, and is an isolationist policy that abnegates personal responsibility.
Another one of the dangers of fusing Church and State is theocracy. The dangers of theocracy are well known to those all around…
ExxonMobil Chemical: Analyzing Three Spheres / Political, Economic and Civil Spheres in ExxonMobil Chemical
What company says about itself
What Stakeholders said
ExxonMobil Chemical, XOM, leads the world in the petrochemical sector, applying cutting-edge, patented technology for developing products that enrich the lives of people across the globe (ExxonMobil, 2015).
The company concentrates on developing its supplier capabilities and human resource, alongside their strategic local community investments. Emphasis is primarily placed on the training and education of local personnel; skills and capacity enhancement of local suppliers who can deliver the company requisite services and material; and, improvement in community members' livelihoods by means of strategic community-centered investments. ExxonMobil customizes local content to every location's specific requirements. The company formulates plans at the local level on the basis of factors, like development priorities of the government, regulatory environment, infrastructure present (and…
ExxonMobil. (2014a). Local economic growth and development. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/local-economic-development/local-economic-growth-and-development/local-economic-growth-and-development
ExxonMobil. (2014b). Political contributions and lobbying. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/current-issues/accountability/political-involvement/political-contributions-and-lobbying?parentId=c1fc85cd-d7a3-489d-9fc3-e42223e8cafc
ExxonMobil. (2014c). Contributing to progress. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://corporate.ExxonMobil.com/en/community/corporate-citizenship-report/stakeholders/contributing-to-progress?parentId=899e10b1-f995-42f6-b88a-cbe22cf98353
ExxoMobil. (2015). Company Profile. Exxon Mobil Corporation. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from http://www.ExxonMobilchemical.com/Chem-English/about/company-profile.aspx
Political Scandals in Canada
A Political Scandal Involving Fraud
During the federal election in Canada in 2011 there was an electoral fraud issue that became known as the "Robocalls Scandal." This fraudulent activity took place in Ontario, in a town called Guelph.
Robocalls are previously recorded and automated phone calls to people from a computer that is programmed to call all phone numbers in a given area; usually robocalls carry a political message asking voters to behave a certain way.
In this case in Canada, the fraud took place because the robocalls were not from the organization they claimed to be from. People receiving the phone calls believed the calls were from the official group, "Elections Canada" but they were not from Elections Canada. The robocalls told voters their polling location had changed, and urged them to go to another place to vote that turned out to be a fraud.…
Daly, Brian. (2012). Bribery scandal rocks Canada Revenue. News Canada. Retrieve August
12, 2012, from http://www.saultstar.com .
MPR News. (2009). Why should the public care about a politician's private life? Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from http://minnesota.publicradio.org .
Political risk is one of the different elements of country risk that a company must take into consideration when operating internationally. Political risk reflects the risk posed by the government of a country, including risks that the government will take action against your company (China v. Google), up to and including the risk of nationalization (Argentina v. YPF). Governments have the capacity to, in an unpredictable and ad hoc manner, change the rules governing a company's operations in a country. In the West, where political processes tend to be transparent, it is a lot easier to understand and measure political risk. Political risk, it should be noted, reflects actions taken on existing ventures, and not something like project approval. So Keystone XL is a pending decision, not a political risk. isk would be if Keystone is approved and then after it is started the next government moves to block the…
Erb, C., Harvey, C. & Viskanta, T. (2003). Political risk, economic risk and financial risk. Fuque School of Business. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from https://ciber.fuqua.duke.edu/~charvey/Teaching/CDROM_BA456_2003/Other_Harvey_Papers/P38_Political_risk_economic.pdf
Huff, E. (2013). India passes GMO labeling law, but some worry its provisions were poorly planned. Natural News. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.naturalnews.com/039137_india_gmo_labeling_laws.html
Jijakli, N. (2013). Country risk assessment: India. Credendo Group. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.delcredereducroire.be/newsletter/en/cra/2013/cra-india-november-2013
Sieg, L. (2009). Five political risks to watch in Japan. Reuters. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/11/02/us-japan-risks-factbox-idUSTRE5A111A20091102
Where, the inability of intelligence agencies to understand the ambitions of the Islamic Republic, are making diplomacy more difficult. This is because no one can be able to confirm the intentions of the Iranians. If more specific information could be provided, it would help to establish a foundation, as to the overall scope and nature of their nuclear program. (Podherdtz)
The most logical options should be to exercise all avenues of diplomacy. This means having direct negations with Iran, about their nuclear issue and working with them to establish some kind of relationship (outside of the international community). During these meetings, negotiators should be focused on building trust and bridging any kind of differences that may exist. For example, if Iran's nuclear program is for peaceful purposes, then the country should allow inspectors to verify these facts. At the same time, the intelligence community needs to have more concrete…
"2007 Iran National Intelligence Estimate." N.d. Print.
Podherdtz, Norman. "Stopping Iran." Commentary. (2008): 84 -- 109. Print.
Sick, Gray. "A Selective Partnership." Foreign Affairs. (2006). Print.
Online social networks can indeed make an impact on political education by bringing a balance of power and by encouraging vigorous debate. rookfield (2005) disagrees with this idea stating, "efore students can engage critically with ideas and actions they may need a period of assimilation and grounding in a subject area or skill set. Lecturing may be a very effective way of ensuring this." Certainly, as rookfield suggests, students need a foundation to argue their positions effectively and to understand the validity of others' arguments. However, rookfield fails to understand that distance learning is capable of facilitating this groundwork plus adding a transformative social network layer for more meaningful exploratory dialogue than may be available in some traditional classrooms.
rookfield, S. (2005, May 1). The getting of wisdom: What critically reflective teaching is and why it's important. Retrieved from National St. Louis University: http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/Stephenrookfield_Wisdom.cfm
Economist debate series. (2008). Retrieved…
Brookfield, S. (2005, May 1). The getting of wisdom: What critically reflective teaching is and why it's important. Retrieved from National St. Louis University: http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_Wisdom.cfm
Economist debate series. (2008). Retrieved from Economist.com: http://www.economist.com/debate/index.cfm?action=email&eid=1&debate_id=3
Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation
hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.
For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…
Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, The Politics of Urban America: A Reader. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Riordan, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall / Edited with an Introduction by Terrence J. McDonald. New York: Bedsford St. Martins. Originally Published in 1905.
Weber, Max. "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Pp. 77-128, New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
Conflicts are not regarded as the right way of solving disputes between nations or communities. As such, boundary conflicts have not been governing any chance to exist within the society. These conflicts reiterate the need for the United Nations to explore on the natural boundary existence between various nations (Tucker and Priscilla 152). Though boundary politics results in wars and conflicts, they are potent towards the existence and preservation of sovereignty between nations. Because of the recurrence of political boundary conflicts, many nations have resorted to signing treaties indicating a separation and boundaries relating to political movements.
There are a number of steps, which can be used to end political boundary wars in the world. Politics, being the higher agent of political boundary wars, should be subjected to scrutiny and study. This will help recover rightful ways of separating between politics and boundaries between nations and communities. Nations…
Fleishman, Rachel, Catherine Gerard, and Rosemary O'Leary. Pushing the Boundaries: New
Frontiers in Conflict Resolution and Collaboration. Bingley: JAI Press, 2008. Print.
Harvey, Brian P. An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues.
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.
Political Backgrounder: Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia, Canada -- Political Background in the context of environmentalism
Darrell Dexter is Nova Scotia's incumbent premier and the 27th Premier of the province since the Confederation. Dexter was elected leader of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party in 2001 and was sworn in as Prime Minster on June 18, 2009. Both he and the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party have strict views with regard to environmentalism, as the province is actively involved in becoming a global leader in green energy before 2020. As Dexter puts it, "This is about making the right decisions for our economy and our environment. e are putting our energy future where it belongs, back in Nova Scotians' hands." (New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment)
Darrel thinks about green energy as being more than a means to guarantee a safer future for people when concerning matters…
"New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website: http://novascotia.ca/news/smr/2010-04-23-wind.asp
"Renewable Electricity Plan," retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website: http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/renewable-electricity-plan.pdf
"Sable Island National Park Reserve," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Megan Leslie New Democratic Party Website: http://meganleslie.ndp.ca/
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…
Political Activity of Women
The impact of women on our society has been more and more strongly felt since the women's revolution in the 1960's in the United States. However, there are some women that history cannot pass by, that must be remembered for their intelligence and political or economic prowess. Such a woman is found in our current secretary of state: Hillary Clinton. Mrs. Clinton has been at the forefront of American politics for decades now, and this paper will discuss the beginnings of her career, as well as the hurdles and accomplishments of this remarkable woman, in the context of the political activity of women in the United States.
The history of women in American society is very complex, and this gender's history in the political arena is even more so. It is a widely known fact that for most of history, women have had fewer…
Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…
Hill, C.W. (2013). International business: competing in the global marketplace (9 ed.).
New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Tran, M. (2013, April 3). Pakistan needs to recoup more in taxes before any aid boost, say MP's | Global development | theguardian.com . Latest news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | theguardian.com | The Guardian .
Retrieved October 4, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/apr/04/pakistan-recoup-taxes-aid-mps
Discuss how the politics - is - complicated that model is different from symbolic racism in terms of the outcomes these forms of racism produce. Use two examples to substantiate your arguments.
In many democracies, one of the core principals is respecting the rights of everyone. This is in spite of race, income or ethnicity in determining opportunities and how an individual is living their life. On the surface, this is the ideal of all democracies, yet underneath it all there are various challenges. This is because there are a wide variety of political forces that will have an impact on the forms of racism that are produced.
One way to understand these different views are with the politics -- is -- complicated model. This is when someone will base their beliefs about racism and equality on other political factors. The objectives with this kind of philosophy are…
Cashmore, E. (2001). Symbolic Racism. London: Sage.
Cottam, M. (2010). Introduction to Political Philosophy. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Freeman, D. (2000). The Jim Crow Laws and Racism. New York, NY: Enslow Publishers.
Similarly, there is no way to ensure 100% job satisfaction with every employee all the time. One can only cross-train, communicate, work on a job extension and stretch plan, and use every potential resource available to allow the employee to self-actualize. Change is frightening to some, but with perserverance, tenacity, and commitment, our organization will be stronger because of it. Further, effectiveness within an organization is a measure of how effective the organization is in achieving the outcomes or goals it has for itself. An organization's effectiveness is also interdependent upon its set of morals, ethics, and ability to community appropriately. Effectiveness is important in different ways for different organizations because of the criteria used to judge (e.g. A non-profit aid group might have a different benchmark than a new accounting firm). It is sometimes difficult for an organization to be effective due to external factors, lack of clear definition…
Bloom, B. (2006, January). Bloom's Theory and Constructivism. Geoconstructivism.com. Retrieved from: http://goconstructivism.blogspot.com/2006/08/blooms-taxonomy.html .
Choi, T. (1995). Conceptualizaing Continuous Improvement: Implications for Organizational Change. Omega, 23(6), 607-24.
Culp, C. (2001). The Risk Management Process: Business Strategy and Tactics. New York: Wiley.
Huber, D. (2006). Leadership and Nursing Care Management. Trenton, NJ: Elsevier.
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…
Peter W. Sperlich. "...And then there were six: the decline of the American Jury," in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, ed. Elliot E. Slotnick (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1992), 244.
Michael C. Munger, "Comment on Ferejohn's 'Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law'," Law and Contemporary Problems 65 (Summer 2002): 87.
Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action (New York: Random House, 1995), 488.
The best that they can hope for is to influence a political party to get behind their cause and vote to have it adopted. Political parties on the other hand, have the power and ability to change laws and mandates by their voting clout.
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
epublican Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Walker, Jack L., Jr., Mobilizing Interest Groups in America (Univ. Of Mich. Press 1991).
Democratic Party (accessed 5-1-07)
Interest Groups (accessed 5-1-07)
However, he steers relatively clear of muscular economic writing in Conscience of a Liberal, preferring the position the book as something of a call to arms for the liberal movement. While this approach allows him to cover a wide range of ground and be fairly convincing in doing so, it also hampers his arguments by removing what should be the key to his credibility. His economic arguments strike more as a recitation of facts and figures rather than the heavy lifting he of which he is obviously capable. As his credibility stems from his work as a prize-winning economist, and this book lacks that to some extent, it seems as though the book is a long-form blog or other such opinion piece.
There is an element of urgency in his work, however, best evidenced in the chapter about health care. Krugman ties the demise of conservatism to universal health care…
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.
Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.
Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.
Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.
Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.
Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Step 3 particularly lacks the depth of analysis required by the LAMP method. It requires an in-depth study of the views of each actor regarding the issue. While Mr. Gadd does discuss each issue at some length, he does not do this from the viewpoint of the countries he mentions. In fact, his study reads like a history from the viewpoint of an American author. Mr. Gadd only briefly addresses the issues as seen by the countries themselves. In this, he also focuses only on the similarities in the views of these countries, with the main point being that Iraq, Iran and Israel see themselves as isolated from their neighboring countries, and as being surrounded by enemies.
A better approach to this might have been demonstrating in greater depth the complexity of each country's views. I would for example have focused on both the similarities and differences of the countries…
Action Against Hunger -- USA is a not-for-profit charity based in New York City. This international, non-governmental, humanitarian relief organization's stated purpose, as stated on the nonprofit Internet directory of Guidestar.com, is to lead the fight against hunger and malnutrition worldwide. Founded in 1979, Action Against Hunger states that its efforts saved over 4 million people a year in the year 2000 in 40 countries. This is indeed an admirable and impressive statistic, although verifying its accuracy is not possible with the parameters of this paper.
What are feasible questions to pose within the parameters of this paper, however, are questions about whether the grants and contributions made to Action Against Hunger are being used appropriately by the organization. A donor to this organization might wish to know how much in need this relief organization is in terms of funds -- does the organization need the donor's money. A federal…
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…
Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press
Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.
New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…
Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.
Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
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Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
Bassnett, S. (1988). Elizabeth I: A Feminist Perspective. Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Hanh, T.N. (2000). Three Zen Buddhist Ethics. In Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values (pp. 98-140). New York: Seven Bridges Press.
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…
Andres, Gary J. "Left, Right Left; Liberals, Lobbyists and Laws in Lock Step." The Washington Times 2 Feb. 2006: A19.
Editors. "Ben's Guide to Government." Ben'sGuide.gpo.gov. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/index.html
Editors. "Canadians and Their Government." CanadianHeritage.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/special/gouv-gov/section2/infobox2_e.cfm
Editors. "Office of the Registrar of Lobbyists." ORL-BDL.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.orl-bdl.gc.ca/epic/site/lobbyist-lobbyiste.nsf/en/h_nx00162e.html
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
he appellate court applied the precedent of Saucier v. Katz (2001), which states the application of the qualified immunity test. According to Saucier, an officer can be stripped of qualified immunity protection only if their conduct violates a constitutional right and every reasonable law enforcement officer would have known that, at the time of the incident, their actions were in violation of the law. Because the road Harris was traveling down was empty, the court found the Scott's action unreasonable and thus outside his immunity.
On appeal to the Supreme Court, the Court reversed, finding that Scott had acted reasonably in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. he Court stated, "A police officer's attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death."
Clearly this case…
The U.S. District Court ruled in favor of Harris, finding that Scott had violated Harris' Fourth Amendment Rights. This decision was upheld on appeal. The appellate court applied the precedent of Saucier v. Katz (2001), which states the application of the qualified immunity test. According to Saucier, an officer can be stripped of qualified immunity protection only if their conduct violates a constitutional right and every reasonable law enforcement officer would have known that, at the time of the incident, their actions were in violation of the law. Because the road Harris was traveling down was empty, the court found the Scott's action unreasonable and thus outside his immunity.
On appeal to the Supreme Court, the Court reversed, finding that Scott had acted reasonably in accordance with the Fourth Amendment. The Court stated, "A police officer's attempt to terminate a dangerous high-speed car chase that threatens the lives of innocent bystanders does not violate the Fourth Amendment, even when it places the fleeing motorist at risk of serious injury or death."
Clearly this case will affect future situations in that it gives police greater power to use force to stop potentially dangerous situations, even if the perpetrator's safety is put at risk. However, I agree with the Supreme Court's decision because a police officer is a trained professional and such actions as that taken by Scott are done not out of malice but out of a concern for the general safety of the public.
Because concealment is provided, hidden transcripts, which in most cases are contrary to the public transcript, are unrestrained performances within the safety provided offstage and the assumed like-mindedness of the audience.
The difference between the public vs. The hidden transcript is the "impact of the domination on public discourse" (5). Thus, Scott illustrates the contradiction between the public and the hidden transcripts as he illustrates George Orwell's experience in colonial Burma (10-11). For the dominant, failure to perform his role could very well threaten his autocratic position, which may open for questioning the legitimacy of his authority and power. Because he needs to maintain his position of authority, he chooses to perform his public transcript despite his hidden transcript. While public performance has much bearing on the dominant's position of authority, Scott shows that decisions that truly matter are made in the realm of the private rather than in public…
Scott, James C. "Behind the Official Story." Domination and the Arts of Resistance:
Hidden Transcripts. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1990. 1-16.
Scott, James C. "A Saturnalia of Power: The First Public Declaration of the Hidden
Transcript." Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1990. 202-227.
Bible Influence Political Thought and Action in Our Culture?
The Bible is a unique book that is different from others because it contains sacred text that has continued to influence societies from generation to generation. Generally, the impact of this sacred book is worldwide since it has affected every department of human activity. The influence of the Bible on society is derived from the fact that it contains various themes that are used to shape the moral progress of the world. In addition, the influence of this book is not restricted to Christians and Jews because it impacts more than 50% of the world population. One of the major ways that the Bible has influenced society is through its effects on politics, especially political thought and action. In most cases, the Bible is used as the basis for formation of laws and rules that govern society.
The Bible and Politics:…
Abramson, P.R. (2011). Politics in the Bible. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers.
"Biblical Principles of Politics." (n.d.). Developing a Worldview. Retrieved February 18, 2014,
Palmquist, S. (n.d.). The Bible's Political Vision. Retrieved February 18, 2014, from http://staffweb.hkbu.edu.hk/ppp/bth/bth3.html
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…
Bimber, B., and Davis, R. 2003. Campaigning Online: TheInternet in U.S. Elections, New
York: Oxford University Press.
Cornfield, M. 2005. Commentary on the Impact of the Internet onthe 2004 Election,
Washington, DC: Pew Internet and American Life Project, March 3.
Judicial Philosophy of the Supreme Court
Judicial philosophy is a concept that refers to the way judges understand and interpret the law in relation to the specific cases they are handling. This concept emerges from the fact that while laws are universal and broad, they need to be applied to specific cases based on the judge's understanding and interpretation of the law as well as the unique circumstances surrounding the case. The two most common judicial philosophies of the Supreme Court are judicial activism and judicial restraint, which have influenced various cases including Gore vs. Bush (2000) and Obergefell vs. Hodges (2015). Judicial activism refers to a philosophy in which judges depart from conventional precedents to adopt new, progressive social policies whereas judicial restraint is a philosophy in which judges limit the exercise of their own authority (Bendor, 2011).
Judicial activism of the Supreme Court influenced cases like Gore vs.…
Political risk is the risk that is associated with the political stability of a nation and the risk associated with political actions on the part of a nation's government. A decline in the economy of a nation because of a violent change in government falls under the category of political risk, as does the risk of nationalization or other adverse government action directed at the company. There is considerable political risk associated with doing business in a nation like Fiji, for example. There are a number of ways that firms seek to manage the political risk that they face when doing business overseas.
Because of the nature of political risk, the implications can be significant for business. The worst case scenarios could see the loss of the entire business, combined with risk to life and limb of the employees that work for the business. Even minor political risks could…
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Fiji. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fj.html
Fiji Times. (2008). Fiji rated a high political risk. Fiji Times Online. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:WAtbT2f3jdwJ:www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx%3Fid%3D81962+fiji+political+risk&cd=3&hl=en&ct=clnk&client=firefox-a&source=www.google.com
Hsu, T. (2010). Fiji Water to stop operating in Fiji. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/nov/30/business/la-fi-fiji-water-20101130
IHS. (2009). Fiji plunged into political turmoil as government declares state of emergency. IHS Global Insight. Retrieved April 19, 2011 from http://www.ihs.com/products/global-insight/industry-economic-report.aspx?id=106595628
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
political motive should be allowed to exercise within the context of morality otherwise the strongest will flourish at the expense of the weakest. The accommodation of morality within political decision-making is the essence of the central argument presented by Immanuel Kant in his work, "Perpetual Peace." This paper begins by summarizing Kant's "Perpetual Peace" and goes on to identify the realist and liberal aspects of his work. The paper ends by discussing the compatibility of Kant's ideas with classical realism.
KANT: PEPETUAL PEACE
The current international political environment is tilting towards a New World Order. This is due to the visible tension that is a product of interaction between the major world powers along with their national interests and the lesser world powers. This tension stems primarily from the desire to maintain power and protect one's own national interests at the expense of others. Several philosophers have suggested…
Kant, Immanuel. Kant: Perpetual Peace. Beck, Lewis, ed. Prentice Hall; 1998.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
Program Implementation: Investigating the Stagnant Political Situation in Pittsburgh
A Proposal for the Pennsylvania Center for Women, Politics, and Public Policy
This proposal for a program implementation is targeted at the Pennsylvania Center for Women, Politics, and Public Policy. The goal of the program is to investigate underlying attitudes among adult female citizens towards the political stagnancy in Pittsburgh. It will seek to determine whether these citizens perceive the political situation as stagnant, if they feel that they are resistant to change, if they believe that Pittsburgh is outperforming comparably-positioned cities, and if they feel like they can make meaningful political changes on the city and county level. The goal of the project is to help the Pennsylvania Center for Women, Politics, and Public Policy understand how to motivate greater female participation in the local political process in order to implement positive female-oriented policy changes.
The organization for…
Cochrane, R. (2009, December 10). Pittsburgh levies "education privilege tax" to pay off public employee pension debt. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from Hypocrisy Reigns Supreme website: http://hypocrisy.com/2009/12/10/pittsburgh-levies-%E2%80%9Ceducation-privilege-tax%E2%80%9D-to-pay-off-public-employee-pension-debt/
Copeland, L. (2012, January 4). Why do women vote differently than men? Retrieved March 1,
2012, from Slate website: http://www.slate.com/articles/double_x/doublex/2012/01/the_gender_gap_in_politics_why_do_women_vote_differently_than_men_.html
Renn, A. (2009, September 24). Pittsburgh renaissance? Retrieved March 1, 2012, from New
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…
Austen-Smith, D. (1993) Information and Influence: Lobbying for Agendas and Votes. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3): 799-833.
Bartels, L.M. (2005) Economic Inequality and Political Representation. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on February 15, 2001, from http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf
Derek, C., ed. (2002) the Best Elections Money Can Buy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund Report. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/_8MuDgm1AnavpYKIfwgxSA/bestelections10_02.pdf .
Farman, T.W., & Eggen, D. (2010) Republican Congressional Candidates Race Ahead in Fundraising. Washington Post. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101603236.html
520). Viewpoint neutrality ensures that funding is equally allocated to all registered student groups, and that registered student groups use their allocated funds in neutral ways.
or instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted…
For instance, public funds collected by students can be used to support campus facilities and meeting halls but not donations to political action groups. Student funds must be designated in ways that maintain institutional neutrality: meaning that student-funded groups cannot use student monies to support a political candidate. Moreover, student organizations "with a primary political mission" are not viewpoint neutral and are thus not entitled to student money (Kaplan & Lee p. 520). Universities are also not permitted to allow funding allocation decisions to be made by student referendum: "because there were no safeguards in the referendum process for treating minority views with the same respect as majority views, a fundamental principle of viewpoint neutrality," (Kaplan & Lee p. 521). Public universities are permitted to instate an opt-out policy for the collection of student funds, but are not obliged to do so. Courts have determined that obliging a university to permit opting out would be seriously disruptive to achieving First Amendment objectives.
Student organizations are prohibited from discriminatory practices, and universities are not obliged to recognize or fund student organizations that practice discrimination. In rare cases, student organizations are permitted to use affirmative action policies if such policies can be shown to serve the ultimate function of increasing minority student participation. Similarly, religious student organizations are permitted to restrict membership to those who profess belief, protected by the First Amendment freedom of expression clause that guarantees religious organizations the right to exist and practice their religion freely (Kaplan & Lee p. 528). However, religious student organizations may not discriminate against persons on the basis of race, gender, or sexual orientation simply by claiming a right to do so under the freedom of religion or the freedom of speech clauses (Kaplan & Lee p. 528).
Religious organizations sometimes claim protection under the freedom of speech clause rather than the freedom of religious expression clause, however. In Widmar v. Vincent (1981), a religious student organization vied for the use of public campus facilities for the purpose of prayer: which was framed as freedom of speech more so than freedom of religious expression. The Court also ruled that equal access to the school's public facilities trumped the need for strict separation of church and state (Kaplan & Lee p. 530). Simply using campus facilities was not deemed to be an endorsement of any particular religion.
On the surface, the current US President Donald Trump and the 1960s radical activist Saul Alinsky could not have less in common. Trump is currently overseeing what has become the longest government shutdown in US history due to his budget negotiations with Congress over his desire for appropriations to fund a wall on the southwest border of the United States. Alinsky wrote a book entitled Rules for Radicals, originally published in 1971, which outlined grassroots community organizing principles for leftists to challenge the conservative establishment Alinsky and his fellow Marxists wished to destabilize. Yet although Trump is a former businessman, conservative, and supporter of virtually every cause Alinsky opposed, Trump has positioned himself as an outsider figure and used many of Alinsky’s techniques, consciously or unconsciously, to thwart his opposition. Unfortunately for the country as well as for Trump, he has also ignored some of Alinsky’s critical advice, which has…
Sister's Dilemma regarding Affirmative Action in the Financial Industry
Overall, the moral dilemma presented in this given scenario, on a general level, is if it is morally acceptable for a company to use affirmative action to redress a previously existing institutional negative imbalance of individuals in positions of authority from minority groups, such as African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans, or a negative imbalance of individuals from traditionally discriminated against groups and backgrounds, such as women. Or, in the case of my sister, an individual from both such groups.
Specifically, for the individual in question, the moral and ethical dilemma question could also be framed as, even if she believes such political actions are justified, should my sister allow her own clearly qualified credentials to be potentially debased, given that her hiring seems to be presented an act of affirmative action to the office, given that all other candidates for the position were…
Government Guide. (2004) "Affirmative Action." http://www.governmentguide.com/issues/affirmativeaction.adp
Diversity Inc. "The History of Affirmative Action Policies." http://www.diversityinc.com/members/4314.cfm
Johnson, Lyndon. (July 2, 1964) Speech Definition Affirmative Action. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/affirmative1.html
One World Net. (2004) "Do Companies Have Human Rights Responsibilities?
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…
references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press
political opinions he or she holds?
What causes an individual to hold the political opinions he or she holds?
Political Attitudes Toward Immigration and acial Stereotypes
Immigration has been a prominent political issue heighted by legislation introduced over the last few decades. People hold various political opinions of immigrants, especially those in the U.S. illegally, which tends to be divided along racial lines. It is interesting that in a country built by immigrants that many people have negative attitudes toward immigrants that are perpetuated by stereotypes and prejudice against racial groups. Stereotypes are widely used to generalize about the characteristics of groups of people through the assignment of simple labels alleged to represent group traits which are frequently based upon perceived wrongs of one group by another (Burns and Gimpal, 2000). Some of the most prominent stereotypes that have been the subject of psychological investigation involve ethnic identity (Burns and…
Burns, P. And Gimpel, J. (2000). "Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy." Political Science Quarterly, 115, 201-225.
Ferguson, M. And Hassin, R. (2007). On the Automatic Association Between American and Aggression for New Watchers."
Lodge, M. And Tabor, C. (2005). "The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders,
Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis." Political Psychology, 26, 455-482.
The political ideology I align with the most is libertarianism. A lot of Americans pay lip service to liberty, but I am not one of them. The libertarian political ideology is based on the fundamental principle of human liberty: that the government should not interfere in the lives of individuals unless their actions infringe on the rights of others. I believe that the founding fathers of the United States intended for a libertarian government, which evolved out of Enlightenment values and philosophies and made their way into the writings of luminaries like Thomas Jefferson, John Locke, David Hume, and Adam Smith (Boaz, 1999). While I am not surprised to recognize libertarianism as my own political ideology, I do not believe that the current Libertarian Party of the United States has sufficient support to replace either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party in terms of popularity or influence.
Action eport (AA)
The importance of this coursework has certainly been underscored over the course of the past several days as Hurricane Sandy ravaged the East Coast of the United States. While the devastation is not unprecedented on the American continent, hurricane Sandy was a contemporary anomaly for the region with respect to the severity of damages and the scope of the devastation. As Mayor Cuomo stated, after a succession of natural disasters of this magnitude, it becomes impossible to refer to hurricane Sandy as a once-in-a-lifetime event. Moreover, health care management received considerable attention in the media coverage of Hurricane Sandy. Hospitals had to evacuate patients to safer zones and -- mid-crisis -- hospitals lost power and had to move critically ill and high risk patients to different facilities. Indeed, media coverage permitted the ongoing development of a case study in the importance of effective disaster relief policies and…
Athan, E., Allworth, A.M., Engler, C. Bastian, I, and Cheng, A.C. (2005). Melioidosis in tsunami survivors. [Letter to Editor]. Posted 14 September 2005.
Baldwin, K.M. (2005). Welcome to Texas. Clinical Nurse Specialist. National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists.
Cordero, J.F. (1998). The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: Lessons learned. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements, 101(2), 131-136.
Krisberg, K. (2006). Health workers struggling to meet needs a year after Katrina: Gulf Coast communities work to recover. [Website]. Posted 3 October 2005.
Political Issue and Tourism
Over the years, there has been concern over the fats shifting weather pattern occasioned by the global warming. Extreme and erratic weather conditions have been experienced in almost every part of the world. This essay will review the literature that is available on the definition of Global warming, the causes of global warming, effects of global warming on the community and nations, what the government is doing to stop global warming, as well as what Non-Governmental Organizations or Non-State Organizations are doing to stop global warming and finally what should be done to stop global warming.
The essay will also review the impact of global warming and community of Nations on tourism and how the changing weather patterns have impacted on the tourism trends from the human perspective as well as from the flora and fauna perspective. This will show how global warming has affected the…
Admin, (2011). Definition of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.definitionofglobalwarming.com/
African Safari Vacation, (2010). Effects of Global Warming on Tourism in Africa. Retrieved November 11, 2011 from http://www.kenyaonetours.com/african-safari/events/global-warming-on-africa.htm
Anita Pleumaron, (2007). Tourism Feels the heat of Global Warming. Retrieved November 11,
2011 from http://www.google.co.ke/#sclient=psyab&hl=sw&source=hp&q=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&oq=+effects+on+global+warming+on+tourism&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=94883l112644l1l113205l35l34l4l0l0l14l3892l25307l5-188.8.131.52.4l22l0&bav=cf.osb&fp=a55a91a0191aef52&biw=12
political, social, cultural, and economic differences between the North and the South on the eve of the Civil ar. How did these differences grow from 1800-1860?
Of course, the event that led to the actual first battles of the Civil ar was the firing on Fort Sumter, South Carolina, by Confederate troops on April 13, 1861. However, many other actions and events led up to the eventual outbreak of Civil ar. The North and the South were different, and not simply because the Southern landowners also owned slaves. The North was an industrial society, based on "growth and prosperity" (Norton 196). The South, on the other hand, was less industrialized and more agrarian in nature. "Southern wealth came from export crops, its population thus remained almost wholly rural rather than both rural and urban" (Norton). Thus, there were extremely different cultural and social values between the North and the South.…
Lowenfels, Walter, ed. Walt Whitman's Civil War. New York: Knopf, 1961.
Norton, Mary Beth. A People and a Nation- A History of the United States. (Volume A: To 1877), (fifth edition) Chapters 11, 14, 15. New York: Houghton Mifflin,1996
American Political Party
The biggest major parties in America is the Democratic party (DNC) and the Republican Party however the democrats regained control of the U.S. house and us senate in the 2006 elections and the White house in the year 2008 elections. This enables them to widen their congressional advantage and their ability to prove that they can improve on the national economy and health care.
Republican party (RNC) lost control of the big job in 2008:the presidency the party was swept out of office in response to the public's high disapproval rating of presidency .despite that the party is largely split into two ideological camps within the Republican Party, battling for control in preparation for the 2012 white house .
REPUBLICAN ON HOME LAND SECURITY: Bush together with the republicans in congress have put a great effort on home land security by taking action on multiple fronts .they…
political, social, and civil rights as they are, the notion of possible futures haunts nearly everyone. Potential political realities in the present and not-so-distant future are examined in Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale and Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time. These novels have become modern classics precisely because of their poignant relevance to real-world social and political affairs. Although both Atwood's and Piercy's novels are at least in part set in future times, both tales are devoid of any significant characteristics that distinguish them from the present day reality. Thus, both The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time eerily depict life in modern-day America even as they bridge gaps in time. In particular, issues related to gender and to political power are salient in both books. Through the core elements of their narratives, The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time reveal that male-dominated…
Men: First Class deals with a plethora of socio-political issues that ultimately pertain to the concept of freedom. The basis for the plot of the movie is the Cuban Missile Crisis and the role that an unknown, manipulative power of mutants played in almost staging -- and narrowly averting -- a nuclear war in the early part of the 1960s. hat is of particular interest about this aspect of the film was that the historical epoch rendered within it was a turbulent time for African-Americans, who sought Civil Rights throughout the United States during the years prior to and after those depicted in the movie. Although none of this history manages to infiltrate the plot of the film, it is still noteworthy to analyze the way African-American characters are utilized within this movie in a context that is decidedly removed from the greater social struggles that characterized their race…
X:Men: First Class. Dir. Matthew Vaughn. Perf. Michael Fassbender, January Jones, James McAvoy. 20th Century Fox., 2011. Film.
Famines and famine situations have been and presently are cruel realities in Africa. People like Alex de Waal or Dennis C. Galvan have attempted to (1) find the causes of famines and poor economic developments in Africa and (2) suggest intermediate ways of action, both in terms of prevention and acting against famines. On the way, tough realities have appeared, many with political consequences, including the fact that many NGOs, claiming to help people in Africa in times of need, are actually directing money and dedication elsewhere.
In his book, "Famine Crimes Politics & The Disaster Relief Industry in Africa," Alex de Waal points out towards the amplification of African problems because of the international humanitarian help the regions is often receiving. Of course, this is not necessarily a general evaluation. Waal himself never denies the help some of the NGOs are providing, but a misunderstanding of African realities often…
1. de Waal, Alex. Famine Crimes: Politics and Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford. 1997.
2. Galvan, C. Dennis. The State Must Be Our Master of Fire. June 2004.
Impact of the Slaughter-House Cases
The adoption of the constitution of the United States of America faced opposition from groups that feared the takeover of a centralized government. This opposition arose from the fear that this new centralized government would demean and embarrass the states by forcing or administering and contradicting the state's decisions, laws and policies. Opponents of the constitution feared that "the powers granted to the proposed government were not sufficiently guarded, and might be used to encroach upon the liberties of the people" (McClain 18). After the ratification of the constitution by the states the desire for amendments and regulations that restricted the powers of the new government was voiced by representatives of those states.
There was extreme fear that the everyday rights and liberties of citizens of a state would be impacted, restricted and oppressed by a centralized form of government. The desire to…
Abernathy, M.G. (1972). Civil liberties under the Constitution (2d ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
Gerdhart, M. (1990). The Ripple Effects of Slaughter-House: A Critique of a Negative Rights View of the Constitution.. Vandervilt Law Review, 43(409), 1. Retrieved July 13, 1983, from https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&doctype=cite&docid=43+Vand.+L.+Rev.+409&key=6a72b77f63c796a5bbcb151af5b3f9ce
Lee, P.Y. (2008). Meat, modernity, and the rise of the slaughterhouse . Durham, N.H.: published by University Press of New England.
Menez, J.F., Vile, J.R., & Bartholomew, P.C. (2004). Summaries of leading cases on the Constitution (14th ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Culture of Global Political Events
Global political events are certainly affected by culture. The very conception of politics itself is widely predicated on cultural concerns, especially when considering international politics. Perhaps the ultimate manifestation of international politics is the instance of war, which occurs when differing countries are engaged in belligerent encounters with one another. Intercultural communications plays a large part in the various images and messages disseminated through the media regarding the cultural phenomenons that affect how these images and messages are portrayed. A better understanding of the various cultures and their phenomenon could definitely improve the different intercultural communications and perceptions of martial events; a dearth of such understanding can lead to polarization and obfuscation of what these events truly mean to others. There are a number of examples that are indicative of the veracity of such a thesis, including the launch of the War on Terror, the…
Abbas, M., Riaz, S. (2014). Peculiar nature of the global war on terror and the dilemma of unlawful enemy combatants. Hamdard Islamicus. 37(4), 69-103.
Kapoor, P., Testerman, A., Brehm, A. (2016). Entrapment as a threat to community peace in the global war on terror: an analysis of discourse in local press. Journal of International and Global Studies. 7(2), 40-65.
Penslar, D. (2011). The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim. German History. 29(3), 423-444.