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" Over two-thirds of Haitians depend on agriculture (small subsistence farms), which is vulnerable to violent storms and erosion (deforestation). Haiti struggles economically due to "higher inflation than similar low-income countries, a lack of investment, and a severe trade deficit," the CIA reports. Per capital annual income in Haiti is estimated at $1,800. Even the labor force (3.6 million workers) is shaky, as "more than two-thirds" of Haiti's workers have no "formal jobs."
Haitian's main exports include coffee, oils, cocoa, mangoes and some manufactured goods - over 80% of which goes to the U.S. Another export identified with Haiti is cocaine, which enters the country from Columbia and is transported to Europe and the U.S.; "traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions," the CIA reports. There are about 8,000 United Nations peacekeepers in Haiti to "maintain civil order" and put down "civil unrest."
Journalist Amy Bracken writes that "due to…
Braken, Amy. "Haiti's Children Pay the Price of Poverty." NACLA Report on the Americas
CIA Factbook. "Haiti." Retrieved 10 March 2007 from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/ha.html.
CIA Factbook. "Norway." Retrieved 10 March 2007 from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/print/no.html.
Eigen, Peter. "Corruption still rampant in 70 countries, says Corruption Perception Index
Based on the readings, what could Tennessee do to make political and bureaucratic functionaries more accountable?
Public Administration, but virtue of its role in society, must be held accountable for corrupt and unethical actions. Public administration plays both a vital and integral role within the overall political climate of America and as such, must be held to a high standard. Many voters look to public officials as representatives of their communities and expect them to act responsibility while upholding the values of their constituency. Unfortunately, as recent events in Tennessee have shown, political stakeholders often put their own interest ahead of those who they have sworn to help. As a result, more action should be taken to hold political officials who stray from their mandate to be more accountable.
To begin, bureaucratic accountability is defined as the principle of political accountability that is applied to control bureaucratic power. Therefore, the…
1. Rich, E., & Moberg, J. (2015). Beyond governments: Making collective governance work - lessons from the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative. New York, NY: Greenleaf Publishing
2. Westenberg, E., & Sayne A. (2018). Beneficial ownership screening: Practical measures to reduce corruption risks in extractives licensing. Natural Resource Governance Institute. Retrieved from https://resourcegovernance.org/analysis-tools/publications/beneficial-ownership-screening-practicalmeasures-reduce-corruption
3. Wilson, C., & de Lanerolle, I. (2016) Test it and they might come: Improving the uptake of digital tools in transparency and accountability initiatives. IDS Bulletin, 47(1), 113–126. Retrieved from http://bulletin.ids.ac.uk/idsbo/article/view/40
Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation
hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.
For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…
Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, The Politics of Urban America: A Reader. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.
Riordan, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall / Edited with an Introduction by Terrence J. McDonald. New York: Bedsford St. Martins. Originally Published in 1905.
Weber, Max. "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Pp. 77-128, New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509671.
Harper, Jennifer. "At 25, atergate's Details Have Gotten Hazy: Americans Have Grown Used to Scandal." The ashington Times 17 June 1997: 1. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001562718.
Josipovic, Ivona. "Conflict Diamonds: Not So Clear-Cut." Harvard International Review 25.2 (2003): 10+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001987469.
Niven, David. "A Fair Test of Media Bias: Party, Race, and Gender in Coverage of the 1992 House Banking Scandal." Polity 36.4 (2004): 637+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008316309.
Posner, Sarah. "Security for Sale: The Department of Homeland Security Has a Section on Its eb Site Labeled "Open for Business." It Certainly Is." The American Prospect Jan. 2006: 28+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015061684.
Reports Gleefully Transform Bush Oil…
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007
When this happens, the standard of living and income levels will remain stagnant. (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27)
Moreover, corruption will increase the costs of doing business inside a particular area. This is troubling, as it will lead to less employers relocating to the region. Instead, they will seek out locations where there are lower amounts of corruption. This is a part of an effort to keep their costs as low as possible so that they can increase their overall returns and remain competitive in the global marketplace. For the region, this will result in less high paying jobs (which helps contribute to an increase in the unemployment rate). (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27) (Heineman, 2006, pp. 75 -- 86)
How can MNCs deal effectively with these problems?
The ways that MNCs are able to deal…
Berg, N. (2004). How Multi-National Corporations Deal with their Social Political Stakeholders. Asian Business and Management, 3 (3), 299 -- 313.
Bhargava, V. (2006). Global Issues. Washington DC: World Bank.
Cazurra, a. (2008). The Types of Corruption and FDI in Transition Economies. Journal of International
Management, 14 (1), 12-27
The Variant Paths of Post-Communist Russia, Poland, and Hungary
The past ten years have seen great changes in the formerly Communist countries of Eastern Europe. Bound together for years under the Soviet yoke, these nations have now embarked upon their own individual paths as sovereign states. Representative of these emerging one-time Eastern Bloc nations are Russia, Poland, and Hungary. All three once shared a common form of government and a single social system. In each of these cases, Communism overlay a pre-existing civilization and set of traditions. This relatively brief interlude of Marxism, Leninism, and Stalinism was thus, a veneer, a covering over, if you will, of far older patterns of behavior and ways of thinking. It was these underlying cultural and historical characteristics that, combined with the shared history of Soviet rule, produced the countries we know today. Three distinct nations were put together into the crucible of…
Allison, Graham. "Deepening Russian democracy: progress and pitfalls in Putin's Government." Harvard International Review 24.2 (2002): 62+. Questia. 2 May 2003 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000089175
Aslund, Anders. "RUSSIA." Foreign Policy July 2001. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000689067
Dougherty, Carter. "Warsaw near goal of bid to join EU." The Washington Times 26 Jan. 2002. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000091568
Political Scandals in Canada
A Political Scandal Involving Fraud
During the federal election in Canada in 2011 there was an electoral fraud issue that became known as the "Robocalls Scandal." This fraudulent activity took place in Ontario, in a town called Guelph.
Robocalls are previously recorded and automated phone calls to people from a computer that is programmed to call all phone numbers in a given area; usually robocalls carry a political message asking voters to behave a certain way.
In this case in Canada, the fraud took place because the robocalls were not from the organization they claimed to be from. People receiving the phone calls believed the calls were from the official group, "Elections Canada" but they were not from Elections Canada. The robocalls told voters their polling location had changed, and urged them to go to another place to vote that turned out to be a fraud.…
Daly, Brian. (2012). Bribery scandal rocks Canada Revenue. News Canada. Retrieve August
12, 2012, from http://www.saultstar.com .
MPR News. (2009). Why should the public care about a politician's private life? Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from http://minnesota.publicradio.org .
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…
Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318
Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]
Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]
Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
In China, at the same time (Kahn makes some interesting observation regarding these two case studies), corruption also seems to not have hampered too much the development and growth of the country. There are macroeconomic explanations for this. The influx of foreign investments was strongly encouraged by the creation of economic zones such as that around Shanghai with preferential conditions for business. Corruption was not an obstacle here, perhaps also because the authorities went to great length to make these areas attracters of foreign capital.
At the same time, one should also point out that the costs that a foreign investor would incur in corruption would sometimes not deter the foreign company because the returns were so extraordinarily high, so that the company could pay off the bribe to the governmental officials and still be left with a significant profit.
All in all, it is difficult to draw a distinct…
1. Shleifer, a. And Vishny RW. 1993, Corruption, Quarterly journal of Economics, 108, pp599-617
2. Khan MH. 2002, Corruption and governance in Early Capitalism: World Bank Strategies and their Limitation, in J. Pincus and J. Winters (eds.), Reinventing the world bank, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Pp. 164-184
3. Meier, G. And Rauch, J. 2000 Chapter 9 Political Economy pp421-454, in Meier G. And Rauch J. Leading Issues in economic development, Oxford, Oxford University Press
4. Krueger a 1974, the political economy of the rent-seeking society, American Economic Review
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…
Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm
Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm
N.D. PP. 1). Yet with the recent wave of anti-American protests can these statements be integrated into a compelling narrative for long-term investment? Specifically, the answer is derived from qualifying the political risk variables associated with respective nation-states.
While a plethora of political risk models exist, there are definitive items which comprise their ability to predict relative political turbulence. These factors include:
The threat of war, social unrest, disorderly transfers of power, political violence, international disputes, regime changes, institutional ineffectiveness, quality of the bureaucracy, the transparency and fairness of the political system, and levels of corruption and crime. (Economist Intelligence Unit. N.D. PP. 1)
Returning to the Middle East and the unrest of the last 24 months, nation-states in the region have experienced these factors to some degree and have developed scenarios to provide some measure of political certainty. Yet the issue remains whether the dynamism of the…
The urpose of a olitical Court
In the view of Henry J. Abraham (Abraham 1998, 55), "theoretically," just about any qualified law school graduate with ambitions for an important judicial appointment would appear to have a fair chance at being nominated to the U.S. Supreme Court. That is providing, of course, the candidate is politically "available" and is, in Abraham's words, "acceptable to the executive, legislative, and private forces that, in the order enumerated, constitute the powers-that-be underlying the paths of selection, nomination, and appointment in the judicial process." key phrase in Abraham's criteria is "acceptable to the...legislative" body; as has been witnessed in the past few days and weeks, some of the conservative judicial nominees - not for the High Court but put forward by resident George W. Bush for federal appeals courts slots - have not been "acceptable" to a sufficient number of U.S.…
Peter W. Sperlich. "...And then there were six: the decline of the American Jury," in Judicial Politics: Readings from Judicature, ed. Elliot E. Slotnick (Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1992), 244.
Michael C. Munger, "Comment on Ferejohn's 'Judicializing Politics, Politicizing Law'," Law and Contemporary Problems 65 (Summer 2002): 87.
Jonathan Harr, A Civil Action (New York: Random House, 1995), 488.
Grand corruption is a serious issue throughout the world which has led to the development of many different laws. The United Nations defines grand corruption as "corruption that pervades the highest levels of a national Government, leading to a broad erosion of confidence in good governance, the rule of law and economic stability ("United Nations Convention against Corruption")." Grand corruption is such a concerning issue because of the costs associated with this deceptive activity. Eliminating grand corruption has become a major quest of NGOs such as the UN. According to an article entitled "The Global Programme against Corruption" published by the UN, efforts to raise awareness about corruption have been made since 1994. The report explains that corruption has an insidious nature and can have devastating impacts on entire countries and their citizens. The report asserts that "Corruption not only distorts economic decision-making, it also deters investment, undermines competitiveness and,…
"African Charter on Human and People's Rights." http://www.achpr.org/english/_info/charter_en.html
Argandona A., (2007) The United Nations Convention Against Corruption and its Impact on International Companies . Journal of Business Ethics 74:481 -- 496
Baker, Raymond. 2005. Capitalism's Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market
System. John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Limited the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the President and Congress in the Late 19th Century
In the nineteenth century, the American government saw many Americans worry about the responsiveness, complexity, or size of their democracy. Having this perspective in mind, the American government of the nineteenth century was small and orderly, having a great machine that oversaw the state at night and held in check by the yeoman citizenry. Moreover, the lines of authority were overlapping where the federal structure took measures to ensure that the national government and the states each had their precise and respective orbits. As such, the structures ensured that the federal government remained small and limited. The little system of regulations precluded the emergence of the sprawling regulatory state having a cacophony of interest groups that competed, the bureaucrats were unresponsive, the politicians were ambitious, and citizen-clients. In summary, the idealized image of the nineteenth…
Carlson, Bernard. Technology and America as a Consumer Society, 1870-1900. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, 2007. Print.
Eric, Arneson. American Workers and the Labor Movement in the Late Nineteenth Century. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing, 2007. Print.
Glaeser, Edward, and Goldin, Claudia. Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Print.
Johnson, Kimberley. Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, 1877-1929. Princeton University Press, 2006. Print.
Columbian Drug Trade
If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.
However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.
We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.
It is certainly…
There are numerous effects of corruption on MNCs. In case their competition engages in such practices, their activity is significantly influenced by this phenomenon. This is because their corrupt competitors can change rules and regulations that do not favor other companies. Therefore, they have to deal with the effects of such situations. This sometimes determines them to modify their activity.
In addition to this, there are situations where employees of certain MNCs are bribed by competitors in order to provide important information on these companies. This is extremely harmful to companies as it can lead to information leaks on strategies, price levels, and other types of investments that these companies intend to make. This means that these MNCs must increase investments in security issues.
In addition to this, MNCs are sometimes forced to become corruptors because some of their competitors do so. In other words, if certain companies provide incentives…
1. Begovic, B. (2005). Corruption: Concepts, Types, Causes, and Consequences. Center for Liberal Democratic Studies. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.cadal.org/documents/documento_26_english.pdf .
2. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention (2012). OECD. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://www.oecd.org/daf/anti-bribery/countryreportsontheimplementationoftheoecdanti-briberyconvention.htm .
3. Kwok, C. & Tadesse, S. (2006). The MNC as an Agent of Change for Host Country Institutions: FDI and Corruption. The William Davidson Institute. Retrieved April 24, 2013 from http://wdi.umich.edu/files/publications/workingpapers/wp882.pdf .
Performance Evaluation on Corruption for Public Organization
In the wake of the double-edged sword caused by its scandalous mismanagement of the September 11th terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina's devastation of New Orleans in 2005, the venerable charity organization American ed Cross (AC) was subjected to intense public and political scrutiny. This pressurized process of external examination eventually revealed an abundance of systemic flaws in the AC's organizational management structure, including widespread fraud and abuse of privileges by executives, gross misconduct on the part of volunteers and other employees, and an astounding level of wasteful spending as it pertains to funds that were ostensibly donated to a charitable cause. The four established benefits of business ethics, as described by Ferrell, Fraedrich, and Ferrell in Business Ethics, of employee commitment, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction, and bottom line (2011) all experienced dramatically detrimental consequences that were directly caused by the AC's corrupt and…
Ferrell, O.C., Fraedrich, J., & Ferrell, L. (2011). Business ethics: Ethical decision making and cases. (8th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Koleva, G. (2012, January 17). American red cross fined $9.6 million for unsafe blood collection. Forbes, Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/gerganakoleva/2012/01/17/american-red-cross-fined-9-6 - million-for-unsafe-blood-collection/
Scott, L. (1995). Red Cross touts its broad restructuring. Modern healthcare, 25(46), 10-14.
Strom, S. (2006, March 24). Red cross sifting international charges over katrina aid. The New
efficiency and effectiveness. Is it possible for an agency to exhibit one but not the other?
Most law enforcement agencies seek to be both efficient and effective because the two can go hand in hand when things are done correctly. It is possible, though, to be highly effective but in inefficient ways (e.g., reducing the number of violent crimes in the community by using enormous amounts of overtime without conducting basic research to determine where the most of the crimes are being committed) and likewise it is possible to be highly efficient without ever accomplishing anything (e.g., recording the number of violent crimes accurately and conducting research to identify problem areas without implementing any interventions).
What political consequences might result from an unfavorable opinion of your department?
Sheriffs' offices depend a great deal on the support and goodwill of the general public. Even the hint of corruption or inefficiency could…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
DeCrescenzo, D. (2005). Early detection of the problem officer. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
74(7), 14-17. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204141156?accountid
Famines and famine situations have been and presently are cruel realities in Africa. People like Alex de Waal or Dennis C. Galvan have attempted to (1) find the causes of famines and poor economic developments in Africa and (2) suggest intermediate ways of action, both in terms of prevention and acting against famines. On the way, tough realities have appeared, many with political consequences, including the fact that many NGOs, claiming to help people in Africa in times of need, are actually directing money and dedication elsewhere.
In his book, "Famine Crimes Politics & The Disaster Relief Industry in Africa," Alex de Waal points out towards the amplification of African problems because of the international humanitarian help the regions is often receiving. Of course, this is not necessarily a general evaluation. Waal himself never denies the help some of the NGOs are providing, but a misunderstanding of African realities often…
1. de Waal, Alex. Famine Crimes: Politics and Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford. 1997.
2. Galvan, C. Dennis. The State Must Be Our Master of Fire. June 2004.
" It should be noted that Perriello supported a "Republican version" (House.gov) of PAYGO that supported stronger restrictions on spending. In defense of this vote, he says, "This was a great chance to really get our budget under control, and I was glad to stand up and vote for the kind of smart fiscal policy that folks in the Fifth District expect" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello even posted an update on Twitter, stating that he was "very pleased that PAYGO passed the House" (Twitter.com). Perriello believes that responsible spending is not an issue for Democrats or Republicans but rather an "American issue" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello states that while both of these bills contain good ideas, he wishes "we could have combined ideas from both sides of the aisle to produce a better, bi-partisan solution" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). hile still a freshman in ashington, Perriello has demonstrated…
Gibson, Bob. "Perriello Enters Race for 5th seat; Hopeful Seeks to Bring Faith, Global Experience to D.C." The Daily Progress. Charlottesville, Va.: Oct 7, 2007.
Goldsmith, Will. "Can he go the Distance? Tom Perriello hits Southside in his effort to beat Virgil Goode." Charlottesville News and Arts. < http://www.c-ville.com/index.php?cat=121304062461064&ShowArticle_ID=11800610083997492 >
Lithwick, Dahlia. "Goode Riddance." Slate Online. 2008. http://www.slate.com/id/2204124/
Mission and Vision.
Unfortunately, the support gained by these two divisions were not based on the opinion, instead immoral activities including bribes were offered in exchange for the support of individuals, irrespective of their class and affiliation. The failure of the Gracchus brothers highlighted the failure of the constitution, the people and class emerged which was involved in such immoral activities, and lauded corruption for the political gain including influence Senate. The removal of the Tarquins was responsible for the social and political unrest, and after the election of the Tiberius Gracchus by the assembly as the tribunes, different policies with reference to the land allocation and ownership were restricted to 640 acres, and therefore the rich had to compromise, and lost their part of the wealth through different imposition and restriction. The rich compromised over their wealth and the state and poor were considered to be the beneficiary, therefore previously where the…
Justin Trudeau's election as Canadian Prime Minister represented a generational change in the country's politics. While there was a general belief that he was not ready to be Prime Minister, Trudeau used political skill and craftsmanship during the long election campaigns to defeat experience politicians. His election not only represents a generational change in Canadian politics but also has significant impacts on governance. In a recent phone call, he has indicated that he wants to re-establish the country with a new political system. This is influenced by the talks he has had regarding different kinds of political systems i.e. oligarchy, democracy, and the middle class. For Prime Minister Trudeau to choose the best system to rebuild the Canadian political system, an understanding of each of these systems is important.
One of the people who made significant contributions regarding oligarchy, democracy, and the middle constitution is Aristotle, a Greek…
POLITICAL OVERVIEW: The former Persia became present day Iran on April 1st 1979 Before that Persia was a Monarchy and its last ruler was Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi He lost favor with the people and the religious clerics of the country The clerics chose to exile Pahlavi and establish a theocracy Theocracy refers to a government type where majority of decision making and political power is in the hands of a religious leader, in other words a country that adopts religious law as its legal system
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini a Conservative cleric took over the reins of the nation
The government structure is complicated as its Parliament is a mixed bag of elected and unelected members At the top of the hierarchy is the 'Supreme Leader' military, judiciary and foreign policy fall under his command An interesting aspect of Iranian government is the amount of accountability attached to federal…
. Protests against the government continue and the government keeps arresting activists, rebels and revolutionaries, in an effort to stamp the desire for reform out of the masses
. Ahmadi-Nejad and his people are the Neoconservationists and his era is known as the third revolution in Iran. While Khatami and his followers were intellectuals, he and his people are religious and idealistic. It seems that he knows better than Khatami, how to please the public (Ehteshami, A & Zweiri, M, 2007).
NATIONAL GOALS: The country has become synonymous
women political candidates social media differently men? Does social media ultimately empower hurt women politics? Cite "Digital Divas" Essay 2: We 200 million girls world don't attend school.
How do women political candidates use social media differently than men?
The number of women on social networks far outnumber men. Statistics also show that women use social media as their preferred modes of communication compared to men. Generally, politics is thought to be a male dominated field. On social media, it is believed that outsiders and newcomers to politics are favored. This makes social networks to be an asset to women political candidates. This is because in the male dominated field, they are often the minority or newcomers and receive preferential treatment on social media Gelber, 2011()
Gender and communication experts suggest that social media is a better form of communication for women since they are better at writing…
Gelber, A. (2011). Digital Divas: Women, Politics and the Social Network. Shorenstein Center Goldsmith Fellow, Spring 2011.
United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs. (2012). Global women's issues: Women in the World today. Washington DC: United States Department of State Bureau of International Information Programs.
Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.
Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.
Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.
Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.
The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…
Editors. (2009). Corruption FAQs. Retrieved 10 August 2009 from the Transparency International Web site: http://www.transparency.org /news_room/faq/corruption_faq.
Myint, U. (2000). Corruption: causes, consequences, and cures. Asia-Pacific Development Journal. 7 (2). 33-58.
Spector, B.I. (Ed.). (2005). Fighting corruption in developing countries: Strategies and analysis. West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press.
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
This book deals with problems experienced in law enforcement that demonstrate the inability of police officers to make lawful decisions. Chapter 8 deals specifically with police corruption and identifies three elements that exist in police corruption. The first is, the behave must be forbidden, the second is misuse of officer's position, and third, the reward. Although this chapter offers no study, it does provide a look into what the definition of corruption is along with a possible explanation for the prevalence of corruption amongst police officers and law enforcement in general.
Block, C. (2015, December 30). Florida Police Under Investigation for Laundering $55.6 Million For Drug Cartels. Retrieved from http://www.mintpressnews.com/212404-2/212404/
A newspaper article, this source discusses police corruption in Miami. Florida cops that work for the Bal Harbour Police Department have allegedly laundered an estimated $55.6 million for…
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html
Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm
Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
FIJI -- Political Analysis
Scenario -- Australian parent company wishes to set up hotel/resort themed operations in the country of Fiji. Preference is to acquire a hotel/resort already in operation; retain staff; modernize and restructure.
PESTLE analysis -- Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal, and Environmental Issues. Political portion: Overview government, issues: globally, nationally, regionally, locally; changes, trends, etc.
The Republic of the Fiji Islands is an island nation in the South Pacific, just northeast of New Zealand. Fiji was a British colony until 1970 after a century of occupation. Because of the abundance of forests, minerals, and fish resources, Fiji is one of the most developed of the islands in the area. Today, the major economic activities for the islands are tourism and sugar exports (Central Intelligence Agency 2010).
Government Type -- Officially a republic; 1997/98 Constitution encourages multiculturalism and makes multiparty governmental system mandatory. Current Chief of State Ratu…
AAP 2010, Massive Tax Hike Sees Fiji Water Turn Off the Taps, viewed April 2011, http://www.couriermail.com.au/business/massive-tax-hike-sees-fiji-water-turn-off-the-taps-and-let-go-hundreds-of-fijian-workers/story-e6freqmx-1225963165587 .
BBC News 2009, Fiji Suspended from Commonwealth, viewed April 2011, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8231717.stm .
Central Intelligence Agency 2010, CIA World Factbook - FIJI, viewed April 2011, http://www.cia.gov .
David, G 2009, Dealing with the Dictator, viewed April 2011, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/features/dealing-with-the-dictator/story-e6frg6z6-1225698321979 .
It is possible to read Plato's Apology as the best extant textual representation of the legacy of Athens in the fifth century CE in law and politics. The fact is that the Athenians, although they voted to put Socrates to death, might very well agree on principle with this evaluation. The Apology is, after all, a representation of the Athenian system of trial by jury, and it is worth recalling that this judicial system was considered to be a founding myth of Athens itself. Earlier in the century, roughly a decade before Socrates was born, the tragedian Aeschylus in the Oresteia would represent the mythological and divinely-sanctioned origins of the Athenian jury trial, as a replacement for the endlessly bloody cycle of the lex talionis, when the goddess Athena invites a group of Athenian citizens to sit in judgment on Orestes, who killed his mother in revenge for her…
Plato. The Apology. Trans. Benjamin Jowett. Internet Classics Archive, 2009. http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/apology.html
Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.
This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Framing the Problem
Chapter 3. Study Questions
Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction…
A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:
Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,
2013 from The Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com /wp-srv/local/longterm/library/dc/barry/timeline.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This was because of some of the reforms that he introduced for corporations, for public spending, environmental protection and transportation sectors. Since powerful LDP members had vested interests in these sectors, they did not approve of all the reforms and hence were wary of Koizumi and his brand of politics.
The articles about Koizumi and Abe suggest that Japan suffers from serious economic problems that the political system cannot resolve. Why not? What are the political obstacles to changing Japanese politics? How does it relate to the Johnson reading?
Japan has had enormous economic success over the decades but lately its problems are negating the effects of earlier successes. I cannot agree with the opinion that economic problems cannot be solved through political means. Even though other factors do play in, it is the political system that determines the path economy will take. By political system, we mean…
Tomohito Shinoda. Koizumi Diplomacy: Japan's Kantei Approach to Foreign and Defense Affairs University of Washington Press (April 15, 2007)
Chalmers A. Johnson. Japan: Who Governs?: The Rise of the Developmental State W.W. Norton & Company (March 1995)
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER orking Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
Buchanan, J.M.; Tullock G.; and Tollison, R., eds. (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station: Texas a & M. University Press.
Campos, J.E.; Lien, D.; and Pradhan, S. (1999) "The Impact of Corruption on Investment: Predictability Matters." orld Development 27 (6): 105967.
Cheung, S.N. (1996) "Simplistic General Equilibrium Theory of Corruption." Contemporary Economic Policy 14 (3): 1-5.
Davies, B. 2001. "Making macaroni out of Marconi." Centaur Communications. [online] http://www.ideasociety.co.uk/marconi.htm
Easterly, ., and Levine R. (1997) "Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions."…
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER Working Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
Corruption, Political Patronage and the Need for Reform of the Pakistani Cricket Board (PCB)
Corruption in professional sports carries significant implications beyond the sport itself. Nations, regions and populations attach a great deal of importance to athletic competition and particularly to the notions of honor, integrity and sportsmanship. So recent revelations of match fixing in cricket have shaken the sport to its foundation.
Particularly, evidence of match fixing in Pakistan is forcing the sport to examine its conscience. According to the transcript emerging from an investigation into such events, gambling odds-makers are guilty of an historically persistent pattern of corruption. CEO of the International Cricket Council (ICC) between 2001-2008, Malcolm Speed indicates that "the same bookmakers who were there in the late 90s, who were corrupt then and were seeking corrupt players, they're still there."
Today, the game is troubled by mounting allegations that players have accepted…
MNCs and Corruption
Firstly it is imperative to draw a simply quantitative difference between "small" and "huge" corruption and qualitatively compare corruption for legal and for improper ends (Znoj, 2009).
This kind is specified as "small" repayments and they are planned to obtain someone in an empowered position and force him to make decisions he is responsible of making. The payments are made due to the fact that without this added "stimulation" nothing would take place, or perhaps its taking place would be in-conscionably postpone (Znoj, 2009)."
In lots of cultures gifts provided directly, as through an invite to a dinner or other similar favors, are honestly anticipated as marks of regard or as evidence of peaceful relations (Deresky, 2011). Declining them can be taken as an indicator of rejection and even as an affront. In various cultures the idea that a business provides possible…
Znoj, Heinzpeter (2009). "Deep Corruption in Indonesia: Discourses, Practices, Histories." In Monique Nuijten, Gerhard Anders. Corruption and the secret of law: a legal anthropological perspective. Ashgate. pp. 53 -- 54.
Legvold, Robert (2009). "Corruption, the Criminalized State, and Post-Soviet Transitions." In Robert I. Rotberg. Corruption, global security, and world order. Brookings Institution.
Deresky, H. (2011). International management: Managing across borders and cultures (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Camden, New Jersey is a city that symbolizes racial segregation and embodies the worst of American capitalism. In Camden, "poverty is a business," (Hedges and Sacco 88). George Norcross, aka "King George" -- is the de facto big man of Camden. Only, Norcross does not live in Camden, has no official elected position, and is white -- unlike the vast majority of Camden residents. Camden is not the typical white flight story, either. The history of Camden reveals potent trends in American urban geography, particularly the theme of how intersections between race, class, gender, and power entrench corruption in American society. One research question that can be elucidated through a deeper analysis of Chapter 2 in Hedges and Sacco's Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt would be how the people can reclaim their cities from the wanton destruction, alienation, and exploitation symbolized by the likes of King George.
Machiavelli, Luther, And Muntzer
Must a good politician be morally bad? In the context of the Reformation, this question revolves around how Christians would define what is "morally bad" had become suddenly and seriously complicated by competing definitions of what constitutes "morally good" behavior. The rhetoric very often yielded more heat than light: Luther's and Muntzer's apparently sincere eschatological belief that the Vatican was to be identified with the hore of Babylon in the Book of Revelations made the question of cooperation with wicked temporal powers more than a purely academic one. Yet it is arguably the religious situation of Roman Catholicism in the first place that leads to the ethical differences in the political philosophies of Machiavelli, Luther and Muntzer. Indeed, the religious distinction that Luther upheld against the Vatican -- insisting on salvation sola fide, by faith alone, rather than by deeds -- indicates that in response to…
Luther, Martin. "Temporal Authority: To What Extent It Should Be Obeyed" (1523).
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Translated by W.K. Marriott. Project Gutenberg; n pag. Web.
Muntzer, Thomas. "The Prague Protest" (1521).
Muntzer, Thomas. "A Highly Provoked Defense" (September, 1524)
How can we respond to their criticism? Both Freud and Marx were attempting to define something that is not quantitative in a quantitative manner. Faith cannot be measured in dynamic terms, nor can it be universally quantified. We might also point out that there is a clear difference between faith and religion. Faith is a concept, a belief, a trust; religion is manmade, and as any student of history knows, variable over the course of time, society, and individual cultures.
Does faith have a psychological and social value? Based on the very scientific principles of conservation of energy, humans would not be able to conceive or participate in, the concept of faith and religion unless it had elements that were essential to human culture. Just as people have many different tastes in food and clothing, so has history shown us that the same is true for religion? Faith is a…
Ambrose, S. (2006). Religion and Psychology. New York: Nova Science Publications.
Palmer, M. (1997). Freud and Jung on Religion. New York: Routledge.
Pals, D. (2006). Eight Theories of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Program Implementation: Investigating the Stagnant Political Situation in Pittsburgh
A Proposal for the Pennsylvania Center for Women, Politics, and Public Policy
This proposal for a program implementation is targeted at the Pennsylvania Center for Women, Politics, and Public Policy. The goal of the program is to investigate underlying attitudes among adult female citizens towards the political stagnancy in Pittsburgh. It will seek to determine whether these citizens perceive the political situation as stagnant, if they feel that they are resistant to change, if they believe that Pittsburgh is outperforming comparably-positioned cities, and if they feel like they can make meaningful political changes on the city and county level. The goal of the project is to help the Pennsylvania Center for Women, Politics, and Public Policy understand how to motivate greater female participation in the local political process in order to implement positive female-oriented policy changes.
The organization for…
Cochrane, R. (2009, December 10). Pittsburgh levies "education privilege tax" to pay off public employee pension debt. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from Hypocrisy Reigns Supreme website: http://hypocrisy.com/2009/12/10/pittsburgh-levies-%E2%80%9Ceducation-privilege-tax%E2%80%9D-to-pay-off-public-employee-pension-debt/
Copeland, L. (2012, January 4). Why do women vote differently than men? Retrieved March 1,
2012, from Slate website: http://www.slate.com/articles/double_x/doublex/2012/01/the_gender_gap_in_politics_why_do_women_vote_differently_than_men_.html
Renn, A. (2009, September 24). Pittsburgh renaissance? Retrieved March 1, 2012, from New
Note that inflated English has been more characteristic of the centuries preceding Orwell and of Orwell's own time than on the latter part of the 20th century. There has been a shift in linguistics. As linguists and historians of language have noted, the Western model of language follows the monological approach. The monological approach has roots reaching back to Aristotle who saw communication as one of rhetoric, namely persuasion, where communication was a strategy for influencing people and helping them see reason, or the truth. In this way, the 'other' became viewed as object, communication was one way (monological) and the objective was how to best seduce the other to one's way of thinking. According to some linguists, such as Alfred Taylor, this reduction culminated in reducing conversation, depersonalizing words, and converting them into ideas rather than seeing the complexity of the speaker behind the words. It also led to…
Source Orwell, G. Politics and the English Language, Horizon, 1946
Guerrilla Government and the EPA
Guerrilla government within the EPA grew out of a response to various failed administrations, which were led by men who did not approach their leadership position with the type of virtue and character that those passionate about the environment and the organization would have preferred to see. Thus, under ussell, for example, the EPA had become a shell of what it was supposed to be, with ussell using EPA funds for self-pleasure and even blocking clean-ups and environmental action for occurring as in the case of the smelter complex in Idaho (O'Leary, 2014, p. 61). The ethics issue that ussell violated was his lack of transparency, which resulted in dishonesty among the administration and a failure to live up to the expectations of the mission of the EPA by getting in bed with big business instead of holding business's toes to the fire and demanding…
O'Leary, R. (2014). The ethics of dissent: Managing guerrilla government (2nd ed.).
Washington, DC: CQ Press
U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (2000). A brief wrap on government ethics. Retrieved from https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ethics_brief_3.pdf
U.S. Office of Government Ethics. (2015). OGE Publishes Updated Compilation of Federal Ethics Laws. Retrieved from https://www2.oge.gov/ "
law and politics and demonstrate what the difference is, if any, between law and politics.
The difference between law and politics has been debated among those to who are referred to as "purists," which are those who hold as a belief that "law" and "politics" have nothing to do one with the other and those which are referred to as "legalists" would adhere to the belief that there is absolutely no difference between law and politics. The first obvious step of discovery is to examine the definition of each of these subjects. The definition given for law is as follows:
rule established by government. 2. legal profession
police 4. rule of natural phenomena.
Next to discover the definition for politics which, is listed as follows:
Politics: n 1. Theory and conduct of government 2. Political affairs and methods.
At first glance it does seem that the two indeed are the…
Centre for Law, Politics and Culture: Area of Research Strength. 2004. [Online] available at http://www.utpjournals.com/product/utq/671/difference18.html
Explorations in Difference: Law, Culture and Politics. Foreword author: Honorable Jules Deschenes, et al. Univeristy Toronto Quarterly Vol. 67 No.1 winter 1997/98 [Online] available at http://www.scu.edu.au/research/clpc/CLPC_rationale.pdf
Dorf, Michael C. 2000. Is There a Distinction Between Law and Politics? Yes, And the Bush V. Gore Decision Proves It. [Online] available at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dorf/20001227.html
Webster's New Compact Dictionary (1978)
The news footage is also used to present the ordeal that followed after Wilson's op-ed piece was published in the New York Times and helps to demonstrate the media, political, and public backlash that ensued. The use of news footage helps to present the story from an unbiased view and leaves little room for Limon to convey his political agenda, if any. The film succeeds in bringing attention to the Wilson/Plame plight for justice and their quest to clear their name. The film also succeeds in demonstrating the corruption within the Bush administration and how power was abused in order to justify their actions, as well as their attempt to cover-up the truth at any expense. The editing helps to support Plame's story as it follows her through her job duties, both in Washington, DC and in the Middle East. The editing follows a linear narrative and lays out the…
There is a concerted effort to bring developing nations into the global trade system. There are certainly success stories of nations that have been able to enjoy advantages from joining this system -- China in particular comes to mind -- but there is room for debate as to whether or not the neoliberal trade system is actually desirable for developing nations. There are a lot of issues at play, starting with the basic economics.
In general, the theory of comparative advantage argues that nations should open up trade, so that they can produce the goods in which they have a comparative advantage and sell them to buy the goods in which they do not. There are some fairly significant real world limitations to this theory, however. One is that trade is usually governed by absolute competitive advantage, not comparative advantage. If a company wants a good at a low…
Masnick, M. (2016). Countries sign the TPP ... whatever happened to the debate we were promised before signing? TechDirt. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from https://www.techdirt.com/articles/20160203/15151133510/countries-sign-tpp-whatever-happened-to-debate-we-were-promised-before-signing.shtml
Nguyen, J. (2016). 5 economic effects of country liberalization. Investopedia. Retrieved April 20, 2016 from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/11/economic-benefits-country-liberalization.asp
In this sense, it is not simply a matter of theoretical approach, but also one that is accompanied by data. More precisely, for instance, in the 1960s, when, as stated previously, the afflux of the development aid had not been significant, the real GDP per capita was $1,049. Compared to the 1990s when the development aid was more consistent, the real GDP per capita fell to $1,016 and in 1991 to even $970 (Andrews, What foreign aid can and can't do in Africa, 2010). This can be interpreted as being the result of a series of development strategies that did not improve the condition of the society. Also, this period was indeed characterized by increased political distress that only contributed to the way in which development programs were constructed, managed, and implemented.
In later years, through the United Nations programs, the increased donor contributions, the GDP per capita increased substantially,…
UN Habitat. (2003). The challenge of slums - global report on human settlements 2003. United Nations Human Settlements Program.
United Nations Development Program. (2010). Human Development Report. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.
Andrews, N. (2010).; Understanding the context of Aid and socio economic development in Ghana. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.
Andrews, N. (2010). Foreign Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Ghana'S Development: The Case for "Bringing Culture Back in "to the Analysis . International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (5), 95-104.
Dillon's Rule: Help or Hindrance?
Corruption and financial issues at the local level led to the disenfranchisement of the people and high levels of concern at the state and federal level. Something had to be done to help curb these issues on a grand scale in the United States. This decision gave birth to what is now known as Dillon's Rule, which essentially results in a narrowing of power of governments at the local level. This rule is generally used when trying to decide and interpret whether a local government has any expressed powers in a given situation. This rule is strictly and narrowly defined, and if there is any reasonable doubt at all about whether the authority has been expressly given to a locality through the state, then the authority of that locality in that given situation is not recognized. Every state in the union has some element of…
Boulter, D. The Dillon Rule and Fairfax County. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Retrieved from http://www.dougboulter.com/policy/dillon.html
Fauntroy, M.K. Home Rule or House Rule? Lanham: University Press of America, 2003
Gargan, J.J. Handbook of Local Government Administration. New York: Marcel Dekker
Strategic Context of Sub-Saharan Africa
In response to the political administration of United States, interest in Africa changes. It is either decreased or increased. Cuba, China, France and Soviet Union are among those countries that have been influences for decades by the African continent which had pulled attraction of many towards itself. Africa has also been assisted by an economically powerful country i.e. United States. This continent had been able to gather a large number of consumers that were around 600 million. But this potential for the economic investment and growth was slowed down because of the instability. Another reason for this was the increase in the rate of migration (AEC, 2010).
Because of the foreign policy, Africa and United States were not able to maintain a close relationship as cold war came to an end. The strategy that had been used by United States was to make efforts to…
AERC (African Economic Research Consortium) (2010), Proceedings from the Conference on Africa-China Relations, Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa, 28-30 September.
African Union (2010), "African Union Commission-Regional Economic Communities Common Position Paper on EPAs," AU Conference of Ministers of Trade, 6th Ordinary Session, Kigali, 29 October -- 2 November 2010.
AUC (2006), The Review of Millennium Development Goals and the Millennium Declaration: An African Common Position, African Union Commission, Addis Ababa.
Cumbo, J.E. (2003) U.S. Foreign Policy towards Africa. U.S. Army War College: Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.
Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.
National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business
The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…
Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html
Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf
Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.
Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html
consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.
isk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic epublic of Congo
New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic epublic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper…
Janda, Michael. (2013). Trade deficit falls on iron ore, coal recovery. CNN. Retrieved:
[14 Apr 2013]
Scott, Jason. 2012. Australia Passes 30% Tax on Iron-Ore, Coal Mining Profits. Businessweek.
Cohn, Erasmus and Machiavelli
Political theory inevitably arise from the influences which affect a society at the time of their formation. During the time which communist leaders ruled Russia with an iron fist, the social order, or lack thereof, demanded a heavy handed approach to political leadership in order to bring order out of the chaos remaining after the olshevik revolutions, and the First World War. In America, the establishment of a state in which freedom of the individual is held as one of the highest moral goods of the people evolved in part due to the unfair and unjust monarchies of the European continent. The founders of the United stated had suffered under the tyranny of 'divine right' for centuries, and as a result, vowed to establish a country in which the guaranteed individual freedoms of each citizen formed the glue that would bond the country together.
Foxe, John. Fox's Book of Martyrs. William B. Forbush, ed. Chicago: John Winston Co. 1926
Huizinga, J. Erasmus and the age of Reforation. New York: Harper. 1957.
Schaub, D. Machiavelli's realism. The National Interest, No. 53, Fall 1998.
Walters, C. Machiavelli's immortal look at Livy. The Washington Times, August 11, 1996
In the United States, the government has had to deal with accusations of corruption and duplicity from the beginning of the nation's creation. Unfortunately, many of these accusations have been found to be true and those in positions of political power have been guilty of abusing their roles and of committing illegal acts while purportedly representing the people. In recent years, the corruption has become even more blatant and obvious. Instead of properly representing their constituents, elected officials are becoming more concerned with their political careers and with increasing their power and expanding their bank accounts. This is completely antithetical to the original purpose of the representational government system that the Founding Fathers instituted (Barbour 20). In Bill Moyer's documentary Capitol Crimes, the filmmakers explore just how bad the issue of political corruption has become and how it affects everyone who is led by that corrupt government. Examining…
Barbour, Christine, Gerald C. Wright, Matthew J. Streb, and Michael R. Wolf. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics. Washington, DC: CQ, 2006. Print.
Bill Moyers: Capitol Crimes. Acorn Media, 2012. DVD.
Grimaldi, James and Schmidt, Susan. "Report Says Nonprofit Sold Influence to Abramoff."
Washington Post. Oct. 13, 2006. Print.
This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.
To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…
Associated Press (AP). (1987). Inflation up 159% in Mexico. The Dallas Morning News.
Bruhn, K. (1997). Taking on Goliath: The emergence of a New Left Party and the Struggle. Penn State Press.
Camin, H.A. & Meyer, L. (1993). In the shadow of the Mexican Revolution.
Daria, J. & Santamaria, D. (2006). Oaxaca Under a State of Repression. The Narco News Bulletin. Online at http://www.narconews.com/Issue40/article1672.html
Tammany Hall: Mirror of Human Greed
e often hear the road to hell is paved with good intentions and we can certainly use the history of Tammany Hall as an example of how this occurs. Tammany Hall was born from good intentions for the residents of New York, primarily the immigrants and lower working class. Helping others find work and shelter sounds like a way to improve the situations for many in the Lower East Side and this fact only brings us to question how a political party moves from this mindset to one of corruption so quickly and easily. The answer lies with the nature of man. hile the road to hell is paved with good intentions, we also know that power is one of the most destructive elements known to man. hen it comes to personal greed and the welfare of others, greed often wins. Tammany Hall demonstrates…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. (1994). The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath
Davidson, James, et al. Nation of Nations. (1990). New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing
California's Electoral System of Today -- No return to the New York Tammany!
It would be tempting to view the defeat of the Tammany Hall Political Machine by the opponents of political corruption as the clear triumph of good over evil. But the victory of the greatness of the 'morning glories' sniffed at by the politicians over Boss Tweed and his ilk was not so simply realized. The fall of the party bosses had as much to do with negative as well as positive political, historical and social influences upon the urban landscape of America. The first foremost and most sweeping example of this is the Great Depression that precipitated the subsequent nationally-based New Deal policies of the Roosevelt administration. This economic catastrophe created a program of federal social welfare surmounted the informal 'good corruption' policies on a local level that had allowed the Tammany politicians of the George Washington…
Sociology of Work
Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…
Altay, A. (1999). The efficiency of bureaucracy on the public sector. DEUIIBF Dergisi:
Dokuz Eylul Universitesi. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://www.libf.deu.edu.tr/dergi/1999_2_4.pdf
Carnis, L.A.H. (2009). The economic theory of bureaucracy: insights from the Niskanian model and the Miserian approach. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian's
Economics. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae12_3_4.pdf
Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.
A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of…
CIA. "Nepal." The World Factbook. July 24, 2008.
. . while defending these institutions themselves" (1034-1035). Peled further argues that Rousseau was not able to solve this paradox and it was one of the reasons why he became increasingly pessimistic about modernity. But Rousseau's attempts to reconcile the contradiction in his approach are worth looking at in details.
Although Rousseau abhorred inequality that rose out of private property, he did not hold any illusions about modernity. He believed that private property became an essential component of the modern bourgeois society and economic relations in the modern era could not be free from errors and corruption. So, Rousseau thought that the best solution to modern inequality was to allow private property in limited amounts and regulate it through the state that represents the common will. In a perfect society imagined by Rousseau, the state would honor the right to possess private property but at the same time would retain…
Alvarez, Andres and Jimena Hurtado-Prieto. "Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx on the Critique of Economics. Some Insights from their Analysis of the Role of Money." Academic paper, Phare, Universite de Paris X -- Nanterre. Available at http://rousseaustudies.free.fr/articleHURTADOALVAREZROUSSEAUMARX.pdf
Bozarth, David. "Rousseau Closer to Marx than to Locke." Academic paper, Sonoma State University (2004, June 15). Available at http://dbozarth.com/Poli_Sci_Notes/Rousseau_Closer_To_Marx_Than_To_Locke.htm
Brenkert, George, G. "Freedom and private Property in Marx." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 8.2 (1979): 122-147. Available at http://www.jstor.org/
Chattopadhyay, Paresh. "Marx's First Critique of Political Economy, 1844-1994." Economic and Political Weekly, 29.31 (1994, Jul. 30): 54-59. Available at
Life of Honest Graft -- the Life and Times of George ashington Plunkett
The political machine created at Tammany Hall by Boss Tweed of New York City during the Gilded Age of American politics and the Industrial Revolution has become synonymous with political corruption. At the beginning of the book on another Tammany Hall politician, introduced and assembled by the historian illiam L. Riordon, George ashington Plunkett offers an apparently self-serving Tammany style distinction between honest graft, or illegal political corruption for personal profit, and dishonest graft. He states "Everybody is talkin' these days about Tammany men growin' rich on graft, but nobody thinks of drawin' the distinction between honest graft and dishonest graft. There's all the difference in the world between the two. Yes, many of our men have grown rich in politics. I have myself. I've made a big fortune out of the game, and I'm gettin' richer…
Norton, Mary Beth, et. al. A People and a Nation. Sixth Edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2001.
Riordon, William L. Plunkett of Tammany Hall. The Project Guttenberg: 1963. Available online 1 November 2004 at http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/plunkett-george/tammany-hall/#s01
Mary Beth Norton, et al., A People and a Nation, Sixth Edition, (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003)
William L. Riordon, Plunkett of Tammany Hall, (The Project Guttenberg: 1963), available online at
bribing" unethical and illegal or just a cost of doing business?
Bribery is unethical and illegal in some societies and a regular part of business in others. Whether or not an activity is unethical is largely dependent on the culture, customs, norms, values, and laws of the country where the activity takes place. It's a matter of perspective. When you consider that the act of bribery is intended to supplement the income of underpaid officials or increase the power of a nation's governments, the outcome of the bribe is a negative one. Most economists and ethicists agree that bribery's effects are largely detrimental (Weber and Getz, 2004). If the effect of the act is detrimental, then it can be argued that it is unethical to engage in bribery even if it is only a cost of doing business.
There are different types of corruption: bureaucratic corruption where officials take bribes;…
ABC News Productions (2002, November 20). Inside the Kingdom: Saudia Arabia. [Television broadcast]. New York: Nightline.
Gerasimova Ksenia. (2008). Can corruption and economic crime be controlled in developing countries and if so, is it cost-effective? Journal of Financial Crime, 15(2), 223-233. Retrieved January 13, 2011, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1472787421).
Daniels, John, Radebaugh, Lee, Sulliven, Daniel (2010) International Business: Environments and Operations (13th Edition). Place of Publication needs to be inserted here: Prentice Hall.
Weber, J., & Getz, K. (2004). BUY BRIBES OR BYE-BYE BRIBES: THE FUTURE STATUS OF BRIBERY IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE. Business Ethics Quarterly, 14(4), 695-711. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Populist Persuasion," Michael Kazin sees populism as a vehicle for the weak and disenfranchised common person to address and challenge the ruling elite. As such, Kazin views populism as an "impulse" that is at the very root of American democracy. Kazin's view of populism can be seen as an outgrowth of the democratic ideology of the American Revolution, as described by ood. Kazin argues that populism has gradually moved from the political left to the right of the political spectrum. George . Bush's current attempts at economic and moral populism give us a better understanding of Kazin's arguments. Finally, "All the King's Men" explores the relationship between populism and the corruption of the political system.
Kazin feels that populism is a more of an "impulse than an ideology," and that populism is the very language of democracy. He defines populism as a political language that regards "ordinary people as a…
All the King's Men. Cast: Broderick Crawford, John Ireland, et al. Director: Robert Rossen. Columbia/Tristar, 1949.
Kazin, Michael. The Populist Persuasion: An American History.
Cornell University Press, 1998.
Library of Congress. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. 17 November 2002. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/