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Albert Hirschman has described two means of expressing dissatisfaction with a company in the political economy: exit and voice. Exit is when people stop buying or using a company's product or service en masse, while voice is when people express such dissatisfaction in writing or with the spoken word. This paper describes two real life situations where exit and voice were used to influence the political economy
One example of the use of "exit" in the real world as Hirschman describes it is the mass migration of customers from GoDaddy to other domain name registrars when it was discovered that the CEO of GoDaddy had been on safari and killed an elephant, and again when it was discovered that GoDaddy was supporting SOPA, the wildly unpopular internet privacy bill that was recently up before a vote in Congress (and was subsequently defeated). When the first incident came to…… [Read More]
Subsidize the rebuilding of homes post-Katrina
Because the majority of the victims of Hurricane Katrina were very poor, many did not have homeowner's insurance or other methods of restoring their houses to livable condition. The government should provide grants to residents to enable them to rebuild their homes, provided they lived in structurally sound enough areas that were deemed not to be at extreme risk should the levees break once again. For families whose homes could not be saved, they should be given financial restitution to enable them to find residences elsewhere, enabling them to rebuild their lives. This policy would bring the New Orleans community together as residents strive to improve their lives. This policy will also give residents some autonomy to choose how their houses could be rebuilt. Specific contractors offering low-cost, subsidized services would be recommended, but residents could choose who would engage in the…… [Read More]
At the same time, foreign direct investment capital increased exponentially in different areas. These factors allowed the banking sector become well capitalized with over $1 billion in reserves. (Lewis) (Dosmukhamedov)
According to Baumol (2007) the basic models that were used to help create these transformations were a combination of big firm and enterprise centric capitalism. This is when private businesses were allowed to develop, produce and deliver various products to the market place with little to no outside government interference. This resulted in a series of economic partnerships with countries such as Russia and China for the development of oil / gas natural pipelines. The impact this is having on the economy, is to transform the nation and the industries which are operating throughout the region. These changes have created tremendous amounts of economic growth with this accounting for GDP increases of 10.3% to 4.5% between 2010 and 2012. However,…… [Read More]
Political Economy of Climate Change
International Conflict for Post-Kyoto: Which countries will benefit and lose national interests from the regulation of CO2?
Over the last several years, the issue of CO2 emissions has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of studies are continuing to show how the release of these gases from cars, factories, refineries, power plants and homes are contributing to global warming. To prevent this different conventions and agreements have been signed (such as: the Kyoto Protocol). This was the first concentrated effort in directly controlling CO2 emissions through a cap and trade system. The way it worked is different nations could trade pollution credits with each other in order to remain in compliance with the treaty. The basic idea was to create a marketplace where these caps can be exchanged (in a transparent format). (United Nations Environmental Program, 2008) (Anzar, 2005)
This…… [Read More]
globalization and the effects that it is having on our world. This paper will look at four different thinkers -- obert Gilpin, Pankaj Ghemawat, Jeffrey Frankel and Moises Naim -- and discuss their thoughts on this subject, adding the author's own analysis and interpretation to build on their work.
In his The Nature of Political Economy, Gilpin delves into the perceived conflict between corporations and nation-states. He perceives these two actors as engaged in a cold conflict over the world's resources. He uses this discussion to frame his explanation of the nature of political economy. He notes that there is a reciprocal relationship between economics and politics (p.282) and that both wealth and power derive from this relationship. Absent in his analysis are people, since neither have much real power, certainly not as much as might be found in collections of people working in the apparent interests of other people…… [Read More]
political economy of China explores the following issues and questions:
hen did Deng Xiaoping start China's economic reform? hat were some of the motivations for his open-door policy?
hat achievements has China made since then?
hat are the major problems in today's Chinese political economy?
hy is China not a democracy yet?
The roles of Deng, Jiang and Hu's three generations of Chinese leadership in China's political economy.
Deng Xiaoping's Economic Reforms
Deng Xiaoping emerged as China's de-facto leader in the years following Mao Zedong's death in 1976. Under his tutelage, China entered an era of sustained economic process that continues to date.
Deng started China's economic reforms in 1978 with the announcement of the "Open Door Policy."
Prior to the introduction of the new Policy, China had followed the radical, centrally directed economic policies of Mao that emphasized self-reliance and closed its door to trade with foreign countries on…… [Read More]
Among the various prime-time offerings there is a hospital drama, ER, which happens to be one of that network's longest-running dramas and focuses on an emergency room in an urban area. Furthermore, not only does ER feature many non-white cast members, but it portrays minorities in positions of power. It features African-American, Indian, Croatian, and lesbian doctors. In fact, one of the more recent storylines centered on an interracial romantic relationship. Obviously, this program is not geared to appeal towards only white upper-class Americans. On another night, the main prime-time drama centers on a medium that helps solve crimes. Although the medium is portrayed by a white woman, and comes from an upper-middle class background, her boss is Hispanic.
The comedies offered by the network also fail to show a white upper-middle class heterosexual dominance. The days of dominance by comedies like Friends or Seinfeld, which portrayed New York as…… [Read More]
Political Economy Background: Japan and Korea
In the period after the World War II, a large part of the world was restructured, especially the Pacific Asia (Borthwick, 1992). One of the most dramatic changes that took place in Asia was that several countries that had been colonized or semi-colonized emerged in the years following the War as independent, self-governing states, freed from colonial rule. In Southeast Asia, for example, between 1949 and 1959, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Malaysia attained independence. Singapore gained the right to self-governance in 1949. However in this region, two countries managed not only self-governance but also diplomatic international relations. These two countries were Korea and Japan.
Though Japan had not only been physically destroyed by its enemies, but mentally and spiritually defeated by its surrender in the wake of the War, it managed to overcome this sense of defeat and started to build its way…… [Read More]
theoretical insights in the Anderson & Hill and Anderson & Huggins books to developing two policy proposals designed to maximize the number of elephants while also protecting the interests of farmers. In these policy proposals, we will assume that traditional, fenced in national parks will exist in African countries along with traditional fence agriculture. Additionally, there will be game ranching/sustainable tourism and private reserves where harvesting of economically valuable natural plants.
Sustainable Tourism in Fenced National Parks and Conventional Agriculture
One should always keep resources that have worked in the past. Sustainable tourism presents possibilities for the conservation of elephant populations. Fenced in game preserves and national parks that promote tourism have been around for years and represent excellent venues to connect with wealthy vacationers who will spend money in the host countries and will hopefully donate to organizations that promote elephant and other wildlife conservation. By increasing tourism, the…… [Read More]
It could additionally restrict the possibility of importing ideas and strategies from various other industries.
The primary goal of this book, as a result, is to offer a well balanced and upgraded evaluation of the relationship in between IPE and economics for upper undergraduate and masters pupils in IPE, preventing the opposing risks of economics anxiety and economics envy. It is definitely not meant as "economics for dummies," nor as a paean to economic science. The author offers an intro to international political economy which catches the essence of advancing arguments in this topic. He additionally persuades those pupils of IPE who continue to be careful of engaging with economics that a cautious and vital engagement with economic concept and ideas is important both to an understanding of modern IPE and to making best use of the potentialities of research in this industry.
It will likewise be clear that the…… [Read More]
Reagan era economics and uses the economic era as a foundational support for the economic boom of the 1990's. The writer explores various published works regarding the Reagan Economic era including discussions about the trickle down theory and voodoo economics to lay the building blocks to explain the boom of the 1990's.
The economic boom of the 1990's brought America to heights it had not seen in many years. People were able to purchase what they wanted, when they wanted and in the quantity they wanted. The housing market soared and the quality standard of life seemed to improve more many Americans. It was a decade of self-discovery, and a decade of exciting stock, housing, auto and other economic avenues to explode. It lasted long enough for residents of this nation to become comfortable spending and that comfort drove the spending up. This in turn drove the economy forward and…… [Read More]
Foreign Direct Investment
Why has foreign direct investment (FDI) increased in recent decades?
According to the OECD, (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), one of the major trends in the global economy during the recent decades is the increase in the foreign direct Investment (2001, p.101). Foreign direct Investment is the process of establishing, owing and controlling the production of goods and services in the foreign country or in simple words, it can be defined as the real assets which are abroad. It is associated with the transitional corporations which expand their global activities.
If we go back 50 decades, we find out that foreign direct Investment was considered as an unhelpful, unconstructive, negative and a method of introducing improper technology for the developing countries. However, a completely different view of FDI has emerged in the last two-three decades and today it is considered as very beneficial for the economic…… [Read More]
The new rebuilt and equipped factories were net superior to those of America or other victorious states.
Demographic factor more recent internal factor that tends to influence Japan's economy is of demographic nature. However still increasing, the population of Japan is increasing at a lower rate than that of a decade ago. Not only the reduced birth rate contributes to the demographic decrease, but also the more and more obvious market liberalization and individuals' migration towards better paid jobs in other countries.
This means that the country is left with less young workers and more retired people with no other income that their pension. In the times to come, the larger number of pensioners than that of the working population will turn out to be a bourdon upon the shoulders of Japan.
Also, another demographic factor of great importance is the recent migration from the country side to the city.…… [Read More]
However, this is hardly enough to address further issues across the world economy, including poverty.
Despite the fact that trade has become significantly facilitated by the regulating authorities, it is also true that most member countries are developed countries, while developing countries receive very little in terms of policies to facilitate their international relationships within the trading regime. This has been the paradigm since the inception of the global trade regime. Powerful member countries as it were tended to control the regime.
Currently, the United States is at the most powerful relational position within the trade regime. As such, the country's voting power within the MF and World Bank remains significant, as does the fact of its privilege in the financial regime. The regime is structured in such a way that developed countries enjoy privileges that poorer countries do not. Because it can take advantage of the international strength of…… [Read More]
One can understand how this occurs from an economic perspective. With globalization, the individual economic entity, be it company, small firm or individual member of society, will no longer interact with the state in the economic field, but rather with one another, and this will occur not in a limited, stately environment, but on a large, unlimited, global scale. At the same time, globalization goes hand in hand with liberalization, which means that in the global economic environment, the nation state loses its role as a centralized and regulatory authority in the economic events, as the economic entities will be able regulate the market freely, through their own interaction.
The hyper globalization thesis also argues that the globalization phenomenon is likely to significantly impact the nation state's regulatory ability in all areas ranging from labor to environmental regulations and to taxation. The logical reasoning for this is simple: globalization proposes…… [Read More]
International Political Economy and Globalization
1- Exercise your reasoning skills by using clear points and illustrations from Global Trade and Economy Industries, give two or more reasons which justify the definitions of Globalization. Use a reasonable meaning regardless of its rigidity and typical nature.
Globalization refers to the growing international dependency of worldwide nations and organizations as a result of cross-border trading of amenities, cultures, technological concepts as well as information. (Mingst and Arreguin 2011. 161)
Furthermore, the basic principle of globalization originates from the comparative advantage model. This model is of the notion that nations that are renowned globally to produce certain commodities are at an advantage of exporting those commodities to nations that are not capable of generating such goods. On the other hand, the less capable nation is also able to trade what it is best able to produce to the former nations. This results in trade…… [Read More]
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…… [Read More]
" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
Connections between the two
Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…… [Read More]
Another example of policy approach is given by the editors' arguments that, in order to successfully implement the 10x Program and restore the balance between the primary and specialty care within the United States, a new policy approach is necessary. Its aim would be that of restoring the role and importance of a strong primary health care, as the basis of the entire American health care system. "To achieve U.S. health policy goals of accessibility, affordability, quality, safety and equity, a robust primary care sector must become the foundation of U.S. health care" (italics in the original text). But not only that this recommendation is linked to policy, it demands new regulatory measures to be taken. These regulatory measures will enhance the capabilities and role of the primary health care sector.
The focus placed by the four authors on the shortages of the contemporaneous medical sector within the United States…… [Read More]
Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive
Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).
In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…… [Read More]
grades were determined on a curve, I would work very hard to try to be in the top 5% of the class. However, my view of that grading system might be colored by how widely distributed the grades in the class were. If the distribution was narrow, then the curve system would appear to be an arbitrary reflection of the professor's desire to have a certain grade distribution, rather than a reflection of student knowledge. If POL S. 270 was the only class in Political Science that graded on a curve, then all but the strongest performers would avoid the class, which would deflate the grades of those who are traditionally the strongest performers because they would be subject to the curve. If all of the courses in the university were graded on a curve, then the university would experience more drop-outs because of forced-fails. This type of curve system,…… [Read More]
There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.
Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html
Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:
Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City
Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html
Williams,…… [Read More]
mericans today think about the problems of getting the oil that is needed to run our economy through the rest of this century, they will no doubt find themselves thinking either about drilling for oil in laska - since this topic has been so much in the news over the past several months - or establishing peace in the Middle East so that oil may continue to flow from that region to the United States - a topic that has been in the news even more since the September 11 terrorist attacks.
But while both laska and the Middle East will no doubt remain at the center of energy policy - or at least controversy over energy policy - for the foreseeable future, we must remember that there are other important sources of energy in the world, and these too exist amid a cyclone of political controversy.
One of the…… [Read More]
Famines and famine situations have been and presently are cruel realities in Africa. People like Alex de Waal or Dennis C. Galvan have attempted to (1) find the causes of famines and poor economic developments in Africa and (2) suggest intermediate ways of action, both in terms of prevention and acting against famines. On the way, tough realities have appeared, many with political consequences, including the fact that many NGOs, claiming to help people in Africa in times of need, are actually directing money and dedication elsewhere.
In his book, "Famine Crimes Politics & The Disaster Relief Industry in Africa," Alex de Waal points out towards the amplification of African problems because of the international humanitarian help the regions is often receiving. Of course, this is not necessarily a general evaluation. Waal himself never denies the help some of the NGOs are providing, but a misunderstanding of African realities often…… [Read More]
- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.
Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.
He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…… [Read More]
Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.
Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.
Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.
Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.
Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.
Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.
David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259
Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…… [Read More]
International Political Economy of East Asia
As growth of the economy is something most governments in most developing countries would like to have, the interplay between the politics and economics of such growth-oriented policies becomes all-important.
The East Asian region is one of the most diversified regions in the world where neighboring countries can be so different economically, politically, and culturally that it is impossible to draw any common factors that can be used to explain the patterns of their lives or livelihood. One thing is quite common; however, most of the countries in East Asia gained their independence after the Second World War, and started to develop their countries in their own separate ways.
Despite all these adverse effects and undesirable consequences, the Second
World War combined with the intrusion of Japanese military power into Southeast
Asia had helped shatter both the mystique and the institutions of Western Colonialism.…… [Read More]
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]
Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.
Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.
Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…… [Read More]
he Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view: 1) the "military metaphysic"- a military definition of reality, possess 2) "class identity"- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they "clone" themselves socially after such elite.
he United States represents the ideal place for the developing of the elite power. he way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the events of history, linking the two, are the major institutions…… [Read More]
Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…… [Read More]
Our role play recruitment for cattle drive recruiters and recruits takes place in 1866 in a Texas panhandle town after the American Civil War. Herd owners hold a meeting where they recruit discharged Confederate war veterans and others to drive their cattle across hundreds of miles of prairie to Kansas and Nebraska. Kansas, which had been open before is now more than ever being settled by homesteaders in need of cheap land. The land is more valuable there in producing farm crops than in cattle. In comes the cattle investor who decides to use the old Spanish/Mexican practice of cattle driving to bring the goods from the interior of Texas to the northern areas where railroads in Kansas will take the beasts to market.
The Texans simply learned the practice of cattle driving from the Spanish and Mexicans before who used the practiced to get their…… [Read More]
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…… [Read More]
There is a concerted effort to bring developing nations into the global trade system. There are certainly success stories of nations that have been able to enjoy advantages from joining this system -- China in particular comes to mind -- but there is room for debate as to whether or not the neoliberal trade system is actually desirable for developing nations. There are a lot of issues at play, starting with the basic economics.
In general, the theory of comparative advantage argues that nations should open up trade, so that they can produce the goods in which they have a comparative advantage and sell them to buy the goods in which they do not. There are some fairly significant real world limitations to this theory, however. One is that trade is usually governed by absolute competitive advantage, not comparative advantage. If a company wants a good at a low…… [Read More]
Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.
Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]
Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation
hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.
For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…… [Read More]
Political and eligious Boundaries
Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding…… [Read More]
Political and Economic Differences
Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world
The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.
The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of 'second class citizens' for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a 'male' recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the…… [Read More]
Political, Legal, Economic isk Analysis
Spain is the eighth biggest industrialized economy in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development -- OECD and the fifth biggest nation within the EU as regards population, output and production. Spain has undergone a remarkable change since the last thirty years. Progressing from a somewhat a poor agrarian economy, it has witnessed speedy economic progress and is presently a modern, fully industrialized nation. Since the past decade sincere efforts by successive governments have pushed economic reforms placing the Spanish economy on a robust structural standing with the result that since the last five years the Spanish economy has come to be amongst the front ranking European economies. The International Monetary Fund in its preliminary Conclusions on the 2001 Article IV Consultation has ranked Spain as the most dynamic economy of Europe. (Doing Business in Spain: An Introductory guide to the market)
Turkey on the…… [Read More]
Political & Economic Differences
The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.
As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…… [Read More]
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…… [Read More]
"Both the U.S. side and the Mexican side replicate the political, economic, social, and cultural systems of their respective nation-states. At the same time, borderlanders have blended the structures, institutions, and life expressions of the two societies to create something novel and entirely theirs -- the ambiente fronterizo, or borderlands milieu. Today the area stands as a prime example of binational interdependence, providing striking evidence of the trend toward closer ties among the world's nations and societies" (Martinez, 1994)
Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209
Hackenberg, ., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3
Longley, ., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info
Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast…… [Read More]
This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.
Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.
Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.
On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…… [Read More]
Political risk is one of the different elements of country risk that a company must take into consideration when operating internationally. Political risk reflects the risk posed by the government of a country, including risks that the government will take action against your company (China v. Google), up to and including the risk of nationalization (Argentina v. YPF). Governments have the capacity to, in an unpredictable and ad hoc manner, change the rules governing a company's operations in a country. In the West, where political processes tend to be transparent, it is a lot easier to understand and measure political risk. Political risk, it should be noted, reflects actions taken on existing ventures, and not something like project approval. So Keystone XL is a pending decision, not a political risk. isk would be if Keystone is approved and then after it is started the next government moves to block the…… [Read More]
The newly independent states were generally rated according to high level of political, economic or social risk (not entirely untrue), which meant that the levels of interest were generally extremely high. Even more, the sums paid for interest would generally surpass the actual funds that had been received. This meant that, instead of focusing the country's resources on development and internal projects, most of it had to be spent paying off debts which were not even viable and extremely costly.
On the other hand, from an international perspective, international debt is something fundamentally essential to the financial markets. Money is made to circulate and move around, which means that entities need to be connected to the financial markets, borrow on the open markets and use that money to create added value and generate more cash flow. The fact that, in many cases in the developing world, this mechanism was in…… [Read More]
For John Locke, government "…should be limited to securing the life and property of it citizens"; and government should allow freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. He was opposed to "hereditary monarchy" and supported human rights (especially in his more mature years).
As to how these political theories connect with environmental policy in the U.S.: first, the environmental policies in the U.S. are under attack by the Republicans in the House of Representatives. Their recent bill, H.R. 1, passed in February 2011, contained 19 anti-environmental riders that would "negatively affect air, water, and environmental quality," the Sustainable Energy & Environmental Coalition explained. The right wing in Congress wants to take power away from the Environmental Protection Agency as well. Hume would likely approve of the Tea Party and GOP as to their disavowal of global climate change; he would agree that the U.S. federal government is too big and…… [Read More]
Political Backgrounder: Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia, Canada -- Political Background in the context of environmentalism
Darrell Dexter is Nova Scotia's incumbent premier and the 27th Premier of the province since the Confederation. Dexter was elected leader of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party in 2001 and was sworn in as Prime Minster on June 18, 2009. Both he and the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party have strict views with regard to environmentalism, as the province is actively involved in becoming a global leader in green energy before 2020. As Dexter puts it, "This is about making the right decisions for our economy and our environment. e are putting our energy future where it belongs, back in Nova Scotians' hands." (New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment)
Darrel thinks about green energy as being more than a means to guarantee a safer future for people when concerning matters…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
However, he steers relatively clear of muscular economic writing in Conscience of a Liberal, preferring the position the book as something of a call to arms for the liberal movement. While this approach allows him to cover a wide range of ground and be fairly convincing in doing so, it also hampers his arguments by removing what should be the key to his credibility. His economic arguments strike more as a recitation of facts and figures rather than the heavy lifting he of which he is obviously capable. As his credibility stems from his work as a prize-winning economist, and this book lacks that to some extent, it seems as though the book is a long-form blog or other such opinion piece.
There is an element of urgency in his work, however, best evidenced in the chapter about health care. Krugman ties the demise of conservatism to universal health care…… [Read More]
N.D. PP. 1). Yet with the recent wave of anti-American protests can these statements be integrated into a compelling narrative for long-term investment? Specifically, the answer is derived from qualifying the political risk variables associated with respective nation-states.
While a plethora of political risk models exist, there are definitive items which comprise their ability to predict relative political turbulence. These factors include:
The threat of war, social unrest, disorderly transfers of power, political violence, international disputes, regime changes, institutional ineffectiveness, quality of the bureaucracy, the transparency and fairness of the political system, and levels of corruption and crime. (Economist Intelligence Unit. N.D. PP. 1)
Returning to the Middle East and the unrest of the last 24 months, nation-states in the region have experienced these factors to some degree and have developed scenarios to provide some measure of political certainty. Yet the issue remains whether the dynamism of the…… [Read More]
In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island (271). In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges (Ash et al. 199). There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment.
In a study conducted by Lee-In Chen Chiu, Ding Yi, Si Joong Kim, on Bae Kim, Reginald Yin-ang Kwok, Hong Yung Lee, Karen Eggleston Lee, Li uwei, Shelley M. Mark, Manuel F. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. So, Shi Min, Sung Shou ei, Yibo Xu, Zhang Zhongli, Lishui Zhu, Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, Keun Lee;…… [Read More]
Every year more than million local population migrate towards the urban areas.
Gender Discrimination: The regional religious clerics and their influence over the governments have created broad problems for women, and thereby restricting their integration and involvement into society and profession. Although the females have secured permission to vote, and fight elections, but they are subjected to difficult terms and conditions. The employment of females in MENA has improved, however it is still 15% lower than East Asian countries.
Growing pressures on young men and women in the Middle East and North Africa to immigrate to Europe and the U.S. To find jobs and economic opportunities -- a process that inevitably creates new tensions and adjustment problems' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).
egional trade of lower magnitude:. All the countries of the region have so far failed to progress over economic and trade agreements. The countries have…… [Read More]
The amount of political influence varies depending on the type of company. In the case of an industry needing a great deal of capital invested, they may be more susceptible to political risk. In the case of strapak the investment is moderate and does not require heavy foreign direct investment strategies. Though there is a need to export plastic products outside the country of South frica, the amount of required for manufacturing companies is far less than say for example an energy product industry. The amount of risk rises when the government makes changes based on politically correct moves to garner favor with global strategies such as environmental issues (Bothma, 2011). The regulations that the government can impose on a company can quickly affect its bottom line. The highest level of political risk comes from civil issues between domestic people groups. nother is war that can affect the ability…… [Read More]
Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…… [Read More]
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.
The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.
The televised lampoon of…… [Read More]
Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.
The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.
There were, however, forces to overcome:
Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…… [Read More]
International business: Sweden
The world economic powers have controlled the world economies for the longest time. Sweden is a remarkably small nation, yet it has developed to become among the best and wealth endowed nations in the world. It is a historically established nation that has been existence as early as the 7th century. From these early centuries, Sweden has been known for the level of involvement and development in trade.
Geographic, demographic and natural resources information of Sweden
The geography of Sweden makes it a nation of envy by many others. Sweden has a small area of total coverage of about 449,964 sq km. The area that is dry land is about 410, 934 sq km, and the rest is water. This in comparison to the United States is just slightly larger than the state of California by about land total 2,233 km. Sweden has a coastline…… [Read More]
When giving scholarly consideration to the rise and fall of the Brazilian economy over the past fifty or so years, it is vitally important of course to examine the economy in the context of government, politics, and the international economic climate. The reason for the great interest taken in the Brazilian economy is because it is the largest economy in Latin America and among the ten biggest in the world. Locating the information for a quality analysis of Brazil's economic history is not problematic; there is a wealth of solid material, including the Joseph A. Page book, The Brazilians, and numerous scholarly articles.
Page's book is presented in great detail, beginning with a realistic "Introducing Brazil" chapter (4-6) in which Page grimly describes how a once optimistic nation now is crime-ridden, so poverty-stricken that "the social fabric is tearing to shreds," with a "yawning chasm" separating "haves" from…… [Read More]
Human Psychology Drives Economy
Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.
The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.
The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…… [Read More]
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…… [Read More]