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Political Inquiry

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 34320208

Political Inquiry

Utility of Political Inquiry Models: Scientific vs. Interpretive

Scientific methods of inquiry, also called empirical, positivist, or rational approaches, are used by the vast majority of researchers in the social sciences (deLeon, 1998). The scientific approach has largely relied on a behaviorist approach, which defines human behavior as following the laws of nature and therefore inherently predicable. The logical conclusion from this is that the goal of political research is being able to predict the behavior of humans as they engage in politics. As Douglas Torgerson stated in 1986, "… knowledge would replace politics" (as cited by deLeon, 1998, p. 148).

In contrast, the interpretive school of political inquiry advocates for a more nuanced approach, one that recognizes that human behavior, whether by individuals or groups, is far too complex to render it reducible to quantitative measures (deLeon, 1998). Rather than having a goal of being able to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coffield, C. Ditmar. "Welfare Reform in Indiana: The Political Economy of Restricting Access to Education and Training." Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23.3 (2002): 261-284. Print.

Connolly, William. The Terms of Political Discourse, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 1993. Print.

deLeon, Peter. "Models of Policy Discourse: Insights vs. Predictions." Policy Studies Journal, 26.1 (1998): 147-161. Print.

Manos, Steven S. "From Welfare to Work and Vice Versa." New York Times 30 June 1994: A22. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
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Political Science Politics of Food

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50976700



There is some hope within some countries but maybe no hope between countries. As long as there are disparities within the economic balances of different countries there will always be food being used as a political weapon. Those countries that do have adequate supplies of food though, have a hope to balance their food politics out within themselves. There is the possibility of providing more food for the poor within countries in order to better balance the accessibility across the nation.

eferences

Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site: http://www.apcss.org/Publications/eport_Food_Security_98.html

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? etrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

http://www.tigweb.org/express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=5697

Political Economy of Food. (2010). etrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:

http://www.answers.com/topic/political-economy-of-food

Smyth, Paul. (2009). Michael Pollan Makes Food Political. etrieved July 29, 2010, from City

Beat Web site: http://www.citybeat.com/cincinnati/article-18861-michael-pollan-makes-food-political.html

Williams,…… [Read More]

References

Food Security and Political Stability in the Asia-Pacific. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Web site:  http://www.apcss.org/Publications/Report_Food_Security_98.html 

Kassem, Yara. (2005). Food: A Political or Nutritional Tool? Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Panorama Web site:

 http://www.tigweb.org/express/panorama/article.html?ContentID=5697 

Political Economy of Food. (2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010, from Answers Web site:
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Political Science Rousseau's Doctrine of

Words: 2859 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19227637

- these actions are not punished by the law because, while immoral according to many, they do not cause injury to the rights of others.

Adam Smith further emphasizes the centrality of property rights. For Smith, the ownership and acquisition of private property is an essential right that contributes to and maintains individual well-being. Individuals who do not own property are individuals with no real say in their own affairs, and no voice in their government. Smith cites the case of the plebeians in the Roman Empire as an example of a class of people who were purposely kept from ownership of the land as a means of keeping power in the hands of the patricians.

He also makes reference to the slaves of his own day, and to residents of nations where a king may, at his own discretion, dispose of his subjects' property, as examples of conditions under…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8772886 

Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals. Trans. Thomas K. Abbott. New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1949.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10553988

Locke, John. A Letter concerning Toleration. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1955.
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Political Science Multinational Conflict Management

Words: 1639 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48112331



orks Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259

Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023650505

Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95721506

Fromkin, David. "International Law at the Frontiers." orld Policy Journal 15.4 (1998): 59-72.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001997668

Koh, Harold Hongju. "Foreword: On American Exceptionalism." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1479+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001001232

Scharf, Michael P. "The ICC's Jurisdiction over the Nationals of Non-Party States: A Critique of the U.S. Position." Law and Contemporary Problems 64.1 (2001): 67.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001974296

Stacy, Helen. "Relational Sovereignty." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 2029+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105505822

Tiefer, Charles. Veering Right: How the Bush Administration Subverts the Law for Conservative Causes. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95721506

David Fromkin, "International Law at the Frontiers," orld Policy Journal15.4 (1998): 59. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259

Mariano-Florentino Cuellar, "The International Criminal Court…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002006259

Cuellar, Mariano-Florentino. "The International Criminal Court and the Political Economy of Antitreaty Discourse." Stanford Law Review 55.5 (2003): 1597+.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023650505

Dahl, Richard. "A Changing Climate of Litigation." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.4 (2007): 204+.
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Political Economics

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89045012

International Political Economy of East Asia

As growth of the economy is something most governments in most developing countries would like to have, the interplay between the politics and economics of such growth-oriented policies becomes all-important.

The East Asian region is one of the most diversified regions in the world where neighboring countries can be so different economically, politically, and culturally that it is impossible to draw any common factors that can be used to explain the patterns of their lives or livelihood. One thing is quite common; however, most of the countries in East Asia gained their independence after the Second World War, and started to develop their countries in their own separate ways.

Despite all these adverse effects and undesirable consequences, the Second

World War combined with the intrusion of Japanese military power into Southeast

Asia had helped shatter both the mystique and the institutions of Western Colonialism.…… [Read More]

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Economy on Crime Rates it

Words: 3250 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91834440

The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.

This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.

In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.

Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy

Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy

Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy

Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life
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Political Science Foreign Policy Theory

Words: 2840 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73106188

Inteestingly enough, it can be obseved that the usage of books as souces of mateial is elatively educed in both aticles.

Afte a seies of analyses, Paul Conish comes to the conclusion that, despite the temendous intenational movements and advances, the secuity policy of the Euopean Union emains unclea. The main easons fo this uncetainty ae given pimaily by the difficultly in pedicting the county's subjection to any militay theats, the changing shape and size of the Euopean Union o the opaque inteests of the fomation. What does howeve impove the stand is the adheence of the EU membe states to NATO, which emains the most cedible secuity oganization acoss the globe.

Given this situation, the political appoach of the oveall Euopean continent to secuity issues seems to be mostly influenced by NATO, athe than the Westen Euopean Union o the Euopean Union. This context led to a situation in…… [Read More]

references for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy, International Organization, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2004, pp.137-174, Published by Cambridge University Press
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Political Sociology Pluralism Represents in

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8504266



he Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view: 1) the "military metaphysic"- a military definition of reality, possess 2) "class identity"- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they "clone" themselves socially after such elite.

he United States represents the ideal place for the developing of the elite power. he way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the events of history, linking the two, are the major institutions…… [Read More]

The Power Elite (1956) describes the relationship between political, military, and economic elite (people at the pinnacles of these three institutions), noting that these people share a common world view: 1) the "military metaphysic"- a military definition of reality, possess 2) "class identity"- recognizing themselves separate and superior to the rest of society, have 3) interchangeability: the move within and between the three institutional structures and hold interlocking directorates 4) cooptation/socialization: of prospective new members is done based on how well they "clone" themselves socially after such elite.

The United States represents the ideal place for the developing of the elite power. The way to understand the power of the American elite lies neither solely in recognizing the historic scale of events nor in accepting the personal awareness reported by men of apparent decision. Behind such men and behind the events of history, linking the two, are the major institutions of modern society. Within American society, major national power now resides in the economic, the political, and the military domains.

The Marxist power is a philosophical, social theory and a political practice based on the works of Karl Marx. Together with Friedrich Engels, he developed one of his famous works Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. One of the main theories of Marxism is inspirited by Hegel's philosophy proposed a form of idealism in which the progress of freedom is the guiding theme of human history. Another theory is that of the labour. Marx proposed a systematic correlation between labour-values and money prices. He claimed that the source of profits under capitalism is value added by workers not paid out in wages. This mechanism operated through the distinction between "labour power,"
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Political Philosophies

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98524724

Jean Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx are famous political philosophers, whose ideas in many ways had influenced the development of social formation in modern times, and what is most interesting is that ideas of both were realized in certain ways on practice. Jean Jacques Rousseau prophesied modern democratic institutions that laid into the fundamental of many modern nations; his ideas of "social contract" are the main principles of modern democracy, parliamentary political systems and relations between nation and state. On the other hand the ideas of Karl Marx, who explained an "unavoidable crash" of society with capitalist relations, into a new formation governed by the "dictatorship of proletariat" or a state with no private property, failed to be effective instrument of political and social regulation and did not meet the expectations, probably because the societies where those ideas were tested were not ready at all for radical changes. As both…… [Read More]

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Political and Economic Prospects for

Words: 2558 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49816111

Thus, weak institutions, frequent military takeovers, and corruption in government ranks, both civilian and military has resulted in present state of affairs of Pakistan. Syria: Syria's history has been one that was dominated by family rule, foreign interventions, and inability to successfully run the affairs of the country by the ruling elite. The Assad family has held the power in Syrian since last four decades and this has caused significant deterioration in institutional and other forms of governance (Zisser 2003, 15-19).With independence from the French forces in 1946, Syria remained internally polarized and externally vulnerable to the tensions of Middle East. Her confrontation with Israel and support for Hezbollah has considerable historical background. Thus, the issues today being faced by Syria are a continuation of its acts of historical omissions and commission by ruling elites.

Influence of leadership: Influence of leadership on both Syria and Pakistan has been largely negative…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Mark T. 2004. "After the Third World? History, destiny and the fate of Third Worldism." Third World Quarterly 25: 9-39. Accessed July 11, 2013. doi: 10.1080/0143659042000185318

Judah, Ben. Assessing stability in Syria. International Relations and Security Network ISN. Aug, 2008. Retrieved from: [ http://www.isn.ethz.ch/DigitalLibrary/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=88666 ]

Nasrallah, Jana. 2011. "The impact of external intervention on power sharing agreements. (c2011)." Masters Diss., Lebanese American University. Accessed July 11. [https://ecommons.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/337/Jana_Nasrallah_Thesis.pdf?sequence=1]

Rosenlund, Stephen. 2013. "A Bright Light on Syria's Horizons." Center for International Private Enterprise. CIPE Development Blog, March 4. [ http://www.cipe.org/blog/2013/03/04/a-bright-light-on-syrias-horizons/#.Ud5fcztHK_p ]
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Political Machines

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88294879

Political Machines: Politics as a Tammany Vocation

hen Max eber made a speech on politics as a vocation he defined the political machine as a creation of the modern, pluralistic democratic state. A political machine, unlike a purely charismatic individual leader, was a functional bureaucracy attempted, however imperfectly to serve the popular interest through the use of an institutional framework. A quick-voiced opponent of political corruption might protest the use of the political machine as a contemporary model for American democracy, as it has often been associated with corruption, specifically pork barrel politics in America's urban past. Yet, before the creation of political machines, the national apparatus of the state used physical force to ensure compliance with its actions, rather than bestowing any kind of favors to ensure popular compliance.

For example in eber's Europe, the result of this use of aristocratic force was a form of political tyranny over…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, City Politics: Private Power and Public Policy. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.

Judd. Dennis & Todd Swanstrom, The Politics of Urban America: A Reader. New York: Pearson Longman, 2002.

Riordan, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall / Edited with an Introduction by Terrence J. McDonald. New York: Bedsford St. Martins. Originally Published in 1905.

Weber, Max. "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated and edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. Pp. 77-128, New York: Oxford University Press, 1946.
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Political and Religious Boundaries

Words: 1052 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55842886

Political and eligious Boundaries

Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Dursteler, E. (2006). Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, Identity, and Coexistence in the Early Modern Mediterranean. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Jacoby, D. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. The Sixteenth Century Journal. 38 (4): 1156-7.

King, M. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. Renaissance Quarterly. 60 (1): 155-6.

See: Diamond, J. (2011). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed: Revised. New York: Penguin Books; Huntington, S. (2011). Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.
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Political and Economic Differences Consider Effects of

Words: 1430 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70791231

Political and Economic Differences

Consider

Effects of the financial crisis on the developing world vs. The developed world

The 2008 financial crisis began in the American banking sector but its impact was soon felt around the world. Both the developed and the developing world were affected. However, not all nations were crippled by the drying-up of credit and consumer demand to an equal degree. Some nations were derailed in their attempts to progress economically and politically; other nations, particularly in the Far East, emerged relatively unscathed.

The populations affected in different areas of the world economy also varied from nation to nation. For example, in many regions of the developing world, women often have the status of 'second class citizens' for cultural and political reasons. But the crisis in the U.S. was often called a 'male' recession, because the hardest-hit sectors were traditionally male-dominated fields, in the form of the…… [Read More]

References

Bernanke, Ben. (2009). Asia and the global financial crisis. Federal Reserve.

 http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20091019a.htm 

Chia, Siow Yue. (2010). Singapore weathers the crisis and prepares for a better year. East Asia

Forum. Retrieved September 8, 2011 at  http://www.eastasiaforum.org/2010/01/12/singapore-weathers-the-crisis-and-prepares-for-a-stronger-year/
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Political Legal Economic Risk Analysis

Words: 2099 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5549291

Political, Legal, Economic isk Analysis

Spain is the eighth biggest industrialized economy in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development -- OECD and the fifth biggest nation within the EU as regards population, output and production. Spain has undergone a remarkable change since the last thirty years. Progressing from a somewhat a poor agrarian economy, it has witnessed speedy economic progress and is presently a modern, fully industrialized nation. Since the past decade sincere efforts by successive governments have pushed economic reforms placing the Spanish economy on a robust structural standing with the result that since the last five years the Spanish economy has come to be amongst the front ranking European economies. The International Monetary Fund in its preliminary Conclusions on the 2001 Article IV Consultation has ranked Spain as the most dynamic economy of Europe. (Doing Business in Spain: An Introductory guide to the market)

Turkey on the…… [Read More]

References

Doing Business in Spain: An Introductory guide to the market. 2003. Retrieved from  http://www.dfat.gov.au/publications/business_spain/doing_business_spain.pdf 

Accessed 27 October, 2005

Doing Business in Spain: Types of Corporations. Retrieved from http://incorporate-in-delaware.ukincorp.co.uk/s-H1-spanish-company-formation-incorporation.html Accessed 27 October, 2005

Spain: Economic Policy Analysis. The McKeever Institute of Economic Policy Analysis.
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Political and Economic Differences

Words: 1220 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34083650

Political & Economic Differences

The author of this paper is asked to answer to five major questions. The first is why there is a difference in terms of political systems from country to country. The second question is how the legal systems of different countries differ. The third question asks the author to explain the economic differences of different countries. The fourth question asks the author to discuss and explain different macro-political and economic changes that occur around the world. Finally, the author is asked to explain how transitioning economies are moving towards market-based systems.

Questions Answered

As for why there are different political systems in different countries, the reasons depend on the actual situation at hand. The system in place in the United States fairly closely matches the way things were set up at its inception and a lot of that was based on escape from brutal government rule…… [Read More]

References

Hill, C.W. (2013). International business: competing in the global marketplace (9 ed.).

New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Tran, M. (2013, April 3). Pakistan needs to recoup more in taxes before any aid boost, say MP's | Global development | theguardian.com . Latest news, world news, sport and comment from the Guardian | theguardian.com | The Guardian .

Retrieved October 4, 2013, from  http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/apr/04/pakistan-recoup-taxes-aid-mps
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Political Social and Economic Plan Our Country

Words: 1085 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11455022

Political, Social and Economic Plan

Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.

Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.

Our failure in the past has been…… [Read More]

References

Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm

Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at  http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm 

Plan
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Economies Economic Growth in East

Words: 1700 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28201702

"Both the U.S. side and the Mexican side replicate the political, economic, social, and cultural systems of their respective nation-states. At the same time, borderlanders have blended the structures, institutions, and life expressions of the two societies to create something novel and entirely theirs -- the ambiente fronterizo, or borderlands milieu. Today the area stands as a prime example of binational interdependence, providing striking evidence of the trend toward closer ties among the world's nations and societies" (Martinez, 1994)

eferences

Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209

Hackenberg, ., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3

Longley, ., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info

Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast…… [Read More]

References

Coleman, M., 2005, U.S. Statecraft and the U.S. - Mexico Border as Security/Economy Nexus, Political Geography, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 185-209

Hackenberg, R., 1997, the U.S.-Mexico Borderland in Century XXI, Culture and Agriculture, Volume 19, Number 3

Longley, R., December 2004, Illegal Immigration Costs California Over Ten Billion Annually, About U.S. Government Info

Martinez, O.J., 1994, Human Interaction in the Texas - Mexico Borderlands, University of Arizona, http://www.humanities-interactive.org/borderstudies/text/essay.html. Ast accessed on March 28, 2008
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Political Ideologies if We Look

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42905929

This includes previously mentioned measures such as increased governmental spending, directing funds towards education and health sectors etc.

Referring to Liberalism, we should first of all point out that liberalism does not necessarily limit its perceptions only to economic equality, as is the case with Socialism, but it extends its beliefs to the sector of civil and individual equality. This means that liberalism has always found itself as a promoter of human rights, as a sustainer of political freedom and the right to self - determination.

Going forth from these social and political perceptions, the social equality that liberalism promotes naturally leads to a policy of tolerance at a societal level. Liberal governances are generally know to be tolerant in terms of rights for social or religious minorities.

On the other hand, in terms of economic policies, liberalism promotes equality rather through the laissez-faire philosophy, through the capacity of the…… [Read More]

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Political Risk

Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54598625

Political risk is one of the different elements of country risk that a company must take into consideration when operating internationally. Political risk reflects the risk posed by the government of a country, including risks that the government will take action against your company (China v. Google), up to and including the risk of nationalization (Argentina v. YPF). Governments have the capacity to, in an unpredictable and ad hoc manner, change the rules governing a company's operations in a country. In the West, where political processes tend to be transparent, it is a lot easier to understand and measure political risk. Political risk, it should be noted, reflects actions taken on existing ventures, and not something like project approval. So Keystone XL is a pending decision, not a political risk. isk would be if Keystone is approved and then after it is started the next government moves to block the…… [Read More]

References

Erb, C., Harvey, C. & Viskanta, T. (2003). Political risk, economic risk and financial risk. Fuque School of Business. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from https://ciber.fuqua.duke.edu/~charvey/Teaching/CDROM_BA456_2003/Other_Harvey_Papers/P38_Political_risk_economic.pdf

Huff, E. (2013). India passes GMO labeling law, but some worry its provisions were poorly planned. Natural News. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from  http://www.naturalnews.com/039137_india_gmo_labeling_laws.html 

Jijakli, N. (2013). Country risk assessment: India. Credendo Group. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from  http://www.delcredereducroire.be/newsletter/en/cra/2013/cra-india-november-2013 

Sieg, L. (2009). Five political risks to watch in Japan. Reuters. Retrieved December 9, 2014 from  http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/11/02/us-japan-risks-factbox-idUSTRE5A111A20091102
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Political and Economic Imlications of

Words: 1677 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6928414

The newly independent states were generally rated according to high level of political, economic or social risk (not entirely untrue), which meant that the levels of interest were generally extremely high. Even more, the sums paid for interest would generally surpass the actual funds that had been received. This meant that, instead of focusing the country's resources on development and internal projects, most of it had to be spent paying off debts which were not even viable and extremely costly.

On the other hand, from an international perspective, international debt is something fundamentally essential to the financial markets. Money is made to circulate and move around, which means that entities need to be connected to the financial markets, borrow on the open markets and use that money to create added value and generate more cash flow. The fact that, in many cases in the developing world, this mechanism was in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Perkins, John (2004). Confessions of an Economic Hitman. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

2. Herz, Noreena. The Debt Threat: How Debt is Destroying the Developing World. Democracy Now! January 2005.

3. Strange, S. (1986) Casino Capitalism, Oxford, OUP

4. Block, F. (1997). The Origins of International Economic Disorder.
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Political Theories the Ancient Athenian

Words: 801 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 48883066



For John Locke, government "…should be limited to securing the life and property of it citizens"; and government should allow freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. He was opposed to "hereditary monarchy" and supported human rights (especially in his more mature years).

As to how these political theories connect with environmental policy in the U.S.: first, the environmental policies in the U.S. are under attack by the Republicans in the House of Representatives. Their recent bill, H.R. 1, passed in February 2011, contained 19 anti-environmental riders that would "negatively affect air, water, and environmental quality," the Sustainable Energy & Environmental Coalition explained. The right wing in Congress wants to take power away from the Environmental Protection Agency as well. Hume would likely approve of the Tea Party and GOP as to their disavowal of global climate change; he would agree that the U.S. federal government is too big and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bartleby.com. (2009). Athenian Ephebic Oath. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from  http://www.bartleby.com/73/100.html .

Bohn, Henry G. (1854). The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. Volume I (London:

Henry G. Bohn), pp. 446-8.

Hume, David. (2007). David Hume, That Politics May Be Reduced to a Science. The Founders
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Political Backgrounder Nova Scotia

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19021537

Political Backgrounder: Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia, Canada -- Political Background in the context of environmentalism

Darrell Dexter is Nova Scotia's incumbent premier and the 27th Premier of the province since the Confederation. Dexter was elected leader of the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party in 2001 and was sworn in as Prime Minster on June 18, 2009. Both he and the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party have strict views with regard to environmentalism, as the province is actively involved in becoming a global leader in green energy before 2020. As Dexter puts it, "This is about making the right decisions for our economy and our environment. e are putting our energy future where it belongs, back in Nova Scotians' hands." (New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment)

Darrel thinks about green energy as being more than a means to guarantee a safer future for people when concerning matters…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"New Plan To Create Jobs, Stable Electricity Prices, Cleaner Environment," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website:  http://novascotia.ca/news/smr/2010-04-23-wind.asp 

"Renewable Electricity Plan," retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Nova Scotia Website:  http://www.gov.ns.ca/energy/resources/EM/renewable/renewable-electricity-plan.pdf 

"Sable Island National Park Reserve," Retrieved July 23, 2013, from the Megan Leslie New Democratic Party Website:  http://meganleslie.ndp.ca/
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Political and Government Assessment

Words: 5499 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59889977

There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]

References

Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.

Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.

Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation.  http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419  (accessed June 9, 2013).

Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
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Political Ideologies Paul Krugman the

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 81096153

However, he steers relatively clear of muscular economic writing in Conscience of a Liberal, preferring the position the book as something of a call to arms for the liberal movement. While this approach allows him to cover a wide range of ground and be fairly convincing in doing so, it also hampers his arguments by removing what should be the key to his credibility. His economic arguments strike more as a recitation of facts and figures rather than the heavy lifting he of which he is obviously capable. As his credibility stems from his work as a prize-winning economist, and this book lacks that to some extent, it seems as though the book is a long-form blog or other such opinion piece.

There is an element of urgency in his work, however, best evidenced in the chapter about health care. Krugman ties the demise of conservatism to universal health care…… [Read More]

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Political Risk Models the Recent

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 653658

N.D. PP. 1). Yet with the recent wave of anti-American protests can these statements be integrated into a compelling narrative for long-term investment? Specifically, the answer is derived from qualifying the political risk variables associated with respective nation-states.

Risk Variables

While a plethora of political risk models exist, there are definitive items which comprise their ability to predict relative political turbulence. These factors include:

The threat of war, social unrest, disorderly transfers of power, political violence, international disputes, regime changes, institutional ineffectiveness, quality of the bureaucracy, the transparency and fairness of the political system, and levels of corruption and crime. (Economist Intelligence Unit. N.D. PP. 1)

Returning to the Middle East and the unrest of the last 24 months, nation-states in the region have experienced these factors to some degree and have developed scenarios to provide some measure of political certainty. Yet the issue remains whether the dynamism of the…… [Read More]

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Political Ideas in Conflict One

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19320204



In his book, Government and Politics: A Documentary History of Kong, Steve Tsang (1995), discussed the pre-transitional government and history of that government in Hong Kong. For all intents and purposes, the government in China's influence over Hong Kong was virtually non-existent since the UK's presence on the island (271). In fact, the political environment in Hong Kong was one that made it safe for the island to receive political refuges (Ash et al. 199). There was concern that those individuals would be very much at risk in a post hand over environment.

In a study conducted by Lee-In Chen Chiu, Ding Yi, Si Joong Kim, on Bae Kim, Reginald Yin-ang Kwok, Hong Yung Lee, Karen Eggleston Lee, Li uwei, Shelley M. Mark, Manuel F. Montes, Richard Pomfret, Alvin Y. So, Shi Min, Sung Shou ei, Yibo Xu, Zhang Zhongli, Lishui Zhu, Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, Keun Lee;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98000082 

Ash, Robert, Peter Ferdinand, Brian Hook, and Robin Porter, eds. Hong Kong in Transition: The Handover Years. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000. Questia. 11 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98000084 .

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91896558

Chiu, Lee-In Chen, et al. Emerging Patterns of East Asian Investment in China: From Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Ed. Sumner J. La Croix, Michael Plummer, and Keun Lee. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995. Questia. 11 Dec. 2007  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91896560 .
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Political Study Middle East Region

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49197271

Every year more than million local population migrate towards the urban areas.

Gender Discrimination: The regional religious clerics and their influence over the governments have created broad problems for women, and thereby restricting their integration and involvement into society and profession. Although the females have secured permission to vote, and fight elections, but they are subjected to difficult terms and conditions. The employment of females in MENA has improved, however it is still 15% lower than East Asian countries.

Growing pressures on young men and women in the Middle East and North Africa to immigrate to Europe and the U.S. To find jobs and economic opportunities -- a process that inevitably creates new tensions and adjustment problems' (Strategic Insights: Globalization has eluded the Middle East).

egional trade of lower magnitude:. All the countries of the region have so far failed to progress over economic and trade agreements. The countries have…… [Read More]

References

S. Mujahid, WTO, Globalization and Pakistan: Dreaming for Global Living Standards Pakistan and Gulf Economist, May 20, 2002.

Cf. Jeffrey Sachs, Globalization and Patterns of Economic Development

A. Sen, If It's Fair It's Good: 10 Truths About Globalization," International Herald Tribune, July 14, 2001

A.T. Kearney Corp, Measuring Globalization, Foreign Policy
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Political the Amount of Political Influence Varies

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88957690

Political

The amount of political influence varies depending on the type of company. In the case of an industry needing a great deal of capital invested, they may be more susceptible to political risk. In the case of strapak the investment is moderate and does not require heavy foreign direct investment strategies. Though there is a need to export plastic products outside the country of South frica, the amount of required for manufacturing companies is far less than say for example an energy product industry. The amount of risk rises when the government makes changes based on politically correct moves to garner favor with global strategies such as environmental issues (Bothma, 2011). The regulations that the government can impose on a company can quickly affect its bottom line. The highest level of political risk comes from civil issues between domestic people groups. nother is war that can affect the ability…… [Read More]

At Astrapak there is only the competition to become better than the previous year. The focus is on quality improvement and an ever higher level of service. Instead of divisions competing against each other, they are poised to continuously improve. In fact the level of improvement in manufacturing due to numerous adjustments to techniques has put the firm at the front of the industry. So much so that foreign competitors are not outsourcing their packaging to Astrapak's affiliated companies rather than compete (Astrapak, 2004).

The BCG product life cycle puts products in four basic categories within the company portfolio. The first is the star or high growth product with the largest portion of the market. This is where the most revenue is invested and the highest return is expected.

The second is the cash cow that is equal to low growth due to stability in the market. This product is well-known and received it is a standard in the industry and
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Political Science - Domhoff Shapiro

Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21981158

Putnam (2000) suggests that trust already exists within societies, when clearly there is evidence that it does not exist, and that people are not confident in who is in control (Domhoff, 2005). Putnam (2000) argues that it is important to have a strong and very active and aggressive civil society within the United States to consolidate democracy. Many of the traditions of independent civic engagement have been lost according to Putnam, and are now replaced with passivity among the peoples of the United States; far too often civic engagements rely on the "state" making civil societies as described by Putnam (2000) weak and incapable of developing. Putnam's idea of social capital is the view that social capital is a resource that is ingrained in norms and in social trusts, and it is these norms and trusts that help facilitate collaborative actions and help communities cooperate so they can achieve mutual…… [Read More]

References

Dahl, Robert Who Governs? 2005. Democracy and Power in an American City, Second edition. Boston: Yale University Press

Domhoff, William G. 2005. Who Rules America? Power, Politics and Social Change.

New York: McGraw Hill: Higher education

Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
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Political Science Themes Issues and

Words: 2469 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49839970

He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.

The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.

The televised lampoon of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Colmes, Alan and Hannity, Sean.

Discussion of the Media's Treatment of Sen. Hillary Clinton." Hannity & Colmes, 27 February 2008.

Espo, David.

Clinton, Obama Trade Jabs on Health Care." Associated Press, 28 February 2008.
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Political Science International Relations Definitions

Words: 2290 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42689123

Economists can demonstrate how, in the aggregate, consumers and industry benefit from free trade. In the process of creative destruction, however, some industries and workers are displaced by the changes wrought by free trade.

The measurement of benefit in the case of Volkswagen continues to reverberate today, after over 25 years. When VW entered the Chinese market, it did so over the objections of its local labour unions and politicians. Part of the objection came because the State of Lower Saxony controlled 20% of the shares, and the government was concerned about the loss of jobs in its domestic sector. The managers of VW saw it differently: by creating a successful and growing subsidiary in China, the reasoning went, the company could increase its generated cash and derive strategic benefits from finding a lower-cost supplier of parts.

There were, however, forces to overcome:

Unions threatened to strike in Germany unless…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chase, S. (1947). A Generation of Industrial Peace: Thirty Years of Labor Relations at Standard Oil Company. New York: Standard Oil Company.

Chunli, L. a. (2003). The Chinese Automobile Industry and the Strategic Alliances of China, Japan, the U.S.'s Firms. Cambridge: MIT International Motor Vehicle Program.

Dubois, C.P.-D. (2007). Thrombin-initiated platelet activation in vivo is vWF independent during thrombus formation in a laser injury model. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 953-960.

Economist. (2007). 2008 World Almanac. London: Economist.
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Sweden Economy International Business Sweden the World

Words: 4560 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99701775

Sweden Economy

International business: Sweden

The world economic powers have controlled the world economies for the longest time. Sweden is a remarkably small nation, yet it has developed to become among the best and wealth endowed nations in the world. It is a historically established nation that has been existence as early as the 7th century. From these early centuries, Sweden has been known for the level of involvement and development in trade.

Geographic, demographic and natural resources information of Sweden

The geography of Sweden makes it a nation of envy by many others. Sweden has a small area of total coverage of about 449,964 sq km. The area that is dry land is about 410, 934 sq km, and the rest is water. This in comparison to the United States is just slightly larger than the state of California by about land total 2,233 km. Sweden has a coastline…… [Read More]

References

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2012). OECD Territorial Reviews:

Sma-land-Blekinge, Sweden 2012: (Swedish version). Vaxjo: Regional council of Southern Smaland, Sweden.

Development, O.E.C. (2013). OECD Economic Surveys. Paris: OECD Pub.

Kent, N. (2008). A concise history of Sweden. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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Brazilian Economy

Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87369472

Brazilian Economy

When giving scholarly consideration to the rise and fall of the Brazilian economy over the past fifty or so years, it is vitally important of course to examine the economy in the context of government, politics, and the international economic climate. The reason for the great interest taken in the Brazilian economy is because it is the largest economy in Latin America and among the ten biggest in the world. Locating the information for a quality analysis of Brazil's economic history is not problematic; there is a wealth of solid material, including the Joseph A. Page book, The Brazilians, and numerous scholarly articles.

Page's book is presented in great detail, beginning with a realistic "Introducing Brazil" chapter (4-6) in which Page grimly describes how a once optimistic nation now is crime-ridden, so poverty-stricken that "the social fabric is tearing to shreds," with a "yawning chasm" separating "haves" from…… [Read More]

References

De Onis, Juan. "Brazil's New Capitalism." Foreign Affairs 79.3 (2000): 107-120.

Page, Joseph A. The Brazilians. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1995.

Saad-Fiho, Alfredo. "New Dawn or False Start in Brazil? The Political Economy of Lula's

Election." Historical Materialism 11.1 (2003): 3-21.
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Human Psychology Drives Economy Animal Spirits -

Words: 3421 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41035034

Human Psychology Drives Economy

Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.

The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.

The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.

Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism

Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
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Education for Economy Theory as it Relates

Words: 4049 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97855285

Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education

In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).

Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…… [Read More]

References

21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from  http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui 

de.pdf

Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from  http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf 

Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background