Political Parties And Congress Essay

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Political parties are a collection of individuals of similar creed organized to aid in electing members to public positions. The constitution does not mention parties and earlier professionals considered them as dangerous or undesirable. Nevertheless, political parties have resulted in the creation of electoral institutions and other incentives that justify their presence. The very first political parties that were established in America tried to form coalitions to help control the government's more organized machinery. The attempts at control soon took an electoral angle. A two-party system would later emerge to steer competition in elections. The system would collapse in the Good Feelings Era but would again emerge in the presidential elections of 1824 after which it gained considerable stability until the present day (Samuel Kernel, Gary C. Jacobson and Thad Kausser). Polarization in Two-party Competition

From the 1970s, congressional parties have grouped themselves based on geography and ideology. The six New England states' combined house delegation, for example, went from 10 Republicans and 15 Democrats between 1973 and 1974 to 2 Republicans and 20 Democrats between 2011 and 2012. The South's position in 1973-1974 of...


Political scientists have debated whether or not Congress polarization occurred after or before the public was polarized. Currently available data is unlikely to provide answers to this puzzle. The only thing that is clear is that when Congress is polarized, very few things get done as far as legislation is concerned. The number of legislations Congress enacts when there is a lot of infighting is abysmally low. Historically, when there were conflicts, a compromise was reached to get things moving. The current crop of legislators, however, are reluctant to let go of their positions on issues as they tend to be pressured by partisan organizations they represent in their various states. While it is the citizens' view that compromise is good, quite often than not, they want the compromise to be in their favor (Drew Desilver).
Political Inclusion through the Parties

The diverse nature of alliances created during the New Deal illustrates how coalitional politics in America is. The emergence of new issues creates new coalitions. Some politicians are becoming indifferent to parties as is evidenced by third parties and independents win votes in the house. While there are cases of party indifference, the two major parties, Republicans and Democrats, still…

Sources Used in Documents:


Drew Desilver. (2014). The polarized Congress of today has its roots in the 1970s. Pewresearch Center.

Samuel Kernell, Gary C. Jacobson, & Thad Kausser. (2010). Political Parties. In S. Kernell, G. C. Jacobson, & T. Kausser, The Logic of American Politics. Sage CQ Press.

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