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There has always been a search for a way in the social order regarding the degree of truthfulness or dishonesty in an individual. History reveals that there has been almost a universal constant endeavor to uncover the falsehood and know the truth. The Ancient Chinese, Arabs and Indians are known to have used methods from torture to duel fight for obtaining the truth and distinguish innocent and guilty (White Jr., 2001, p. 483).
This quest of differentiating the liar and the honest still goes on today. One of the modern-day methods to distinguish truth from fraud is the use of the polygraph (lie detector). The polygraph is both favored and criticized by the modern man. It is defended on the basis of its success as innumerable criminals have confessed and numerous spies and terrorists have been uncovered when tested through the polygraph. Moreover, its capability in revealing the employee…
Brewer, N. & Wilson, C. (Eds.). (1995). Psychology and Policing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 7, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=83417315
Faigman, D.L., Fienberg, S.E., & Stern, P.C. (2003, Fall). The Limits of the Polygraph: The Time Has Come to Be Truthful about Its Reliability and Usefulness. Issues in Science and Technology, 20, 40+. Retrieved February 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002041727
Lewis, J.A., & Cuppari, M. (2009). The Polygraph: the Truth Lies within. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 37(1), 85+. Retrieved February 7, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035350997
Warner, W.J. (2005, April). Polygraph Testing: a Utilitarian Tool. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 74, 10+. Retrieved February 8, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5037572267
Application of Polygraph Testing in Selection
c. Methodological Issues in Application of Polygraph Testing
VI. Officer Selection Outcomes with and without Polygraph Testing
a. Selection of Police Officers without Polygraph Testing
b. Selection of Police Officers with Polygraph Testing
c. Police Misconduct Incidents among Officers Selected without Polygraph Testing
d. Police Misconduct Incidents among Officers Selected with Polygraph Testing
a. The Effect of Polygraph Testing on Hiring
b. The Effect of Polygraph Testing on Officer Integrity
c. Significance of Results for Police Hiring
Research Questions (RQ)
How effective is polygraph testing in the promotion of integrity among police officers.
Limitations of the Study
Lack of available and/or reliable data -- Data regarding the internal employee selection procedures of police departments may be restricted. Data regarding the number of police misconduct incidents in specific police departments may be rare or spotty.
Definition of Terms
Polygraph - a polygraph, or…
Territo, L., Swanson, C.R., & Chamelin, N.C. (1977). The police personnel selection process. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Educational Pub.
Gatewood, R.D., & Feild, H.S. (1987). Human resource selection. Chicago: Dryden Press.
Polygraph eliability and Validity
The validity and reliability of polygraph testing has been a subject of debate since such testing was first implemented almost a century ago (OTA, 1983, par. 1). Abundant research has been done on modern polygraph machines and techniques that has served to validate their use and their accuracy, however controversy still remains in the minds of many (Gougler et al., 2011, 196-201). One way to go about determining the reliability and validity of a polygraph machine would, of course, be to look at the research that has been conducted on the machine previously if available, as it truly takes years and abundant study to ensure these features to a degree worthy of scientific scrutiny (Gougler et al., 2011; 197). Assuming such research is unavailable or is untrustworthy, however, there are other more direct methods that can be employed to effectively determine how valid and reliable a…
Gougler, M., Nelson, R., Handler, M., Krapohl, D., Shaw, P. & Bierman, L. (2011). Executive Summary of the Meta-Analytic Survey of Criterion Accuracy of Validated Polygraph Techniques. Accessed 16 March 2012. http://www.polygraph.org/files/executive_summary_meta_analytic_survey_apa_2012.pdf
OTA. (1983). Scientific Validity of Polygraph Testing: A Research Review and Evaluation. Accessed 16 March 2012. http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/polygraph/ota/contro.html
In short, even if one is willing to overlook all of the glaring flaws with polygraphs and the ultimate impossibility of accurately measuring their accuracy, the best that can be said about them is that they detect deception better than random chance. Though it likely need not be said, "better than flipping a coin" seems a paltry justification for the still-widespread use of polygraphs in the criminal justice system.
This study has attempted to demonstrate that polygraphs are not only ineffective, but that their widespread use actually contributes to shoddy police work and encourages a culture of arrogance and unaccountability by widening the gap between scientific evidence and those who claim to practice scientifically investigation methods. Two large-scale studies of the available literature regarding the accuracy and efficacy of polygraph testing, conducted twenty years apart, found that the many variables present during the administration of a polygraph test…
Gannon, T. A, Beech, A. R, & Ward, T. (2008). Does the polygraph lead to better risk prediction for sexual offenders?. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(1), 29-44.
Grubin, D. (2010). The polygraph and forensic psychiatry. Journal of American Acad Psychiatry
Law, 38(4), 446-451.
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES, Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences and Committee on National Statistics. (2003). The polygraph and lie detection. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Public policy makers in general and the police agency in particular should refrain from using the polygraph test in their selection of employees, particularly since, at worst, they may end up including potential robbers and murderers as part of their organization. The purpose of the followign study is to evalaute these conclusions by investigating the efficacy of polygraph tests in assessing police candidates
Brett, a. Phillips, M., & Beary, J (1986)PEDICTIVE POWE of the POLYGAPH: CAN the "LIE DETECTO" EALLY DETECT LIAS? Psychophysiology, http://www.american-buddha.com/art.predictivepowerpolygraphbeary.htm
The positive predictive value of the polygraph (ie, the proportion of positive test results that are true positives) was assessed, on the evidence of the best published data for the sensitivity and specificity of the device. In many screening or investigative situations, the predictive value would be poor; most of the positive results would be false positives.
Garwood M., Ansley N., (1983) the accuracy and…
Researchers conducted mail surveys to obtain the opinions of 2 groups of scientists from relevant disciplines: members of the Society for Psychophysiological Research and Fellows of the American Psychological Association's Division 1 (General Psychology). Survey return rates were high (91% and 74%, respectively). Most of the respondents believed that polygraphic lie detection is not theoretically sound, claims of high validity for these procedures cannot be sustained, the lie test can be beaten by easily learned countermeasures, and polygraph test results should not be admitted into evidence in courts of law
Saxe L., Dougherty D., Cross T. (1983). Scientific validity of polygraph testing: A research review and evaluation. Technical memorandum OTA-TM-H-15. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.
Reviews the literature on field and analog polygraph testing to aid Congressional consideration of efforts by the U.S. Department of Defense to expand use of polygraph tests to large numbers of government employees with access to classified information. It is noted that the validity of polygraph testing has yet to be established. The validity of control question analog studies is considered in relation to polygraph validity, and the effects of S. characteristics, setting, and countermeasures on validity are discussed.
Polygraph Testing: A Critique
One of the most commonly used methods for detecting deception is the polygraph test. This is a procedure that combines skillful questioning techniques with physical measurements in order to determine stress levels that would indicate the presence of deception. It is widely used and is reliable enough to be used in a court of law, if it is properly handled and interpreted by an expert in the field. New advances are taking this same base for technology and increasing its scope and range. However, there are issues of reliability that do come up, especially in regards to when a suspect uses counter measures to throw off the test. Thus, polygraphs are excellent tools for detecting deception, but should not be trusted entirely on their own. Instead, they should be used in a combined effort with other interviewing techniques to really be effective in detecting…
American Psychological Association. (2013). The truth about lie detectors. Research in Action. Web. http://www.apa.org/research/action/polygraph.aspx
Cooper, Barry S., Herve, Hugues, & Yuille, John C. "Evaluating truthfulness: Detecting truths and lies in forensic contexts.
The next step is evidence collection. Processing a crime scene without disturbing the evidences is a difficult task and investigators should take every precaution to gather evidence without affecting the crime scene. (GSA)
Crime scene stepping pads' can be used for walking around the area without damaging potential evidences. Photographs and video must be taken before proceeding with the rough sketching around the crime scene. For this purpose 'crime scene sketch kits' must be used. Evidence should be gathered using appropriate evidence collection tools so as not to erase the fingerprints or cause any other damage. It is important for the investigator to carefully consider and gather even microparticle evidences using micro evidence gathering kit. Evidences gathered should be properly catalogued and stored in 'tamper resistant evidence bags'. Evidence collection envelopes with transparent or viewing capabilities are appropriate as they allow for physical examination of the evidence without having opening…
Kevin Bonsor, "How Lie Detectors Work," Retrieved on 21st May 2007, at http://www.howstuffworks.com/lie-detector.htm
EPIC, "Polygraph Testing," Retrieved on 21st May 2007, at http://www.epic.org/privacy/polygraph/
BCSSE, "The Polygraph and Lie Detection," Retrieved on 21st May 2007, at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10420&page=212
Gerry Everding (2004), "Research casts doubt on voice-stress lie detection technology," retrieved on 21st May 2007, at http://news-info.wustl.edu/news/page/normal/669.html
Since the polygraph is inadmissible in many criminal courts, should it be incorporated in employment decisions in regards to government and law enforcement positions? Please provide a rationale for your position.
On one hand, there is a fundamental difference between using polygraphs in criminal cases and employment decisions: namely, the burden of proof in criminal cases is much higher, as it is in relation to civil cases. Therefore, to qualify as an appropriate form of evidence in criminal cases, polygraphs would have to satisfy a much higher standard of reliability and infallibility. Likewise, the magnitude of the consequences are vastly different in criminal cases and the outcome of employment decisions based on evidence that may not be reliable.
Meanwhile, there are still independent reasons to question the appropriateness of polygraph results even in employment decisions. Specifically, even when polygraphs are administered and interpreted properly, they provide, at most, an accurate…
There are three types of stimuli used, which are:
2) Irrelevant; and 3) Probes.
These are used "in the form of words, pictures, or sounds..." which a computer presents for a second or even a partial second. Incoming stimulus, if it is worth noting, results in a P-300, which is an electrical brain response. The P-300 is part of a MERMER or a memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response, which is a larger brain response.
Originally event related potentials (ERP) was the method used for studying brain activity information processing. The limitation of the ERP is that it causes elimination of all patterns that are complex and results in the meaningful signals also being lost. The multifaceted electroencephalographic response analysis or MERA was developed due to the limitation of the ERP. Farwell found that incorporation of this technique resulted in the elicitation of MERMER when the individual…
Taylor, Erich (2007) a New Wave of Police Interrogation? Brain Fingerprinting, the Constitutional Privilege against Self-Incrimination and Hearsay Jurisprudence
Pope, Harrison (nd) the Emperor's Tailoring. FMS Foundation Newsletter. Online available at http://www.fmsfonline.org/fmsf96.d31.html
Stetler, Russell and Wayland, Kathleen (2004) Capital Cases - Dimension of Mitigation. June 2004. Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:8FdkQI0WFDsJ:www.fd.org/pdf_lib/Capital%2520CasesDimensions%2520of%2520Mitigation%2520Stetler.pdf+MRI:+forensics,+determination+of+guilt+or+innocence&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=50&gl=us.
Creswell, 2009). Given the range of resources that will come under study in this research, a meta-analysis is not readily applicable. Typically, with a retrospective study of this scale, more research is discarded than retained for analysis. Further, a number of large studies have been conducted on this general topic, including research commissioned by Congress ("CNSTAT," 2003; OTA," 1983). Using a descriptive research approach, the researcher will utilize primary and secondary data sources (Creswell, 2009). Document review will constitute a large proportion of the secondary research data. Primary research will consist of interviews with select Individuals in professional positions who are privy to agency information about the use and outcomes of polygraphs.
The corpus of literature will provide a substantive amount of secondary data for analysis and will inform the direction of further efforts at primary research. A comprehensive literature review will be employed to identify pertinent documents for…
Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences and Education (BCSSE) and Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) (2003). The Polygraph and Lie Detection. United States National Research Council (Chapter 8: Conclusions and Recommendations, page 212
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Iacono, W.G. (2001). Forensic 'lie detection': Procedures without scientific basis, Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 1 (1), pp. 75-86.
Office of Technology Assessment (November 1983). Scientific validity of polygraph testing: A research review and evaluation.
Employee Privacy Torts
Issues relating to employee privacy have been at the forefront of businesses for many years. This has been fuelled by the dynamic workplace which changes constantly and also by employees and employers being more litigation-conscious. Technology has also spurred on employee privacy issues with e-mail and the internet being related to heightened concerns about vulnerability of employers to litigation. Many employers have thus exacerbated their concerns relating to employee privacy and especially monitoring of employee behavior. Employee privacy is respected in many of the large corporations. However, there still exist some breaches in employee privacy. Small business owners are at most risk as a result of their increased monitoring practices and close employer-employee interaction.
oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
One of the major cases that brought employee privacy to the limelight was oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company
Franklin Mills Co. decided to appeal…
Anderson v. City of Philadelphia, 845 F. 2d 1216 (1988).
Borse v. Piece Goods Shop, 963 F.2d 611 (1991).
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1988).
City of Ontario v. Quon, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 560 U.S. (2010).
A friend in California has just lost his job in a layoff together with 98 other employees in the same private sector company. The company's administrators have told him that he was included in the recent layoff because of his refusal to take a lie detector test regarding some drugs that were found in his company locker. He also declined to take a drug test since he was afraid that a positive result would make the state child protection agency to take away custody of his children. This situation is an example of a scenario with legal ramifications on the basis of several regulations such as Polygraph Protection Act, Worker Adjustment and etraining Notification Act, Privacy laws, Drug Testing laws, and OSHA.
Generally, the use of lie detector tests in the workplace is not geared towards determining whether an employee is telling the truth but to examine whether…
"Employees' Rights in the Workplace." (1999). The Maryland State Bar Association, Inc.
Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.msba.org/departments/commpubl/publications/brochures/workplace.asp
"Lie Detector Tests." (2008). Can My Boss Do That? Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.canmybossdothat.com/category.php?id=269
The job may require x% travel, which might eliminate one of the candidates, etc. Essentially, hiring the female simply based on the demographics would discriminate against the other candidates and therefore, is illegal (Federal Laws, 2009).
Situation 5 - Our Company has a service contract with the U.S. Government (Department of Defense) to provide nurses for a military hospital. Contractual obligations require employees with patient contact to pass a physical exam and drug test; those handing fiscal matters must pass a drug and polygraph test. Because this contact is with the Federal Government, any employee is subject to laws under the Federal egister, Agencies affiliated with the Federal Government who require drug testing must follow standardized procedures established by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Organization, use certified SAMHSA testing facilities, and comply with appropriate privacy laws (Section 7 -- Drug Testing, 2010). The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA)…
Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, as Amended. (1990). United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from: http://www.ada.gov/pubs/ada.htm
Federal Laws Prohibiting Job Discrimination Questions and Answers. (2009). The U.S. Equal Opportunity Employment Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov / facts/qanda.html
Section 7 -- Drug Testing. (2010). United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from: http://www.dol.gov /elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen92.asp
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA). 2010. United States Department of Labor. Retrieved from:
I feel I must tell you that I was quite shocked and dismayed when I was notified of your decision to disqualify me for the position of deputy sheriff due to the use of alleged countermeasures during the lie detector testing. First, I would like to vehemently deny that I knowingly engaged in any activity designed to explicitly deceive the lie detector or the person operating it. Since it is alleged that I engaged in some countermeasures, I feel it is safe to assume that I passed the lie detector with no false statements as I have during a previous test. That is due to the fact that I answered every question asked of me as honestly as I could. If there is any question about this, I would think that I would be permitted to take the exam again, but I am being informed that I cannot do…
Identify examples of problems dealing with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority.
Problems with educational levels, pay scale, and seniority are also issues with merged departments. Smaller departments may not have had the training opportunities that larger departments had, and their officers may not be as prepared or well versed in some areas, such as detective work or gang activities. This can affect pay scale, and different departments may have different scales that do not mesh into one overall scale. Benefits may be cut to save costs during a merger, too.
Which hiring standards related to the different departments in the merged cell are affected?
Hiring standards such as recruits from the police academy, educational requirements, and seniority are all effected by a merger. Each department may have different standards, and some officers may not meet requirements of more stringent agencies.
Polygraph and psychological exams are not required for some…
Criminal Justice -- Sheriff's Departments Hiring Requirements
San Francisco County Sheriff's Department
The minimum qualifications for applying to the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) are as follows: the candidate must be at least 18 years of age; must be a U.S. citizen or a "permanent alien who is eligible and has applied for citizenship"; must have a U.S. high school diploma (or GED certificate) or a 2-year or 4-year college degree; cannot have any felony convictions (and certain misdemeanor convictions); must be physically and mentally healthy and be of good moral character.
The selection requirements include: a) testing reading and writing ability (an acceptable score must be obtained on the POST Entry-Level Law Enforcement Test Battery); b) an oral interview (the department head and another department employee, or an oral panel, gives this oral interview; a candidate's "experience, problem solving ability, communication skills, motivation/interest, interpersonal skills and community awareness /…
Saint Louis County Missouri. (2009). Law and Public Safety / Evaluating Quality Police
Services / What is Quality Police Service? Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.stlouisco.com .
San Diego County Sheriff's Department. (2011). Become a Deputy Sheriff / Lateral Program /
Join Our Team. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.joinsdsheriff.net/lateral.html.
After all, although the polygraph cannot be considered to be definitive proof -- it cannot be used as evidence in the court of law, for example -- it is a cheap way to identify and eliminate major threats to security.
Nevertheless, the notorious instances in which the polygraph provided counterintelligence operations with unreliable information seem to loom over the head of much of the information that is gathered through them. Very routinely, the process of determining the reliability of informants in foreign agencies becomes paralyzed even after a polygraph has been administered. Typically, this has occurred within the CIA following apparent breaches of security, or instances in which it was never clearly determined whether an informant was providing legitimate information: "In the case of Vitaly Yurchenko, the CIA Counterintelligence Staff was faced with assessing whether he was a legitimate defector who changed his mind or a planet who intended to…
Codevilla, Angelo. 1992. Informing Statecraft. New York: the Free Press.
Godson, Roy. 1995. Dirty Tricks or Trump Cards. Washington: Brassey's.
Richelson, Jeffrey T. 1999. The U.S. Intelligence Community: Fourth Edition. Boulder: Westview Press.
Codevilla, Angelo. 1992. Informing Statecraft. New York: the Free Press. Page 150.
Equal Employment Act
Federal laws have been passed in order to provide protection for American citizens from discrimination in a number of different instances. This paper will review the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, and the Employee Polygraph Protection Act. This paper will also present legal cases in which all three of these laws have become involved in litigation, and will also include an example of a Human Relations policy for each, which reflects that there has been compliance in specific workplaces.
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA)
This law, enacted in 1967, was designed to protect people over the age of 40 from being discriminated against based on their age. In short, it is against the law to discriminate against an individual due to his or her age, according to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). This…
AgeRights.com. (2000). Reeves v. Sanders Plumbing Products, Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2014,
from http://www.agerights.com .
Bouboushian, R. (2013). Pregnancy Bias May Have Led to Firing From Target. Courthouse News Service. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.courthousenews.com .
Iredale, E.G., and Yoo, J. (2012). M.G., F.M., L.A., J.M., L.G., F.B., M.N., R.G., L.S., and E.R., individuals, v. Metropolitan Interpreters and Translators, Inc. Retrieved May 30,
The San Diego Police Department (SDPD) is the municipal police department in charge of the city of San Diego. It is one of several law enforcement agencies with jurisdiction over San Diego. SDPD has a seven-step hiring process for entry-level police officers. Each step in that process introduces baseline requirements for applicants seeking a position with the SDPD. The seven-step process includes: (1) a written test; (2) a physical abilities test and pre-investigative questionnaire; (3) a background investigation; (4) a polygraph examination; (5) an interview with the appointing authority; (6) a psychological evaluation; and (7) a medical evaluation (SDPD, How to join, 2014). An applicant who meets the minimum requirements at each step will be eligible to proceed to the next step in the hiring process, and those who meet all of the minimums will be eligible for, but not guaranteed to receive, a job offer with the SDPD.…
San Diego Police Department. (2014). Background investigation. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: http://www.sandiego.gov/police/recruiting/join/recbackground.shtml
San Diego Police Department. (2014). How to join SDPD. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: http://www.sandiego.gov/police/recruiting/join/index.shtml
San Diego Police Department. (2014). Polygraph examination. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: http://www.sandiego.gov/police/recruiting/join/recpoly.shtml
San Diego Police Department. (2014). Physical abilities test and pre-investigative questionnaire. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from the City of San Diego website: http://www.sandiego.gov/police/recruiting/join/recpat.shtml
Green iver Killer
In 1982, the remains of a number of young women started to show up in the area surrounding Seattle. These women were all relatively young and shared a lifestyle, prostitution and street life, that made them easy targets for a killer. Before the slayings officially ended in 1998, a total of 42 women would be thought to be potential victims of the Green iver Killer with the potential for many more being added to the list. Some believe that as many as 90 women may have been murdered by Gary idgeway. idgeway eluded police for almost two decades, even though he was a suspect in several of the disappearances, and was finally caught as a result of DNA evidence garnered from some of his earliest victims. This paper looks at the early life of Gary idgeway as it applies to the case, the murders themselves, how forensic…
Douglas, J. (2007). Interviewing murderers and suspects: Learn about the crime and the killer. The Forensic Examiner, 16(2), 44-51.
Guillen, T., & Smith, C. (2003, Nov 6). What went wrong? Police at first failed to notice a pattern. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/greenriver/1987/part1.html
Lackey, B., Jones, C., & Johnson, J. (2005). Gary Leon Ridgeway: Green River Killer. Retrieved http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Psyc%20405/serial%20killers/Ridgway,%20Gary %20-%202005.pdf
Lewis, J.A., & Cuppari, M. (2009). The polygraph: The truth lies within. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 37(1), 85-92.
The APA noted that employee background tests and surveillance can be costly and cause problematic legal concerns that are burdensome for businesses screening part-time employees. Although the OTA found that 95.6% of integrity test takers who fail to pass are incorrectly classified as dishonest, overall, the APA stated that the social value conveyed by such tests to employers outweighed such concerns. Rather than condemn integrity tests, the APA instead issued guidelines for test administration, including the demand that test publishers take more aggressive actions to ensure that qualified individuals administer and score the tests.
However noble such a balance between employer and employee rights might seem, the APA's findings seem to overlook a critical, practical point -- the reason employers use such tests is because of their ease of administration. Employing an expensive professional to administer such tests to a group of prospective part-time employees might be just as costly…
Employee ights / Safety
Employee ights and Safety: A Case Study
The individual in question is now out of a job, due mainly to circumstances that were out of her control. Yes, it is imperative for an organization to punish those who break its policies. Yet, where is the evidence in this case that point to the individual in question? Although the organization she worked for had the right to take action against the employee who had brought the drugs into the facility, its mass layoffs and coerced lie detector tests create a situation where the individual in question was wrongfully terminated.
The organization was essentially acting in a reaction to the presence of drugs within its facility. According to the general rule for employment, the organization believed it had the right to terminate the individual in question based on the concept of employment-at will. This concept is…
Frank & Breslow. (2000). Employment-at-will. LaborLaws.com. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://laborlaws.com/block4/item414/
Muhl, Charles J. (2001). The employment-at-will doctrine: Three major exceptions. Monthly Labor Review. 3-12. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/01/art1full.pdf
OHS Health and Safety Services, Inc. (2012). California. Drug Testing Laws for All U.S. States. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.ohsinc.com/laws_state_drug_testing_laws_said.htm
U.S. Department of Labor. (2012). Employment and training administration fact sheet. Doleta.Gov. Retrieved January 26, 2012 from http://www.doleta.gov/programs/factsht/warn.htm
The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth. Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what.
Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous. It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should…
DNA Exonerations: John Kogut
The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut
The Path to Conviction
When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.
The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…
Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/.
Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/ .
Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .
Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
The Rationale for and the Efficacy of Torture during Interrogation
Although information from interrogational torture is unreliable, it is likely to be used frequently and harshly. ==John W. Schiemann, 2012
The epigraph above is indicative of the growing consensus concerning the lack of efficacy of torture in providing interrogators with reliable concealed information Concealed information is the foundation of the majority of security issues. In most cases, concealed information is a situation wherein one individual knows something that someone else does not know. Consequently, the majority of security issues could be resolved if there was a dependable method of determining those cases in which an individual was concealing information and extracting that information effectively. To date, though, there has not been a dependable method developed.1 For instance, polygraph research has been unable to achieve an accuracy level that would make the results acceptable in courtrooms in the United States…
Values for Your Work as Human ervices Professional
As human service professional, I interact in various ways. These include caregiver, case manager, teacher, counselor, behavior changer, consultant, mobilizer, advocate, community planner, community change organizer and implementer, administrator, and evaluator (*). In order to most effectively and successfully carry out these responsible and diverse roles, I am recommended to adhere to a set of values and ethics particularly prescribed for human service professionals.
The values not only make me do the work that I love in the most effective way but it also helps me better help people and avoid conflict. I may, for instance, have my own ideas about how to best help people and in my fervor and ardor commit indiscretions. The values advise me to respect confidentiality of client at all times. They also tell me to place client foremost and to treat him or her with respect…
Alder, Ken (2007). The Lie Detectors. New York: Free Press.
National Organization for Human Services. Ethical Standards for HS Professionals
Employee Handbook Privacy Section
ABC Widget Company: Employee Handbook Privacy Section
What privacy rights issues should be addressed?
In the Age of Information, there are increasing concerns being voiced about what can legitimately be expected to be kept private, and how these issues affect employees' rights in the workplace. According to Hayden, Hendricks and Novak (1990, most adults spend approximately one-half of their waking hours in the workplace today, and it is therefore not surprising that employment practices affect a broad range of privacy rights. With the sole exception of polygraph ("lie-detector") testing, there are not many areas of workplace activities that are addressed by the U.S. Constitution or national privacy laws. As a result, employers in the United States have a great deal of flexibility in collecting data on their employees, regulating their access to personnel files, and disclosing the contents of employee files to those outside the organization.…
Backer, T.E. & O'Hara, K.B. (1991). Organizational change and drug-free workplaces:
Templates for success. New York: Quorum Books.
Hayden, T., Hendricks, E. & Novik, J.D. (1990). Your right to privacy: A basic guide to legal rights in an information society. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Muhl, C.J. (2003). Workplace E-Mail and Internet Use: Employees and Employers Beware An
To handle these responsibilities, intelligence agents need to possess certain skills and education. Most positions require at least a bachelor's degree, and degrees in politics or the sciences are recommended. Applicants need to possess strong writing skills, especially with analytical reports. Strong oral presentation skills are desired. Applicants need to be able to absorb and synthesize large amounts of information, to convey ideas thoroughly and logically, and be able to draw logical conclusions based on careful research and analysis. Computer knowledge and data entry are key skills. In addition, intelligence agents demonstrate leadership and show strong teamwork. Other requirements can include the ability to travel, familiarity with automated tools and systems, and foreign language skills. An applicant to any intelligence department must be able to pass a polygraph test, a background check to gain security clearance, and a psychological interview.
After achieving the right skill set and education, there are…
What is arah's theory?
Will she succeed?
arah's theory is that Will Worker who collided in and damaged her4 car, is an employee of Larry's business, "Lofty Lawns." ince he is unable to pay for repairs of her car, her theory is that that his employers Larry's business, "Lofty Lawns" should pay for it and cover him.
he will not succeed, since the employer of Larry's business, "Lofty Lawns," has made each of his employees independent and hired them as their own workers. "He requires them to sign an "independent contractor" agreement that acknowledges they are independent contractors, not employees. " Wanting to keep costs to a minimum, Larry has each worker buy his own van, as well as maintain their own vehicle liability insurance (and show proof of insurance), and to pay for their own gas and truck maintenance. Will should have been responsible for this. ince…
NEGLIGENT HIRING (4/07) http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&ved=0CGsQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.judiciary.state.nj.us%2Fcivil%2Fcharges%2F5.76.doc&ei=W9U9UYjtFaTx2QWFu4DgCQ&usg=AFQjCNEBBj0GIaRqNwueeAC1eXXjKdevOg&sig2=Y_Y5IiPfEghisB8c9absIw&bvm=bv.43287494,d.b2I
Global Drug Policy. Employee Drug Testing Study. http://www.globaldrugpolicy.org/Issues/Vol%205%20Issue%204/Basic-11-22Efficacy%20Study%20Publication%20Final.pdf
Vitek, J. (2011) Personal Internet Use at Work: Understanding Cyberslacking Computers in Human Behavior http://www.academia.edu/507880/Personal_Internet_use_at_work_Understanding_cyberslacking
McCurdy v. Arkansas State Police, 375 F. 3 762 (8th Cir. 2004)
Type of Action
The case covered in this legal brief was the case of an employee of the Arkansas State Police, that being McCurdy, filing an action against the State of Arkansas in the form of the Arkansas State Police, that being her employer. Ms. McCurdy was trying to hold the Arkansas State Police liable for the sexual harassment of her supervisor. The case in this legal brief was argued before the United States Eight Circuit Court of Appeals (Leagle, 2014).
Facts of the Case
Jamie McCurdy, while being an employee of the Arkansas State Police, was subjected to about an hour of sexual harassment. The harassment in question was explicitly banned and disallowed as a matter of policy with the Arkansas State Police. On the Friday in which the harassment occurred, Sergeant Hall (McCurdy's supervisor)…
IntroLaw. (2014, May 30). Summary: McCurdy v. Arkansas State Police, 375 F.3d 762 (8th Cir. July 23, 2004). Summary: McCurdy v. Arkansas State Police, 375 F.3d 762 (8th Cir. July 23, 2004). Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.introlaw.com/ed/cs/8th/04/080704mc.html
LawMemo. (2014, May 30). Employment Law Memo sample. Employment Law Memo sample. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.lawmemo.com/sample/e20040726.htm
Leagle. (2014, May 30). McCURDY v. ARKANSAS STATE POLICE | Leagle.com. McCURDY v. ARKANSAS STATE POLICE | Leagle.com. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.leagle.com/decision/20031257275FSupp2d982_11161
Ethics in Management
Hiring ethical people
A couple things were interesting in chapter three namely attraction-selection-attrition cycle, title VII of the civil rights act, disparate impact, equal employment opportunity commission, and integrity tests. Attraction-selection-attrition cycle mainly deals with what attracts, and connects people to their place of work and vice versa (Dickson, Nieminen, & Biermeier-Hanson, 2012). Their own interests, personalities, values, and faith guide people towards the company they work for eventually. When an employee is satisfied with their work, it would be hard for them to resign, which makes more people to stay. Selection is meant to satisfy a given goal or fill a specific position. Therefore, it is vital to select the right person to suit the available position.
Disparate impact theory posits that any employment practices may be considered discriminatory if they have an adverse effect on specific persons. Protected classes of people may vary by statute,…
Dickson, M.W., Nieminen, L., & Biermeier-Hanson, B. (2012). Nepotism and organizational homogeneity: How the attraction -- selection -- attrition (ASA) process is accelerated by nonmerit-based decision making. Nepotism in organizations, 93-128.
Ones, D.S., Viswesvaran, C., & Schmidt, F.L. (2012). Integrity tests predict counterproductive work behaviors and job performance well: Comment on Van Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark, and Odle-Dusseau (2012).
Wilson, N. (2012). Uncovering teachers? beliefs through the development of a vision statement. Paper presented at the American Reading Forum Annual Yearbook [online].
Kerry Max Cook has come into the limelight subsequent to being found guilty and sentenced to life in 1978 for one of the most notorious and gruesome killings in East Texas County. Cook was convicted in the grisly and horrific killing of Linda Jo Edwards, a young 22-year-old girl that was found in her apartment room having been trodden, knifed and mutilated. The thesis of the article indicates the difficulty of proving and maintaining innocence. This is linked to the fact that even after being released from death row, Cook continues to maintain his innocence and is seeking a full and comprehensive exoneration. However, the difficulty of attaining innocence continues to be a daunting task with prosecutors going on with opposition of Cook's claims of actual innocence that would permit him to obtain compensation for the two years spent while on death row.
There are distinctive lessons that can be…
hen people who experienced lucid dreams were studied in order to determine their brain activity during lucid dreaming, it was found that their cerebral hemispheres behaved similarly to how they did while they were awake. The left cerebral hemisphere was more active when people sang in their dreams while activity in the right cerebral hemisphere would intensify when the subjects counted (Laberge, p. 300).
One of the most common concepts present in the reports of those who claim to have experienced a lucid dream is the one relating to sexual activity. Laberge was also engaged in studying sexual activity during lucid dreams and found that the body reacted to sexual stimuli imagined by the person sleeping similarly to how it would react if the subject was awake. In spite of the fact that most subjects who underwent lucid dreams reported having orgasms, they did not show any signs of actually…
1. Bulkeley, Kelly. (1997). An Introduction to the Psychology of Dreaming Westport, CT: Praeger.
2. Shulman, David and Stroumsa, Guy G. eds. (1999). Dream Cultures: Explorations in the Comparative History of Dreaming. New York: Oxford U.S..
3. Southern, S. Darkness into Light: The Dream Journal of an Addicted Trauma Survivor. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling 24.2 (2004).
4. (1992). The Neuropsychology of Sleep and Dreaming, ed. John S. Antrobus and Mario Bertini. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
However, things have advanced. ith better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. ithout sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer.
In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the survival of mammalian and avian species. Certainly, it was a very valuable step along the evolutionary ladder and led to survival. As the brain grew more complex, it needed downtime to process new information. Like any computer, especially a complex one, the human brain requires maintenance. Besides simple "down time," it also requires reprogramming every 24 hours. Just like our network computers take necessary updates and downloads, the brain needs a reprogramming session every 24 hours to recharge itself and…
Animals have complex dreams, mit researcher proves. (2001, January 21). Retrieved
Aserinsky, E; Kleitman, N. (September 1953). "Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena, during sleep." Science 118 (3062): 273 -- 274.
Gokce, Gokalp. (1999). Sleep and dreams. Retrieved from http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/dreams.htm
The resulting legal ramifications have created an environment of sensitivity to all types of potential discrimination through pre-employment testing procedures.
The ADA Act of 2008 became effective on January 1, 2009. A significant change in the way "disability" is defined is incorporated in the language, so the EEOC is preparing to evaluate the impact of how the language affects the ADA and how it is enforced. Pre-job testing, even though it is done for the right reasons, may now be affected.
The National Institute on Disability and ehabilitation esearch (NID) has established 10 regional centers providing information, technical assistance and training to people with disabilities, employers, and others having responsibilities under the ADA (Nester, Mary Ann, 2008). Even though historically, job applications and interviews could request information concerning an applicant's mental and physical condition, because it was used to discriminate against and even exclude applicants with disabilities, it has created…
Nester, Mary Ann, Pre-Employment Testing and the ADA. Program on Employment and Disability, School of Industrial and Labor Relations-Extension Division, Cornell University, funded by a grant from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (2008). Reviewed June 29, 2009 at http://www.theaaceonline.com/employ.pdf .
Kaplan, Daniel A., J.D., Foley & Lardner LLP, Employment Testing in the Workplace, March 20, 2008. Reviewed June 29, 2009 at http://www.foley.com/files/tbl_s31Publications/FileUpload137/4910/MRA_Kaplan.pdf .
"In a recent case, EEOC v. DaimlerChrysler Corp., an applicant test failed to accommodate those with learning disabilities who needed reading accommodations during the pre-employment test given for nonexempt manufacturing jobs. The case resulted in the ruling that applicants should have the opportunity to take the hiring test with the assistance of a reader if they have proof of an ADA disability. This illustrates that employment testing in the pre-employment context must be continually evaluated to determine if the tests create potential disparate effects and to ensure that the tests are legitimately related to the requirements of the positions for which they are developed/provided" (Kaplan., 2008, p. 1).
The complete selection process consists of a written examination, on which a candidate must score above a certain percentile and be ranked accordingly, a physical and psychological evaluation, a background investigation and polygraph rest, and a medical examination ("Selection Process," NYSP Recruitment Center, 2008).
The training process
The basic school of training for New York State Troopers is 26 weeks of residential training, cumulating 1,095 hours of training. Classes are given to recruits in a number of areas, including police skills, police science, operations and public interaction relations. The areas of education span a wide array of issues, to include firearm training, first responder and emergency vehicle operations, criminology, DI enforcement, domestic violence enforcement, department policy on sexual harassment, how to make an arrest, and penal and constitutional law, amongst other topics. Some of the areas of instruction are expected and traditional, such as how to minimize the use of…
Basic School Curriculum." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/curriculum.cfm
Field Training." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/field_training.cfm
NYSP Division of Police: History." NYSP. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.troopers.state.ny.us/Introduction/History/
Qualifications for New York State Trooper." NYSP Recruitment Center. 1 Apr 2008. http://www.nytrooper.com/qualifications.cfm
In the fifth hypothesis of measuring the business ethics levels of Taiwanese ITPs the Null and Alternative Hypotheses are defined as follows:
H0: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is high.
H1: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is low.
Results of Testing Hypothesis Five
It has been established in the fourth hypothesis that the greater the ethical climate of independence, the greater the level of ethical self-direction and ownership of ethical outcomes. This also holds true when the ethical climate of instrumental low. The adherence to self-defined ethical standards is high. When the specific variable of in this company, the employees are expected to do their job according to their personal belief of ethics is correlated against the variable of in this company, the employees can make decisions based on their personal judgment,…
Patrol crafts would be deployed along the coastal areas waiting to act upon any information provided to confiscate drugs and arrest drug traffickers. For this purpose, the city police would be armoured with 2 well-equipped fast patrol crafts. Communication services between the stations and the patrol crafts would be state of the art including GPS systems and radar networks to facilitate identifying and tracking down of suspicious activity in the coastal waters. Further, the use of latest thermal imaging and laser optics tools would provide effective supervision at nights.
The police department has immense responsibility in maintaining law and order and providing safety and security would necessitate a strong police force based on a clear and sound organizational philosophy. As a coastal city with its growing population, the urban city of Metropolis is faced with numerous problems, in particular the high drug trade activity along the coastal regions. The…
NCWC, " Police in Society," Accessed 16th Apr 2007, Available online at, http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lects.htm
Author not Available, "Community Policing," Accessed 15th Apr 2007, available at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1648/Police-Community-Policing-Definition-community-policing.html
James T. Quinlivan, Burden of Victory: The Painful Arithmetic of Stability Operations, Available Online at, http://www.rand.org/publications/randreview/issues/summer2003/burden.html
City of Phoenix, 'Police Officer Processing Procedures', Accessed Apr 16th 2007, available at http://www.ci.phoenix.az.us/POLICE/pdjob3.html
These types of programs should provide refresher courses each year for the purpose of reminding firefighters what they should remember fighting and documenting the fire. The incendiary fire is one that is highly unpredictable because it does not follow the natural progression of a fire due to having been intentionally set and possibly accelerated with some type of flammable substance that may be highly toxic. The high incident of incendiary fires in institutions can only be addressed through cooperative and collaborative efforts with these types of institutions. In relation to Incendiary fires due to cooking equipment, the fire department should initiate campaigns by which to provide public information concerning prevention of these types of fires.
2. Incendiary Fires: Documentation and Evidence
Secondly, in the case of scene and evidence documentation it is stated that the investigation must by "systematic and technically sound" and that: "One of the most common mistakes…
City of Yakima - Budget Strategy Team (2004) Online available at http://www.ci.yakima.wa.us/services/finance/minutes/2004minutes/09-10-04%20Notes.doc
Incendiary Fires (2007) LSU Fire & Emergency Training Institute Glossary. Online available at http://feti.lsu.edu/glossary/browse.php?letter=I
Gilliam, Jason W. (2006) Structure Fires and Fire Deaths within the Jurisdiction of the Farmington, Missouri Fire Department. Online available at http://www.ci.farmington.mo.us/publicworks/forms/Fires.pdf,
Burnette, Guy E. Esquire (2007) Documentation of the Fire Scene: A Legal Perspective. interfere online available at http://www.interfire.org/res_file/docscleg.asp .
The Selection Process for Aspirant State Police Officers
Becoming a police officer at the state level requires dedication, courage and tenacity. Indeed, the process for state officers can often be more streamlined, bureaucratic and selective than that engaged at the municipal or local levels. Therefore, becoming a State Trooper will call for a commitment to the recruitment, preparation, testing, and training processes that are streamlined and specific to each state. As the discussion here shows, there are a number of eligibility requirements, guidelines and expectations which can help the aspirant officer navigate the process.
According to the Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC), the process of being hired into a department as a state level officer can actually take up to 9 months. This is because of the lengthy testing, monitoring and training periods which follow the acceptance of the candidate's application. According to the LEPC, "the requirements to…
Indiana State Police (ISP). (2009). State Troopers. In.gov.
Law Enforcement Preparation Center (LEPC). (2010). How To Become a Police Officer in Your State. Passthepolicetest.com.
Learning Express Editors (LEE). (2010). Becoming a Police Officer: The Selection Process. Education.com.
The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:
Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.
Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today
Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.
VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:
The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…
Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te
Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04
Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm
NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
ayne illiams Case
A forensic investigator with experience working crime scenes is encouraged after locating key fibers on a victim. That is because the investigator's training has taught him that even small fibers can lead to a suspect. In the ayne illiams child murder case, the use of fibers as evidence not only enabled law enforcement to prove that illiams was the killer, the use of fiber evidence in that case has become helpful in subsequent police investigations. The illiams case represented a classic crime incident in which trace fibers were absolutely vital in the prosecution of a murderer, and as such, this case represents an extremely valuable example for use in future forensic discoveries at crime scenes. This paper reveals crime scene strategies that were foolproof and linked illiams beyond any doubt to the killings.
Fibers and ayne illiams' Guilt
illiams was a suspect in multiple murders that took…
Chaney, A. (2008) Wayne Williams. Princeton University. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from http://www.princeton.edu .
National Criminal Justice Reference Service. (1984). Fiber Evidence and the Wayne Williams
Trial (Part 1). Retrieved July 20, 2013, from http://www.ncjrs.gov .
National Criminal Justice Reference Service. (1984). Fiber Evidence and the Wayne Williams
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III
Brief Description of the Test
The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)
The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…
American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. http://www.unl.edu/buros/reviewsample.html .
Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
The following shall be answers to questions that relate to employment law. It shall be a case analysis.
PG 93 Questions
Southwest Airlines Company has accepted that it is an organization, which recruits only female workers. It rejects employing male workers. It has both weight and height limits which would inhibit male applicants. It stated that a Title VII outlaw on discrimination of sex justified its recruitment of female workers for public contact posts of flight attendants and ticket agents. The company maintained its reasons for not employing male workers, as being that the female workers would present the sexy image of the company (Bennett-Alexander and Hartman, 2012 page 92). The issue that hence results now, is whether Southwest has proved that being female is a practically essential BFOQ to sustain the success of the business hence the discrimination in sex. Southwest Airlines failed in their defense claim.…
Baez. (2013, January 26). Cornell HR Review -- The Cornell HR Review is a student-run HR publication that provides timely articles, essays, and executive commentary. Personality Tests in Employment Selection: Use With Caution -- Cornell HR Review. Retrieved October 18, 2015, from http://www.cornellhrreview.org/personality-tests-in-employment-selection-use-with-caution/
Bennett-Alexander, D., & Hartman, L. (2012). Legal Construction of the Employment Environment. Employment Law for Business (7 Ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
contingency plan is that it needs to be able to keep people secure and protected. If a crisis does occur, people need to feel as though they are protected, and that all employees, visitors, customers and suppliers are safeguarded and shielded from any harm that could occur. Another element of a contingency plan is that it needs to be able to secure and protect the core elements of the business at large, such as the infrastructure and the critical processes while slowing any disruptions to the business (Fischer et al., 2013). Furthermore, a strong contingency plan will be able to safeguard all information along with information systems, such as those which include or impact supplier connections and client connections (Fischer et al., 2013). A good contingency plan is one which is able to make basic assumptions which are correct to foster a baseline for planning. A good contingency plan is…
Fischer, R.J et al., (2013). Introduction to Security, Ninth Edition. New York: Butterworth-
In order to address the issues, efforts would be made towards the creation of stress free interviews and the preservation of objectivity.
c) the psychological interview
The psychological interview is characterized by assessment of the mental state of the individual. It is usually constructed based on standards of psychological testing and the results are interpreted by a specialist.
d) the interview with the top management
Finally, the interview with the top management would be the final stage of the selection process and it would be structured around an informal interaction between candidate and the top managers. Throughout the conversation, the managers would once again test the communication skills, the commitment to the firm as well as the candidates' perceptions over which features made them suitable for the managerial position within the firm.
At this level, more emphasis would be placed on the individual's commitment to the firm and sensitive questions…
Armstrong, M., Baron, a., 2002, Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, CIPD Publishing
Barrett, R., Mayson, S., 2008, International handbook of entrepreneurship and HRM, Edward Elgar Publishing
Bohlander, G., Snell, S., 2009, Managing human resources, 15th edition, Cengage Learning
DeAngelis, T., 2010, Master the corrections officer exam, 16th edition, Peterson's
Authors present the results of a national law enforcement technology survey and comparable forensics technology survey that was conducted by the RAND Corporation to assess the effectiveness of this support and constraints to applying forensic technologies at the state and local level. Authors devote several chapters to different types of forensic analyses, including what types of techniques are best suited for various types of crimes and the evidence that may be present. A discussion concerning the types of evidence, including controlled substances, firearms, explosives, fire debris, bullets, footwear, vehicle tire marks, latent fingerprints, blood, gunpowder residue and so forth that are typically encountered in different crime scenes is followed by a useful description concerning how and why specific forensic technologies are used. Authors also present a description concerning how computer-based technologies are facilitating the application of these forensic investigatory methods to achieve higher conviction rates by providing improved testing results.…
Watterson, J., Blackmore, V. & Bagby, D. (2006). Considerations for the analysis of forensic samples following extended exposure to the environment. The Forensic Examiner, 15(4),
Authors are all forensic scientists who present a timely discussion concerning the harmful effects that extended exposure to the environment can have on forensic evidence, including its analysis and the interpretation of test results. Because crime scenes may produce less-than-optimum samples of DNA, blood and other molecular-based evidence based on environmental factors such as sunlight, rain, and microorganism growth, authors provide a review of the relevant literature to explain how these constraints must be taken into account when conducting forensic investigations and analyses. In particular, authors emphasize that biomolecular substances such as enzyme and DNA analyses are adversely affected by these environmental factors. While these biomolecular materials may remain amenable to forensic analyses over time if they are properly stored and maintained, extended exposure to environmental elements can cause them to degrade in ways that confound even the most sophisticated technologies. Authors also present a discussion concerning how both biological and non-biological samples are affected by exposure to environmental factors, and how toxicological tests to ascertain time and cause of death can be hampered by these effects. Authors point out, though, that it is possible to interpret the results of forensic analyses of even degraded biological samples if forensic scientists are cognizant of the processes these samples tend to undergo as they degrade. Although some types of samples such as paint chips and glass fragments may not be adversely affected by extended exposure to the environment, other substances such as volatile ignitable liquids tend to evaporate altogether, making time of the essence in gathering evidence and conducting suitable testing protocols. Authors also emphasize, though, that there remains a dearth of timely and relevant guidance in the literature concerning the interpretation of biological samples that have experienced extended exposure to these environmental elements and call for additional research in this area. Taken together, this journal article presents useful guidance for forensic scientists who are confronted with degraded samples as a result of extended exposure to the environment, and note that the nature of crime means that these types of samples will be far more common in forensic scientists' experience than the pristine samples with which they may have been trained.
Cultures of greed, corruption and misrepresentation helped to facilitate a massive transfer of wealth, substantial enough to suggest that a denial of awareness on the part of personnel at such organizations is nothing short of implausible. Therefore, we can presume that an absence or real protections for would-be whistleblowers in private enterprises would help to accommodate a wave of corruption every bit as destructive to the public as any government indiscretion such as the histleblower Protection Act was designed to address.
Beyond this, there are indications that the federal legislation lacks the proper mechanisms even to serve as a template for that which might address the failures in private regulation. The article by Fischer (1991) provides myriad examples in which exceptions and clauses relating to the histleblower Protection Act have made it essentially toothless. Specifications such as that which denotes that only certain 'covered employees' qualify for the protections afforded…
Fisher, B.D. (1991). Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989: A False Hope for Whistleblowers. Rutgers Law Review, 43(355).
Government Accountability Project (GAP). 2009). Whistleblower Protection Act & Amendments. Whistlblower.org.
U.S. Department of Labor (USDoL). (2008). The Whistleblower Protection Program. OSHA.
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). (1989). Whistleblower Protection Act Information. SEC.gov.
Ethics at Apple
Apple has been for some time now the leading manufacturer of innovative wireless technologies, including the iPhone, the iPad, iPods, and Macintosh computers that do more and set the table for other manufacturers to emulate "Mac" innovations. Following the death of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs -- and the emergence of Tim Cook as the new CEO -- the technology media and happy Apple consumers wait for the next launch of an innovative device that will change the way people communicate and retrieve information.
hat are the Apple values and ethics? The "Apple Values" section of the Apple Employee Handbook (circa 1993) sets the record straight on what is expected of employees. In short, Apple asserts that "…we will not compromise our ethics or integrity in the name of profit" (seanet.com). hat Apple does is "…set aggressive goals and drive ourselves hard to achieve them" and "build products"…
Gurman, Mark. (2011). Revealed: Apple's internal policies on employee social networking, speculating on rumors, leaking, blogging, and more. 9to5Mac. Retrieved May 27, 2012,
from http://9to5mac.com .
Mac Observer. (2011). Revealed: 10 big Apple Store secrets. Retrieved May 27, 2012, from http://theweek.com .
Marshall, Gary. (2011). Inside Apple: Cupertino's secrets revealed. Tech Radar. Retrieved May
However, that was not an option, and it points to the rigidity of the corporation and its rules.
Harrah's defense of their policy is utilitarian in its outlook and its purpose. It stresses utility (beauty) over values or concerns of personal beliefs and personal privacy. A Harrah's spokesman for the "Personal Best" program noted, "Harrah's customers, people who are loyal to the Harrah's brand name, expect a certain quality of product, a certain quality hotel room, quality of food, and, yes, a certain quality in the appearance of the people who are serving them food and beverages'" (Chmela). It seems this stance is both rigid and extremely discriminatory against female employees, where a different appearance level is required. The policy does not require male beverage employees to wear makeup or style their hair, and it does not allow any flexibility in the policy. Harrah's only purpose is to create a…
Chmela, Holli. "Personal Best' Not up to Par." Washington Times. 11 Jan. 2005. http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20-8556r.htm
Guidos, Rhina. "Fired Bartender Sues Harrah's Over Makeup Policy." Reno Gazette-Journal. 7 July 2001.
Kravets, David. "Court to Decide Case on Makeup." Reno Gazette Journal. 22 June 2005. http://www.rgj.com/news/printstory.php?id=102344
This number would then be compared to the number of people who worry about having their privacy violated. Since it is presumed that more than 16% of the population worry about such items as government intervention into their daily lives, and their concern about how to keep their private information to themselves. One study stated, "protests from certain quarters prompt public-sector officials to think long and hard about how to balance open government and the right to privacy" (Douglas 2006-page 1). ith this information in mind, the study would have to lean towards the better good for most people being when their privacy is respected rather than catching individuals who are using drugs.
Other questions such as smoking after hours, and having unprotected sex can also be categorized as a right to privacy issue rather than a cost issue and as such should be left alone by employers as well.…
Douglas M, (2006) Privacy Concerns. Government Technology, January 2, 2006, http://www.govtech.net/magazine/story.php?id=97730, Accessed July 10, 2006
Gledhill-Hoyt J, Lee H, Strote J, and Wechsler H., (2000) Increased use of Marijuana and Other Illicit Drugs at U.S. Colleges in the 1990's: Results of Three National Surveys. Addiction, Vol 95 Issue 11, pp. 1655-67
Ethics of Employee Location Monitoring
In the contemporary workplace, workers are usually aware that their computer activity, email, and phone conversations may be -- and probably are -- being monitored by their employer. Efforts to limit the consumption of offensive or pornographic material, use of company resources for non-work purposes, and desire to track employee behavior in order to improve efficiency leads managers to install keystroke logs, FID location tags, cell phone software, and "back door" computer tracking programs. Employees complain that they do not feel trusted by employers who use these strategies, and managers may not have clear guidelines for how to use the information they glean from covert employee monitoring. However, some of these techniques can be used to improve workplace safety and ensure, for example, that employees take regular breaks from work in order to reduce eye strain and the health dangers of sedentary work. Below, I…
Hartman, L.P. (2000). Technology and Ethics: Privacy in the Workplace. Business and Society Review 106:1, 1-27.
Kaupins, G., & Minch, R. (2005). "Legal and Ethical Implications of Employee Location Monitoring," HICSS, vol. 5, pp.133a, Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.