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Today, technological and Internet advances have brought about some severe consequences, including the rise and exponential growth of online pornography sites. One effect of this has been a high level of exposure and even addiction to such sites. Consequences have included depression, loss of work, social withdrawal, and the like. Since it is unlikely that Internet pornography will disappear, individuals and groups need to focus on mitigating addiction, unwanted exposure, and negative consequences. esearchers should focus their efforts on investigating the nature of Internet pornography and its varied consequences for individuals. Only by understanding the negative consequences associated with Internet pornography can we fight these and ensure our growth and survival as a healthy society.
In today's world of technology and advancement, it is a sad fact of human nature that we do not derive only benefits and productive work from the wonderful progress we have made…
Bostwick, M. And Bucci, J.A. (2008, Feb). Internet Sex Addiction Treated With Naltrexone. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 83(2). Retrieved from: http://yourbrainonporn.com/internet-sex-addiction-treated-with-naltrexone
Braun-Courville, D.K. And Rojas, M. (2009, Aug). Exposure to sexually explict Web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health 45(2). Retrieved from: http://yourbrainonporn.com/exposure-sexually-explicit-web-sites-and-adolescent-sexual-attitudes-and-behaviors-2009
Crosby, J.M. And Twohig, M.P. (2010). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Treatment for Problematic Internet Pornography Viewing. Behavior Therapy. Retrieved from: http://contextualscience.org/system/files/Twohig_Crosby_2010.pdf
Mowlabocus, S. (2010). Porn 2.0? Technology, Social Practice, and the New Online Porn Industry. Porn.com: Making Sense of Online Pornography edited by Feona Attwood. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.
Pornography remains one of the most contentious issues related to the freedom of expression. The definition of pornography and the parameters of the First Amendment must be taken into consideration when determining what, if any, types of pornography are protected as a First Amendment right. The First Amendment does have its legal limits, in theory and in legal precedent. As Lowey points out, the Supreme Court has consistently ruled that the First Amendment right to free speech can be delimited in cases of obscenity. Placing too many legal restrictions on the freedom of speech guaranteed by the United States Constitution is dangerous, though. It is critical to have a liberal interpretation of the First Amendment, protecting the right to produce, disseminate, and consume material that some might find offensive so long as no entity is harmed in the process.
One of the primary reasons to protect the right to freedom…
"Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: Regulation of Obscenity." Retrieved online: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/obscenity.htm
Gilkerson, Luke. "Is Porn Protected by the First Amendment?" Breaking Free. Retrieved online: http://www.covenanteyes.com/2008/10/27/is-porn-protected-by-the-first-amendment/
Hudson, David L. "Pornography and Obscenity." First Amendment Center. Retrieved online: http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/pornography-obscenity
Loewy, Arnold H. "Obscenity, Pornography, and the First Amendment Theory, 2 Wm. & Mary Bill of Rts. J. 471 (1993), Retrieved online: http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/wmborj/vol2/iss2/7
Radio. Retrieved on March 8, 2013 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story.php?storyId=125382361
lessing, M. (2013). The theory of extramarital affairs. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on March 9, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info?8689747_theory-extramarital-affairs.html
Eberstadt, M. andLayden., M.A. (2010). The social costs of pornography. The Witherspoon Institute: Princeton New Jersey. Retrieved on March 7, 2013 from http://www.internetsafety101.org/upload/file/SocialCostsofPornographyReport.pdf
Fifes, S.T. And Weeks, G.R. (2007). Infidelity/extramarital sex. University of Nevada,
Las Vegas. Retrieved on March 8, 2013 from http://faculty.univ.edu/fife2/pdf/InfidelityandExtramaritalsex.pdf
Fong, T.W. (2006). Understanding and managing compulsive behaviors. Vol. 3 # 11
Psychiatry: PubMed. Retrieved on March 7, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841
Leckie, . (2003). The simple case of adultery. Vol 40 # 4, James Joyce Quarterly:
Mahajan, P.T., et al. (2013). Indian religious concepts oin sexuality and marriage.
Vol 55 # 6 Indian Psychiatric Society: Indian Psychiatry.org. Retrieved on March 8,
2013 from http://www.indianpsychiatry.org/article.asp?issm-0019-5545;year=2013,volume=55
Matz, W. (2009). The porn trap. Therapy Today: ritish Association for Counseling
Anonymous (2010). National Review: getting serious on pornography. National Public
Radio. Retrieved on March 8, 2013 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story.php?storyId=125382361
Blessing, M. (2013). The theory of extramarital affairs. eHow: Demand Media, Inc.
Retrieved on March 9, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info?8689747_theory-extramarital-affairs.html
Pornography & Children
There is considerable research evidence that pornography, especially child pornography, results in adversely affecting the psychological development of children, with far reaching consequences in terms of their ability to function well as adults. Since children are the future of any society, it is critical that adequate measures be taken to ensure the healthy and well-rounded development of children in order that they grow up to be productive, humane citizens. One such measure is to ensure that children grow up free of the harmful effects of exposure to pornography.
Although there is no consensus on either the definition of pornography or its harmful effects, there is a wide body of research that establishes a clear link between pornography and both sexually and socially deviant behavior.
The effects of repeated exposure to pornography on adults have been shown to be addictive, often leading to sexual illnesses, and thereby endangering…
Cline, Dr. V.B. "Pornography's Effects on Adults and Children." Morality in Media, Inc. Web site. Accessed June 14, 2004: http://www.moralityinmedia.org/index.htm?pornsEffectsArticles/harmfuleffects.htm
Hughes, D.R. "How Pornography Harms Children." ProtectKids.com Accessed June 14, 2004: http://www.protectkids.com/effects/harms.htm
Maney, A. & Wells, S. "Professional Responsibilities in Protecting Children: A Public Health Approach to Child Sexual Abuse." Praeger, 1998.
MegaEpix. "Possible Harmful Effects of Pornography in Society." Accessed June
This is what creates confusion in the minds of young and vulnerable people." (p. 1)
Concerning this vulnerability, our research suggests that upon entering an adolescent age, individuals who are not yet emotionally or intellectually prepared for the responsibilities of sexual engagement are yet beginning to experience emotions hinting at this impulse. Schwartz warns that encounters with explicit and potentially deviant materials such as those which may incorporate violence, exploitation, pedophilia or even simply a predilection apart from the individuals such as homosexuality, group sex or fetishism, will impede with the child's process of learning sexual boundaries.
This is underscored in the article by Flood (2010), which reports on the general range of effects that have been associated with exposure to pornography at a young age. Flood reports that "especially among boys and young men who are frequent consumers of pornography, including of more violent materials, consumption intensifies attitudes supportive…
Dunn, J.; Myers, J.A. & Love, D. (2006). Sexual Development. Provider-Parent
Partnerships. Online at http://www.ces.purdue.edu/providerparent/child%20growth-development/SexualDEV.htm
Eskridge Jr., W.N. & Hunter, N.D. (2001). Eskridge and Hunter's Sexuality, Gender
and the Law, Abridged. West Publishing Company.
It is often said that pornography is in the eye of the beholder. Material that was considered pornographic a few decades years ago are considered acceptable today. These changes illustrate the shifting notions of what material constitutes pornography or obscenity.
This paper argues that while anti-pornography activists have valid concerns regarding pornography's exploitative nature, to censor pornography would be an assault on free speech and the freedom of expression. Therefore, any attempt to curtail pornography would be unconstitutional.
Currently, material that is considered "obscene" and pornographic is illegal both on the federal level and in over 40 states in the United States. Though it is difficult to create an all-inclusive definition, the United States Supreme Court has drafted three general criteria to determine whether a work or material could be considered pornographic. First, the work must meet the "average person" test. This states that an average person, applying the…
Douglas, Jeffrey J. "Government Should Not Censor Pornography." Free Speech. Scott Barbour, Ed. Current Controversies Series. Greenhaven Press, 2000. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004. http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/OVRC
Itzin, Catherine. "The Government Should Legislate Against Pornography." Civil Liberties. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. Opposing Viewpoints® Series. Greenhaven Press, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004.
Sociologist Darryl Hall (2009) notes that the symbolic interactionism view of sexual deviance (which can relate to the issue of porn and sexual deviance) is as follows: "Symbolic interactionists suggest that the need of men to validate their sexual prowess or reaffirm their masculinity is an important factor in their seeking out pornography or prostitues" (p. 2). Such a notion can explain the rising level of sexually deviant crime in society, and can in turn associate this with the viewing of pornography as a man's need for sexual validation and masculinity.
As seen, the rise of pornography to a near norm in society has heightened the search to link the viewing of this material to sexual deviant behavior in society. Although a direct link is not conclusive, it is clear that the research in terms of this question is growing to slowly but surely support some link between the…
Addison, T., Koss, M., and Malamuth, N. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research. 11, 26-91.
Blumer, H (1969). Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. Berkeley: University
of California Press.
Garry, A. (1978). Pornography and respect for women. Social Theory and Practice. 231-
Some sociologists and feminist scholars see pornography as an industry that objectifies women -- the large majority of heterosexual porn focuses on the needs of the man, and women are really little more than sexual objects. The industry itself is set up someone like prostitution, according to this view. People are paid to have sex on camera for the viewing pleasures of others. Indeed, pornography sets up an unrealistic expectation of humans -- the actors all tend to be of a certain type, any imperfections airbrushed out, very little talking, and people who are desirous of sexual activity 100% of the time (Paul, 2005).
Healthcare professionals must understand, as well, that there is a huge continuum of sexual desire, fantasy and behavior within the human species. There is a difference between the use of pornography and sexual addiction; and using pornography to replace intimate relationships. From the perspective of a…
What is Erotic and What is Pornographic? (March 29, 2004). H2g2. Retrieved from: http://www.h2g2.com/approved_entry/A2163070
Bridges, a., et al. (2003). Romantic partner's use of pornography: Its significance for women. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy. 29 (1): 1-14.
Campbell, M. (2012). Perspectives on Pornography and Erotica: Nudes, Prudes and Attitudes. Concordia University Spectrum Research Repository. Unpublished Master's Thesis retrieved from: http://spectrum.library.concordia.ca/974071/
Diamond, M., (1999). The Effects of Pornography: An International Perspective. University of Hawaii Pacific Center for Sex and Society. Retrieved from: http://www.hawaii.edu / PCSS/biblio/articles/1961to1999/1999-effects-of-pornography.html
Is pornography a result of a general degrading of our culture, or is our culture degrading because of many factors, including increased violence and the prevalence of more violent forms of media, including pornography? As the use of the Internet has grown and developed, more studies have been conducted to try to answer those nagging questions.
Several studies have looked at the "third-person effect" of Internet pornography. Basically, the third-person effect is one where most people tend to believe that a certain media or other trigger affects others in society more than it affects themselves. esearchers Lo and Wei continue, "Similar research conducted in Taiwan shows that respondents perceived pornography to have greater negative influence on others than on themselves" (Lo and Wei), and this seems to hold true around the globe. For example, researchers Azy Barak and William a. Fisher report, "individuals who approach Internet sexuality with strong arousal…
Fisher, William a., and Azy Barak. "Internet Pornography: A Social Psychological Perspective on Internet Sexuality." The Journal of Sex Research 38.4 (2001): 312+.
Flood, Dr. Michael. "Between Critique and Censorship: Developing an Ethical Pornography." Australian Government. Sept. 2003. 11 July 2005. http://www.oflc.gov.au/resource.html?resource=243&filename=243.pdf
Lo, Ven-Hwei, and Ran Wei. "Third-Person Effect, Gender and Pornography on the Internet." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 46.1 (2002): 13+.
Palczewski, Catherine Helen. "Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument." Argumentation and Advocacy 38.1 (2001): 1+.
Pornography, Women, And the Digital Revolution
Digital technologies have gone through a revolutionary period of development over the past twenty or so years. Some say that the digital revolution is helping to facilitate participatory democracy; some say it will "sweep aside the gatekeepers, allowing free expression and broad access to information"; but on the other hand this revolution has the potential to corrupt innocent children by exposing them to "video game violence, pornography and cybersex" (Jenkins). Which outcome is more likely and where do women fit into this digital picture when it comes to online users' interest in and access to provocative (often naked or near-naked) images of their bodies? More to the point: a) How has technology changed the way society thinks about pornography; b) how does pornography impact the sexual identity of women; and c) why do some women consume pornography and swear by it? This paper delves…
Attwood, Feona, and Smith, Clarissa. 2010. 'Extreme Concern: Regulating 'Dangerous Pictures' in the United Kingdom.' Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 37, 171-188.
Attwood, Feona. 2005. 'What do people do with porn? Qualitative research into the consumption, use, and experience of pornography and other sexually explicit media.' Sexuality & Culture, Vol. 9, 65-86.
Corley, Deborah M., and Hook, Joshua N. 2012. 'Women, Female Sex and Love Addicts, and Use of the Internet.' Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, Vol. 19, 53-76.
Hays, Tom. 2014. 'Dozens charged in child porn case in NYC area." Associated Press. Retrieved May 21, 2014, from http://news.yahoo.com .
Pornography and eddings
According to Elizabeth Bell, pornography and weddings are performances that demonstrate the light and the dark sides of human sexuality, which, as mirror doubles, are "complementary and necessary to each other for the construction of sex as always already in need of control (190). Marriage does this because it is the sole performance that legitimizes sexual activity in our culture, therefore representing the light side of human sexuality. In contrast, pornography does this by exposing darker elements of sexuality; those very things that are discouraged sexual practices by society at large.
Bell believes that these performances demonstrate the status quo in society, and she defends that belief by explaining the differences in pornography across culture. However, her cross-cultural analysis is incomplete; she does not enter into the differences in wedding ceremonies across culture. Although the trappings, such as the color of the dress and traditional wedding decorations…
Bell, Elizabeth. "Weddings and Pornography: The Cultural Performance of Sex." Text and Performance Quarterly 19 (1999): 173-195.
"Linda Lovelace." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 28 Apr. 2005
ornography, Women, And the Digital Revolution
Important questions to address with reference to the revolutionary period of development that digital technologies have gone through include: is this revolution helping to facilitate participatory democracy; does it have a corrupting influence on children by exposing them to the violence that video games promote; and does it open the doors too widely to free pornography and cybersex that tempt adults wishing for some ethically questionable excitement? Are these outcomes likely to be realized and where do women fit into this digital picture when it comes to online users' interest in and access to provocative (often naked or near-naked) images of their bodies? Meanwhile, more to the point of this paper, how has technology changed the way society thinks about pornography? How does pornography impact the sexual identity of women? And, why do some women consume pornography and swear by it? This paper delves…
Pornography and Gender
It should be noted, first of all, that, contrary to existing beliefs, online pornography and erotica is not viewed exclusively by males. In fact one in three visitors to adult websites (where pornography is free and available) are women, and 70% of those women report that they keep their online sexual activities "a secret" (Corley, et al., 2012, p. 56). Of those women who visit pornographic sites, 17% say they are "…struggling with pornography addiction" -- and 13% say they even access pornography while at work (Corley, p. 57). As to males, the great majority of men use pornography for sensual stimulation, according to Corley, who asserts that the "number one reason" men visit provocative sites "…is to aid in arousal for masturbation" (p. 57). On the other hand, women "…more commonly utilize chat rooms with sexual or erotic narratives for fantasy and to seek out a partner" (Corley, p. 57).
Gender is indeed a strong factor in online pornographic visits, as Corley explains that males visit pornographic sites at a younger age than women do. And males are more apt to report being aroused by sexually explicit materials online while for women, they report that the "primary reason they use sexual media" is to aid in "lovemaking with their partners or in response to requests by their partner (Corley, p. 58). In addition, women find pornographic online materials "acceptable or positive" when and if it is associated with "a shared sexual activity," but males report they receive "more sexual enjoyment" when they are using pornographic images alone (masturbation), Corley continues on page 58. It is also
As such, they struck down the Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996, enacted by Congress. They felt the law was too broad and could be misapplied to material such as movies that deal with teen sexuality yet use adult actors to portray the children (Mintz, 2005).
In the end, the punishment for using or creating pornography differs greatly by genre and by geographic area. Even in a specific area, the laws are constantly changing to meet the changing morals, or lack thereof, of society. Punishment for illegal use or creation of pornography can range anywhere from a fine to imprisonment in jail.
4. Why is pornography considered criminal or deviant?
Why pornography is considered criminal or deviant is a simple and a complex question. First, why pornography is considered criminal is quite simple. Pornography, at least in America, has close ties with organized crime (Anderson, 2002). Even if the product…
Anderson, K. (14 Jul 2002). The pornography plague. Retrieved March 18, 2005, at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/pornplag.html .
Donnerstein, E. (1980). Pornography and Violence Against Women. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 347. Retrieved March 19, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Hughes, D.R. (2 Dec 1995). Fighting the 'most deviant and vile form of pornography'. Salon. Retrieved March 19, 2005, at http://www.salon.com/02dec1995/features/taranto.html .
Mintz, H. (16 Apr 2002). High court strikes down law banning child porn on Internet. San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved March 19, 2005, from ProQuest database.
Criminalization of Pornography
Americans were alternatively shocked, alarmed and delighted when Marilyn Monroe appeared on the cover of the first Playboy magazine in 1953. Since that time, the debate over pornography has become increasingly heated, due in large part to critics who argue that the medium debases women and teaches young people the wrong lessons about human sexuality. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to determine whether pornography should be criminalized in the same fashion and for the same reasons that hate speech is criminalized. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
The issue of pornography has long been the source of controversy for many Western societies, particularly with respect to its implications for gender roles and sexuality (Lofgren-Martenson & Mansson, 2010). For instance,…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Coker, C.T. (2011, January). Hope-fulfilling or effectively chilling? Reconciling the Hate
Crimes Prevention Act with the First Amendment. Vanderbilt Law Review, 64(1), 271-
Griffith, J.D. & Adams, L.T. (2012, June). Pornography actors: A qualitative analysis of motivations and dislikes. North American Journal of Psychology, 14(2), 245-250.
Detrimental Effects of Pornography on Society
Pornography is defined as written, graphic, or other forms of communication intended to excite lascivious feelings. However, this definition is very subjective as a person must decide what is considered pornographic to themselves. The issue of the benefits and disadvantages of pornography is hotly debated. Advocates of the pornography industry claim that pornography is educational and may enhance one's sexual relations. However, this argument is severely flawed for a multitude of reasons. This report will discuss why pornography is detrimental to individuals at an emotional and physical level as well as to our society as a whole.
Viewing pornography can become strongly addicting because it provides a very powerful sexual desire that is typically followed by sexual release, most often through masturbation. The use of pornography by its very nature isolates individuals, which makes them more intent on satisfying selfish needs. Often, viewers tend…
Beauregard, E., P. Lussier, and J. Proulx. "An Exploration of Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences among Adult Rapists." Sex Abuse 16.2 (2004): 151-61.
Bergner, R.M. "Sexual Compulsion as Attempted Recovery from Degradation: Theory and Therapy." J. Sex Marital Ther 28.5 (2002): 373-87.
Brooks, G.R. The Centerfold Syndrome. Indianapolis, IN: Jossey-Bass, 1995.
Finn, J. "A Survey of Online Harassment at a University Campus." J. Interpers Violence 19.4 (2004): 468-83.
The court case of MacKinnon and Dworkin refers to the instance in which anti-pornography radical feminists Andrea Dworkin and Catherine MacKinnon along with other members of the feminist anti-pornography movement proposed a series of local ordinances, called the Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance, which qualified pornography as being a violation of women's civil rights. The ordinances could not be accepted by city officials because of the fact that they seemed absurd and because they contradicted with the freedom of speech protections in the Constitution.
In the case of Linda Boreman, the pornographic actress that claimed to have been obliged to play in the movie Deep Throat, anti-pornography supporters believe that pornography has proved to be harmful. However, it is not pornography that hurt Linda Boreman. The real criminal behind the case is her former husband, Chuck Traynor. Thus, people cannot blame pornography for something that a deranged man did.
1. Kendrick, Walter M. (1996). "The secret museum: pornography in modern culture." University of California Press.
2. "Antipornography Civil Rights Ordinance." Retrieved June 23, 2009, from the Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antipornography_Civil_Rights_Ordinance
Kendrick, Walter M. (1996). "The secret museum: pornography in modern culture." University of California Press.
Pornography…what a wonderful concept. The idea of being as free in body as one is in spirit can be relieving, freeing, and bring exuberant amount of pleasure…just do not let anyone find out. The obsession with pornography is just as bothersome as the religious morals that make the pornographic institution wrong. Religion makes pornography seem equivalent to committing a crime. And the act of secrecy is actually more important and acceptable than watching and looking at the naked people.
Getting caught with pornography as a teenager can bring upon consequences worse than telling your parents that you just got caught cheating on a test. Psychological evaluation is suggested, possibility of turning into a serial killer is discussed; it can just become an all around bad situation. The secrecy behind something so natural makes it seem so bad and disturbing. Curiosity is what brings teenagers into even thinking about…
Obscenity and Pornography
Vice, Drugs and the Law
Dr. Lance Hignite
Obscenity and Pornography
Such things as pornography and obscenity can be defined differently by different people and at different times. Though there are legal definitions of both, the distinction between them is not always clear. Many people define pornography as a form of obscenity and hence the confusion. The two words, however, are clearly different. For example, even today the Supreme Court of the United States maintains that the First Amendment does not protect obscenity but it does many forms of pornography. Pornography can be a sexually explicit material used for private viewing which would not involve obscenity as the latter is understood today. And an obscenity does not have to be pornographic in nature. For example, showing somebody middle fingers is obscenity but it does not involve pornography (ea, 2001). Pornography can be a form…
Ashcroft, E.B. (2011). Distilling ashcroft: The ninth circuits application of national community standards to internet obscenity in United States v. kilbride. Brigham Young University Law Review, 2011(1), 1-16.
Fee, J. (2007). Obscenity and the World Wide Web. Brigham Young University Law
Review, 2007(6), 1691-1720.
Held, J.M. (2010). One man's trash is another man's pleasure: Obscenity, pornography, and the law. In D. Monroe, D. Monroe (Eds.), Porn: How to think with kink (pp.
Women, the Sex Industry & Pornography
Women, the Sex Industry, and Pornography
In the history of humanity, prostitutes / sex workers have been identified as the "oldest" occupation in the world, existing even before the Biblical times. Over the years, the stigma unduly given to sex workers has resulted to it being the oldest yet least respected occupation there is. Furthermore, women involved in the commercial sex industry are considered to be high-risk group when it comes to social and health issues in the community. Women engaged in commercial sex are a manifestation of the moral degradation of the society or community; inevitably, they are also the highly susceptible to acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV / AIDS. Inevitably also, women engaged in commercial sex are also linked with activities involving pornography. Again, like the commercial sex industry, pornography is considered a sign of moral degradation and susceptibility to…
Barak, A. (1999). "Sex, guys, and cyberspace: effects of Internet pornography and individual differences on men's attitudes toward women." Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, Vol. 11, No. 1.
Kempadoo, K. (1995). "Prostitution, marginality and empowerment: Caribbean women in the sex trade." Paper for the International Workshop, "Women on the Threshold of the XXI Century." University of Havana, Cuba.
Ward, H. And S. Day. (2006). "What happens to women who sell sex? Report of a unique occupational chart." Sex Transmission and Infection, Vol. 82.
Ethical Issues in Pornography
Final Project Proposal
This paper will be in the form of an ethical analysis of 'pornography'. The key ethical questions taken up will be: Is pornographic matter morally/ethically objectionable? Is it correct for governments to regulate pornography access to consenting individuals aged above 18 years? The paper will attempt to employ a key normative ethical theory -- Aristotle's Virtue Ethics -- for finding the best resolution to this ethical dilemma. A critical appraisal of the proposed resolution will then be undertaken, ensuring strong criticisms are included in the discussion. The views of conservatives, liberals, and Utilitarians will be incorporated into the discussion. Lastly, Altman's argument will be utilized for defending the proposed resolution.
Working Thesis: Obscenity and pornography undoubtedly raise some ethical questions. However, whether pornography is ethical or not should be considered a distinct, separate question from that of whether governments' regulation of pornography access…
Altman, Andrew. "The Right to Get Turned On: Pornography, Autonomy, Equality." Cohen, Andrew I. and Christopher Heath Wellman. Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics (Contemporary Debates in Philosophy). 2007.
Brison, Susan J. "The Price We Pay"? Pornography and Harm." Cohen, Andrew I. and Christopher Heath Wellman. Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics (Contemporary Debates in Philosophy). 2007.
Gray, JW. Moral Theories (Normative Theories of Ethics). 20 August 2010. .
Hult, Nicole Alicia -- Marie, et al. The Ethics of Pornography and its Impact on the Individual. 2011. .
Ethical Theories and Perspectives on Pornography
Pornography is one of the issues that have become increasingly controversial in the recent past because it borders between sensibility and freedom of speech or expression. While pornography is becoming more and more accepted in the modern society, it is characterized by numerous controversies because of use of varying political, religious, economic, and legal perspectives. The controversies surrounding pornography originate from the fact that it is characterized by obscenity, which generates several moral questions. The two ethical dimensions surrounding pornography include whether it is morally objectionable and whether it should be regulated to consenting adults. In light of the increased debates regarding the morality of pornography, it should be subjected to an ethical analysis based on several ethical theories and perspectives that help in ethical decision making.
Ethical Issues and Breaches of Ethical Behavior in Pornography
As previously mentioned, pornography generates several ethical issues…
Albee, R.D. (n.d.). Ethical Dimensions: Ethical Considerations of Pornography. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from http://www.culinarychronicles.net/classes/Aesthetics/porn/Ethical%20Dimensions%20Ethical%20Considerations%20of%20Pornography.htm
"Ethical Theory and Sexual Ethics." (n.d.). Academy Conferences. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from http://www.johnbaxter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Sexual-Ethics-Academy.pdf
Mosser, K. (2013). Ethics and social responsibility (2nd Ed.). San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Pornography: Anatomy of a TermAccording to Walter Kendricks The Secret Museum, the term pornography initially simply meant writing about prostitutes (Kendrick 1). The term has grown to reference increasingly taboo subjects over the centuries, though as late as 1857 was defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as writing about prostitutes for the purposes of public hygiene (Kendrick 1). But in the later Victorian era, pornography gradually began to have more and more of a morally pejorative term as something degenerate, the leer of the sensualist (Kendrick 187).The greater frankness in the ancient world about prostitution, and tolerance of sexuality (at least of adult males) was reflected in the anxiety and shame which accompanied the resurgence of interest in ancient artifacts, resulting in curiosity about and condemnation of lascivious frescos found in the ruins of ancient Pompeii (Kendrick 6). The sights of such ruins were not seen as fit for the…
Kendrick, Walter. The Secret Museum. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Pornography: The Secret History of Civilization. YouTube. 21 January 2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sT-AhDbwX4U
Disease Control and Prevention (2016), as many as one out of every four children have experienced some type of abuse: including physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. Exposure to pornography, whether accidental or not, can be harmful to children's psychological or social development. However, coerced exposure to pornography is a more extensive form of abuse that coincides with other types of abuse including psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. Coerced child pornography may in fact be one of the most harmful types of child abuse because of the multifaceted nature of the crime. The nationwide prevalence of abuse in the United States is over 700,000 children, with prevalence of death at 2.13 deaths per 100,000 children (CDC, 2016). Child abuse is not just an ethical issue; there are proven consequences of child abuse that have been substantiated by empirical evidence in the scientific literature. Only a few of the harmful effects of…
ideals of pornography and how many writers are discussing the new bill about to be passed by the Senate to allow for civil prosecution of those who publish said material, and from those who have been abused through what they believe is a result of pornography. Discussing the views of rving as he places his ideals to the front and argues against such bills in the name of freedom.
Bibliography cites sources
Pornography and censorship: how to blame the third person from a man's crimes
Pornography has been around for centuries, ever since man and woman has been able to fully enjoy the opposite and indeed in many ways the same sex, yet this form of pornography has through out the centuries been given different names, for instance art and literature (Stevenson 2001 and Bailey 2000).
Pornography enters man's most intimate regions and fantasies, as they bring forth a plethora…
Irving and refs as provided by student re
Stevenson J.H (2001) the history of Pornography [online] accessed at http://www.tranquileye.com/historyofporn/
Strossen, N (1995) Defending Pornography: Free Speech, Sex and the Fight for Women's Rights [online] accessed at http://forms.aclu.org/Store/Store.cfm?ID=78&c=3
Art or Pornography
People usually regard nude paintings or statues in museums as a form of art, while debasing nude figures in magazines or movies as pornography. Debate regarding this issue is on the rise and some people are baffled about the creation of discrimination between nudity in art and pornography. It is very important to realize that pornography too is a form of art. Both make their audience aware of what they do not know. Both tend to provide sensation and usually fanaticize their respective audience and cause their emotions to flow.
Despite the few similarities that pornography may have with art, there exist a lot of factors that separate the two from each other. Nudity that is displayed in museums can rightfully be called art and is different from pornography shown in films or magazines primarily on the basis of its appreciative sense. Nudity in museum does not…
Audrey L. Nude Arts vs. Pornography. 2002. Available on the address http://coralcoast.com/art/articles/Art.Issues/Nude.Art.Versus.Pornography.html .. Accessed on 10 Nov. 2003.
Catherine M. Mackinnon: Pornography Is Oppression. Available on the address http://www.spectacle.org/1195/mack.html . Accessed on 10 Nov. 2003.
De C. I Know It When I See It. 13 Aug. 1996. Available on the address http://www.nostatusquo.com/ACLU/Porn/SexualFascism/dc/node12.html . Accessed on 10 Nov. 2003.
Pornography has received considerable attention in the modern society largely because of the rapid technological advancements that have made it easy for people to access pornographic material. The increased proliferation of pornography is today’s society has also been fueled by the changing opinions on sex. While pornography is a practice that dates back to the beginning of time, it has obtained significant attention and increased proliferation in the 21st Century. The changes in people’s opinions on sex and increased consumption of pornographic materials have made pornography to become a multibillion dollar industry. As this industry continues to grow due to increased demand, it is now considered as one of the facets of the entertainment industry.
Despite the increased growth of pornography as an entertainment industry, it has remained controversial because of the divergent views. The divergence of views on pornography across the society is largely linked to its benefits and/or…
("Supreme Court ejects..." 2002) More constitutional problems have been encountered in the law's battle against child pornography as a federal court in September 2004 outlawed a Pennsylvania State law that required internet service providers (ISPs) to block websites containing child pornography. The Court considered the technology used in the blocking of such sites as clumsy that could cause "massive suppression" of constitutionally protected speech.
Apart from conducting a legal "balancing act" between the protection of children from sexual exploitation against the protection of free speech and free thought by the law makers, the campaign against child porn on the Internet is also hampered by its "borderless" characteristics. In order to counter differences in porn laws of different countries that prevented prosecution of child porn offenders, the United Nations General Assembly adopted an Optional Protocol on the ights of the Child, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography…
FAQ on Child Pornography on the Internet." (2004). Antichildporn.org (ACPO). Retrieved on February 7, 2005 at http://www.antichildporn.org/faq-on-cp.htm
Internet Crimes against Children." (2001). U.S. Department of Justice. Updated December 28, 2004. Retrieved on February 7, 2005 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/bulletins/internet_2_2001/welcome.html
Kid Porn Easier to Get and Share." (2002). Protecting Children Online: CBS News. June 25, 2002. Retrieved on February 7, 2005 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/06/25/eveningnews/main513313.shtml
Magid, Larry. (2002). "Net users can help fight child porn." Mercury News. March 21, 2002. Retrieved on February 7, 2005 at http://www.pcanswer.com/articles/sjm_childporn.htm
Ethical Dilemmas: Pornography
Biblically, God requires Christians to please Him in everything they do. Whether it is in secret or overtly, in thoughts or behaviour, Christians have a duty to portray Christ-like behaviour every moment of their life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Nonetheless, compliance with biblical teachings is not always as easy as portrayed by the Bible. In the course of their Christian walk, Christians often encounter situations of dilemma. These are basically situations in which it is not exactly clear whether doing something is right or wrong. Such situations especially arise when the Bible does not offer a straightforward solution or when the act in question appears to harm no one. Pornography is one of the issues that may present a dilemma for a Christian. Does the Bible allow pornography? Is engaging in pornography morally right given that it does not harm others? This essay discusses the ethical dilemmas…
If not inherently in the acts of sexuality themselves, often in the exhibited sense of entitlement and dominance, male sexuality is prone toward the undermining of femininity in favor of the satisfaction of male desire. In a great many of its incarnations, Jensen argues, pornography facilitates this orientation. Jensen asserts that as a consequence of the "patriarchal system in which we live, a key site of men's oppression of women -- a key method of control and domination -- is sexuality." (Jensen, p. 48) in other words, because our society is so notably tilted to favor the empowerment of men and the sublimation of female desires, sexual intercourse will frequently function as an extension of this imbalance of power. And as Jensen ultimately argues, the act of using pornography to arouse one's self is tantamount to reducing femininity and women to mere objects for the satisfaction of male sexual desires.…
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Renzetti, C.M.; Curran, D.J. & Maier, S.L. (2012). Women, Men & Society. Allyn & Bacon.
The Internet offers a virtual shopping mall for pedophiles. The predator usually begins by chatting at first, then attempts to break down the child's inhibitions by introducing sexual content into their online conversations and may even send pornographic images. This is extremely dangerous because when a child sees images of other children engaged in sexual activities, they believe that this is acceptable behavior, thus making it easier for the predator to take advantage of the child. Parents must monitor their child's online activities.
AOL, Yahoo Inc., Microsoft Corp., EarthLink Inc. And United Online Inc. have joined forces to build a database of child-pornography images and develop other tools to help network operators and law enforcement better prevent distribution of the images.
Jesdanun, Anick. "Internet Providers to Combat Child Porn" AP Online. June 27, 2006.
Retrieved January 29, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
The National Center for Missing and…
Jesdanun, Anick. "Internet Providers to Combat Child Porn" AP Online. June 27, 2006.
Retrieved January 29, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Retrieved January 29, 2007 from http://www.missingkids.com/
Warburton, Richard. "Internet pornucopia." The Birmingham Post (England).
large, pornography is not harmful. Pornography has been stigmatized as have many expressions of sexuality, but for the most part the performers are adults performing of their own volition, and the consumers of pornography are finding an outlet for their sexuality. That there is stigma and judgment associated with pornography to the point where expression of human sexuality is considered to be harmful by some is unfortunate. This essay will construct the case that pornography is not harmful.
For much of the 20th century, pornography was considered to be harmful, and there were many perspectives put forward to support that idea. Some perspectives were rooted in the vestiges of Victorian-era prudishness, that considered nudity and the human form to be vulgar, and those perspectives are fairly easy to dismiss as either cultural or religious oddities. Believing something harmful and it being so are really not the same argument at all.…
Brannigan, A. & Goldenberg, S. (1986). Social science versus jurisprudence in "Wagner": the study of pornography, harm and the law of obscenity in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Sociology. Vol. 11 (4) 419-431.
Delgado, R. & Stefancic, J. (1992). Pornography and harm to women: "No empirical evidence."
Dyzenhaus, D. (1992). John Stuart Mill and the harm of pornography. Ethics. Vol. 102 (3) 534-551.
Gelber, K. & Stone, A. (2016). Constitutions, gender and freedom of expression: The legal regulation of pornography. Retrieved January 22, 2017 from http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/46463261/Gelber_and_Stone_Final_for_ssrn.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1485153322&Signature=maLoKuQvpmbxbb5sbwKjt3hgAW0%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DConstitutions_Gender_and_Freedom_of_Expr.pdf
This is largely due to the global nature of the phenomenon as the Internet is indeed the trademark of interdependence and globalization. The relations and connections it facilitates allow people around the world to come together in all sorts of activities, and, inevitably, pornography is one of them. Therefore, this type of complexity demanded a thorough response from the part of the authorities both at global and at the national level.
From a global perspective, the phenomenon is dealt with by numerous international organizations. On the one hand, the United Nations has been promoting concerted action in this field through the Economic and Social Council that supervises the activities of the Human ights Council. Its annual reports on the state of children around the world have improved the visibility of child pornography as a contemporary problem. From this point-of-view, the Council monitories the evolution of national states and its elaboration…
Child Net International. (2004) Retrieved 14 March 2007, at http://www.childnet-int.org/
Council of Europe. (2001). Convention on cybercrime. Retrieved 14 March 2007, at http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/185.htm
Interpol.(2006) Crimes against children. Retrieved 14 March 2007, from www.interpol.int/Public/Children/Default.asp
Livingstone, S., Bober, M. (2004) UK Children Go Online, Economic and Social Research Council. Retrieved 14 March 2007, from www.children-go-online.net
Pornification of Women in Western Media
The Pornification of Women in Mainstream Western Media
Sexuality is a normal part of life for every male and female. egardless of where he or she lives, or even what age a person is, sex will be a need. It is a known biological fact. However, the Western media has been blamed to play a large role in exacerbating the need. Back in 1811, a novel published by Jane Austin known as Sense and Sensibility mentioned the word chaperon. It was stated that back then a young woman and young man were never left alone. Even if they were left alone, they were left in the presence of a chaperone. (Poisoned by Porn; It's" 2010, 14) why was this the case? The answer to that lies in that sex is a need for every man or woman born into this world. It was back…
8 July, 2009 "Bad boob jobs," The Times of India.
2012, "Christina Aguilera's 'Your Body' Dress Doesn't Leave Much To The Imagination," The Huffington Post.
American Society of Plastic Surgeons (2012) 2011 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report. [report].
Baudrillard, Jean 1979. "Seduction." Translated by Brian Singer. New York: St. Martin's Press
Internet Service Provider (ISP) Web Content Law and Ethics
The objective of this work is to answer whether Internet service providers have a responsibility to regulate the content that is available on the World Wide Web? This work will additionally answer as to whether the presence and ease of availability of pornography to the general public a tribute to free speech and a reflection of social maturity or an example of the potential damage that unregulated markets and the hegemony of technology have reaped upon society?
The Internet is such that allows consumers, businesses, and industry, alike to "do many new things in unique and efficient ways." (Tekxam, nd) There are however, reported to be areas of both legal and ethical concern with regards to the responsibilities of Internet Service providers. Some of those areas include protection of intellectual property, fraud prevention, protection of freedom of expression, protection of privacy,…
Black, Justice (1965) in: Study Guide: Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Internet (nd) Tekxam. Retrieved from: http://www.tekxam.com/StudyGuide/concepts/Ethics-and-Legal/TekXam_Legal_and_Ethical_Study_Guide.html
Cohen-Almagor, R. (2011) Freedom of Expression, Internet Responsibility, and Business Ethics: The Yahoo! Saga and Its Implications. Springer Science Business Media. B.V. 2011. Retrieved from: http://hull.academia.edu/RaphaelCohenalmagor/Papers/1074355/Freedom_of_Expression_Internet_Responsibility_and_Business_Ethics_The_Yahoo_Saga_and_Its_Aftermath
Study Guide: Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Internet (nd) Tekxam. Retrieved from: http://www.tekxam.com/StudyGuide/concepts/Ethics-and-Legal/TekXam_Legal_and_Ethical_Study_Guide.html
Turban E., et al. (2000) Electronic Commerce: A Managerial Perspective, Prentice Hall, 2000 in: Study Guide: Legal and Ethical Aspects of the Internet (nd) Tekxam. Retrieved from: http://www.tekxam.com/StudyGuide/concepts/Ethics-and-Legal/TekXam_Legal_and_Ethical_Study_Guide.html
Participants will be recruited in the manner outlined in the section (a). Informed consent will be acquired as each participant fills out a form with his consent to the experiment, including consent to install a small anonymous tracking device that measures web usage much as Google does. Information regarding the tracking device will be provided. Data is collected entirely online, and anonymity is guaranteed, as no names or addresses are collected. Debriefing is offered. No deception is used, but the participants only know that pornography is an element of the research after they are presented with the survey.
Measures of the independent variable (pornography consumption) will entail the researchers placing a tracking device on the participants' computers, with their informed consent. This device will send anonymous bits of information related to the sites visited, and amount of time spent watching the pornographic material. Measures of the…
" That harm is found when you look closely at the First Amendment's application and meaning, she continues. The person who argues that the First Amendment protection for pornography is justified, she suggests, is actually authorizing males and the establishment of laws to have power over sexuality, and as a result, to basically allow a woman's sexuality to be manipulated and abused.
The abuses that MacKinnon talks about are "unspeakable abuses...the rape, the battery, the sexual harassment, the prostitution and the sexual abuse of children"; only in pornography is "it called something else," she continues. "Sex, sex, sex, sex and sex," respectively. In other words she is angry that rape and battery are just referred to as "sexual" issues, and harassment and prostitution and the abuse of children fall under that broad category too.
This next section from MacKinnon is a bit harsh, and perhaps oversimplified, but she goes on…
MacKinnon, Catharine. (1985). Pornography, Civil Rights, and Speech. Harvard Civil Rights/
Civil Liberties law Review.
Some feminists argue that all pornography is bad for women because it is degrading to women (Peterson, 1998). The "victims" need protection, they claim, which, ironically, they say comes in the form of laws restricting what women legally can and cannot do with their own bodies.
While it can be argued that pornography reinforces negative male attitudes towards women in society and it increases the incidence of sex crimes, these are unfair claims (Peterson, 1998). While men may bring deep-rooted attitdevelop negative attitudes towards women. Even if pornography were banned, negative attitudes towards women would not disappear. In addition, there is little evidence to suggest that widespread distribution and use of soft-core pornography increases numbers of sex crimes.
In addition, it is important to note that many men who support feminism and women's rights enjoy pornography (Peterson, 1998). In addition, many successful heterosexual couples in committed relationships use soft-core pornography…
Feigelman, Bill. Young, Jim. (2003). Sociology: Fourth Edition. Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity.W.W. Norton.
Kent, Raymond. (2004). What is Social Work? The Occupational Outlook Handbook. Retrieved from the Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm .
Peterson, Patricia. (August 14, 1998). Pornography's legitimate place in society. Courier Mail.
Wikipedia. (2004). Feminism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism .
censorship of the Internet, especially of pornographic materials, is a topic that can be easily resolved is being naive. This is a complicated issue with enough gray areas to be thoroughly debated and to demand that comprehensive information from both sides be studied. Freedom of speech has always been a thorny subject, and it becomes no easier when considering the Internet that can be accessed by individuals of all ages and backgrounds from around the world.
Most of the websites dealing with this topic are slanted in one way or another based on the political, religious or moral stance of the URL's authors. It is refreshing, then, when a writer takes a stab at equally presenting arguments for and against online pornographic censorship. The website "Pornography and the Internet in the United States" (http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/fall1999/www_presentations/c_hogg/print.htm) was written by Charles Hogg as part of an assignment for Library Studies 500: Foundations of…
Bibliography and Checklist."
Website visited 22/4/03.
Nudity in Television
Nudity is increasing in the television shows and movies with every passing day. More number of actresses and models agree to do nude shoots. As the technology is also advancing at a fast pace, even young children have access to such nude photo shoots and scenes by making use of the internet. It can be said that actresses and models are signing contracts for nude scenes and shoots because the benefit from the aforementioned actions can be two-fold. Firstly, the payment for the shoot increases with nudity and so does the popularity and rating of the actresses and models. However, what is important for us to analyze is the impact that this increasing trend of nudity and vulgarity is leaving on the entertainment industry with respect to the ethical dilemmas that it must face. Therefore, the main theme of this paper would be the identification of the…
Feminist Legal Theory. "Women in film and television: empowered or objectified?" 2012.
Gelt, Jessica. "The CW reins in steamy sex scene on 'Reign'." Show Tracker, 2013.
Gish, William. "10 Hottest Actresses Topless." Break Media, 2010.
Huff Post. "Nymphomaniac' Character Posters Showcase Shia LaBeouf, Uma Thurman In Salacious Moments (Slightly NSFW)." 2013.
This act enlarged the labels on the cigarettes, and required that the labels on cigarettes and cigarette ads say things like,."..Cause lung cancer...may complicate pregnancy...quitting smoking now greatly reduces hazards to your health... may result in low birth weight and fetal injury." Yet despite all these attempts to educate, all the package warnings and all the public service ads, we still see that despite the millions of dollars spent on smoking prevention each year, every year sees more and more people taking up the habit, until today death from cardiovascular disease remains the number one killer in the United States, contributed in a great part by smoking. And yet we keep legislating, when then proof shows that what we are doing is not working.
Our discussion of vice-based legislation now brings us to the subject of fattening foods. In 2002, a lawyer in New York filed suit against the four…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost-United States, 1984. MMWR 1997 46:444-51.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Federal Trade Commission Request for Comments Concerning Regulations Implementing the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986. Accessed [March 7, 2000]. http://www.tobaccolaw.org/Documents/Events/HealthCanadaNewcigarettelabellingmeasures.htm " Health Canada New Cigarette labeling Measures.
National Cancer Institute. Cigars Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 98-4302, 1998.
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…
Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.
Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from:
U.S.C. § 48 is not aimed at specific instances of animal cruelty, but specifically at the creation and distribution of depictions of such abuse for the purposes of interstate and/or foreign commerce. This is the act that the appellant was unarguably engaging in when apprehended by law enforcement, and the fact that the law is not aimed at those participating directly in acts of animal cruelty does not in and of itself create a constitutional objection.
The statutes specific mention of interstate commerce renders the appellant's claim that the constitutionality of the statute is in question due to a dependence on state definitions also moot. Not only were the acts depicted in the videos the appellant old to law enforcement agencies unquestionably illegal in all fifty states, but the federal government has a duty to regulate interstate commerce specifically because state definitions and regulations differ. Failing to regulate the interstate…
FindLaw (2010a). NEW YORK v. FERBER, 458 U.S. 747 (1982). Accessed 14 January 2010. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=458&invol=747
FindLaw (2010b). CHAPLINSKY v. STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, 315 U.S. 568 (1942). Accessed 14 January 2010. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=315&invol=568
Transnational crime has definitely evolved over the last few generations consistent with the trend of globalization. As information and resources more quickly crosses boarders, so does the potential for criminal acts that also transcend international boundaries. Globalization is a complex phenomenon that is often misunderstood. Part of this trend deals with a movement toward more integrated economic and political systems. Much of the globalization trend has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, which have worked making the Earth a seemingly smaller place in regards to the ability to reach out to other people across the globe. Many argue that consumers around the world benefit from globalization because they gain access to goods that they could not find in their domestically produced markets (Crump, 2006).
However, the trend of globalization has also brought new waves of organized crime that have found new niches for…
Crump, T. (2006, March 1). The Dutch East Indies Company - The First 100 Years. Retrieved from Gresham College: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/the-dutch-east-indies-company-the-first-100-years
NIJ. (2007, November 15). Transnational Organized Crime. Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/organized-crime/pages/welcome.aspx
US Deptartment of Justice. (2012, September 6). Third Dreamboard Member Sentenced to Life in Prison for Participating in International Criminal Network Organized to Sexually Exploit Children. Retrieved from U.S. Deptartment of Justice: http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2012/September/12-crm-1085.html
This represents a new kind of immigration that is more global and less structured than previous types of immigration. Author Suarez-Orozco continues, "The cultural models and social practices that we have come to call multiculturalism shape the experiences, perceptions, and behavioral repertoires of immigrants in ways not seen in previous eras of large-scale immigration" (Suarez-Orozco 1). The roles of immigrants are evolving in society, and so are the ways society views immigration, and of course, not all of these views are positive, so immigrants may face even more stresses and disapproval than ever before, which could lead to a resurgence in their embracing their original cultures.
It is not difficult to see how it would be difficult for parents such as Sibel's to quickly accept and approve of their new culture in all areas. Suarez-Orozco continues, "During the course of our research, it has not been difficult to detect that…
Editors. "From Bare to Bear for Ex-Porn Queen." DW-World. 2004. 3 April 2009.
Ramakrishnan, S. Karthick. Democracy in Immigrant America: Changing Demographics and Political Participation. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
Stern, Mark J., Susan C. Seifert, and Domenic Vitiello. "Migrants, Communities, and Culture." The Reinvestment Fund.. 2008. 3 April 2009. 1-12.
I do agree that there has been a perceived decline in academic competency for men, but this appears to be an American phenomenon, and the reality is that there has been tremendous academic decline in both genders over the last 20 to 30 years. To say that the problem is a male problem ignores the decline in women's performance over the last few decades. Moreover, I do believe that, as female achievement in academic settings has been emphasized, boys' emotional needs in education have been ignored. For examples, schools have dramatically reduced both physical education and recess time, but repeated studies have suggested that boys need physical activity breaks in their study time in order to excel in an academic environment. If this sets them up for failure at a young age, one would anticipate higher drop-out rates and higher overall rates of academic failure. Moreover, this academic failure could…
Zimbardo, P., & Duncan, N. (2012, May 24). 'The demise of guys': How video games and porn are ruining a generation. Retrieved November 16, 2012 from CNN.com website: q http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/23/health/living-well/demise-of-guys/index.html
Zimbardo, P. (2011, March). Philip Zimbardo: The demise of guys. Retrieved November 16,
2012 from Ted.com website: http://www.ted.com/talks/zimchallenge.html
Earl of Rochester / Aphra Behn
Masks and Masculinities:
Gender and Performance in the Earl of Rochester's "Imperfect Enjoyment"
and Aphra Behn's "The Disappointment"
Literature of the English Restoration offers the example of a number of writers who wrote for a courtly audience: literary production, particularly in learned imitation of classical models, was part of the court culture of King Charles II. The fact of a shared model explains the remarkable similarities between "The Imperfect Enjoyment" by the Earl of Rochester and "The Disappointment" by Aphra Behn -- remarkable only because readers are surprised to read one poem about male sexual impotence from the late seventeenth century, let alone two examples of this genre by well-known courtly writers. In fact, Richard Quaintance presents ten more examples by lesser-known poets as he defines the literary sub-genre of the neo-Classical "imperfect enjoyment poem," written in imitation of Roman poems on the same…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. Print.
Empson, Sir William. "Rochester." Argufying: Essays on Literature and Culture. Ed. John Haffenden. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1988. 270-7. Print.
Farley-Hills, David. Rochester: The Critical Heritage. London: Taylor and Francis, 2005. Print.
Hughes, Derek. "Aphra Behn and the Restoration Theatre." The Cambridge Companion to Aphra Behn. Ed. Derek Hughes and Janet Todd. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 29- 45. Print.
But though the distaste might be the same on both sides, the degree and vehemence with which the two sides are opposed to these two ills are quite different. Both the ACLU and the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom appear to be against the practice of prostitution. Especially in areas where it is illegal (i.e. most of the country, but they also protest against police crackdowns on suspected prostitution areas and harsh punishments for convicted prostitutes (ACLU, 2009; NCSF, 2008). The stated conservative view is far more clear cut: both the epublicans for Family Values website and the American Family Association simply contain no reference to it, ignoring the problem completely (FV, 2009; AFA, 2007). Teen pregnancy is more equally frowned upon, though there are drastic differences in the allowable methods of handling and preventing such situations.
Sexual education is a major area of difference,; many conservatives advocate abstinence-only education,…
ACLU. (2009). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://www.aclu.org/index.html
American Family Association. (2007). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://www.afa.net
National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. (2008). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://www.ncsfreedom.org/index.php
Republicans for Family Values. (2009). Accessed 6 April 2009. http://republicansforfamilyvalues.com/
art of Helmut Newton and state a vision of modern fashion photography through his work and visual influence on the 20th century art. The conception of the female figure as a subject of art has changed through history and evolved according to the demands of society at any specific time or place. From the invention of photography the vision of nude photography has changed following the changes of society, and the fashion woman, the one that characterizes the world of publicity and media, took different shapes and sizes with each decade. From the flunky, fluffy nymphs that were on vogue from the late 1800 until after World War I, evolving into the thin, almost boy-ish model that was the standard image of the 20's, the curvy and voluptuous vamp of the 50's, to the skinny, dominating woman that portrays the second half of the 20th century. The image of woman…
1-Altschul, Serena. "Chasing The History Of The Skirt." 2006. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 2 feb. 2007 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/05/07/sunday/main1596113.shtml
2-Brewerd, Christopher. Fashion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, Greenwood Press, 2001, 3- "History of fashion 1900-1910." American Vintage Blues. 2005. 11 feb. 2007. http://www.vintageblues.com/history_main.htm.
4-"Helmut Newton." 2003. 12 feb. 2007 http://www.temple.edu/photo/photographers/spring03/photographers/heatherprice/newton/
5-O'Rourke, Aidan. "Fashion Photography Essay by Aidan O'Rourke Part One." 2005. The Aidan O'Rourke Photography & Media Portfolio Site History of. 11 feb. 2007 http://www.aidan.co.uk/article_fashion1.htm
IT Ethics -- Annotated Bibliography
Bowie, Norman E. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information
Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Norman Bowie takes great pains in his peer-reviewed article to point out what is legal an what is not legal when it comes to recording / taping from television and from the Internet. In fact Bowie uses an illegal issue (downloading music from the Internet)
to present a moral issue: young people and students know it is illegal to download copyrighted music and movies, but they don't see it as immoral.
While Bowie zeros in on students and young people for their lack of morality vis-a-vis getting copyrighted music for free, his overall argument goes further than that copyright laws are justified when protecting "artistic creativity." He points to the fact that between
1999 and 2005, "...downloaders…reduced industry revenues by at least $700 million" and…
This memorandum is an analysis of the P&E issues raised by proposed legislative changes regarding criminal sexual behavior, as well as so-called "vices" and other related conduct. The purpose of this analysis is to define a coherent set of public policy objectives characterizing all legislative changes supported by the Fictitious State Governor's Office.
Upgrading penal classification of Solicitation/Prostitution misdemeanors and increasing sentences and fines associated with all Solicitation/Prostitution felonies.
This committee does not recommend enacting any of the proposed penal upgrades across the board as set forth. We recommend re-evaluating current "vice" policy regarding violations of existing
Solicitation/Prostitution statutes in order that funds for law enforcement and prosecution efforts be redirected and channeled more specifically toward violations that most affect "quality of life" issues for lawful citizens of Fictitious State.
Both anecdotal evidence and documented statistical information available from the seventeen counties in Nevada where prostitution…
he was lucky too that a dedicated and gifted teacher came his way who recognized his skills and effort fully interceded on his behalf.
If not for Jack MacFarland, ose may never have gone onto Loyola or become the kind of person that he became today.
In contrast, ichard odriquez's memoir "the achievement of desire" derogates education and amplifies the true value of the 'ordinary' person that is often overlooked...
The two articles have one thing in common: both indicate that there is more thantn one kind of knowledge and that we do ill by abrogating people's capacities and skills to a Western construct of 'knowledge'.
The conventional school system, at least in the Western world, perceives 'knowledge' to be comprised of certain skills in certain subjects at a certain level that they rate to be applicable This they have pronounced to be the 'norm' and so anything that…
Rose, M. "I Just Wanna Be Average"
Rodriquez, R. The achievement of desire http://myweb.cwpost.liu.edu/lbai/Data/English%201F -- Materials/Open%20Questions/the%20Achievement%20of%20Desire.pdf
Child Sex Trafficking
Human Trafficking is occurring all around the world and also in the United States. This is not just a crime that is committed in other countries. There have been cases reported by the authorities in every single state. Those victimized are at every age from adults to young children of both genders. Based on federal reporting it is estimated that the number of persons exploited sexually for money or trafficked are in the thousands (DOJ, 2007). Some are brought into the U.S. from other countries and the number of citizens that are trafficked in the U.S. are unknown officially. The primary sex crimes being includes child exploitation, prostitution, and pornography (Keane, 2006).
The age range of children involved in sexual trafficking is as early as 12 years old. Those of school age that do not live with their biological parents are often targeted. Children are often targeted…
Carr, B. (2009). Sex trafficking: an American problem too. CNN. Nov 25. TBS.
Department of Justice DOJ (2005). Report on state human rights. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/united_states_of_america
Eisenmenger, L. (2011). Sex trafficking in the U.S., What really goes on. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://goodmenproject.com/ethics-values/child-sex-trafficking-in-the-usa-what-really-goes-on/
Freyd, J.J, Putnam, F.W, Lyon, T.D, BeckerBlease, K. A, Cheit, R.E, Siegel, N.B, and Pezdek, K. (2005). The science of child sexual abuse. Science, pp. 501.
Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement
ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.
Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…
Gyorgy, P. (2002). The Tale of Cookies (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Social Research, 239-245.
Jayakumar, A. (2014, March 13). Target looking into response to cybersecurity breach; retail sales rose in Feb. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/target-looking-into-response-to-cybersecurity-breach-retail-sales-rose-in-feb/2014/03/13/91d16ece-aae8-11e3-af5f-4c56b834c4bf_story.html
TEDGlobal. (2010, July). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_assange_why_the_world_needs_wikileaks.html
TEDGlobal. (2012, July). Michael Anti: Behind the Great Firewall of China. Retrieved from TED: http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/michael_anti_behind_the_great_firewall_of_china.html
In August 2016, the state of Louisiana experienced catastrophic flooding, specifically at Baton Rouge and Lafayette areas. The flooding, rated as the most terrible natural disaster since the 2012 Hurricane Sandy, resulted in 10 deaths and destruction of property worth billions of dollars, leaving thousands of residents homeless. The situation presented a major crisis for organizations mandated with disaster response, particularly the Federal Emergency Management Authority (FEMA). Many agencies and people have criticized FEMA for not attending to the disaster with adequate urgency, as well as for its failure to warn the residents adequately prior to the storm. Such criticism often puts the reputation of disaster response organizations at stake. FEMA may be subject to greater public pressure, leading to internal reorganization and even dismissal of some officials.
Public Health and Safety
In February 2016, Johnson & Johnson, a multinational firm involved in manufacturing medical devices as well…
Representation of Women Through Media Has Changed From 1960s
How representation of women through media has changed from the 1960s
Susan Douglas suggests that fifty years ago, mass media existed in the form of music, television, and magazines. However, she suggest that the journey has been tough owing to the manner in, which the media represents women. The media used a sexist imagery to represent women, especially women who took part in music. Although researchers suggest that the media is a powerful tool, she suggests that the public had an option to resist the media by turning off their television, or ignoring advertisements in the magazines (Douglas 1995). Mass media had substantial influence on the social, cultural, economic, spiritual, political, and religious phases of the society as well as personal level thinking, feeling, and acting. Notably, mass media has both a good side and a bad side; it is insidious…
Adams, Carol J. 2004. The Pornography of Meat. Continuum. New York/Continuum.
Ames, Jonathan. 2011. "I Guest Directed a Porn Shoot." New York Press. 27 Nov. http://nypress.com/i-guest-directed-a-porn-shoot/
Belkin, Lisa. 2008. "The opt-out revolution." New York Times Magazine. 26, 42 -- 47, 58, 85 -- 86.
Brewer, Chad. 2005. "The Stereotypic Portrayal of Women in Slasher Films: Then vs. Now." Master Thesis, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.
The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…
Atkinson, E.N. (1995). Interactive dynamic graphics for exploratory survival analysis. The American Statistician, 49(1), 77.
Barker, C., & Groenne, P. (1996). Advertising on the World Wide Web. [online]. Available: http://www.samkurser.dk/advertising/research.htm[1998, April 6].
Bever, T.G., Smith, M.L., Bengen, B., & Johnson, T.G. (1975). Young viewers' troubling response to TV ads. Harvard Business Review, 54, 109-120.
Cai, X., & Gantz, W. (2000). Online privacy issues associated with Web sites for children. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44(2), 197.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.
Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.
Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.
Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.
Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est
Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…
Bitso, Constance. "Internet Censorship In South Africa: A Brief Expose Of Negative and Positive Trends." South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science 80.1 (2014): 41-51. Academia Search Complete.
Carr, Madeline. "Internet Freedom, Human Rights and Power." Australian Journal of International Affairs 67.5 (2013): 621-637. Academia Search Complete.
Casavant, L., Robertson, J. "The Evolution of Pornography Law in Canada."
Parliament of Canada, 2015.
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…
Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116
Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm Accessed on 14 April, 2005
'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005
Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.
Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.