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Prejudice in the Workplace
Prejudice and Discrimination in the Workplace
Prejudice can be hurtful and destructive. This is true for those impacted directly, but also for the morale within an overall work environment. I witnessed this being carried out at a former employer during a summer job. A Hispanic teen was often given late night shifts that no one else wanted to work. There had been a couple of weekend evening robberies and it seemed that management was being prejudice in their decision to place the minority worker on the more problematic shift. In addition, I observed instances where this same worker was teased and mocked (openly as well as behind his back) about his accent. English was not his native language and there were people in management and other co-workers who were totally inappropriate in their teasing of him as he tried to make meaning of some of the…
Henneman, Todd. "Making the Pieces Fit." Workforce Management 90.8 (2011): 12-8. ProQuest. Web. 9 Oct. 2013.
Katz, Mia. "The Current State of Diversity Training." Women in Business 55.6 (2003): 26-7. ProQuest. Web. 9 Oct. 2013.
"Pearson - Organizational Behavior, 13/E - Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge." Pearson Higher Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2013.
Pyrillis, Rita. "Just a Token of Your Appreciation?" Workforce Management 90.9 (2011): 3-6. ProQuest. Web. 9 Oct. 2013.
Additional (86-87) explanations for racism / discrimination: a) the socialization process (if the parents are racists, the child growing up learns to hate certain racial groups); b) economic competition (when security is threatened, prejudice can come into play; Blacks and Czechs in some instances were biased against Vietnamese immigrants because the Vietnamese were supposedly taking jobs away from those already here in the U.S. And in Czechoslovakia).
Ossman presents a number of explanations as to how people that are blatantly biased (prejudged) against others of different skin color show their feelings. a) Stereotyping (an "oversimplified" and unfair generalization; "Mexicans are lazy," for example); b) ethnophaulisms (expressions that are demeaning, disparaging, meant to hurt; meant to belittle); c) ethnic jokes (clearly intended as negative stereotyping); d) misogyny in rap music (women are "bitches") (98-99).
Reducing prejudice is the goal of every fair-minded individual no matter what ethnicity he or she belongs…
McIntosh, Peggy. "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack." Race and Racism. 1988.
Ossman, Jeremy. Prejudice. Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, Chapter 4.
In terms of explicit prejudice, the aftermath of the Holocaust and the subsequent development of psychological theories of prejudice demonstrate the importance of social pressure in deterring explicit prejudices. Explicit prejudice is essentially the blatant expression of implicit prejudices, because all explicit behaviors ultimately have their root in implicit attitudes and ideologies. By increasing social pressure against explicit examples of prejudice, it becomes easier to confront the implicit prejudices which underlie them, because these implicit prejudices are all that is left.
However, reducing the exhibition of implicit prejudices is far more complicated, because by definition they are frequently shielded from view, and only become visible upon close and careful examination (for example with the assistance of the Implicit Association Test). Thus, the most important strategies for reducing implicit prejudices requires making those implicit prejudices explicit. For example, the Implicit Association Test can provide a starting point for individuals to acknowledge…
Billig, M. (2002). Henri tajfel's 'cognitive aspects of prejudice' and psychology of bigotry. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 171-88.
Nelson, T. (2009). Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination. Psychology Press:
Rudman, L.A., Greenwald, A.G., Mellott, D.S., & Schwartz, J.L.K. (1999). Measuring the automatic components of prejudice: Flexibility and generality of the implicit association test. Social Cognition, 17(4), 437-465.
The Many Faces of Prejudice
If I walk in to a bookstore or browse online I will find hundreds, in fact thousands, of essays, books, articles, and speeches about prejudice. Obviously, most of them are predictably against prejudice. Begin reading any of them at random and chances are good that they will contain the phrases 'don't have prejudice towards people' or 'prejudice is a bad thing,' but what puzzles my mind is whether phrases like 'don't have prejudice against people' are enough to end prejudice. Does it convince people not to judge others and to treat everyone equally? I think not. In order to understand what prejudice is, does a person have to experience racially-, ethnically-, religiously-, or class-based unfairness and maltreatment first hand? Among the thousands of literary works that attempt to convince readers that prejudice is a bad thing there are a minority seemingly capable of convincing…
DiYanni, Robert and Hoy, Pat C. II. Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.
From the other side of the kitchen I observed my manager taking their orders. Another co-worker even started imitating the black customers by speaking in the type of slang they use and making the same kind of movements and gestures. I laughed at him because he was saying what I myself was thinking. And at the time I was relieved that I myself did not have to deal with them because I was tired and not in the mood to deal with what I considered to be their harassing behavior. But since then I have realized that it was my job to wait on them even if I did not want to because of the awkwardness I would feel doing so.
Both of these examples of prejudice included elements of what Ruchlis calls anti-locution and avoidance. And they both dealt with instances of groups. My group in the first story…
Prejudice in the Workplace
In basic terms, prejudice is an opinion that does not have a factual basis. In that regard, the same could include notions and beliefs (preconceived) about people belonging to a particular race or social group. Prejudice is defined by Daft, Kendrick and Vershinina (2010, p.489) as "the tendency to view people who are different as being deficient." Based on its very nature, prejudice could be harmful. Indeed, as Masters and Wallace (2010, p.290) point out, both discrimination and prejudice in the workplace could be destructive. For instance, the top leadership of an organization could perceive effective management as being tied to ethnicity, race, or even class. In such a scenario, those who do not belong to the 'proscribed' ethnicity, race, or class could be locked out of future promotions. Prejudiced employees could feel alienated and as a result, their productivity could suffer.
To begin with, I…
Banfield, P. And Kay, R., 2012. Introduction to Human Resource Management. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
Daft, R., Kendrick, M. And Vershinina, N., 2010. Management. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Masters, A. And Wallace, H.R., 2010. Personal Development for Life and Work. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Mooney, L.A., 2011. Understanding Social Problems. 4th ed. Toronto, Ontario: Cengage Learning.
Prejudice is a bias against a group of people based on actions (or actions which one has heard about) from other people who are part of that group. The two essential components of prejudice are attitude and behavior. It is actually fairly difficult to distinguish these two components, since a person's attitude will inevitably influence that person's behavior. Yet a prejudice evinced by one's attitude directly relates to a shortness of patience with people in the group that such a person is prejudiced against. Additionally, one's attitude will lead one to make assumptions about the person in the group that one is prejudiced against. Ultimately, however, one's attitude will influence one's behavior towards the person who one does not like because of prejudice. That behavior can become manifest in a number of different ways, from using certain tones of voice to acts of physical violence. The attitude aspect of prejudice…
There are several ways that I can combat prejudice in the workplace. The first is by not engaging in it myself. This seems almost self-explanatory, but the truth is that we are all human beings and sometimes you have subtle or unconscious biases. Self-awareness is the first step to improving oneself. Further, if I am to have any further influence on others, I should probably be well aware of who I am, and if I have any biases or things like that. You've got to have a little bit of humility in order to be a teacher to others, especially when they are your peers. This is called Level 5 leadership (Collins, 2005).
The second way that I can combat prejudice in the workplace is by taking a leadership role among my peers. This is the personal level of combatting prejudice, and it involves insuring that others around me…
Bruner, B. (2012). Leveraging difference makes a competitive difference. Darden. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from https://blogs.darden.virginia.edu/deansblog/2012/03/leveraging-difference-makes-a-competitive-difference/
Clawson, J. (2008). Prejudice in organizations. Darden.
Collins, J. (2005). Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 17, 2014 from http://hbr.org/2005/07/level-5-leadership-the-triumph-of-humility-and-fierce-resolve/ar/1
Summer is a time of relaxation for students across the country but, over those balmy summer months, researchers says that students forget approximately two months worth of information, or twenty-two percent, from the school year ("College and University Blog"). Though teachers may be disappointed at this statistic, could they be disheartened if they forgot, or "unlearned" other things- talking back? Being aggressive in class? Or perhaps, even prejudice against one another and the community at large? In modern day, many social scientists have grappled with the notion of having certain thoughts being unlearned, which could potentially revolutionize our society in a tremendous way; but, social scientists that believe that prejudice can be unlearned would have to intervene in an individual's life in a major way before that can happen.
Julian Rotter developed a social learning theory, outlining how individuals learn. The dominating perspective that Rotter developed was founded…
Mearns, Jack. "The Social Learning Theory of Julian B. Rotter." California State University, Fullerton, 20 Nov 2010. Web. 25 May 2011. .
"The Summer Slide: Don't Forget Everything you Learned all year." College and University Blog. StateUniversity.com, 16 Jun 2010. Web. 25 May 2011. .
Prejudice and Discrimination in India
Prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice and discrimination in India of the Dalits and Adivasis
Prejudice and discrimination in India of the Dalits and Adivasis
Dalits and Untouchability
Prejudice and discrimination in India of the Dalits and Adivasis
"More than 160 million people in India are considered "Untouchable" -- people tainted by their birth into a caste system that deems them impure, less than human." (Hillary Mayell, 2003, p.1)
India is long for discrimination with lower casts since long. Social interactions have been restricted amongst people of different castes such as marriages are conducted within own castes. There are restrictions on the use of public places and temples for lower castes and even there are restrictions on sharing foods and water. Dalits the lowest of all castes that is referred to as "untouchables" has been defined in the Indian Constitution of 1950 as Scheduled Caste or Scheduled…
Aas E, Baussant T, Balk L, Liewenborg B, Andersen OK. (2000) PAH metabolites in bile, cytochrome P4501A and DNA adducts as environmental risk parameters for chronic oil exposure: a laboratory experiment with Atlantic cod. Aquat Toxicol 51:241-258.
Acharya, Deepak and Shrivastava Anshu (2008): Indigenous Herbal Medicines: Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices, Aavishkar Publishers Distributor, Jaipur- India. pp 440
Jim Mason (2005), An Unnatural Order: The Roots of Our Destruction of Nature, Lantern Books
Hillary Mayell (2003) India's "Untouchables" Face Violence, Discrimination National Geographic News. Accessed online at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/06/0602_030602_untouchables.html
Prejudice can be reduced via six different conditions, including mutual interdependence; a common goal; equal status; informal, interpersonal contact; multiple contacts; and social norms of equality. Research substantiates the importance of each of these six conditions for reducing or eliminating prejudice. Ideally, all six of these conditions will be in place to ensure that prejudice is reduced. Moreover, applying these six conditions can help organizations perform better and achieve tangible goals. For example, Fiske (2000) found “building on interdependence was essential for successful intergroup contact,” (p. 115). Programs that are designed to reduce or eliminate prejudice need to focus on at least two, if not more, of these conditions. Interdependence is linked to the achievement of common goals, another condition for reducing prejudice. When an organization actively pursues and enforces policies that ensure equal status of all employees or members, it leads to a normative environment that does not support…
Fiske, S.T. (2000). Interdependence and the reduction of prejudice. In Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination. Psychology Press.
Pettigrew, T.F. & Tropp, L.R. (2000). Does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? In Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination. Psychology Press.
Robinson, J.W. & Preston, J.D. (1976). Equal-Status Contact and Modification of Racial Prejudice: A Reexamination of the Contact Hypothesis. Social Forces 54(4): 911-924.
The beliefs have changed, the people are no longer unified.
They attempt to unite us in a certain way -- they attempt to get us to recognize that we see one another differently and are frightened by that. They attempt to show us how judging others comes from prejudice. But I think prejudice is part of human nature. Unless we are on the same page about what we believe, how can we know whom to trust, or what to expect of others who are obviously of a different culture? Jesus teaches us to act with charity -- to rise above our human nature -- but not everyone believes in Jesus. Should I act that way nonetheless?
I do not often see charity on the streets of L.A. But sometimes I do. Skin color and culture do not always act as barriers. I see people of different ethnicities talking to one…
My reflection is this: none of these things are important: these images, these names, these places, these events -- all that is real is this sadness that hangs over it all -- even in the smiling pictures, in the kissing moments, in the insistences of peace, in the denials of wanting to fly, in the sorrows of loss, in the fulfillment of desire -- every picture, every glimpse, every shadow of every soul seems to be suffering from the same exact thing…separation. Why do we all seem so separated from something…from each other…from some heavenly delight…some beautiful unattainable something that we never can quite catch or identify or know that we are even looking for I don't even want to think about something as silly as prejudice. Even if I think of everyone as all being the same, as all being a part of this same suffering, this same longing…I…
This prejudice has abated since then, but still exists throughout the U.S.
ative Alaskans who attend a high school in this Western state interviewed their "elders," those living through the 1930s to 1950s, about the inequalities that existed. These individuals, too, were not able to go to certain movies or be served at local white-owned restaurants. Even in 2007, many ative Alaskans relate stories about the bigotry that exits within their state. A few years ago, several white students exploded paint balls at a ative Alaskan walking down the street. ative Alaskans also have less representation and responsibilities in the judicial system and receive, on whole, a lesser education than the non-atives.
Economic differences occur in this country, as well, and these differences are becoming wider. The gap between the rich and the poor is widening, with the more well to do having greater opportunities for a better education, healthcare…
Native Alaskans who attend a high school in this Western state interviewed their "elders," those living through the 1930s to 1950s, about the inequalities that existed. These individuals, too, were not able to go to certain movies or be served at local white-owned restaurants. Even in 2007, many Native Alaskans relate stories about the bigotry that exits within their state. A few years ago, several white students exploded paint balls at a Native Alaskan walking down the street. Native Alaskans also have less representation and responsibilities in the judicial system and receive, on whole, a lesser education than the non-Natives.
Economic differences occur in this country, as well, and these differences are becoming wider. The gap between the rich and the poor is widening, with the more well to do having greater opportunities for a better education, healthcare services and services in general. According to the latest figures from the Internal Revenue Service, the wealthiest 1% of Americans earned more than 20% of all income in 2005. That means the richest Americans have surpassed the highs of the booming 1990s, according to the latest data from the IRS. If one is not certain that disparity exists, it is only necessary to compare the run down neighborhoods and schools, poverty, and crowded clinics in the inner cities to the newly built and pristine public schools, privilege and affluence, and modern healthcare surgicenters in the American suburbs. Just because laws are passed does not necessarily mean that major changes occur. There has been and continues to be in the United States a number of people who see themselves as different and better than others.
This essay used compare/contrast strategies (e.g., with the inner-city vs. suburbs); description (the look of the inner city compared to the more affluent areas), narratives (the elders' stories about how they were/are treated) and arguments (throughout).
hat is it like to experience prejudice on a daily basis? Many, if not most, whites do not know what it is like to be a member of an underclass. It is important to understand the structural elements of prejudice in a society. It is also important to understand how to deal with prejudice on a personal level. There are many ways to deal with prejudice. One is to fight back, and direct anger and frustration outward. The problem with this method is that fighting back sometimes entails physical aggression, and can be harmful to self and others. Another method of dealing with prejudice is to internalize the sense of inferiority and come to believe in the stereotypes and biased beliefs. The problem with this method is that it only promotes prejudice and allows for its perpetuation. Furthermore, internalizing inferiority can lead to problems like mental illness and disharmony…
Angelou, Maya. "Graduation." Retrieved online: http://ap-english-language.phoenix.wikispaces.net/file/view/Maya+Angelou+Graduation.pdf
Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to be Colored Me." Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/grand-jean/hurston/chapters/how.html
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk on By." Retrieved online: http://www.myteacherpages.com/webpages/rspriggs/files/staples%20just%20walk%20on%20by%20text.pdf
If you walk in to a bookstore or browse online you will find hundreds, in fact thousands, of essays, books, articles, and speeches about prejudice. Obviously, most of them are against prejudice and before you begin reading any of them, let me tell you that chances are good that they will contain phrases like "don't have prejudice against people," "prejudice results in downfall" or "prejudice is a bad thing,." ut what puzzles the mind is whether phrases like "we shouldn't have prejudice against people" are enough to end prejudice. Does a moral lesson at the end of a very moving story convince you not to have prejudice against your fellow beings? Does it convince people not to judge others and to treat everyone equally? I think not. In order to understand what prejudice is, does a person have to experience it firsthand?
In order to ponder over this important…
Angelou, Maya. "Graduation." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008).335-342. Print.
Hurston, Zora. "How It Feels To Be Colored Me." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008). 159-161. Print.
Kincaid, Jamaica. "On Seeing England For The First Time." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008).720-727. Print.
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk On By." "Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay." DiYanni, Robert, and Pat C. Hoy. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, (2008). 153-155. Print.
prejudice is bad actually convince the reader?
A Buddhist monk, famous among his peers for the calm and serenity he constantly expressed, received the visit of a young man one day. The latter had come intent on disturbing the monk's peace and reputation and began attacking the master with a conglomeration of verbal expressions that even the foulest of men would have bowed their head in shame. Each word that came out of the young man's mouth was one more colorful than the other. And no remark that he addressed to the monk had anything but a pejorative sense of direction. As the young man went on to gesticulate vividly in a body language that matched his most "candid" acts of expressing, the Buddhist monk did nothing but gently smiled, causing the young man to build up more steam. Exasperated and drained out of energy, the man finally gave up…
Angelou, Maya. "Graduation." Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Hurston, Zora. "How It Feels to Be Colored Me." Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Kincaid, Jamaica. "On Seeing England For the First Time." Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space." Web. 7 Nov. 2013.
As the definition by Black's Law Dictionary emphasizes, prejudice simply means, at least in part, a "partiality" for one reason or another. It seems reasonable to posit that most human resource directors as "partial" towards candidates with superior qualifications in preference to those who do not possess such qualification, just as it is reasonable to posit that a job candidate with a proven track record would likely be a superior candidate to one who job history is replete with terminations by reason of embezzlement or corporate malfeasance.
Furthermore, prejudice in this context is conducive to efficiency in the workplace because it just makes good business sense to rely on one's professional experience and expertise in formulating hiring decisions where all other factors may be equal. Indeed, this is a fundamental part of the human condition and is an inescapable element in the manner in which people go about conducting their…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1991.
De Meuse, Kenneth P., Eau Claire and K.S. O'Neill. 2007. "A Longitudinal Evaluation of Senior Managers' Perceptions and Attitudes of a Workplace Diversity Training Program."
Human Resource Planning 30(2): 38-40.
Griffin, Ricky W. And Anne M. O'Leary-Kelly. The Dark Side of Organizational Behavior. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004.
Prejudice and the Clark Doll test
Prejudice Today and the Clark Doll Study
I once witnessed an incident involving racial prejudice at a local Wal-Mart store. The store was located in a predominately white, suburban area of town. I was standing in a checkout line behind a white couple shopping with their young son. Standing right behind them was a well-dressed, African-American woman with a few items in her hand. A white cashier was quietly ringing up the family's items when I overheard the preschool age, little boy calling for his mom and saying that they needed to change lines. He was standing up in the shopping cart giving the African-American lady dirty looks. She stood quietly, ignoring him. The parents seemed completely oblivious; however, after several pleadings from the son, the mother turned and said, "What is it?" The little boy turned and boldly pointed at the African-American lady.…
Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., & Fiske, S.T. (2010). "What did You Say, and Who do You Think You Are?" How Power Differences Affect Emotional Reactions to Prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 66(3), 477-492. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2010.01657.x.
Gee, C.L., & Heyman, G.D. (2007). Children's Evaluation of Other People's Self-Descriptions. Social Development, 16(4), 800-818. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00408.x.
al, 2002). In addition, change occurs quicker when leadership is diverse, as well (Hampton and Lee, 2007). Finally, ethnicity and diversity issues should be included in organizational behavior courses, so that all business and industry has more access to this information (Mamman, 1996). Change must occur in our society, and an end to prejudice must be achieved for our society and our workplaces to be truly free and equal.
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf.
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/H022.
Griessman, G. (1993). What is…
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf .
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HR022 .
Griessman, G. (1993). What is diversity? Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Multi-Cultural Center Web site: http://www.multi-culturalcenter.org/diversity.php.
Smilla's Sense Of Snow:
An icy reflection of the prejudice of the Danes against native Greenlanders
The protagonist of Peter Hoeg's thriller Smilla's Sense of Snow is a product of a union between a native 'Greenlander' or indigenous person and a wealthy Danish doctor. Although the plot of the book is ostensibly a murder mystery it is just as much about Smilla's struggle for her identity. Smilla embarks upon her detective 'quest' partially because she believes a fellow 'Greenlander' named Isaiah Christiansen has been murdered. Although Isaiah was only a child of six, Smilla identifies with the boy's sense of loneliness and isolation. The mystery novel depicts the Danish legal system as shadowy and unknowable, and much of the book revolves around Smilla's attempt to unravel it and understand it, as well as get to the bottom of Isaiah's death. The book is an accurate reflection of the spirit of…
"Denmark." Multicultural Policies in Contemporary Democracies. Queen's College.
13 Nov 2012 http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/indigenouspeople/evidence-1/Denmark.html
Hoeg, Peter. Smilla's Sense of Snow. Delta, 1995.
Loukacheva, Natalia. "Autonomy and legal systems of Greenland and Nunavut."
Cross Culture elations and Medical Procedures Insurance
Medical Insurance Procedures
In the U.S., using preventive care has helped in the prevention of chronic diseases and detection is possible due to appropriate screenings. At every stage of life, when one uses the right preventive care, then it helps in making Americans stay healthy, lead productive lives, delay onset of disease, and reduce costs of health. Therefore, I agree that preventive services are viable solutions of cutting down on the rising health costs in America. Commercial groups have opted to give their employees a health plan that ensures productivity is maintained by providing them with preventive medical care that creates a healthy workforce (Green, 2012, p. 488). According to PACE team, they have offered and managed to provide preventive care in day health centers, hospitals, homes, and nursing facilities thus help the individuals maintain independence, quality of life, and dignity (Green, 2012,…
Green, M (2012). Understanding Health Insurance: A Guide to Billing and Reimbursement (11) Eds.). Delmar: Cengage Learning
Samovar. L., Porter, R., & McDaniel, E. (2009). Communications between Cultures (7 Eds.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning
Prejudice Against Philosophy
Plato (427-347 BCE) is often termed as the greatest Western philosopher. Historians like A.N. Whitehead like to quote: "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato." [Bloom, 1991]. In defense of philosophers one can refer to Plato's definition of what a philosopher is and how useful he is to society.
Plato's magnum opus "Republic" is considered as one of the masterpieces of western civilization. The central questions of the Republic are "What is Justice" and whether it is better to live justly or unjustly. To answer these questions, Plato first constructs a perfectly Just City tate. A Just City, according to the 'Republic', is one in which there is the perfect arrangement. Plato in his treatise describes a three-part division of the human soul, which he co-relates with three major classes in the Just City…
Bloom, A. (Editor), . The Republic of Plato by Plato, Basic Books, 2nd edition.
Bramann, J.K. . Philosophical Films: "Network" and Plato's Cave, 2000, available at http://www.frostburg.edu/dept/phil/forum/PhilFilm5.htm
Parry, R.D. . Morality and Happiness: Book VI of Plato's Republic. Journal of Education, Vol. 178, No. 3.
educing Prejudice in the Workplace
All forms of prejudice exist in the workplace, with some more apparent than others. Leaders recognize the potential scenarios where prejudice and bigotry can fester and grow, and often define counterattack strategies to these problems by bringing greater involvement and ownership of team success (Kirby, ichard, 2000). Prejudice blinds peers, superiors and subordinates from the inherent valuable contributions of employees regardless of their race. And prejudice is very expensive as well, costing companies literally billions of dollars a year in lost productivity, lawsuits and missed market opportunities (Piche, 2004). The intent of this paper is to define key strategies for reducing prejudice in the workplace.
Strategies for educing Prejudice in the Workplace
Leaders who excel at reducing prejudice arte inclusive and seek to gain everyone's buy-in to corporate vision, mission and value direction. One of the most effective strategies for reducing prejudice in the…
Kirby, S.L., & Richard, O.C. (2000). Impact of marketing work-place diversity on employee job involvement and organizational commitment. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140(3), 367-77.
Klein, G.D. (1980). Beyond EOE and affirmative action-working on the integration of the work place. California Management Review, 22(4), 74.
Piche, V. (2004). Immigration, globalization and cultural diversity: New challenges for the 21st century. Labour Capital and Society, 37(1), 210.
Shih-Hsueh, C., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). Race discrimination in the workplace. Equal Opportunities International, 17(3-5), 85-88.
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…
Friedman, a. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences…
Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),
Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.
(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.
These two instances of prematurely formed first impressions make up one way in which the "prejudice" of the title is shown in the novel. The characters in this novel are very quick to form opinions of each other, doing so even before they meet each other, and this has a major effect on their relationships. The result of these first two cases of unseen first impressions is actually positive, and fairly quickly resolved -- Jane and Mr. Bingley end up falling in love, proving the correctness of their hastily formed first impressions. These are instances where the affects of first impressions on character relationships are actually beneficial, because they are fulfilled. More often in the novel, however, the gossip and ballroom behavior that tends to lead to first impressions between the characters -- especially the Bennett sisters and the various men they become involved with -- ends with a different…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Victim of Prejudice, on its own? (eg. I enjoyed reading...)
I enjoyed reading this book for several reasons. For one, I was surprised it was so old, written several hundred years ago. The language is dated but the themes remain relevant, especially as they pertain to gender and sex roles. Right from the beginning of the book, Hays lets her readers know that this is going to be a scathing critique of patriarchy. Protagonist Mary speaks with a proud tone, noting that her benefactor helped her to overcome the titular gender and class-related prejudices that besieged both men and women. Whereas women were supposed to be demure and weak, Mary notes that she was "indebted for a robust constitution, a cultivated understanding, and a vigorous intellect," (p. 5). She does not flaunt her strengths for egotistic purposes but rather, to show how difficult it can be to achieve status in…
Having said this, it is difficult to image a man such as Darby falling for her.
The film version of Elizabeth is also changed by certain plot changes that were made in the movie. Perhaps one of the most annoying scenes in the film is when Elizabeth goes outside in her bedclothes. Austen's Elizabeth would have never done such a thing. It is also worth noting that it is difficult to believe that the Bennets were as poor as the film depicted. A few of the party scenes where Elizabeth is the object of Darcy's attention are excluded from the film and they do not allow us to see Elizabeth's true character like we should. It is also worth noting that her personality seems to change halfway through the film. The first part of the film she spends far too much time giggling and in the second half of the…
Children and Prejudice
hat a person first needs to know in order to fully understand the various factors that influence racial / ethnic stereotypes is what being Caucasian truly means in our society. In other words, what does "whiteness" mean for a Caucasian child? hat does whiteness mean to a child who is African-American -- or to a child that is Latino, or Native American? The authors (Derman-Sparks, et al., 2005) delve into this and other important issues that relate to not just ethnicity but to social power and influence.
hat is Racism -- this is important to know -- in America? According to the authors it is important to understand that racism is not just an attitude that one person has towards another. In fact racism in American is an "…institutionalized system of power" that makes the determination as to what groups are "advantaged" and what groups are "disadvantaged"…
Derman-Sparks, L., and Ramsey, P.G. (2005). What If All the Children in My Class Are White?
Beyond the Journal. Retrieved February 5, 2014, from the National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Second best possible way that the audience can do is not to patronize the product or service being advertised. It must be noted that advertisers chose that kind of seemingly improper and biased advertising strategy because they want to sell their product or service. Hence, if the audiences as the target consumers will not patronize the product, the advertisement will eventually be changed or stopped because of its failure.
Indeed, the viewers should not take for granted the kind of advertisements that are offending or that promote stereotyping. The viewers can always react positively and/or negatively to it. After all, the advertiser's ultimate goal is to satisfy the viewers, hence viewers must be satisfied in a positive and proper way.
Prejudice in Individuals:
Prejudice is the rigid irrational attitudes and opinions possessed by individuals or members of a specific group about another individual or group. onsequently, being prejudiced is defined as having preconceived beliefs regarding some people groups or cultural practices. In addition to being preconceived and difficult to change, prejudices can be positive or negative. While is possible to be prejudiced and fail to act upon the beliefs or attitudes, negative prejudices can result in discrimination. This negative form of prejudice is practiced in order to guard opportunities through denying access to groups of people. There is an urgent need to lessen prejudice because of the changing social structure, demographics, work place settings, and education settings. However, many efforts to reduce prejudices in these various settings have been legal and have failed to confront the dynamics of the disorder.
There are two prejudicial processes that operate differently…
Cole, J. (n.d.). Understanding Prejudice Behavior. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.beyondprejudice.com/under_stand.html
"Prejudice and Discrimination." (n.d.). Cliff Notes. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Prejudice-and-Discrimination.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
Schamotta, J. (n.d.). The Development of Prejudice. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8547880_development-prejudice.html
organizational resources are by definition scarce, it is important for sociologists conducting research on the issues of racism and prejudice to employ research techniques with proven efficacy. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning optimal methods for sociological research into the areas of racism and prejudice. A discussion concerning the types of research method that would be the most appropriate for such studies on racism and prejudice, including qualitative or quantitative research, the use interviews, surveys, field research, case study, secondary analysis, or participant observation is followed by an examination concerning how sociologists explain the causes of prejudice. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are presented in the paper's conclusion.
eview and Discussion
To date, sociologists have used a wide range of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to study racism and prejudice (Dion, 2002). For instance, according to one sociologist, "We…
Dion, K. (2002, February). The social psychology of perceived prejudice and discrimination.
Canadian Psychology, 43(1), 1-5.
Farley, J.E. (2005). Majority -- minority relations, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Grinnell, R.M. Jr. & Unrau, Y.A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.
On numerous occasions, we have perceived people being treated in a different and disparaging manner simply because they emanate from a certain cultural or ethnic group and community. This is something that takes place every day and is an ongoing heated issue of debate. This is an issue that has been in place for a very long time (Cohen, 2011). anging from captivity of the African people to oppression of African-Americans in the United States, racism is an issue that has caused a great deal of harm, anguish and pain to numerous people in the society. The same case is still ongoing in the present day, for instance, with the United States having the "Black Lives Matter" movement due to racial actions against young black people in different states. There has also been prejudice and racism shown against individuals emanating from the Muslim community being mistreated and oppressed…
Cohen, L. J. (2011). The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism. Psychology Today. Retrieved 24 March, 2016 from: https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/handy-psychology-answers/201101/the-psychology-prejudice-and-racism
Conner, D. F., & Barkley, R. A. (2004). Aggression and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: Research and treatment. New York: The Guilford Press.
Understanding a form of prejudice and discrimination in a black community
Explain how prejudice and discrimination manifests in this community
Research on health and race often invoke discrimination, prejudice, and racism as probable causes for increased levels of mortality and morbidity in the black community. Discrimination and prejudice can impact people's social resources, opportunities, motivation, self-worth, and involvement with the wider society. Besides, the different views on inequality and equality serve as drivers for further prejudice. Therefore, the establishment, promotion, and sustenance of human rights and equality are dependent on understanding how individuals comprehend and apply these ideas in their daily lives (Abrams, 2010).
Early sociological accounts regarding black's higher offending rates focused not on the physical constraints created by racial prejudice but instead on the supposed unique facets of their culture that disrupts conventional behavior while encouraging violence and crime. A few recent structural perceptions openly incorporate racial, physical…
Abrams, D. (2010). Process of Prejudice: Theory, evidence, and intervention. Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report.
Burt, C. H., Simons, R., & Gibbons, F. (2012). Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience. Am Sociol Rev., 648–677.
College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. (2010). The Education Crisis Facing Young Men of Color (Vol. 1, pp. 1-42, Rep.). College Board
Fleming C, Lamont M, and Welburn J. (2012). \\\\"African Americans Respond to Stigmatization: The Meanings and Salience of Confronting, Deflecting Conflict, Educating the Ignorant and \\\\'Managing the Self.\\\\'\\\\" Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(3):400–17.
Gaylord-Harden, N. K. (2009). The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 532-43.
Griffin, E., & Armstead, C. (2020). Black\\\\'s Coping Responses to Racial Stress. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 609–618.
Lawson, C. (2016). Racism and Coping Mechanisms within the African American Community. UFDC.
NPR, R. H. (2017). Discrimination in America: Experiencing and views of African Americans.
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Heat of the Night
Theories on Prejudice and Discrimination
The first thought on prejudice and discrimination in this movie naturally falls to the race of Virgil Tibbs (i.e., Sidney Poitier) but this movie delves in much more subtle comparisons and stereotypical prejudices than mere skin color.
A film in the late 1960's did not headline a black actor. Significant is the fact that Tibbs is allowed to be smart, clever, empathetic, superior, and dedicated to finding the killer - even while realizing he is being framed for a murder he did not commit.
Sheriff Bill Gillespie (Rod Steiger) is the perfect white counterpoint to Tibbs: manipulative, curiously vulnerable, steely when crossed, and white - stereotypical redneck portrayal of a Southern public servant.
The underlying theory of prejudicial racism is clearly defined - if subtly - by the deserted condition of the train station, the hour of Tibbs' arrival, and being…
Lumet's filmed adaptation of Reginald Rose's Twelve Angry Men focuses primarily on prejudice and the ways in which prejudice can obscure or distort one's sense of justice. The twelve jurors in the film all have their own personalities, their own backgrounds, their own histories, their own preoccupations: one wants to catch the ballgame and is willing to vote whichever way will get him out of the room sooner; another sees the defendant as nothing more than the representation of everything he hates about ungrateful youths; another looks not at the defendant nor at his watch but rather at the facts and attempts to discern through them the actuality of events as they most likely would have occurred: for this juror, the truth is his preoccupation -- and by way of a series of arguments, first with one, then with another, he manages to convince his peers that he is not…
Thebedi suffers because of the same reason but her story reveals how broken a race becomes after years of repeated abuse. Thebedi lives in a culture thousands of miles away from the segregation realized in America but somehow, that mentality made its way across the ocean. The most amazing aspect of this story is the fact that it could have taken place on an American farm. The white man's ways belittled the black man even in his own land. Prejudice is no respecter of persons. hile we associate it with whites and blacks in America, across the globe people are killed and mistreated for all kinds of beliefs. One thing is clear: this state of mind comes from within the heart of man, not from without. Children play with each other without restraint and it is only when they begin to adopt the beliefs of their elders that they begin…
Gordimer, Nadine. "Country Lovers."
Walker, Alice. "The Welcome Table."
In that, she does not adapt to the environment and culture of her parents, she is a woman on her own, a modern woman of India who knows what she wants and will not settle for less. She is easily led in other areas, though, and one of those weaknesses is Darcy, who she continues to see in a negative light, and refuses to really see the good in him. She only wants to believe the worst, which gets in the way of her real happiness and love.
She does adapt, however, when she changes her mind about Darcy, and she is open to change and growth because of this. Her life has followed an uncertain path, from India, through London, to California, and back again. In this journey, she learns about herself, and learns about her emotions, as well. She is strong, she can be led to do the…
There is almost universally found an emphasis placed on continued education. It is also interesting to note that, on the whole, children of immigrant parents tend to perform better in school (based on grade point averages) that native born peers in the same school districts. There is a significant degree of ethnic segmentation of academic achievement -- for example, Chinese students tend to finish high school with the highest grade point averages while Latin American students tended to have the weakest performance in school. The highest drop out rate tended to be seen among Latin American students as well, primarily in Cubans, Dominicans and Mexican-Americans.
Regarding reliance on the welfare state, over 60% of the children polled aspired to an advanced degree, with 44% stating they realistically expected to attain it. Unfortunately, those children in situations with the greatest socioeconomic disadvantage tended to have the most unrealistic expectations regarding the…
American Labor Market
Darrick Hamilton's assessment of discrimination and how discrimination is measured in the U.S. labor market reveals a number of variables that play a part in determining the nature and extent of inequality in the U.S. hat the study does show is that class dichotomies are apparent and that economic disparity essentially ensures that the two classes remain divided by socio-economic barriers, which prevent the lower class from ever rising beyond the class ceiling that keeps them within their socio-economic status.
Class is an obvious issue in America: classism interacts with racism in various ways but the exact manner of the interaction -- or how it is interpreted -- depends on some degree to the manner in which the interaction is measured. As Hamilton notes, "An individual may experience discrimination and not interpret it as such, or an individual may not experience discrimination but perceive that they were…
Hamilton, Darrick. "Issues Concerning Discrimination and Measurements of Discrimination in U.S. Labor Markets." Perspectives, 98-111. Web.
Biases in Decision-Making
Biases refer to prejudices or favors of or against an object, group, or individual in comparison to another (Moule, 2009). This aspect is normally unfair in relation to making critical as well as effective judgment or decisions. On the other hand, unconscious biases refer to our natural people preferences. Unconscious biases also relate to the concept of hidden biases in the process of making unfair decision. Unconscious biases have massive influence on the underpinnings with reference to the decision-making process. It is critical for individuals to overcome unconscious biases in order to make valuable and fair decisions in accordance with relevant activities.
Discuss how biases can affect our decision-making during the hiring process
Biases have massive influence on our decision-making in the process of hiring new employees in the context of an organization. Biases influence our decision-making when hiring new employees in several ways. One of the…
Messner, C., Wanke, M., & Weibel, C. (2011). Unconscious Personnel Selection. Social Cognition, 29(6), 699-710.
Moule, J. (2009). Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism. (Cover story).
Phi Delta Kappan, 90(5), 320-326.
Parloff, R., & Kaufman, S.M. (2007). The War Over Unconscious Bias. Fortune, 156(8), 90-
Prejudice and policing have now become a very contentious issue within the developed world. Many individuals, particularly in minority populations, believe that prejudice is embedded within the policing environment. Stereotypes and racial profiling are perceived to be rampant. Examples exist of individuals unarmed being shot to death be police officers. Police officers themselves are now much more fearful of doing their duty in society as they fear retaliation. This creates an interesting dynamic between prejudice and the overall policing environment.
Both prejudice and policing intersect each through constant interaction and communication. Law enforcement involves communication. Body language, tone, and speech all impact the manner in which law enforcement interacts with the population at large. In many instances officers vary their tone depending on race or perception. Studies have shown that police officers tend to be more aggressive in their tone and behavior when interacting with African America constituents. Likewise, officers…
1) Levine, Bertram. (2005). "Not All Black and White." J. Cropp (Ed.), Resolving Racial Conflict, 193-218. London: University of Missouri Press.
2) Jennifer Roback, "The Political Economy of Segregation: The Case of Segregated Streetcars." Journal of Economic History 56, no. 4 (December 1986): 893-917.
Prejudice and Discrimination
Choice 1: What can the couple do in this situation?
In this situation, there are a several different actions which can be taken. The most notable include: filing a complaint with the department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), suing the homeowner for violating the Civil ights Act of 1964 and go to different anti-discrimination / civil liberties organizations. Any one or a combination of these actions, will force the homeowner to reconsider their position. (Devey, 2007)
HUD was given enforcement over these areas as a part of the Civil ights Act of 1964. This makes it illegal for anyone to discriminate against someone in employment, housing and other places of public interest. Those who violate the law are subject to civil litigation and the possibility of having to pay out monetary damages from their actions. HUD's job is to investigate and enforce the law. If the…
The Fair Housing Act. (2014). HUD. Retrieved from: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/fair_housing_equal_opp/progdesc/title8
Devey, D. (2007). Discrimination and Desegregation. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 609 (1), 49-84.
By delving into and categorizing the different treatments, ocial psychologists test and arrive at conclusions of socially helpful interventions and treatments. Other professionals such as social workers and therapists can then incorporate these treatments in their practices whilst policy makers can formulate laws (if applicable) incorporating them into the institution.
A) select one that makes use of the distinction between automatic cognitive-processes and controlled processing, and by using that article explain why that-distinction is important in current social psychological research. Are the methods-used to measure these two processes different? If so, how and why? (Do not-forget to cite the title of the article.)
Payne (2006) dwells on implicit and instinctive bias that compels people to make snap judgeship. These judgments can sometimes be dangerous and self if not socially destructive such as race stereotypes that can lead people to see a weapon where none exists and can result in faulty…
Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Fiske, S.T., & Neuberg, S.L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 1-74.
Legault, L. et al. (2011) Ironic Effects of Antiprejudice Messages: How Motivational Interventions Can Reduce (but Also Increase) Prejudice Psychological Science 22(12) 1472
Oskamp, S. (2000). Multiple paths to reducing prejudice and discrimination, Psychology Press: U.S.
eduction of Prejudice
The Contact Hypothesis of Gordon Allport and the eduction of Prejudice
The literature covering the nature of prejudice, its scope, the effects of prejudice, and methods to reduce on prejudice is among the most extraordinary body of literature in all of social science. The total volume of research on the topic of prejudice is quite extraordinary and this body of work reflects several decades of scholarly investigation of the meaning of prejudice, its assessment, its etiology, its consequences, and methods to reduce prejudice. There are very few areas of study that have attracted a greater range of theoretical perspectives than the area of prejudice. Theorizing about the nature and manifestation of prejudice has also been accompanied by many spirited debates about the appropriate way to conceptualize methods to reduce prejudice in people. The result has been a rich body of measurement instruments and reduction strategies. The most…
Allport, G. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Aron, A., Aron, E. & Coups, E. (2011). Statistics for the behavioral and social sciences: A brief course. (5th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.
Bar-Haim, Y., Ziv, T., Lamy, D., & Hodes, R.M. (2006). Nature and nurture in own-race face processing. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 159-163.
Binder, J., Zagefka, H., Brown, R., Funke, F., Kessler, T., Mummendey, A., Maquil, A., Demoulin, S. & Leyens, J. (2009). Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(4), 843-856.
Consequently, the former will attempt to behave toward the latter in view of the prejudices he or she has relating to the particularities present in the latter. Most individuals make use of anti-locution when they put across their discriminatory principles, as it is easier and apparently less immoral to do this. Anti-locution is as wrong as direct discrimination, given the fact that it encourages people to be prejudiced.
Avoidance is another form of prejudice that seems to be less harmful than straightforward discrimination. Because they were taught that people from a community different from theirs behave in a particular manner believed to be wrong, individuals will consider that it is easier for them to evade any chance of interaction with the categorized group rather than risk having to deal with the particularity associated with the group that is "not normal."
People will not hesitate to accept that discrimination is a…
lack peoples believe that America is being white society day by day and other identities are favored very less as compare to white peoples. It is the white race which controls almost everything for Muslims and black it is like a dream to be a president or getting selected for any higher post America may be a melting point but this problem has become common issue now but none can do anything to get rid of it. If we go in depth we will come to know who is being victim of prejudice the things which are being affected by prejudice in America are institutes and Offices. It is affecting peoples because of prejudice all of the black Americans has become victims of complex, prejudice is also affecting all of the events, which serve as dedication to American liberty. There are still few peoples found in America who believes that…
Report Card. 'Prejudice in America'. http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/07-23-2007/0004630594&EDATE=
Tracinski, Rober. April 16, 2001. 'America's Problem with Prejudice' http://www.aynrand.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=7349&news_iv_ctrl=1076
Wikipedia. 'Prejudice.' http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prejudice#Sociology
Incarceration and Race.' http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/usa/Rcedrg00-01.htm
" (Russon 58) and the need to be recognized as the important factor is the source of people's prejudices. But people learn this behavior from their interactions with their families, another source of their prejudices. Traditional family structure maintains a system where the adults in the family have a more important place; and their wants and desires hold more sway. Children begin their lives in a system where their wants are inferior to others, particularly their parents, and learn to adapt this interpersonal interaction to other non-family individuals. Then, children take their experiences with their families and use them as the basis for their interactions with other individuals in society. The superior/inferior system that they experienced in their childhood becomes the manner in which they develop their personal identities and the way they interact with others. They become the important factor in relationships by making their wants more important than…
Russon, John. Human Experience: Philosophy, Neurosis, and the Elements of Everyday Life. Albany: State University of New York, 2003. Print.
Reasoning Behind the Title: To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird took the form of a novel before its adaptation into a film. This is a work that has a strong literal and metaphorical link to the title. To Kill a Mockingbird is an infinitive phrase that describes an action. The title is a phrase that communicates part of the main theme of the novel. By the time the reader has completed the novel, the reader should understand quite clearly what the consequences of killing a mockingbird in real life as well as within the context of the narrative. Mockingbirds, as the novel expounds upon, represent innocence and joy. Through various actions in the novel and as demonstrated through nearly all of the character arcs in the story, to kill a mockingbird is a solemn tragedy.
Characters such as Jem, Dill, Tom Robinson, Mr. Raymond, and Boo Radley are…
Discrimination and Prejudice Affects Families
Discrimination is basically defined as the unfair or prejudicial treatment of various kinds of people or things, particularly on the basis of age, race, sex or ethnicity. In contrast, prejudice can be described as a preconceived opinion about a person or a group of people that is not based on experience or research. Discrimination and prejudice occur in various societies as various groups of people are wrong preconceived opinions and unfair treatment that is fueled by various factors. Some of the most common factors that generate discrimination and prejudice include cultural differences, religious differences, socio-economic differences, racial differences, differences in sexual orientation and preferences, and differences in nationality. As a result of its spread, discrimination and prejudice continues to have considerable impacts on families and child rearing practices, which necessitate the development of measures to address it.
How Discrimination Affects Families
Generally, the effect of…
Ambrosino, R., Heffernan, J., Shuttlesworth, G. & Ambrosino, R. (2011). Brooks/Cole
empowerment series: social work and social welfare: an introduction (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Davies, M. (2008, November). Eradicating Child Poverty: The Role of Key Policy Areas.
Retrieved November 22, 2014, from http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2271-poverty-exclusion-discrimination.pdf
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
Rochester was burned and maimed in a fire set by his first wife who had all this time lived in the attic of the house guarded by a nurse. The man who once had the confident gait is seen standing blindly in the rain as Jane approaches the house after her decision is made to return to Rochester. The scene is reversed as Jane stands talking to Rochester who is now groping through air with a stump for an arm and with blinded eyes straining to see and it is now her turn to assure him of her devotion because she is already fulfilled in the knowing that she is just what he wants:
On this arm, I have neither hand nor nails," he said, drawing the mutilated limb from his breast, and showing it to me. "It is a mere stump -- a ghastly sight! Don't you think so,…
Bronte, Charlotte (nd) Jane Austen [Online] located at http://www.literaturepa ge.com/read / janeeyre.html
Austen, Jane (1951) Pride and Prejudice RE #22 Paperback Edition
Bronte, Charlotte (nd) Jane Austen [Online] located at http://www.literaturepage.com/read / janeeyre.html
Bronte & Austen: Contrast and Comparison of Rochester & Darby
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Joe right's 2005 motion picture "Pride and Prejudice" involves a series of elements related to ideas like family, faithfulness, and marriage. By presenting the central characters as individuals who struggle to remove social status boundaries, the film makes it possible for viewers to gain a more complex understanding of thinking during the late eighteenth century. Elizabeth Bennet is the film's protagonist and by looking at matters from her perspective viewers are able to learn more about her surrounding environment and about the feelings present in a society that promotes a strict set of legislations that are focused both on rational and on moral ideas.
Elizabeth Bennet is a very complex character and it is actually intriguing how her intellect virtually pushes individuals who are unable to adapt on a social level to the limits of her community. Elizabeth gradually…
Grandi, Roberta, "The Passion Translated: Literary and Cinematic Rhetoric in Pride and Prejudice (2005)," Literature/Film Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1
Holden, Stephen, "Marrying Off Those Bennet Sisters Again, but This Time Elizabeth Is a Looker," retrieved April 7, 2013, from the NY Times Website: http://movies.nytimes.com/2005/11/11/movies/11prid.html?_r=0
Neckles, Christina, "Spatial Anxiety: Adapting the Social Space of Pride and Prejudice," Literature/Film Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 1
"With My Body I Thee Worship: Joe Wright's Erotic Vision in Pride & Prejudice (2005)," Journal of Religion and Popular Culture, Vol. 20.
Daughters in literature requires a thorough analysis of gender roles and norms. The concept of daughter is directly linked to gender roles, as being a daughter entails specific social and familial responsibilities. Daughters' rights, roles, and responsibilities vis-a-vis their male siblings can therefore become a gendered lens, which is used to read literature. This is true even when the daughters in question are not protagonists. For example, Sonya in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment is not a protagonist but her supportive role has a tremendous impact on main character Rodion Romanovich Raskolnikov. Likewise, no one of King Lear's three daughters is the play's protagonist but they nevertheless propel the plot of the play and are central to its outcome. Virginia oolf's To the Lighthouse barely features any of the Ramsay daughters, and yet there are ample textual references to the role of daughters in families and correspondingly, the role of…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Edited by James Kinsley. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated and annotated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
Shakespeare. William. King Lear. Edited by Stephen Orgel. New York, N.Y: Penguin Books, 1999.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. , c1955.
Through their relationship, we see how Charlotte decided to marry him because she did not want to be left alone and without anyone at all.
Pride and Prejudice allows us to see the different types of marriage through each relationship. Not all marriages are equal and husbands and wives are never easy to understand. Lydia marries ickham and their marriage is shallow as the two are inexperienced in the ways of a healthy relationship. Lydia may be a beautiful woman but she is ignorant when it comes to her husband and his behavior. Lydia's relationship with ickham weakens over time and the two grow apart. From this couple, we can see how a good marriage takes hard work and commitment. Things will not improve if each partner goes his or her separate ways and the couple spends more time apart than they do together. This frustration is viewed by Jane…
Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Bantam Books. 1981.
In addition to the Jewish population that was decimated by Hitler's Final Solution, the gypsy population was a targeted victim. According to the Jewish Virtual Library (JVL), "it is known that perhaps 250,000 Gypsies were killed, and that proportionately they suffered losses greater than any other group of victims except Jews." (JVL, p. 1)
The Jewish Virtual Library goes on to explain that because of their nomadic lifestyle and their preservation of a distinctive culture, they were often seen as strangers and social other in the countries of Europe where they made their homes. The result was a set of prejudices stemming from fear, suspicious and misunderstanding. These would all help to feed into the victimization of this group during the Holocaust. This shows a startling continuity from the time of Esmerelda and Quasimodo in the medieval era to the time of Hugo's writing and directly up to the time…
Dieterle, W. (1939). The Hunchback of Notre Dame. RKO Radio Pictures.
Jewish Virtual Library (JVL). (2013). Gypsies in the Holocaust. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise.
Miller, F. (2010). The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939). Turner Classic Movies.