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The nature principle tells us that people will be what they will be, regardless of external factors that went into their prenatal development. The nurture principle states otherwise, and demands that we judiciously examine the inputs that are going into the body of the mother, which go into the body of the developing baby. Detrimental neurobiological effects can arise from substance abuse, such as alcohol, which can result in consequences like Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Additionally, while some substances may seem benign and are even espoused by the established published scientific dogma, like taking folic acid during pregnancy, an informed person would be wise to fully examine the premise and the possible effects of adding such a substance to the body of a pregnant woman. Aside from changing hair color, and perhaps reducing neural tube defects, substances that affect the epigenome are bound to have more global effects. It is the…
Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009). The Nature (and Nurture?) of Plasticity in Early Human Development. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 345-351.
DC, D., D, H., & RL., J. (2007). Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 13056-13061.
Harley, K., & Eskenazi, B. (2006). Time in the United States, social support and health behaviors during pregnancy among women of Mexican descent. Social Science and Medicine, 3048-3061.
Ohlsson, R., Larsson, E., Nilsson, O., Wahlstrom, T., & Sundstrom, P. (1989). Blastocyst implantation precedes induction of insulin-like growth factor II gene expression in human trophoblasts. Development, 555-559.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Facts About Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Everyone Should Know
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) affects newborns causing a lifelong battle and physical defects. FAS is entirely preventable as it is caused by alcohol consumption during pregnancy. FAS is a result of lifestyle choices by the mother. FAS is something of which every expectant mother should be aware. Drinking during pregnancy seems harmless to many, particularly if it is just one drink every so often. However, what seems harmless can have devastating effects on the baby that will last the rest of their life.
FAS is a result of alcohol crossing the placental barrier between the mother and the developing baby. The symptoms of FAS include stunted growth, low weight, damage to nerves and brain structures as well as characteristic facial features. A child with FAS often has psychological and behavioral issues as to grow up as well. The…
Clarren, S. (2002) Dr. Clarren;s Keynot Address to the Yokin 2002 Prairie Northern Conference
on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. FAS Community Resource Center. Retrieved from http://www.come-over.to/FAS/Whitehorse/WhitehorseArticleSC1.htm
Perlstein, D. (2012). Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. MedicineNet.com. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/fetal_alcohol_syndrome/article.htm
Promoting Healthy Prenatal Development
Prenatal development is divided into three distinct stages these are the zygote, embryo and fetus.in the real sense these three periods are a representation of continuous phases of development during which the developing organism is sustained and protected by amniotic sac, placenta and umbical cord and after the fifth month it undergoes a series of changes to become an increasingly complex and differentiated organism. There are several conditions which influence this prenatal development. The paper will look at tow of these conditions and the potentially significant impact these conditions might have on the development of the child in the uterus and even beyond.
During prenatal development there are agents known as teratogens which can have an influence on the developing child hence producing abnormalities, might have an effect on the growth of the organism leading to physical and mental deviations.
One of these conditions…
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.(2003). Prenatal Development and Birth.Retrieved 15 January 2014 from http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072820144/student_view0/chapter4/
Kendra Cherry.(2012.)Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development. Retrieved 15 January 2014 from v
Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy risk the health of the fetus and implicitly, the health of the child after birth. There are few studies made on humans in what concerns alcohol and interferences in prenatal development. That is why research is primarily based on animal studies. It is difficult to determine the exact amount of alcohol that can influence the fetus' development in a negative way and that is way women who plan to have a baby or women who found out that are pregnant should stop drinking during their pregnancies. Some of the most important consequences of severe exposure to alcohol during pregnancy are fetal alcohol syndrome or the death of the fetus. These two, are not the only negative effects that the alcohol has on prenatal development. The brain of the fetus and the healthy development of the fetus' body are also affected by alcohol.
1. Effects of alcohol on a fetus, Retrived December 4, 2012, from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website: http://fasdcenter.samhsa.gov/documents/WYNK_Effects_Fetus.pdf
2. Kathleen R. Stratton, Cynthia J. Howe, Frederick C. Battaglia, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. Committee to Study Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.), Fetal alcohol syndrome: diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention, and treatment, National Academies, April 1, 1996
Drug Use During Pregnancy
There is no point within the study of human biology that is more awesome than the conception and development of a child. It is during this time that most people would say the most amazing work of the lord become evident, in abundance.
Let the children come to me, and do not hinder them; for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven." (Mk. 10.13, 1952, p. 23)
It is within this process of gestation that hundreds of thousands of errors can be made by the body, the genes or other outside forces, and within those potential glitches there are a multitude of manifestations that can become apparent within the development of the fetus and later the child. Within this process there are many points where there is proof of the divine plan, because so many things can go wrong and statistically they rarely do. Yet, despite…
These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).
Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182
Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood
Education Classes. International Journal…
For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.
Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.
This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…
Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.
Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.
Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
Moreover, some genetic testing is inaccurate, creating the possibility of false positives and false negatives.
The second problem with genetic testing is that it can provide information about diseases where there is no treatment or intervention. This is the case for Tay-Sachs. There is no way to prevent the disease, which is fatal in children. However, unlike some other genetic disorders, the baby is born healthy and begins to deteriorate sometime after birth. Does knowing that the child will develop the disorder help the family, when prenatal screening does nothing to help treat the child?
The third problem with genetic testing is that it may lead people to make undesired choices. Abortion rates for children with genetic diseases are higher than those rates for children without those diseases. Abortion is a major moral issue in the United States. Does a process that might increase the likelihood that a mother will…
National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke (2007, Feb. 14). NINDS Tay-Sachs
Disease Information Page. Retrieved from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/taysachs/taysachs.htm
National Tay-Sachs & Allied Diseases. (2011). Tay Sachs Disease. Retrieved from http://www.ntsad.org /index.php/tay-sachs
Sheth, K. (2010, Nov. 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from PubMed
Teratogens and Fetal Development
Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…
Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant
Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.
Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive
Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.
Often, many at-risk parents have fewer social networks, and this can help contribute to child abuse after the child is born. Creating social networks, as well as a safe environment for parents to ask questions and gain knowledge should be the goal of any good prenatal support group.
In addition, many prenatal support programs include or consist of home visitation by either a qualified nurse or social worker (or both), that discuss parenting techniques and challenges, while monitoring the health of the new infant and the mother. These home visitation programs have been proven to help reduce child abuse. One study notes, "For mothers, long-term effects of home visitation include fewer subsequent pregnancies, decreased use of welfare, and fewer verified incidents of child abuse and neglect" (Hammond-atzlaff, and Fulton 435). Thus, the home visitation programs, whether a family is at-risk or not, can help reduce and prevent child abuse, and…
Editors. "Child Abuse Prevention Tips." PreventChildAbuse.org. 2007. 30 April 2008. http://member.preventchildabuse.org/site/DocServer/an_approach_to_prevention.pdf?docID=121
Hammond-Ratzlaff, Amy, and Arlene Fulton. "Knowledge Gained by Mothers Enrolled in a Home Visitation Program." Adolescence 36.143 (2001): 435+.
Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them
In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus
Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them
Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences
Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Braungart-Rieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.
Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html
DiGirolamo, a. & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2009). Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.
Lozoff, B., Beard, J. & Connor, J. et al. (2006). Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutritional Review. 64,34 -- 44.
So, in those regards the curriculum is slowly catching up with the times. Personally, I would like to see additions such as a playing of the movie, "The Business of Being Born" at one of the sessions or as homework.
The second way that the curriculum should change within the next three years is to begin allowing more nurses to become certified teachers. Currently, it is easier for a parent to become a coach than it is for a nurse. The reason, according to Bradley, is that the parents have direct experience, whereas nurses only have book-related experience. In fact, Bradley does offer the option for nurses to become a teacher, but additional reading and exam requirements must be met.
Personally, I find it to be in the best interest of Bradley to offer their curriculum with open arms to nurses for one simple reason: the more nurses who know…
Halfon, Saul (2010). Encountering Birth: Negotiating Expertise, Networks, and My STS Self. Science as Culture, 19(1), 61-77.
Hathaway, Marjie; et al. (2007). The Bradley Method Student Workbook. American Academy of Husband Coached Childbirth.
Lake, Rikki (2008). The Business of Being Born. Barranca Productions.
Lieberman, Adrienne (1992). Easing Labor Pain: The Complete Guide to a More Comfortable and Rewarding Birth. The Harvard Common Press, Boston.
The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)
The FIMR Process
FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death
Data Collection/Record Review
Improved Maternal & Infant Health
Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…
1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html
2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)
3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons
4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…
Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.
Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70
A person's development includes the changes that continue throughout one's life. Development is usually described in periods of time, so there is consistency among different theories that describe the stages that people go through in their learning process. The most widely used way of classifying developmental periods consists of the following order: the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence.
Healthy brain development during the pre-birth period is best when the mother has a nutritionally balanced diet, takes needed vitamins and does not abuse substances. When this is not followed, there is the possibility of brain development and behavior/learning problems such as learning disabilities. My mother is a Cherokee Indian who, like many Native Americans, was raised in a terrible physical and emotional situation. She was only 15 years old when she became pregnant with me. Because she was young, poor and basically alone…
Obesity has become a global epidemic, “a complex condition, one with serious social and psychological dimensions, that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries,” (WHO, 2018). Because many, if not most, cases of obesity can be prevented and the resulting health problems mitigated, it is important to raise awareness and have a comprehensive public health intervention plan. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence on the importance of public health interventions and especially for preventative care.
Health literacy and other preventative methods can be applied in culturally appropriate ways to tackle the problem of obesity. To be culturally appropriate, public health interventions also need to take into account variables like gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic class: all of which have an influence on how health information is communicated but also on diet and lifestyle norms.
An integrated model…
MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |
Moral Development and Gender Care Theories
Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).
Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development
Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…
Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/
Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/
Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…
Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf
Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.
Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies
Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).
Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…
Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The
Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.
Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,
Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
unborn baby's emotions be affected?
illke & illke state that nervous tissue in embryos is "open" to communication made possible by neurotransmitters. They further suggest that this makes it possible for the mother's emotional state to "affect the unborn almost from conception onward." Additionally, it can sense discord between parents, fear, hostility, grief and anger. It's also, apparently, capable of feeling anger itself, according to illke & illke, because the grandson of Sigmund Freud "once saw unborn twins fighting." Hopson suggests that the fetus is calmed by the sound of its mother's voice because its heart rate has been observed slowing when she speaks.
hich factor of prenatal development is suggested to have more impact on IQ than genes?
Hopson states that "the environment of the womb" may have more impact on IQ than genes.
hat was De Casper's discovery on fetal primitive learning?
De Casper's most significant discovery on…
Hopson, Janet L. "[no title given]." Psychology Today 31.5 (1998): 44.
The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.
Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…
Hines, M. (2006). Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S115-S121.
Hines, M. (2008). Early androgen influences on human neural and behavioural development. Early Human Development, 84(12), 805-7.
Wilson, J.D. (1999). The role of androgens in male gender role behavior. Endocrine Reviews, 20(5), 726-37.
Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.
Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Center for Disease Control. 28 June 2005. 27 July 2005 http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/default.htm .
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Overview)." National Institue of Mental Health. 2001. 28 July 2005 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/helpchild.cfm .
Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
Bateman, B, JO Warner, E Hutchinson, T Dean, P Rowlandson, C Gant, J Grundy, C Fitzgerald and J. Stevenson. "The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children." BMJ Publishing Group & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. 14 September 2003. 28 July 2005 http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/6/506 .
WHAT FUTUE HOLDS
With such an amplified legal awareness, our country is and will continue to project the emblem of conscious and the fairest legal security system offered to the people of America and the rest of the world. As for the pro-abortion groups, to say that the Unborn Victim Act is "analytically incoherent," or "a deceptive scheme" designed to erode the "right to choose" is a downright perverse idea. In fact, this appears to be an excuse of protecting the "right to choose" as a mere tool for expanding it far beyond lawful limitations. And it simply implies denial of the right to protect what the Supreme Court pronounces "the potentiality of life." Many people celebrate the announcement of this bill as a bold step towards fair play and justice and believe that it answers the prayers of a million Shewonas and Lacis whose families have suffered and struggled…
Lopez and Kathryn Jean, (2003), Conner on our minds -- and in our laws, Human Life Review. Spring.
Congressman Joseph R. Pitts, April 24, 2003, Protecting Conner and Heaven, www.house.gov
Roger Banks, June 11, 2001, Unborn victims of violence act now in senate, Human Events.
In many states, assaults on pregnant women are treated as assaults on their unborn children as well, April 19, 2005, National Review.
McVeigh (Oklahoma City bomber) terms acts violence, childhood background, situational factors,
In the last several years, there has been a significant degree of research into the nature of homosexuality. Traditionally, homosexuality was regarded as a preference and a mere by-product of an individual's nurturing. However, a bevy of research has been produced in the past decade that alludes to the fact that there may be biological, social, as well as psychological or cognitive processes that significantly affect an individual's proclivity towards sexual orientation. Although there has yet to be a conclusive determinant for the specific psychological processes that possibly affect an individual's sexual orientation, the bulk of research points to both genetic and biological processes that may affect the psychological perceptions of gender and attraction. An examination of the articles within this document reveals that there is more evidence that supports biological factors affecting the psychology involved in determining whether…
Bocklandt, S. Vilain, E. (2007). "Sex differences in brain and behavior: hormones vs. genes." Advances in Genetics. 59: 245-266.
Jenkins, W.J. (2010). "Can anyone tell me why I'm gay? What research suggests regarding the origins of sexual orientation?." North American Journal of Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/North-American-Journal-Psychology/226818615.html
Kraemer, B., Noll, T., Delsignore, A., Milos, G., Schnyder, U., Hepp, U. (2006). "Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and dimensions of sexual orientation." Neuropsychobiology. 53 (4): 201-214.
LeVay, Simon. (2011). Gay, straight and the reason why: the science of sexual orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Define the term Teratology
Teratology refers to the study of abnormal fetal growth. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, chemical and drug agents, metabolic or maternal causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as heat, ionizing radiation, and mechanical factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and stillborn, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, about 10% of infants have internal functional deficits or anomalies which might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface later on in life. Congenital abnormalities can be categorized into: (1) Malformations, which denote changes in normal growth transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an irregular mechanical force upon a fetus which is otherwise normal (e.g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring because of disturbance in normal process of growth (for instance,…
Adam, M.P., Polifka, J.E. & Friedman, J.M. (2011). Evolving knowledge of the teratogenicity of medications in human pregnancy. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 157C:175.
Finnell, R.H. (1999). Teratology: General considerations and principles. J Allergy ClinImmunol.Vol. 103, No. 2. S337-s342
Jelinek, R. (2005). The Contribution of New Findings and Ideas to the Old Principles of Teratology. Reproductive Toxicology 20: 295-300.
Jones, K.L. (August 17, 2005). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, Sixth edition Saunders.
(Bendersky, Alessandri, Gilbert & Lewis, 1996)
Many teratogens, however, have much more subtle effects that may not be noticeable at birth. Sometimes months or even years, pass before the damage is recognized. For example, prenatal infection with the parasite Toxoplasma can lead to subtle visual impairment and/or learning disabilities that may not be detected until school age. A pregnant woman may have no noticeable symptoms from toxoplasma infection or just have nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Since the diagnosis of congenital infection with toxoplasmosis can only be confirmed in the newborn period, it is impossible to make a diagnosis in a school-aged child. Therefore, many children who have suffered brain damage from prenatal exposure to damaging agents will remain undiagnosed. (Strom, 1990, p. 71)
Drugs (or teratogens) produce the greatest danger to prenatal development if they are consumed prior to the 45th day after conception, when cell specialization and organ development are…
Bendersky, M., Alessandri, S., Gilbert, P., & Lewis, M. (1996). Characteristics of Pregnant Substance Abusers in Two Cities in the Northeast. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22(3), 349.
Boling, P. (Ed.). (1995). Expecting Trouble: Surrogacy, Fetal Abuse, and New Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Bopp, J. (Ed.). (1985). Human Life and Health Care Ethics (Vol. 2). Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.
Coull, B.A., Hobert, J.P., Ryan, L.M., & Holmes, L.B. (2001). Crossed Random Effect Models for Multiple Outcomes in a Study of Teratogenesis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96(456), 1194.
331). If these hormones are not present then the Mullerian system develops, defined as "the embryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs" (Carlson, 2007, p. 331). In other words, hormonal stimulus from the gonads is only needed for the development of a male baby, not a female.
For a male baby to develop, two types of hormones are secreted from the gonads (Carlson, 2007). The first is a peptide hormone, named anti-Mullerian hormone, which prevents the development of the Mullerian system. The second is a set of steroid hormones, named androgens. Two types of androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The release of these hormones is responsible for the development of the Wolffian system. In the absence of these hormones the Mullerian system will develop and the baby will develop as a female; thus the saying, "nature's impulse is to create a female" (Carlson, 2007, p. 333).
Carlson, N.R. (2007). Physiology of Behaviour (9th ed.). City, State: Allyn Bacon.
Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)
Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…
Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.
Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
Pete is a married 50-year-old man with two adolescent sons recently who was recently diagnosed with syphilis. He has been advised to discuss this with his wife in order that she approach her GP, but he is reluctant to for various reasons. Pete is in a vulnerable situation. Coming from a devotedly catholic family, Pete himself is not religious although he receives strength from his religion and accepts syphilis as divine punishment. Married when 20, Pete's marital sex life has been poor, although Kathleen, his wife, has accepted the situation since she generally has a happy marriage. Pete, however, in his 30s discovered sexual fulfillment from other men and, reckless with protecting himself, rarely, if at all, used condoms. His homosexual encounters become increasingly more uninhibited, and plagued with guilt, he soon started drink heavily. Kathleen, concerned at Pete's drinking, insomnia, and depression, urged him to confide in her or…
Jensen, B.B. (1997). A case of two paradigms within health education, Health Education Research, 12, 419-428. Accessed on 5/26/2011 from:
Kaufman, J. et al. (2004). Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children, PNAS, 10, 17316-17321. Accessed on 5/26/2011 from:
Prenatal genetic testing can prove useful to many expectant mothers under certain conditions. For example, those with inherited illnesses, those with children born with severe defects, those who are high risk of delivering a still born, and women over the age of 34 all present as likely candidates for prenatal genetic testing. It can help them identify what may be wrong with the fetus and what steps to take if something is found. However, pregnant women not at risk for such problems stand not to benefit from prenatal genetic testing as the procedure can be unsafe for the fetus and mother and is not entirely accurate.
Ethos means persuading a person through the persuader's credibility or character. Prenatal genetic testing is performed by a qualified doctor who has experience, and a history of formal education. By having a qualified doctor perform the procedure, it may result in a positive outcome…
The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.
I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…
Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.
Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.
Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
The study indicated that children born to teenagers aged below 15 are twice as likely to be an indicated case of child neglect or child abuse in the first five years of their lives as compared to the children who are born to mothers between the ages of 20 and 21 Fergusson & Woodward, 2000()
Another separate study found that the living standards and the situation at home for the teenage mothers was the most predictive variable for maltreatment of the children. Teenage mothers who are living with an adult are less likely to neglect or abuse their children as compared to those who are bringing up their children on their own.
Children of teenage mothers are at a higher risk of getting problems that affect regulation which includes both aggressive behavior and flattened affect. The children who are born to teenage mothers also suffer from poor cognitive development. This…
Adams, G., Sharon, a.-T., & Pittman, K. (1989). Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Problem, Solutions, and Resources. Family Relations, 38(2), 223-229.
Adler, E.S., Bates, M., & Merdinger, J.M. (1985). Educational Policies and Programs for Teenage Parents and Pregnant Teenagers. Family Relations, 34(2), 183-187.
Anastasiow, N.J. (1987). Programs Developed in Response to Teen Pregnancies. Infant Mental Health Journal, 8(1), 65-75.
Brien, M.J., Loya, G.E., & Pepper, J.V. (2002). Teenage Childbearing and Cognitive Development. Journal of Population Economics, 15(3), 391-416.
Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions.
Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…
Their heritage is important because certain ethnic groups are more likely to be carriers of Tay-Sachs. "The incidence of Tay-Sachs is particularly high among people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase a activity." (NINDS, 2011). Because the Trosacks have a fetus with Tay-Sachs, it is not necessary to test their blood and examine the beta-hexosaminidase a activity of either of the parents. However, doing so may help Peter transition out of denial and understand the reality of the diagnosis.
Tay-Sachs impacts a person by interfering with genetic lipid storage. An insufficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase a, which is responsible for biodegrading gangliosides, leads to a buildup of the ganglioside GM2 in tissues and nerve cells in the brain (NINDS, 2011). Because gangliosides develop, and normally degrade, rapidly in infancy, the disease progresses…
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html
Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
Methods of Killing
The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.
Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…
Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.
Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.
Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.
Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.
CUBAN CASE STUDY
As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?
Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.
Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez
in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?
People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…
Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.
Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among
Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved: http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .
Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).
Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements
According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…
Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry
News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1
Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1
Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
prefrontal cortex and limbic system in the play years. What are their functions? How do they differ? What changes occur in a child's behavior as a result of a maturing limbic system and prefrontal cortex.
The prefrontal cortex and the limbic system are very central in the early childhood development and in particular during the play years of the child. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for the triggering of the spontaneous activities, initiating drive in the growing kid, keeping the kid active and helping in the coordination of the movements and behavior (Michael H. Thimble, 1990). These are very significant aspects for a growing kid. On the other hand, the limbic system is the brain area that is very important especially in the regulation and expression of emotions. The limbic system is divided into three major portions as the Amygdala; which is a tiny part of the brain that is…
, 2007). The results of that research indicates that light users of MDMA do exhibit mild cognitive impairment during the short-term in which they occasionally use the drug but that after six months or more of abstinence, their performance on the same cognitive tests used to identify those changes returns to being indistinguishable from the performance of those who have never been exposed to the drug (Golding, Groome, ycroft, et al., 2007).
The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Heavy MDMA Use
Animal studies have conclusively established that MDMA causes permanent destruction of neurons and synaptic processes that are essential to the physiological mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion, response, and reuptake by virtue of the selectively neurotoxic properties of the drug on 5-HT neurons in rats (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). Those findings are consistent with anecdotal evidence collected from clinical human data in connection with the long-term cognitive, behavioral, and mood…
Golding, J.F., Groome, DH, Rycroft, N., and Denton, Z. "Cognitive Performance in Light Current Users and Ex-Users of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Controls." The
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 33 (2007): 301 -- 307.
Koprich, J.B., Chen, E.Y., Kanaan, N.M., Campbell, N.G., Kordower, J.H., and Lipton, J.W. "Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters exploratory behavior, reduces monoamine metabolism, and increases forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase fiber density of juvenile rats." Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 25, No. 5 (2003): 509 -- 517.
Roiser, J.P., Rogers, R.D., and Sahakian, B.J. "Neuropsychological function in ecstasy
Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement
The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…
Anderson, P., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R., & Hubbard, A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.
Artz, L. (2001). Critical ethnography for communication studies: Dialogue and social justice. The Southern Communication Journal, 66(3), 239-250.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory of higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297-308.
Backhouse, Judy Pamela (2009) Doctoral Education in South Africa: Models, Pedagogies and Stucent Experiences. February 2009.
6). But this evidence of a strong fetal environmental predisposition for homosexuality ignores the admission of the authors that "the odds of homosexual participants being NCRH [non-consistently-right-handedness]" was 39% "although the odds for homosexual women alone" were 91%, thus significantly greater than for homosexual men 34% (Kauth 2008, p.6).
If these numbers were so different, the question arises as to why left-handedness is more common in female homosexuals, versus male homosexuals, and also, the criteria used by researchers in their categorization of female homosexuality. Thus invisible, subconscious biases about the nature of homosexuality, and the acceptance of one's cultural construction of homosexuality as a self-evident fact underlines the fact that science, particularly the science of sexuality, always takes place in a social context that affects the perception of the researchers.
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632.…
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632. Retrieved September 22, 2009,
from Research Library. (Document ID: 1719302541).
Graceffo, S. (2008, July 23). Homo Made. Syracuse New Times, p. 12. Retrieved September 22,
2009, from Alt-Press Watch (APW). (Document ID: 1532821511).
Describe how teachers may use assistive technology effectively with students with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities.
Children with cerebral palsy can be aided with assistive technology that allows them to communicate more effectively, such as manual communication boards. This form of technology allows the student to speak in class and participate, just like his or her peers.
Question 3: Describe some of the possible effects of substance abuse by the mother during pregnancy. How do these effects impact the child's development?
Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause delayed intellectual development, as well as many other physical health problems that affect the child's appearance and social functioning. It has been hypothesized that drug addiction can cause children to be more hyperactive, and have attention-deficit problems. Although this correlation is not certain, it is noteworthy that substance abuse is often linked to premature and low-weight births, which in and of itself can…
Other techniques like brainstorming and mapping are recommended by Ellis (1997).
The other principle which underlies the constructivist approach is a deep focus on main ideas as well as relationships within the key ideas that lie within a given subject area (Grobecker, 1999). The application of this principle means that a teacher must stress the various connections of the more important concepts that form the main idea for a given discipline as opposed to teaching several bits of knowledge which are isolated.
Duhaney & Duhaney (2000) proposed the use of active learning as an important element of the constructivist instructional approach. This is because when students are actively involved in a given lesson, they tend to learn as well as retain most of the presented information (Harris & Graham, 1996).
Behaviorist theory and its application
The other theory / approach of learning that should be used on children with learning…
Brooks, J.G., & Brooks, M.G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Brown, M (2003).Learning disability: a handbook for integrated care.Salisbury: APS
Cambridge, Paul; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Carpenter, John; Tate, Alison; Knapp, Martin; Beecham, Jennifer; Hallam, Angela (2005).The State of Care Management in Learning Disability and Mental Health Services 12 Years into Community Care .British Journal of Social Work, Volume 35, Number 7, 1 October 2005, pp. 1039-1062(24)
Duhaney, D.C., & Duhaney, L.M.G. (2000). Assistive technology: Meeting the needs of learners with disabilities. International Journal of Instructional Media, 27, 393-401.
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…
Brestan, EV. & Eyberg, EM (1998) Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids Journ. Clin. Child Psyc. 27, 180-189
Burke, JD, Loeber, B., & Birmaher, R. (2002) Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II, J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1293.
Kumpfer, K & Alvarado, R (2003). Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors American Psychologist, 58, 457-465
Fletcher, V. (2006). How your birthday can cause allergies. UK News: Northern and Shell Media Publications. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/206427/How-your-birthday-can-cause-allergies
Jedrychowski W. et al. (2003). Prenatal lead exposure heightens childhood allergies.
Environmental Health News: Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on June 5,
2011 from http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience.prenatal.lead-exposure-heightens-dhildhood-allergies
Schonberger et al. (2005). Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum
IgE at birth in high-risk children. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology: PubMed.
Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18702655
Lin L. et al. (2010). Prenatal allergen & diesel exhaust. Allergy, Asthma, & Clinical
Immunology: Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://ccceh.hs.columbia.edu/ped-papers/LinAAC12010.pdf
Matthias, W. et al. (2005). Latitude, birth date and allergy. PLosMedicine: Public
Library of Science. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info.doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020794
Pyrhonen, K. et al. (2010). Season of the first semester of pregnancy predicts sensitization to food allergens in childhood: a…
Adams, S. (2011). Autumn babies "more likely to have food allergies. The Telegraph:
Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved on June 4, 2011 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/8073048/Autumn-babies-more-likely-to-have-food-allergies , html
Aichbhaumik N. et al. (2008). Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal immunoglobulin E. production. Clinical & Experimental Allergy: PubMed. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18702655
Campbell, D. (2010). Chance of developing allergies linked to moth of conception.
Another service the clinic should provide involves remote access. For example, the clinic should assess the feasibility of home visits by doctors and nurses. egular phone calls to clients or potential clients would also help encourage pregnant women to avail themselves of the clinic's services. The clinic should also establish a solid Web site that allows women to access information from home and possibly, interact in a live chat with staff.
2. What incentives would you provide to keep them coming to the clinic before and after they give birth? Why did you choose to use this as an incentive?
Incentives will help clients trust the clinic and seek care as a matter of course. Free or discounted services would be a good incentive in any community regardless of demographic. Financial incentives would also entail working with insurance providers to make sure that preventative care is a priority.
Peck, J. & Alexander, K. (nd). Maternal, infant, and child health in rural areas. Retrieved Mar 9, 2009 at http://srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/07Volume1MIC.htm
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)
Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:
3) energy or fatigue levels;
4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Number 5 is a cue to action, incenting the mother by reminding her that either she or her baby could be a victim with out proper medical care.
Informed Decision-Making Messaging Strategy
Informed decision-making interventions should be used when persuasion would be inappropriate (Communication for health. Examples include when the evidence is not sufficiently clear to support one behavior over another (e.g., surgical removal vs. watchful waiting for men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer), when an individual's values must be taken into consideration to determine the optimal behavior (prevention of sexual assault), or when society has been unable to reach consensus about the optimal recommended behavior (e.g., prevention of teen pregnancy) (Communication for health). Instead of providing evidence that prenatal care can save lives, it relies on the mother wanting to do the right thing and uses a woman who has lost her child to convince her.
Communication for health. Encyclopedia of public health. http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/communication-health
Evans W.D. And McCormack, L. (2006, September 13). Marketing "evidence" to healthcare consumers: Applying social marketing to evidence about the harms and benefits of pharmaceuticals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Conference. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:mTQf4SGTS2gJ:effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/documents/Marketing_Evidence_Evans.ppt+social+marketing+%22Informed+decision+making%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us
Health Belief Model. University of Twente. http://www.cw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/
Gosik. A. (2007, October 12). U.S. ranks 41st in maternal mortality. Seattle Post-Intelligencer
Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use can lead to birth defects, low birth weight, and premature delivery (HHS, 2006). All of these are listed as the major causes of infant mortality (CDC). Given the literature and public service announcements produced on these subjects over the past several decades, it is difficult to believe that anyone in this country is unaware of the detrimental effects these things can have on a fetus, and apparently thee communications are working to a degree; the infant mortality rate has dropped significantly, and yet such abuse is still among the leading causes of infant death (CDC; HHS, 2006). To tackle these issues, information should not be the focus of the message strategy but rather the mothers themselves should be the message's focus. Perhaps a short bulleted list of the disadvantages children with fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects of in utero abuse are likely to…
Eliminate disparities in infant mortality." Center for disease control website (CDC). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm
Health and human services fact sheet: Preventing infant mortality." (2006). Health and human services website (HHS). Accessed 31 January 2009.
WHERE THE UCK STOPS
This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…
CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical
Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf
Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107
# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…
Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.
Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.
Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…
Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.
Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
gender selection ETHICS
History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…
Clark Liana R. 1985. "Sex Preselection: The Advent of the Made-to-Order Child." The Pharos, Fall, pp. 2-7
Elizabeth Mathiot-Moen-author; Annette Burfoot - editor Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO. 1999.
Fletcher John C. 1980."Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report 10: 15-18.
Gargan Edward A. 1991. "Ultrasonic Tests Skew Ratio of Births in India." New York Times, June 13.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.
Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…
Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.
Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.
CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.