Prenatal Development Essays (Examples)

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Prenatal Nutrition There Is in

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46867631

These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.

eferences www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,

Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.

J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.

McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182

Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182

Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood

Education Classes. International Journal…… [Read More]

References www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,

Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.

J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
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Prenatal Testing

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4779731

Prenatal Testing

For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.

Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.

This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.

Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.

Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC

Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
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Prenatal Genetics Tay Sachs Diagnosis

Words: 1788 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57435054

Moreover, some genetic testing is inaccurate, creating the possibility of false positives and false negatives.

The second problem with genetic testing is that it can provide information about diseases where there is no treatment or intervention. This is the case for Tay-Sachs. There is no way to prevent the disease, which is fatal in children. However, unlike some other genetic disorders, the baby is born healthy and begins to deteriorate sometime after birth. Does knowing that the child will develop the disorder help the family, when prenatal screening does nothing to help treat the child?

The third problem with genetic testing is that it may lead people to make undesired choices. Abortion rates for children with genetic diseases are higher than those rates for children without those diseases. Abortion is a major moral issue in the United States. Does a process that might increase the likelihood that a mother will…… [Read More]

References

National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke (2007, Feb. 14). NINDS Tay-Sachs

Disease Information Page. Retrieved from  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/taysachs/taysachs.htm 

National Tay-Sachs & Allied Diseases. (2011). Tay Sachs Disease. Retrieved from  http://www.ntsad.org /index.php/tay-sachs

Sheth, K. (2010, Nov. 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from PubMed
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Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development

Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33963352

Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…… [Read More]

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.
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Prenatal Care and Health Care

Words: 8616 Length: 32 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42857868

In the twenty-first century, women should have easy access to available resources to assist them in their pregnancy. In addition, available technology to detect difficulties during pregnancies is widespread in the medical field; however, disadvantaged women in Atlanta, Georgia do not benefit from these resources. Each year, maternal care expands in resources and knowledge. Equipped physicians can diagnose birth defects long before a mother gives birth. Absurdly, poor twenty-first century mothers in Atlanta lack access to this prenatal care, which would play a vital role in the reduction of infant mortality. Without prenatal care, mothers endanger not only their lives but also the lives of their unborn infants." (2005) proposed solution provision of adequate access to prenatal care for women in Atlanta by the Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and local hospitals has been stated for free monthly screening however this provision will depend on the ability of groups in Atlanta…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allan M. Brandt (1985) "Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study," in Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, eds., Sickness and Health in America; Readings in die History of Medicine and Public Health, second edition, revised (Madison, 1985), 331.

Ashman, Rene L. (2005) Infant Mortality Rates and Financial Stability. Pace University - DigitalCommons. Online available at http://digitalcommons.pace.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=honors_college_class_research_papers

Bandura, a. "Human agency in social cognitive theory," American Psychologist (44), 1989, pp. 1175-1184.

Bandura, a. "Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change," Psychology Review (84), 1977, pp. 191-215.
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Prenatal Support Programs to Help

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28067807

Often, many at-risk parents have fewer social networks, and this can help contribute to child abuse after the child is born. Creating social networks, as well as a safe environment for parents to ask questions and gain knowledge should be the goal of any good prenatal support group.

In addition, many prenatal support programs include or consist of home visitation by either a qualified nurse or social worker (or both), that discuss parenting techniques and challenges, while monitoring the health of the new infant and the mother. These home visitation programs have been proven to help reduce child abuse. One study notes, "For mothers, long-term effects of home visitation include fewer subsequent pregnancies, decreased use of welfare, and fewer verified incidents of child abuse and neglect" (Hammond-atzlaff, and Fulton 435). Thus, the home visitation programs, whether a family is at-risk or not, can help reduce and prevent child abuse, and…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Child Abuse Prevention Tips." PreventChildAbuse.org. 2007. 30 April 2008. http://member.preventchildabuse.org/site/DocServer/an_approach_to_prevention.pdf?docID=121

Hammond-Ratzlaff, Amy, and Arlene Fulton. "Knowledge Gained by Mothers Enrolled in a Home Visitation Program." Adolescence 36.143 (2001): 435+.
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Human Personality Development Is One

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97431379



Glossary

Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them

In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus

Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them

Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences

eferences

Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.

Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html

DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.

Lozoff, B.,…… [Read More]

References

Braungart-Rieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.

Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from  http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html 

DiGirolamo, a. & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2009). Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.

Lozoff, B., Beard, J. & Connor, J. et al. (2006). Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutritional Review. 64,34 -- 44.
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Program Development the Program That

Words: 1895 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7602836

So, in those regards the curriculum is slowly catching up with the times. Personally, I would like to see additions such as a playing of the movie, "The Business of Being Born" at one of the sessions or as homework.

The second way that the curriculum should change within the next three years is to begin allowing more nurses to become certified teachers. Currently, it is easier for a parent to become a coach than it is for a nurse. The reason, according to Bradley, is that the parents have direct experience, whereas nurses only have book-related experience. In fact, Bradley does offer the option for nurses to become a teacher, but additional reading and exam requirements must be met.

Personally, I find it to be in the best interest of Bradley to offer their curriculum with open arms to nurses for one simple reason: the more nurses who know…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Halfon, Saul (2010). Encountering Birth: Negotiating Expertise, Networks, and My STS Self. Science as Culture, 19(1), 61-77.

Hathaway, Marjie; et al. (2007). The Bradley Method Student Workbook. American Academy of Husband Coached Childbirth.

Lake, Rikki (2008). The Business of Being Born. Barranca Productions.

Lieberman, Adrienne (1992). Easing Labor Pain: The Complete Guide to a More Comfortable and Rewarding Birth. The Harvard Common Press, Boston.
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Utero Development on the Health

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10393552

The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)

The FIMR Process

FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death

Family Support

Data Collection/Record Review

Maternal Interview

Records Review

Case Review

Community Action

Improved Maternal & Infant Health

(FIMR)

Conclusion

Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html

2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)

3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons

4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102
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Schizophrenia Affects Development & Aging

Words: 1188 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75664398

An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)

In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…… [Read More]

References

Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.

Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70
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Human Development

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38690716

Personal Journal

A person's development includes the changes that continue throughout one's life. Development is usually described in periods of time, so there is consistency among different theories that describe the stages that people go through in their learning process. The most widely used way of classifying developmental periods consists of the following order: the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence.

Healthy brain development during the pre-birth period is best when the mother has a nutritionally balanced diet, takes needed vitamins and does not abuse substances. When this is not followed, there is the possibility of brain development and behavior/learning problems such as learning disabilities. My mother is a Cherokee Indian who, like many Native Americans, was raised in a terrible physical and emotional situation. She was only 15 years old when she became pregnant with me. Because she was young, poor and basically alone…… [Read More]

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Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Words: 1596 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93496749

MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |

Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Moral Development

Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).

Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development

Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from http://www.cs.umb.edu/

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/ 

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/ 

Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
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The Role of Art in the Development of Children

Words: 4304 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60696362

Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art

How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art

One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…… [Read More]

References

Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf

Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.

Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
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Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20586324

Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies

Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).

Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…… [Read More]

References

Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The

Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.

Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,

Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
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Unborn Baby's Emotions Be Affected Willke &

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99049616

unborn baby's emotions be affected?

illke & illke state that nervous tissue in embryos is "open" to communication made possible by neurotransmitters. They further suggest that this makes it possible for the mother's emotional state to "affect the unborn almost from conception onward." Additionally, it can sense discord between parents, fear, hostility, grief and anger. It's also, apparently, capable of feeling anger itself, according to illke & illke, because the grandson of Sigmund Freud "once saw unborn twins fighting." Hopson suggests that the fetus is calmed by the sound of its mother's voice because its heart rate has been observed slowing when she speaks.

hich factor of prenatal development is suggested to have more impact on IQ than genes?

Hopson states that "the environment of the womb" may have more impact on IQ than genes.

hat was De Casper's discovery on fetal primitive learning?

De Casper's most significant discovery on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hopson, Janet L. "[no title given]." Psychology Today 31.5 (1998): 44.
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Gender Identity the Factors That Mediate and

Words: 1113 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7150080

Gender Identity

The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.

Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…… [Read More]

References

Hines, M. (2006). Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S115-S121.

Hines, M. (2008). Early androgen influences on human neural and behavioural development. Early Human Development, 84(12), 805-7.

Wilson, J.D. (1999). The role of androgens in male gender role behavior. Endocrine Reviews, 20(5), 726-37.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in

Words: 3412 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77042088

Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.

Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Center for Disease Control. 28 June 2005. 27 July 2005 http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/default.htm.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Overview)." National Institue of Mental Health. 2001. 28 July 2005 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/helpchild.cfm.

Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.

Bateman, B, JO Warner, E Hutchinson, T Dean, P Rowlandson, C Gant, J Grundy, C Fitzgerald and J. Stevenson. "The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children." BMJ Publishing Group & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. 14 September 2003. 28 July 2005 http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/6/506.
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Victim of Violence Heaven Lashy

Words: 1867 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61256046



WHAT FUTUE HOLDS

With such an amplified legal awareness, our country is and will continue to project the emblem of conscious and the fairest legal security system offered to the people of America and the rest of the world. As for the pro-abortion groups, to say that the Unborn Victim Act is "analytically incoherent," or "a deceptive scheme" designed to erode the "right to choose" is a downright perverse idea. In fact, this appears to be an excuse of protecting the "right to choose" as a mere tool for expanding it far beyond lawful limitations. And it simply implies denial of the right to protect what the Supreme Court pronounces "the potentiality of life." Many people celebrate the announcement of this bill as a bold step towards fair play and justice and believe that it answers the prayers of a million Shewonas and Lacis whose families have suffered and struggled…… [Read More]

Reference:

Lopez and Kathryn Jean, (2003), Conner on our minds -- and in our laws, Human Life Review. Spring.

Congressman Joseph R. Pitts, April 24, 2003, Protecting Conner and Heaven, www.house.gov

Roger Banks, June 11, 2001, Unborn victims of violence act now in senate, Human Events.

In many states, assaults on pregnant women are treated as assaults on their unborn children as well, April 19, 2005, National Review.
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Mcveigh Oklahoma City Bomber Terms Acts Violence

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98919313

McVeigh (Oklahoma City bomber) terms acts violence, childhood background, situational factors,

In the last several years, there has been a significant degree of research into the nature of homosexuality. Traditionally, homosexuality was regarded as a preference and a mere by-product of an individual's nurturing. However, a bevy of research has been produced in the past decade that alludes to the fact that there may be biological, social, as well as psychological or cognitive processes that significantly affect an individual's proclivity towards sexual orientation. Although there has yet to be a conclusive determinant for the specific psychological processes that possibly affect an individual's sexual orientation, the bulk of research points to both genetic and biological processes that may affect the psychological perceptions of gender and attraction. An examination of the articles within this document reveals that there is more evidence that supports biological factors affecting the psychology involved in determining whether…… [Read More]

References

Bocklandt, S. Vilain, E. (2007). "Sex differences in brain and behavior: hormones vs. genes." Advances in Genetics. 59: 245-266.

Jenkins, W.J. (2010). "Can anyone tell me why I'm gay? What research suggests regarding the origins of sexual orientation?." North American Journal of Psychology. Retrieved from  http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/North-American-Journal-Psychology/226818615.html 

Kraemer, B., Noll, T., Delsignore, A., Milos, G., Schnyder, U., Hepp, U. (2006). "Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and dimensions of sexual orientation." Neuropsychobiology. 53 (4): 201-214.

LeVay, Simon. (2011). Gay, straight and the reason why: the science of sexual orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Teratology and Teratogens Congenital Malformations

Words: 1809 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13771608

Teratology

Define the term Teratology

Teratology refers to the study of abnormal fetal growth. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, chemical and drug agents, metabolic or maternal causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as heat, ionizing radiation, and mechanical factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and stillborn, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, about 10% of infants have internal functional deficits or anomalies which might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface later on in life. Congenital abnormalities can be categorized into: (1) Malformations, which denote changes in normal growth transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an irregular mechanical force upon a fetus which is otherwise normal (e.g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring because of disturbance in normal process of growth (for instance,…… [Read More]

References

Adam, M.P., Polifka, J.E. & Friedman, J.M. (2011). Evolving knowledge of the teratogenicity of medications in human pregnancy. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 157C:175.

Finnell, R.H. (1999). Teratology: General considerations and principles. J Allergy ClinImmunol.Vol. 103, No. 2. S337-s342

Jelinek, R. (2005). The Contribution of New Findings and Ideas to the Old Principles of Teratology. Reproductive Toxicology 20: 295-300.

Jones, K.L. (August 17, 2005). Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation, Sixth edition Saunders.
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Teratology From the Greek Word

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74968171

(Bendersky, Alessandri, Gilbert & Lewis, 1996)

Many teratogens, however, have much more subtle effects that may not be noticeable at birth. Sometimes months or even years, pass before the damage is recognized. For example, prenatal infection with the parasite Toxoplasma can lead to subtle visual impairment and/or learning disabilities that may not be detected until school age. A pregnant woman may have no noticeable symptoms from toxoplasma infection or just have nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Since the diagnosis of congenital infection with toxoplasmosis can only be confirmed in the newborn period, it is impossible to make a diagnosis in a school-aged child. Therefore, many children who have suffered brain damage from prenatal exposure to damaging agents will remain undiagnosed. (Strom, 1990, p. 71)

Drugs (or teratogens) produce the greatest danger to prenatal development if they are consumed prior to the 45th day after conception, when cell specialization and organ development are…… [Read More]

References

Bendersky, M., Alessandri, S., Gilbert, P., & Lewis, M. (1996). Characteristics of Pregnant Substance Abusers in Two Cities in the Northeast. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22(3), 349.

Boling, P. (Ed.). (1995). Expecting Trouble: Surrogacy, Fetal Abuse, and New Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Bopp, J. (Ed.). (1985). Human Life and Health Care Ethics (Vol. 2). Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.

Coull, B.A., Hobert, J.P., Ryan, L.M., & Holmes, L.B. (2001). Crossed Random Effect Models for Multiple Outcomes in a Study of Teratogenesis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96(456), 1194.
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Activational Effects of Sex Hormones

Words: 312 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9317202

331). If these hormones are not present then the Mullerian system develops, defined as "the embryonic precursors of the female internal sex organs" (Carlson, 2007, p. 331). In other words, hormonal stimulus from the gonads is only needed for the development of a male baby, not a female.

For a male baby to develop, two types of hormones are secreted from the gonads (Carlson, 2007). The first is a peptide hormone, named anti-Mullerian hormone, which prevents the development of the Mullerian system. The second is a set of steroid hormones, named androgens. Two types of androgens are testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The release of these hormones is responsible for the development of the Wolffian system. In the absence of these hormones the Mullerian system will develop and the baby will develop as a female; thus the saying, "nature's impulse is to create a female" (Carlson, 2007, p. 333).

eference

Carlson, N..…… [Read More]

Reference

Carlson, N.R. (2007). Physiology of Behaviour (9th ed.). City, State: Allyn Bacon.
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Endocrine System in the Human

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57127349

Hormone (or endocrine) disruptors interfere with the normal functioning of the endocrine system. They can: mimic a natural hormone and thus fool the body into responding a certain way, interfere with the reception of hormones by hormone receptors, directly alter a hormone and impede its function, cause the body to overproduce or under produce natural hormones, or decrease or increase the number of hormone receptors. These effects are especially potent during prenatal development, when even minute exposure to hormones can severely disrupt the normal development process. Potential hormone disruption effects include abnormalities of the reproductive system, birth defects, behavioral changes, depressed immune systems, and lowered intelligence. (Pettit, 2000, p. 413)

eferences

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to equire Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic…… [Read More]

References

Patrick, G.T. (1929). What Is the Mind?. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Pettit, H.E. (2000). Shifting the Experiment to the Lab: Does EPA Have a Mandatory Duty to Require Chemical Testing for Endocrine Disruption Effects under the Toxic Substances Control Act? Environmental Law, 30(2), 413.
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Pete Is a Married 50-Year-Old Man With

Words: 1962 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81423396

Pete is a married 50-year-old man with two adolescent sons recently who was recently diagnosed with syphilis. He has been advised to discuss this with his wife in order that she approach her GP, but he is reluctant to for various reasons. Pete is in a vulnerable situation. Coming from a devotedly catholic family, Pete himself is not religious although he receives strength from his religion and accepts syphilis as divine punishment. Married when 20, Pete's marital sex life has been poor, although Kathleen, his wife, has accepted the situation since she generally has a happy marriage. Pete, however, in his 30s discovered sexual fulfillment from other men and, reckless with protecting himself, rarely, if at all, used condoms. His homosexual encounters become increasingly more uninhibited, and plagued with guilt, he soon started drink heavily. Kathleen, concerned at Pete's drinking, insomnia, and depression, urged him to confide in her or…… [Read More]

References

Jensen, B.B. (1997). A case of two paradigms within health education, Health Education Research, 12, 419-428. Accessed on 5/26/2011 from:

 http://her.oxfordjournals.org/content/12/4/419.full.pdf 

Kaufman, J. et al. (2004). Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children, PNAS, 10, 17316-17321. Accessed on 5/26/2011 from:

 http://www.pnas.org/content/101/49/17316.full
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Substance Abuse During Pregnancy PSA

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80081643

The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.

I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…… [Read More]

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Asher Lev Just as One

Words: 4145 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12492046

Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.

However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…… [Read More]

References

Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.

Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.

Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.

Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Parenting Program for Women and

Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12171638

There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.

Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.

Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.

Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
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Counseling Be Mandatory for Teen

Words: 2439 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3126196



The study indicated that children born to teenagers aged below 15 are twice as likely to be an indicated case of child neglect or child abuse in the first five years of their lives as compared to the children who are born to mothers between the ages of 20 and 21 Fergusson & Woodward, 2000()

Another separate study found that the living standards and the situation at home for the teenage mothers was the most predictive variable for maltreatment of the children. Teenage mothers who are living with an adult are less likely to neglect or abuse their children as compared to those who are bringing up their children on their own.

Children of teenage mothers are at a higher risk of getting problems that affect regulation which includes both aggressive behavior and flattened affect. The children who are born to teenage mothers also suffer from poor cognitive development. This…… [Read More]

References

Adams, G., Sharon, a.-T., & Pittman, K. (1989). Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Problem, Solutions, and Resources. Family Relations, 38(2), 223-229.

Adler, E.S., Bates, M., & Merdinger, J.M. (1985). Educational Policies and Programs for Teenage Parents and Pregnant Teenagers. Family Relations, 34(2), 183-187.

Anastasiow, N.J. (1987). Programs Developed in Response to Teen Pregnancies. Infant Mental Health Journal, 8(1), 65-75.

Brien, M.J., Loya, G.E., & Pepper, J.V. (2002). Teenage Childbearing and Cognitive Development. Journal of Population Economics, 15(3), 391-416.
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Nursing a Complete and Detailed

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84514892

Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions.

Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…… [Read More]

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Community Midwife it Occurs Every Day and

Words: 2398 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58999602

Community Midwife

It occurs every day and everywhere. It happens whether accidentally or intentionally, meticulously planned or not at all, and to those of an elder age or younger demographic. The birth of a new life requires aid during the process, along with receiving assistance before and post pregnancy. Individuals offering such service are known as a midwife. The World Health Organization or WHO recognizes midwifery as a role that "encompasses care of women during pregnancy, labour, and the postpartum period, as well as care of the newborn."

Community midwives vary from those that work in hospitals. The former are involved from the beginning by scheduling the initial appointments, and manage and administer the workings of the clinic. As well, community midwives are present during the postnatal care at the mother's home, and are there for home births. Community midwives are to see women who are newly pregnant and take…… [Read More]

References

BBC - Health: Antenatal care . (n.d.). BBC - Homepage. Retrieved January 2, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/pregnancy/pregnancy_antenatalcare.shtml

Barger, M. (2005). Midwifery Practice: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?: Future Challenges. J Midwifery Womens Health, 50, 87-90.

Buhler, L., Glick, N., & Sheps, S. (1988). Prenatal care: a comparative evaluation of nurse-midwives and family physicians.. CMAJ, 139, 397-403.

Community Midwives, LLC - safety of homebirth. (n.d.). www.smallcomputerprojects.com. Retrieved January 2, 2012, from  http://www.smallcomputerprojects.com/cnm/safety.html
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Trosack Family Dealing With a

Words: 3127 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13360078

Their heritage is important because certain ethnic groups are more likely to be carriers of Tay-Sachs. "The incidence of Tay-Sachs is particularly high among people of Eastern European and Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Patients and carriers of Tay-Sachs disease can be identified by a simple blood test that measures beta-hexosaminidase a activity." (NINDS, 2011). Because the Trosacks have a fetus with Tay-Sachs, it is not necessary to test their blood and examine the beta-hexosaminidase a activity of either of the parents. However, doing so may help Peter transition out of denial and understand the reality of the diagnosis.

Tay-Sachs impacts a person by interfering with genetic lipid storage. An insufficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase a, which is responsible for biodegrading gangliosides, leads to a buildup of the ganglioside GM2 in tissues and nerve cells in the brain (NINDS, 2011). Because gangliosides develop, and normally degrade, rapidly in infancy, the disease progresses…… [Read More]

References

A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. (2010 November 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from PubMed website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002390/

American Pregnancy Association. (2006). Chorionic villus sampling: CVS. Retrieved

November 11, 2012 from http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html

Genetic Alliance. (2012). Home. Retrieved November 11, 2012 from  http://www.geneticalliance.org /
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Embryos and Fetuses in Research

Words: 457 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3491935



3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.

orks Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site:  http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html 

Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html 

Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at  http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
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Mothers Killing Their Babies First

Words: 2566 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3236577



Methods of Killing

The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.

Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…… [Read More]

References

Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.

Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.

Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.

Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
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Cuban Case Study Mrs Demetilla Hernandez a

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52134499

CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.

CUBAN CASE STUDY

As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?

Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.

Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez

in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?

People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…… [Read More]

References

Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.

Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among

Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved: http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268.
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Trimester of Pregnancy When Life

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14282047

Cautiousness towards environmental contaminants in fish and seafood has led pregnant women to limit or eliminate fish and seafood from their diet. The Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency addressed the problem by advising the women to avoid large ocean fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and fish because of their higher mercury content. According to the agencies, pregnant women may safely consume up to 12 ounces of shellfish or smaller ocean and farm-raised fish, such as salmon and canned light tuna, per week. DHA-enriched eggs, which provide up to 150 mg DHA per egg, are now available for these mothers' diet. DHA supplements may also be taken but sparingly because of their fish oil content (Steele).

Caution Over Vitamin A Supplements

According to the Institute of Medicine, pregnant women do not need vitamin-mineral supplements unless there is a risk for nutritional deficiency (Nutrition Research Newsletter,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bates, B.(2005). First trimester stress may prompt early delivery. Clinical Psychiatry

News: International Medical News Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_3_33/ai_n29172851?tag=content;col1

Bennington, L.K. (2001). Pregnancy. Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health: Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qGENH/is_20050229/ai_2699003633?tag=content;col1

Market Wire (2000). Study test. Market Wire: CBC Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pwwi/is_20050229/ai_mark09013907?tag=content;col1
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Prefrontal Cortex and Limbic System in the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66517928

prefrontal cortex and limbic system in the play years. What are their functions? How do they differ? What changes occur in a child's behavior as a result of a maturing limbic system and prefrontal cortex.

The prefrontal cortex and the limbic system are very central in the early childhood development and in particular during the play years of the child. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for the triggering of the spontaneous activities, initiating drive in the growing kid, keeping the kid active and helping in the coordination of the movements and behavior (Michael H. Thimble, 1990). These are very significant aspects for a growing kid. On the other hand, the limbic system is the brain area that is very important especially in the regulation and expression of emotions. The limbic system is divided into three major portions as the Amygdala; which is a tiny part of the brain that is…… [Read More]

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Risks of Illicit Recreational Use

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47206679

, 2007). The results of that research indicates that light users of MDMA do exhibit mild cognitive impairment during the short-term in which they occasionally use the drug but that after six months or more of abstinence, their performance on the same cognitive tests used to identify those changes returns to being indistinguishable from the performance of those who have never been exposed to the drug (Golding, Groome, ycroft, et al., 2007).

The Short-Term and Long-Term Consequences of Heavy MDMA Use

Animal studies have conclusively established that MDMA causes permanent destruction of neurons and synaptic processes that are essential to the physiological mechanisms of neurotransmitter secretion, response, and reuptake by virtue of the selectively neurotoxic properties of the drug on 5-HT neurons in rats (Verrico, Miller, & Madras, 2007). Those findings are consistent with anecdotal evidence collected from clinical human data in connection with the long-term cognitive, behavioral, and mood…… [Read More]

References

Golding, J.F., Groome, DH, Rycroft, N., and Denton, Z. "Cognitive Performance in Light Current Users and Ex-Users of Ecstasy (MDMA) and Controls." The

American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 33 (2007): 301 -- 307.

Koprich, J.B., Chen, E.Y., Kanaan, N.M., Campbell, N.G., Kordower, J.H., and Lipton, J.W. "Prenatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) alters exploratory behavior, reduces monoamine metabolism, and increases forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase fiber density of juvenile rats." Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Vol. 25, No. 5 (2003): 509 -- 517.

Roiser, J.P., Rogers, R.D., and Sahakian, B.J. "Neuropsychological function in ecstasy
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Orientation Human Sexuality Orientation and

Words: 1542 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54442965

6). But this evidence of a strong fetal environmental predisposition for homosexuality ignores the admission of the authors that "the odds of homosexual participants being NCRH [non-consistently-right-handedness]" was 39% "although the odds for homosexual women alone" were 91%, thus significantly greater than for homosexual men 34% (Kauth 2008, p.6).

If these numbers were so different, the question arises as to why left-handedness is more common in female homosexuals, versus male homosexuals, and also, the criteria used by researchers in their categorization of female homosexuality. Thus invisible, subconscious biases about the nature of homosexuality, and the acceptance of one's cultural construction of homosexuality as a self-evident fact underlines the fact that science, particularly the science of sexuality, always takes place in a social context that affects the perception of the researchers.

orks Cited

Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632. Retrieved September 22, 2009,

from Research Library. (Document ID: 1719302541).

Graceffo, S. (2008, July 23). Homo Made. Syracuse New Times, p. 12. Retrieved September 22,

2009, from Alt-Press Watch (APW). (Document ID: 1532821511).
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Non-Governmental Organization Placement

Words: 5902 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51627492

Nigeria Orphanage

Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement

The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, P., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R., & Hubbard, A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.

Artz, L. (2001). Critical ethnography for communication studies: Dialogue and social justice. The Southern Communication Journal, 66(3), 239-250.

Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory of higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297-308.

Backhouse, Judy Pamela (2009) Doctoral Education in South Africa: Models, Pedagogies and Stucent Experiences. February 2009.
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Children Child Abuse and Neglect

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10365146

Describe how teachers may use assistive technology effectively with students with cerebral palsy or other physical disabilities.

Children with cerebral palsy can be aided with assistive technology that allows them to communicate more effectively, such as manual communication boards. This form of technology allows the student to speak in class and participate, just like his or her peers.

Question 3: Describe some of the possible effects of substance abuse by the mother during pregnancy. How do these effects impact the child's development?

Fetal alcohol syndrome can cause delayed intellectual development, as well as many other physical health problems that affect the child's appearance and social functioning. It has been hypothesized that drug addiction can cause children to be more hyperactive, and have attention-deficit problems. Although this correlation is not certain, it is noteworthy that substance abuse is often linked to premature and low-weight births, which in and of itself can…… [Read More]

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Causes as Well as the

Words: 2244 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7196850

Other techniques like brainstorming and mapping are recommended by Ellis (1997).

The other principle which underlies the constructivist approach is a deep focus on main ideas as well as relationships within the key ideas that lie within a given subject area (Grobecker, 1999). The application of this principle means that a teacher must stress the various connections of the more important concepts that form the main idea for a given discipline as opposed to teaching several bits of knowledge which are isolated.

Duhaney & Duhaney (2000) proposed the use of active learning as an important element of the constructivist instructional approach. This is because when students are actively involved in a given lesson, they tend to learn as well as retain most of the presented information (Harris & Graham, 1996).

Behaviorist theory and its application

The other theory / approach of learning that should be used on children with learning…… [Read More]

References

Brooks, J.G., & Brooks, M.G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brown, M (2003).Learning disability: a handbook for integrated care.Salisbury: APS

Cambridge, Paul; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Carpenter, John; Tate, Alison; Knapp, Martin; Beecham, Jennifer; Hallam, Angela (2005).The State of Care Management in Learning Disability and Mental Health Services 12 Years into Community Care .British Journal of Social Work, Volume 35, Number 7, 1 October 2005, pp. 1039-1062(24)

Duhaney, D.C., & Duhaney, L.M.G. (2000). Assistive technology: Meeting the needs of learners with disabilities. International Journal of Instructional Media, 27, 393-401.
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Working for a Community Mental Health Agency

Words: 1218 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25326004

working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?

Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.

Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…… [Read More]

Brestan, EV. & Eyberg, EM (1998) Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids Journ. Clin. Child Psyc. 27, 180-189

Burke, JD, Loeber, B., & Birmaher, R. (2002) Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years, Part II, J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 41, 1275-1293.

Kumpfer, K & Alvarado, R (2003). Family-Strengthening Approaches for the Prevention of Youth Problem Behaviors American Psychologist, 58, 457-465
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Allergy Disease and Birth Date

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51122213

guardian.co.uk/society/2010/oct/20/allergies-month=conception-week-11

Fletcher, V. (2006). How your birthday can cause allergies. UK News: Northern and Shell Media Publications. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/206427/How-your-birthday-can-cause-allergies

Jedrychowski W. et al. (2003). Prenatal lead exposure heightens childhood allergies.

Environmental Health News: Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on June 5,

2011 from http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience.prenatal.lead-exposure-heightens-dhildhood-allergies

Schonberger et al. (2005). Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum

IgE at birth in high-risk children. Pediatric Allergy & Immunology: PubMed.

Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18702655

Lin L. et al. (2010). Prenatal allergen & diesel exhaust. Allergy, Asthma, & Clinical

Immunology: Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://ccceh.hs.columbia.edu/ped-papers/LinAAC12010.pdf

Matthias, W. et al. (2005). Latitude, birth date and allergy. PLosMedicine: Public

Library of Science. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info.doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020794

Pyrhonen, K. et al. (2010). Season of the first semester of pregnancy predicts sensitization to food allergens in childhood: a…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, S. (2011). Autumn babies "more likely to have food allergies. The Telegraph:

Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved on June 4, 2011 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/8073048/Autumn-babies-more-likely-to-have-food-allergies, html

Aichbhaumik N. et al. (2008). Prenatal exposure to household pets influences fetal immunoglobulin E. production. Clinical & Experimental Allergy: PubMed. Retrieved on June 5, 2011 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18702655 

Campbell, D. (2010). Chance of developing allergies linked to moth of conception.
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Foster Children

Words: 8637 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87113745

Foster Children/Foster Care

Issues of a Foster Child

Child Abuse

Families and Children Served through Foster Care

The Policy Framework

This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.

Introduction

Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]

References

Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. PL. 105-89.

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. P.L. 96-272.

Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenager. New York: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Planning for children whose parents are dying
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Nursing in an Attempt to

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62722043

Another service the clinic should provide involves remote access. For example, the clinic should assess the feasibility of home visits by doctors and nurses. egular phone calls to clients or potential clients would also help encourage pregnant women to avail themselves of the clinic's services. The clinic should also establish a solid Web site that allows women to access information from home and possibly, interact in a live chat with staff.

2. What incentives would you provide to keep them coming to the clinic before and after they give birth? Why did you choose to use this as an incentive?

Incentives will help clients trust the clinic and seek care as a matter of course. Free or discounted services would be a good incentive in any community regardless of demographic. Financial incentives would also entail working with insurance providers to make sure that preventative care is a priority.

However, the…… [Read More]

References

Peck, J. & Alexander, K. (nd). Maternal, infant, and child health in rural areas. Retrieved Mar 9, 2009 at http://srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/07Volume1MIC.htm
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Armstrong E Kukla R Kuppermann

Words: 3055 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26765410

Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.

Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.

The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…… [Read More]

In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.

Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.

For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
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Adolescent Obesity in Saudi Arabia

Words: 3430 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52239278



There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.

Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…… [Read More]

References

Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.

Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.

Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.

Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
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Perinatal Loss Support at Time

Words: 5174 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41031712

Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007)

Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including:

1) mood;

2) appetite;

3) energy or fatigue levels;

4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.

Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.

Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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Message Strategies for Getting the

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26472784

Number 5 is a cue to action, incenting the mother by reminding her that either she or her baby could be a victim with out proper medical care.

Informed Decision-Making Messaging Strategy

Informed decision-making interventions should be used when persuasion would be inappropriate (Communication for health. Examples include when the evidence is not sufficiently clear to support one behavior over another (e.g., surgical removal vs. watchful waiting for men with a diagnosis of prostate cancer), when an individual's values must be taken into consideration to determine the optimal behavior (prevention of sexual assault), or when society has been unable to reach consensus about the optimal recommended behavior (e.g., prevention of teen pregnancy) (Communication for health). Instead of providing evidence that prenatal care can save lives, it relies on the mother wanting to do the right thing and uses a woman who has lost her child to convince her.

You need…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Communication for health. Encyclopedia of public health. http://www.enotes.com/public-health-encyclopedia/communication-health

Evans W.D. And McCormack, L. (2006, September 13). Marketing "evidence" to healthcare consumers: Applying social marketing to evidence about the harms and benefits of pharmaceuticals. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Conference. http://209.85.173.132/search?q=cache:mTQf4SGTS2gJ:effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/documents/Marketing_Evidence_Evans.ppt+social+marketing+%22Informed+decision+making%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=6&gl=us

Health Belief Model. University of Twente. http://www.cw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Health%20Communication/Health_Belief_Model.doc/

Gosik. A. (2007, October 12). U.S. ranks 41st in maternal mortality. Seattle Post-Intelligencer
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Infant & Maternal Mortality Life-Saving

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41012525



Tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use can lead to birth defects, low birth weight, and premature delivery (HHS, 2006). All of these are listed as the major causes of infant mortality (CDC). Given the literature and public service announcements produced on these subjects over the past several decades, it is difficult to believe that anyone in this country is unaware of the detrimental effects these things can have on a fetus, and apparently thee communications are working to a degree; the infant mortality rate has dropped significantly, and yet such abuse is still among the leading causes of infant death (CDC; HHS, 2006). To tackle these issues, information should not be the focus of the message strategy but rather the mothers themselves should be the message's focus. Perhaps a short bulleted list of the disadvantages children with fetal alcohol syndrome and other effects of in utero abuse are likely to…… [Read More]

References

Eliminate disparities in infant mortality." Center for disease control website (CDC). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm

Health and human services fact sheet: Preventing infant mortality." (2006). Health and human services website (HHS). Accessed 31 January 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/AMH/factsheets/infant.htm
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Genetics Technology

Words: 2679 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77976389

Genetics Technology

WHERE THE UCK STOPS

Interdisciplinary Team

This will consist of a physician, a geneticist, an ethicist, a lawyer or legal practitioner, and a health care provider. The physician or pediatrician will make the diagnosis (of Tay-Sachs), the geneticist, as a specialist, will provide more specific information on genetic diseases, particularly Tay-Sachs, as to causes and risks, prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The physician and geneticist can together form a plan of care for the nurse's implementation. The ethicist will provide information on the accepted moral values of correct human conduct, behavior and decisions involved in dealing with Tay-Sachs disease. The lawyer or legal practitioner will inform the parties on current laws and court decisions covering or affecting the management of these genetic disorders. And the nurse who will carry out the detailed instructions of the geneticist and the physician and incorporate the guidelines provided by the lawyer into these…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CEJA (1991). Ethical issues in carrier-screening of cystic fibrosis and other genetic disorders. CEJA Report. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: American Medical

Association. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://www.ama-ass.org/ama/pub/upload/mm/369/ceja_1191.pdf

Committee on Bioethics (2001). Ethical issues with genetic testing in pediatrics. Vol 107

# 6 Pediatrics: American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on October 24, 2011 from http://aapolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics.107/6/1451
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Ray Technology in Medicine How

Words: 1960 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94082880



Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…… [Read More]

References

Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.

Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.

Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,

1993, p89).
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Drug Pregnant

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96701852

Drugs and Pregnancy

The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.

The central issues identified during the entire session include…… [Read More]

References

Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.

Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
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Gender Selection

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79485112

gender selection ETHICS

History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…… [Read More]

References

Clark Liana R. 1985. "Sex Preselection: The Advent of the Made-to-Order Child." The Pharos, Fall, pp. 2-7

Elizabeth Mathiot-Moen-author; Annette Burfoot - editor Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies Publisher: Westview Press. Boulder, CO. 1999.

Fletcher John C. 1980."Ethics and Amniocentesis for Fetal Sex Identification." Hastings Center Report 10: 15-18.

Gargan Edward A. 1991. "Ultrasonic Tests Skew Ratio of Births in India." New York Times, June 13.
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FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Was

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70009229

1968).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.

eferences

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…… [Read More]

References

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.

CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.