181+ documents containing “primate”.
Primate ehavior Research
There can be big differences in the messages from a scholarly, or scientific, article and a main stream, or non-scientific article. The titles and the messages written in the articles can give readers entirely different meanings. The original article may state the study was done one way, but the main stream article tries to write in layman terms and may miss the entire meaning, or the way the study was actually completed. The techniques used to draw the reader's attention can also have an effect on the way the article gets written and the messages they send.
Reading the article from the Language Log, the article compares other sources that covered a study on a baboon learning to read English words. (Liberman, 2012) Each of the sources listed stated the titles different from each other and gave different impressions of what the baboon actually did. For instance, some of….
Grainger, J. e. (2012, Apr 13). Orthographic Processing in Baboons (Papio, papio). Retrieved from Science: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6078/245.full.html
Liberman, M. (2012, Apr 19). Ask a baboon. Retrieved from Language Log: http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=3912
Press, A. (2012, Apr 12). See Dan read: Baboons can learn to spot real words. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/04/12/see-dan-read-baboons-can-learn-to-spot-real-words
They have nails. The arms and legs are equal length. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit differs from its natural environment but is being upgraded.
The New World Monkeys appear to be more prominently displayed.
The following species are featured in the Lincoln Park Zoo primate exhibit, including:
a. Allen's swamp monkey (catarrhine, Allenopithecus nigroviridis, arboreal (tree-dwelling) but semi-terrestrial.)
b. Black howler monkey (platyrrhine, Alouatta caraya, rain forests with near constant precipitation to tropical deciduous forest)
c. Black-and-white colobus (catarrhine, Colobus guereza, tropical forests, woodlands and wooded grassland, lowlands and at high elevations)
d. Bolivian gray titi monkey (platyrrhine, Callicebus donacophilus, rain forest habitats, among the trees)
e. De Brazza's monkey (platyrrhine, Cercopithecus neglectus, wetland forests within 1 mile of water)
f. Francois' langur (catarrhine, Trachypithecus francoisi, canopy in search of leaves on which to feed)
g. Geoffrey's marmoset (platyrrhine, Callithrix geoffroyi, dry patches within forests and forest edges.)
h. Goeldi's monkey (platyrrhine, Callimico goeldii, rain forest with developed….
The conservation of primates and their habitat is a point of major concern for many environmentalists, zoologists and even regular people that have an interest and/or passion for maintaining and sustaining wildlife. There is a litany of different reasons for primates and their conservation status being in danger and those will be covered in this report. Whether it be over-harvesting, habitat destruction or other things, there are many things happening at the same time that are creating a confluence of crisis for primates. While many primates are safe in zoos and other conservation areas, many other primates are seeing their habitat and way of sustaining themselves disappear.
As described by the University of Michigan, there are many things that come, go and otherwise changes in this world. In most cases, what happens years from now is just a different combination or version of what is already going on. However, that….
Borgerson, C. (2015). The Effects of Illegal Hunting and Habitat on Two Sympatric Endangered Primates. International Journal Of Primatology, 36(1), 74-93. doi:10.1007/s10764-015-9812-x
Eppley, T. M., Donati, G., Ramanamanjato, J., Randriatafika, F., Andriamandimbiarisoa, L. N., Rabehevitra, D., & ... Ganzhorn, J. U. (2015). The Use of an Invasive Species Habitat by a Small Folivorous Primate: Implications for Lemur Conservation in Madagascar. Plos ONE, 10(10), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140981
Estrada, A. (2013). Socioeconomic contexts of primate conservation: population, poverty, global economic demands, and sustainable land use. American Journal Of Primatology, 75(1), 30-45. doi:10.1002/ajp.22080
Kling, K. J., & Hopkins, M. E. (2015). Are we making the grade? Practices and reported efficacy measures of primate conservation education programs. American Journal Of Primatology, 77(4), 434-448. doi:10.1002/ajp.22359
An important evolutionary distinction between primates and humans is that puberty and reproduction may begin in primates before the end of the juvenile stage.
Comparison of the developmental stages experienced by both primates and humans has provided invaluable information regarding the evolution of both species. This information has allowed anthropologists and biologists to understand how humans successfully combined the features brought on by neoteny such as extended childhood, delayed reproduction capability, short duration breastfeeding, and adolescent growth spurt to contribute toward their survival.
One of the most obvious similarities between primates and humans is their development of a period of juvenile growth and behavior between infancy and adulthood. Although this period is greatly extended in humans, primates, like most other highly social mammals, such as wolves, dogs, and elephants postpone puberty and insert this juvenile period. Such period provides offspring with additional time to learn life skills from their parents and….
primates are more cognitively advanced than other mammals and that the degree of cognitive awareness and ability grows significantly from prosimians to humans. However, researchers still debate which parameters should be used to define and compare intelligence as well as the causal factors leading to this cognitive growth. Intelligence is a concept hard to define and even more difficult to test for in living species. In studying how human intelligence evolved, scientists are faced with a dilemma; how to determine the intelligence of individuals that no longer exist?
Methods that have been used to determine the level of intelligence in animal ancestors include the comparisons of the volume of the braincase, brain size to body weight and neocortex development. Studying social behavior also gives clues to cognitive level. Anthropologists, for example, have a variety of theories on what caused the significant leap in intelligence from the prosimians to humans. hich….
Ciochon Russel L. & Fleagle, John G. (1985). Primate Evolution and Human Origins. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing.
Else, James G. & Lee. Phyllis C. (1986). Primate Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fleagle, John G. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. New York: Academic Press.
Jones, Steve, Martin Robert & Pilbeam, David (Eds). (1992). Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cooperation in Primates
Given their massive amount of intelligence compared to other non-human animals and just how close they are to human in many ways, primates are often a major point of study when it comes to habits, trends and behaviors. One such behavior as identified by scientists in both humans and primates would be cooperation. Indeed, primates often cooperate and work together just like humans and this has been a specific point of study by many scientific personnel in general and primate specialists (e.g. zoologists, etc.) in particular. While there are some markedly different levels of cooperation between humans and primates, there are also some major similarities as well.
Cooperation tends to be present in many species, both advanced and less advanced, as they are pro-social in nature and they tend to benefit and help the broader collective. These pro-social acts can be reactive in many cases. This would be in….
Anzenberger, G., & Falk, B. (2012). Monogamy and family life in callitriche monkeys: deviations, social dynamics and captive management. International Zoo Yearbook, 46(1), 109-122. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.2012.00176.x
De Waal, F. M. (2006). Joint Ventures Require Joint Payoffs: Fairness among Primates. Social Research, 73(2), 349-364.
Jack, K. P. (2014). Male social tolerance, cooperation, and affiliation in male dispersing primates. Behaviour, 151(7), 861-870.
Jaeggi, A. V., J. M. Burkart, and C. P. Van Schaik. 2010. 'On The Psychology Of Cooperation In Humans And Other Primates: Combining The Natural History And Experimental Evidence Of Prosociality'. Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1553): 2723-2735. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0118.
human? This might seem to be a simple question, but that is probably because we have not thought very deeply about the issue. For decades physical anthropologists and other scholars have investigated this question. Their early efforts tended to take the form of trying to find one single trait that defined humans as different from all other species - whether it was our opposing thumb or the way in which we use language or in our recognition of our own mortality or even in the fact that we murder others of our own species.
Related to this search for the "missing trait" was the search for a "missing link" - a species that would link Homo sapiens to the species that had come before us historically on the evolutionary train. The thinking behind both of these searches was very much the same: Scientists could not believe that we (that is,….
Phyllis Jay briefly touches on the subject of primates swimming in the book Behavior of Nonhuman Primates; in discussing the habitat of African monkeys, Jay writes (Jay, 1965, p. 535) that the "…distribution of arboreal monkeys is restricted by open, relatively treeless areas" and "rivers are barriers to arboreal monkeys but not to terrestrial forms, many of which swim" (Jay, p. 535).
"Long-tailed macaques are excellent swimmers, and this may be a predator avoidance technique," writes the University of isconsin's Kristina Cawthon Lang in Primate Factsheet. If the long-tailed macaque is threatened by a feral dog, raptor, python, monitor lizard or large cat, the macaque simply drops into the water and swims to safety (Lang, 2006).
In its "Science & Nature: Animals" section, the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) published a story on the Long-tailed Macaque: "Long-tailed macaques swim well and jump into the water from nearby trees" (BBC).
In his book, Primate Anatomy:….
Ankel-Simons, Friderun. (2007). Primate Anatomy: An Introduction. St. Louis:
British Broadcasting Company. (2007). Long-tailed macaque, crab-eating monkey, Java
Monkey, cynomolgus monkey. Retrieved June 5, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildfacts/factfiles/210.shtml.
In males, the canine teeth tend to be longer, and sharper. Additionally, there appears to be greater variation in size and shape of male canines, in comparison to the relatively stable size and shape of the female canine. Often, the size differences between male and female teeth are seen more in the height of the crown of the tooth than in the length or width of the lower portions of the tooth (Plavcan, 29).
Further dimorphism can be seen in the anterior surface of the canine teeth. Researchers note that, in males, there is a groove that runs the length of the tooth, whereas in females, this groove in generally absent. Additionally, even in cases where the female tooth does have this groove, it is much less pronounced than that of the male primate (Plavcan, 29).
The mandibular premolar also appears to show signs of dimorphism. In males, this tooth is….
Bramblet, Claud. "Evolution of Primates." Primate and Human Evolution. 2004. Department of Anthropology, University of Texas. 19 April 2005. http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~bramblet/ant301/thirteen.html#anchor261261.
Ciochon, Russell L., and John G. Fleagle. "Part I Primate Origins." Primate Evolution and Human Origins. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1987: 1.
Eaton, Boyd, and Eaton, Stanley. Evolution, Diet and Health. 2004. Center for Advanced Spatial Technology. 19 April 2005. http:/www.cast.uark.edu/local/icaes/conferences/wburg/posters/sboydeaton/eaton.htm.
Fleagle, John, and Kay, Richard. "Platyrrhines, Catarrhines, and the Fossil Record." In New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. Ed. Kinzey, Warren G. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1997, 3-21.
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)
Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed….
Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;
Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.
Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4
British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at http://www.buav.org/campaigns/primates/zerooption.html
Vervet Monkey, or Chlorocebus, is part of the Old-orld monkey classification of medium sized primates. There are typically six species that science recognizes, but there is disagreement as to whether this is one species of a species and subspecies. For the entire species of Chloroceus, the terms "vervet" and "green" monkey are used interchangeably even though there refer to some other species as common names (Groves).
Species: Ch. aethiops, Ch. cynosuros, Ch. djamdjamensis, Ch. pygerythrus, Ch. sabaeus, Ch. tantalus
Subspecies: Ch. p. excubitor, Ch. p. hilgerti, Ch. p. nesiotes, Ch. p. pygerythrus, Ch. p. rufoviridis, Ch. t. budgetti, Ch. t. marrensis, Ch. t. tantalus
Other names: Ch. aethiops: Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus aethiops, or Chlorocebus aethiops; grivet or savanna monkey; singe vert (French); grunmeerkatze (German); mono verde (Spanish); gron markatta or vervett (Swedish); Ch. cynosuros: malbrouck; Ch. djamdjamensis: Bale Mountains vervet or djam-djam; Ch. pygerythrus: Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus….
Cheney, D, and R. Seyfarth. How Monkeys See The World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Print.
Groves, C. "Genus Chlorocebus." Mammal Species of the World. Ed. D. Wilson and D. Reeder. 3rd. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 158-60. Print.
National Research Council. International Perspectives on the future on nonhuman primate resources. Washington, DC.: National Research Council, 2002. Print.
"Vervet Chlorocebus." 21 November 2011. Primate Info Net. Web. February 2012. .
The same types of communicative behaviors may be exhibited among primates, particularly bonobo, apes, humans, and chimpanzees. However, there are also some core differences in the specific language expressions and their corresponding cognitive patterns among the descendants of a common ancestral lineage, particularly human, bonobo, and chimpanzee (Gillespie-Lynch, et al., 2014). Some of the most dramatic claims related to the philosophical import of non-human primate language imply either that human beings and their non-human primate relatives are completely alike, or alternatively, not at all alike save for some key animalistic features. Building on the formative research of Lord Zuckerberg, current researchers are showing that the question of whether humans and apes are similar is the wrong question; indeed humans are similar to non-human primates but there are distinct and meaningful differences between human beings and their primate counterparts. Those differences may, however, vanish over the next several million years.
Beattie, G. & Ellis, A. (2010). The Psychology of Language and Communication. Taylor & Francis.
Butler, D. & Suddendorf, T. (2014). Reducing the neural search space for hominid cognition. Psychoneurology Bulletin Review 21.
Gillespie-Lynch, K., et al. (2014). Gestural and symbolic development among apes and humans. Frontiers in Psychology 2014(5).
Hammong, A.S. (2015). Everything ape, with a side of human. Journal of Mammalian Evolution.
In the wild, the young of both baboons and chimpanzees must be potential prey for other animals. It seems unlikely that a zoo would put a valuable primate troupe in proximity to a pride of lions and just let nature take its course.
Nevertheless, the study of these animals, while always flawed in some way, has significance for humans. Kummer's conclusions about the genetic basis for much behavior in particular prompts some thought. If many behaviors are genetically driven in baboons and other primates, how much of human behavior is genetically driven? Obviously the need to procreate is present in all animals, but do genetics drive who we choose to marry? How much does genetics influence the jobs we choose? How much of our social activity is wholly our own choice, and how much of it is preprogrammed behavior? Most people would not want to believe that their choice to….
I visited X zoo on a warm, sunny day in October. All of the primates I observed in the zoo were confined to a specific area, although they were separated by species (Strier 1-2). The apes were enclosed in a habitat that attempted to mimic their natural environment behind a pane of glass. Although there was a fair amount of greenery, there was, overall, little privacy for the animals.
Although the younger animals appeared to be extremely active, the older estland Lowland gorillas attempted to find what privacy they could in the simulated environment of the rainforest. To conduct my ethnographic analysis was somewhat difficult at first; although primates are diurnal rather than nocturnal, many of the larger animals looked sluggish and sleepy at first and did not interact much with one another (Strier 2). Judging from the people around me, visitors are particularly fascinated by these apes because of….
After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the female, having lost her offspring, needs to remain reproductively competitive and to mate with a male. Additionally, if she mates with a non-dominant male, who has not killed her offspring, she runs the risk of the dominant male repeating his actions. Accordingly, she is obligated to mate with the dominant male in order to decrease the risk that her infant will be killed again. It may also be the case that the mothers who are victims of infanticide are physically incapable of preventing the guilty males from mating with them because of the differences in size between the sexes.
In human societies, however, we see less infanticide perpetrated by males relative to our population. There are many reasons for this: there are….
Primate ehavior Research There can be big differences in the messages from a scholarly, or scientific, article and a main stream, or non-scientific article. The titles and the messages written…Read Full Paper ❯
They have nails. The arms and legs are equal length. The Lincoln Park Zoo exhibit differs from its natural environment but is being upgraded. 6. Exhibits: The New World Monkeys…Read Full Paper ❯
Primate Conservation The conservation of primates and their habitat is a point of major concern for many environmentalists, zoologists and even regular people that have an interest and/or passion for…Read Full Paper ❯
An important evolutionary distinction between primates and humans is that puberty and reproduction may begin in primates before the end of the juvenile stage. Comparison of the developmental stages…Read Full Paper ❯
primates are more cognitively advanced than other mammals and that the degree of cognitive awareness and ability grows significantly from prosimians to humans. However, researchers still debate which…Read Full Paper ❯
Cooperation in Primates Given their massive amount of intelligence compared to other non-human animals and just how close they are to human in many ways, primates are often a major…Read Full Paper ❯
human? This might seem to be a simple question, but that is probably because we have not thought very deeply about the issue. For decades physical anthropologists and…Read Full Paper ❯
Phyllis Jay briefly touches on the subject of primates swimming in the book Behavior of Nonhuman Primates; in discussing the habitat of African monkeys, Jay writes (Jay, 1965, p.…Read Full Paper ❯
In males, the canine teeth tend to be longer, and sharper. Additionally, there appears to be greater variation in size and shape of male canines, in comparison to…Read Full Paper ❯
It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate…Read Full Paper ❯
Vervet Monkey, or Chlorocebus, is part of the Old-orld monkey classification of medium sized primates. There are typically six species that science recognizes, but there is disagreement as to…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Language
Zuckerman The same types of communicative behaviors may be exhibited among primates, particularly bonobo, apes, humans, and chimpanzees. However, there are also some core differences in the specific language expressions…Read Full Paper ❯
In the wild, the young of both baboons and chimpanzees must be potential prey for other animals. It seems unlikely that a zoo would put a valuable primate…Read Full Paper ❯
Zoo Observation I visited X zoo on a warm, sunny day in October. All of the primates I observed in the zoo were confined to a specific area, although they…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the…Read Full Paper ❯